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# Fluid Mechanics, SG2214, HT2013

## Exercise 5: Exact Solutions to the Navier-Stokes Equations II

Example 1: Stokes Second Problem
Consider the oscillating Rayleigh-Stokes flow (or Stokes second problem) as in figure 1.

1
0
0
1
y
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111
1111111111111111111111111
0000000000000000000000000
0
1
0000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111
x
0000000000000000000000000000
1111111111111111111111111111
111111111111
000000000000

U (y = 0) = U cos(t)
Figure 1: Coordinate system for the Rayleigh-Stokes flow
a) Show that the velocity field u
= [u(y, t), 0, 0] satisfies the equation
2u
u
= 2
t
y

## Consider the NavierStokes equation in the x direction:

 2

u
u
u
u
1 p
u 2u 2u
+u
+v
+w
=
+
+
+
.
t
x
y
z
x
x2
y 2
z 2
With the current velocity field only terms with y derivatives will remain since there can be no change in
the other directions. Furthermore, the streamwise pressure gradient has to be zero since the streamwise
velocity far from the wall is constant, namely zero.
u
2u
= 2
t
y

## b) Show that the velocity field is

u(y, t) = U eky cos(ky t),

r
where



Make the ansatz: u = < f (y)ei t = f (y) cos( t).
Insert into the equation:
if (y)ei t = f 00 (y)eit
1

k=

f 00 (y)
2
r
Introduce k =

i
f (y) = 0

i
=0

r
r 

i
1+i

=
=

,
2

## f (y) = Aeyk(1+i) + Beyk(1+i) ,

f (y) 0

as y A = 0

We have




u = < Beyk(1+i) eiwt = < Beky ei(tky) = Beky cos(t ky) = Beky cos(ky t)
Boundary condition at y = 0
At y = 0 we have u = U cos(t) B = U
So we have (see figure 2)
u(y, t) = U e

ky

r
cos(ky t),

where

k=

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
x

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

## Figure 2: Flow over an oscillating wall, exercise 1b).

c) How thick is the boundary-layer thickness?
If we define the thickness of the oscillating layer as the position where u/U = 0.01 we get that
r
r
2

k
e
= 0.01 k 4.6 4.6
6.5

d) Consider instead the oscillating flow U = U cos(t) over a stationary wall. This will simply result in
a change of the reference frame to one following the plate instead. If we consider the solution to the
previous problem and look at it in this new frame of reference we get
r

ky
u(y, t) = U cos(t) U e
cos(ky t), where k =
.
2
The solution is shown in figure 3.
2

4.5

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
1.5

0.5

0
x

0.5

1.5

## Figure 3: Oscillating flow over a stationary wall, exercise 1d).

Example 2
Consider a long hollow cylinder with inner radius r1 and a concentric rod with radius r0 inside it. The rod is
moving axially with velocity U0 .
a) Find the velocity field of a viscous fluid occupying the space between the rod and the cylinder.
Assumptions:

=0
t
Parallel flow and symmetry:

= 0,
z

u = uz (r)ez ,

=0

p
=0
z
We can directly see that ur = u = 0 satisfy the two first components of the Navier-Stokes equations
(i.e. the radial and azimuthal directions). The streamwise momentum equation reduces to
(u )uz = 2 uz
where

u uz
uz
uz
+
+ uz
=0
(u )uz = ur
r
r
z




1
uz
1 2 uz
2 uz
1
uz
2
uz =
r
+ 2
+
=
r
.
r r
r
r 2
z 2
r r
r

We obtain




uz
r
=0.
r
r

Integrate twice
r
Boundary conditions


uz (r0 )
uz (r1 )

uz
=A
r

= U0
= 0

=
=

uz = A ln r + B

A ln r0 + B
A ln r1 + B
3

B = A ln r1

U0 = A(ln r0 ln r1 )
uz (r) =

A=

U0
ln rr10

ln rr1
U0
U0
ln
r

ln
r
=
U
1
0
ln rr01
ln rr01
ln rr10

b) With what force does one have to pull a rod with length L? Neglect end effects.
Shear stress
rz =

uz
U0
=
r
r ln rr10

Force
F = 2r0 Lrz (r0 ) =

2LU0
ln rr01

## Example 3: Asymptotic Suction Boundary Layer

Calculate the asymptotic suction boundary layer, where the boundary layer over a flat plate is kept parallel
by a steady suction V0 through the plate.
Assumptions:
Two-dimensional flow:

= 0,
z

w=0

## Parallel, fully-developed flow:

=0
x

=0
t
Momentum equations:
 2

u
u
1 p
u 2u
u
+u
+v
=
+
+ 2
t
x
y
x
x2
y
 2

v
v
1 p
v
2v
v
+u
+v
=
+
+ 2
t
x
y
y
x2
y
Normal momentum equation gives
p
=0
y
Boundary conditions:
y=0:

u = 0,

y:

v = V0

u U

Continuity gives
u v
+
=0
x y

v = V0

V0

U
1 p
2 U
=
+
y
x
y 2

p
=0
x

## Resulting streamwise momentum equation

V0

u
2u
= 2
y
y

2u
V u
= 0
2
y
y

Characteristic equation
2 =

V0

1 = 0, 2 =

u(y) = A + BeV0 y/
With the boundary conditions at y = 0 and y = we get


u(y) = U 1 eV0 y/ .

V0