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Notes Micro 2

Sporotrichosis

Gardening, exposure to rose thorns (rose-handlers disease) and sphagnum moss


Dimorphic fungus
Species
Sporothrix schenckii

Microscopic Morphology

Small, cigar shaped yeast


Conidia in a rosette or sleeve pattern

Summary of Subcutaneous Mycoses


1.Chromoblastomycosis
Fonsecaea compacta
Fonsecaea pedrosoi
Phialophora verrucosa
Cladophialophora carrionii
Rhinocladiella aquaspersa

2.Eumycotic Mycetomas
Psedoallescheria boydii
Madurella grisea
Acremonium falciforme
Madurella mycetomatis
Exophiala jeanselmei
3.Subcutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis
Alternaria
Bipolaris
Cladosporium
Culvularia
Exophiala
Fonsecaea
Phialophora
4. Sporotrichosis
Sporothrix schenckii
Systemic Mycoses
1.General Characteristics- Dimorphic: mould (22-30C) or yeast (35-37C)
Species
Blastomyces dermatitidis
Histoplasma capsulatum
Coccidioides immitis
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Penicilium marneffei

2. Ecology and Disease


Species
Ecology
B. dermatitidis
River valleys and basins, soil

Chicago
H. capsulatum

Bird bat guano alkaline soil

Disease
Gilchrist

Reticuloendothelial Cytomycosis

C. immitis

Soil

P. brasiliensis

Cave
Spelunkers
Darling

Erythema nodosum (desert bumps)


Erythema multiforme (valley fever)
Arthritis (desert rheumatism)

South American Blastomycosis


Lutz-Splendore-Almeida Dse.

Soil

3. Agent of systemic mycoses


Blastomycosis - Teleomorph: Ajellomyces dermatitidis
Species
22C (Mold)
37C (Yeast)
Blastomyces dermatitidis Ovoid conidia borne on short coniophores
Large yeast
Broad-based bud
Coccidioidomycosis - Other species: Coccidioides posadasii
Species
22C (Mold)
37C (Yeast)
Coccidioides immitis
Barrel-shaped arthroconidia
Spherules
containing endospores
Histoplasmosis - Teleomorph: Ajellomyces capsulatus
Species
22C (Mold)
37C
(Yeast)
Histoplasma capsulatum Round, large, echinulate / tuberculate macroconidia Small, oval
yeast
Paracoccidioidomycosis
Species
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

22C (Mold)
37C (Yeast)
Sterile hyphae Chlamydoconidia
Marinerss wheel
Mickey Mouse cap

Opportunistic Mycoses
1. General Characteristics - Saprophytes and Opportunistic
Aseptate Zygomycetes
Absidia - Sporangiophores, smooth and ovoid
Internodal Rhizoids
Mucor - Sporangia remain intact
Rhizoids are absent
Rhizopus Sporangiophores clusters in a stolon
Rhizoids is at the base of sporangiophores
Septate Hyaline
Aspergillus - Conidiophore that expands to a vesicle.
Vesicle is covered w/ phialides
Septate Dematicaeous
Alternaria
Cladosporium
Curvularia

Yeast & Yeastlike Fungi

1. General Characteristics - Unicellular, budding & round to oval organisms


Species
Candida albicans
Cryptococcus neoformans
Geotrichum candidum
2. Ecology and Disease
Species
Cryptococcus neoformans

Species
Candida albicans
vulvovaginitis

Ecology
Pigeon, bat droppings
Decaying vegetation

Infection
Systemic

Meningitis

Ecology
GI tract

Mucus membranes
onychomycosis

Species
Geotrichum candidum
etc.

Ecology

Soil

Infection
Thrush,

Diaper rash,
Paronychomycosis

Infection
Oral, lung, skin,

Decaying foods

3. Cryptococcosis (True Yeast)


Species
Yeast (Cornmeal)
Cryptococcus neoformansRound to oval yeast w/ capsule & narrow-base budding
Species
Colony (Niger Seed Agar)
Cryptococcus neoformansPhenol oxidase (+),
colonies
4. Candidiasis (Yeast-like)
Species
Candida albicans

Brown-black

Direct Examination
Blastoconidia
(budding yeast / pseudohyphae)

Species
Candida albicans

Cornmeal (RT, 24-48 hrs)


Chlamydoconidia

Species
Candida albicans

Serum (35-37C, 1-3 hrs)


Germ Tubes/Hyphalike extension of yeast cell

5. Geotrichosis (Yeast-like)
Species
Geotrichum candidum
rounded ends

Cornmeal
Fragmented hyphae Rectangular arthrospores w/
Direct
Rectangular yeast cell (in pairs / chains)

Species

Capsules

Cryptococcus
neoformans

Candida
albicans

Germ
Tubes

Blastoconidia

Geotrichum
candidum

Species

Arthroconidia

+
+

Assimilation

Fermentation

Mal

Glu/ Mal/ Gal

C. neoformans

Ino
+

C. albicans

G. candidum

Urease /
Phenol Oxidase

+
+

Chlamydoco
nidia