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International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology - IJORAT

Vol 2, Issue 3, MARCH 2016


Arul Danie.J, Vignesh.V, Leo Martin.C, Kiran Krishnan.M
Panimalar Institute of Technology, Chennai.
Abstract: A pollutant of concern to the mankind is the exhaust noise in the internal combustion engine. However
this noise can be reduced sufficiently by means of a well-designed muffler. This design and development will help to
reduce the noise level, but at the same time the performance of the engine wont be hampered by the back pressure
caused by the muffler. Noise control has become one of the most vital problems in present-day manufacture
including motor-car manufacture. Introduction of new technological processes, growth of power and speed of
technical equipment result in high-level noise man is constantly exposed to. Creation of new types of industrial and
automobiles with pre-set speed, power and load parameters is often accompanied by the increase of general noise
level and the expansion of sound oscillation spectrum. This project is mainly attention to design a muffler to reduce
the noise and back pressure.
Keywords: silencer -exhaust muffler- noise pollution- efficiency.
The muffler is defined as a device for reducing the amount of
noise emitted by a machine. To reduce the exhaust noise, the
engine exhaust is connected via exhaust pipe to silencer called
muffler. The silencer makes a major contribution to exhaust
noise reduction. Internal combustion engines are typically
equipped with an exhaust muffler to suppress the acoustic
pulse generated by the combustion process. All internal
combustion engines produce noise, some more or less than the
others. The intensity and magnitude of the noise will vary
greatly depending upon engine type i.e. naturally aspirated or
turbocharged, horse power developed, means of scavenging,
type of fuel used, number of cycles whether two cycle or four
cycle engine etc. Sound is simply a vibration that spreads as a
wave through air. This vibration, or pulses of high and low
are pressure, move through the air at the rate of a mile in fiveseconds on the average commonly referred to as the speed
of sound.

Fig.1 Constructive Interference

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Fig.2 Destructive Interference


There is plenty of documentation on how sound waves
move and the way that sound waves move through mufflers,
but we can describe how formulas are used in locating the
chambers and tubes inside a muffler. Channels and chambers
inside a muffler are there for a reason. Certain sound
frequencies are eliminated and others are allowed to pass
through. Honestly, the most impressive thing that others
identify in an automobile right away is the sound that your
bike makes. Formulas used in targeting specific sound
frequencies are generally based on the number of cylinders of
the engine and the cylinder firing rate of the engine that an
engineer is designing a muffler for. Internal design depends
on space. Both the amount of space that is available in the
platform and the volume of the muffler required for the
engine size and rpm are important in calculating where
channels and baffles go. Each type of muffler has its
owndesign formulas and physics framework to adhere to
when designing a muffler for a new application.

International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology - IJORAT

Vol 2, Issue 3, MARCH 2016

B. Gas Welding Process

A. Project description and methodology
The Muffler design is done using the design software Oxyacetylene gas welding is commonly used to permanently
join mild steel. A mixture of oxygen and acetylene, burns as
CATIA developed by Dassault Systems.
an intense / focussed flame, at approximately 3,500 degrees
centigrade. When the flame comes in contact with steel, it
melts the surface forming a molten pool, allowing welding to
take place. Oxyacetylene can also be used for brazing, bronze
welding, forging / shaping metal and cutting.
This type of welding is suitable for the prefabrication of steel
sheet, tubes and plates.
Gas Welding is a welding process utilizing heat of the flame
from a welding torch. The torch mixes a fuel gas
with Oxygen in the proper ratio and flow rate providing
combustion process at a required temperature. The hot flame
Fig 3 Wireframe figure
fuses the edges of the welded parts, which are joined together
The design is done using various work benches in CATIA
forming a weld after Solidification.
such as Part design, Generative sheet metal design and
drafting workbenches. Many tools were used in this process.
The flame temperature is determined by a type of the fuel gas
and proportion of oxygen in the combustion mixture: 4500F
- 6300F (2500C - 3500C). Depending on the proportion of
the fuel gas and oxygen in the combustion mixture, the flame
may be chemically neutral (stoichiometric content of the
gases), oxidizing (excess of oxygen), carburizing.
Gas Welding equipment:

The drafting part was done using draft workbench in catia and

the measurements are accurately described as seen in the

figure below

Fig. 43D Part

Fuel gas cylinder with pressure regulator;

Oxygen cylinder with pressure regulator;
Welding torch;
Blue oxygen hose;
Red fuel gas hose;
Trolley for transportation of the gas cylinders.

C.CNC Machining
The CNC machine comprises of the computer in which the
program is fed for cutting of the metal of the job as per the
requirements. All the cutting processes that are to be carried
out and all the final dimensions are fed into the computer via
the program. The computer thus knows what exactly is to be
done and carries out all the cutting processes. CNC machine
works like the Robot, which has to be fed with the program
and it follows all your instructions.This way your machine
can keep on doing the fabrication works all the 24 hours of
the day without the need of much monitoring, of course you
will have to feed it with the program initially and supply the
required raw material.


Fig.5 Draft

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A. Measuring Backpressure

International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology - IJORAT

Vol 2, Issue 3, MARCH 2016

Exhaust backpressure is measured as the engine is operating

under full rated load and speed conditions. Either a water
manometer or a gauge measuring inches of water may be
used. Refer the below figure.

Fig.6 Backpressure Measuring Instrument

Backpressure is commonly caused by one or more of the

following factors
Exhaust pipe diameter too small.
Excessive number of sharp bends in the System.
Exhaust pipe too long.
Silencer resistance too high.
Exhaust Exhaust
Temperature(T) backpressure(P)
rate (Q)
600 oc
500 mm of water
19.69 inches of
1112 F

Fig.7 Sound Meter

Fig.8 Graph

B. Measuring Sound
Sound is measured using microphone and an Android
application Called Smart Tools. The sound test was done by
keeping the microphone 3 meters away from the muffler.

Fig.9 Design model of the exhaust system

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International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology - IJORAT

Vol 2, Issue 3, MARCH 2016

The figure shown below is the finished muffler before being
fitted on the automobile.

Fig.13 Product

The Figure shown below is the muffler fitted in the two stroke

Fig.10 Meshing

Fig.11 Contours

Fig.10 Fitted on bike


Fig.12 Vectors


Table 2. Cost estimation

Sheet Metal
Gas Welding
Smart Tools
CNC machining

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From the above discussions, the following conclusions can be

1. The muffler is capable of attenuating noise by about 15 to
20 dBA.
2. The muffler is designed to attenuate both high and low
frequency noises.
3. There is a side branch resonator, which attenuates residual
low frequency noise.
4. There is an option of tuning the resonator, which makes the
muffler flexible to use with different engines.
5. The conventional design of side branch resonator
construction involves the resonator connected perpendicularly
to the tail pipe, but in the present design, the resonator is
parallel to the main body of the muffler. This makes the
muffler usable with engines having limited space.
6. The reactive portion of the muffler has been covered with a
layer of absorptive material which considerably decreases the
self-generated noise of the muffler.
7. The material used in the muffler is capable to withstand
temperature of higher order. The resonator works pretty well
between a sound frequency of 220 Hz and 330 Hz, so if the
residual frequency exceeds the range, the resonator becomes
largely ineffective.

International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology - IJORAT

Vol 2, Issue 3, MARCH 2016

We would like to thank the staff members of Mechanical
department of our college for their support and guidance
throughout the project.


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Reduction, SAE Technical Paper Series 2000-01-2573.
CORSA Performance, 2004, Reflective Noise
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Crouse, W.H. and D.A. Anglin, 2003, Automotive
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Retrieved 22 June 2014.

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