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21 visualizzazioni11 pagineThree-dimensional properties of woven-fabric composites

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Three-dimensional properties of woven-fabric composites

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Three-dimensional properties of woven-fabric composites

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V.R. Aitharaju, R.C. Averill*

3516 Engineering Building, Department of Materials Science and Mechanics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226, USA

Received 8 December 1997; received in revised form 9 February 1999; accepted 23 February 1999

Abstract

A new analytical/numerical model which is simple in terms of modeling and ecient in computational eort is presented for the

estimation of the eective stiness properties of woven-fabric composites. In the present study, the analysis is carried out over the

unit cell of the woven-fabric composite. The unit cell is mainly divided into three regions A, B and C depending on the tow waviness. The ber tow geometry in these regions is easy to visualize and dene through simple functions. Also, by assembling the

regions A, B and C suitably, one can generate the unit cell of any woven-fabric architecture. The tow waviness in these sub-regions

is assumed to be sinusoidal and the waviness in both directions is considered. The unit cell of the woven-fabric composite is discretized with three-dimensional nite elements. From the assumed tow geometry in the regions A, B and C, the tow-volume fraction

and average tow inclinations in an element can be calculated. By using the tow-volume fractions and constitutive properties of each

layer, the average stiness properties of an element are calculated by eective-modulus theory. These average stiness properties are

given as input for computing the elemental stiness matrix in the nite element formulation. The problem of estimating the Young's

modulus and Poisson's ratios in all the three directions is divided into three sub-problems and the superposition method is used.

From the results, it is observed that the stiness and Poisson's ratios obtained by the present model agree very well with the

available three-dimensional nite element results in the literature. The results demonstrate that the present model, which is both

simple and computationally ecient, can give very accurate results compared to a complex three-dimensional nite-element model.

# 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: A. Textile composite; Woven fabric composite; Plain weave; Eective modulus; Finite element method

1. Introduction

Fiber-reinforced composites have excellent mechanical properties such as high specic strength and high

specic stiness. In particular, laminated composite

plates have been used extensively where the in-plane

properties are important. However, laminated composites have relatively poor mechanical properties in the

thickness direction and are prone to interlaminar delamination. In an attempt to overcome this diculty,

woven-fabric composites have been developed to provide

tridirectional reinforcement in a single layer. The composite laminates thus formed have good properties in

mutually orthogonal directions as well as more balanced

properties and better impact resistance than the unidirectional laminates. The ability of these woven-fabricreinforced composites to drape and conform to irregular

shapes makes them especially appealing.

* Corresonding author. Tel.: +1-517-353-7188; fax: +1-517-3539842.

E-mail address: averill@egr.msu.edu (R.C. Averil)

The stiness and the strength behavior of wovenfabric composites depend on the fabric architecture. A

number of parameters are involved in determining fabric architecture, such as type of weave, density of yarns,

characteristics of bers and matrix, factors introduced

during weaving such as crimp angle, etc. Many weave

architectures are possible, and some understanding of

the behavior of composites as a function of weave

architecture is helpful in selecting an ecient weave for

a specic application. Hence analytical models are

necessary to study the eect of various parameters on the

behavior of woven composites and to select an ecient

fabric architecture.

The eective properties of woven-composite

materials can be determined by analysing a unit

cell. This type of model is popular because of its

ability to capture the eects of complicated ber architectures in the unit cell. These models are based on an

assumption that a composite structural element can be

formed by assembling the unit cells in all the three

directions. Hence, these unit cell models are valid for

thick composites.

0266-3538/99/$ - see front matter # 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S0266 -3 538(99)00049 -4

1902

V.R. Aitharaju, R.C. Averill / Composites Science and Technology 59 (1999) 19011911

of models for the analysis of woven-fabric composites.

These are the mosaic model, ber-undulation model

(crimp model) and the bridging model. These models

are called classical models since the basic assumption

involved is that classical lamination theory is valid for

every innitesimal piece of repeating unit cell of the

woven-fabric region.

In the mosaic model [1], a fabric composite is idealized

as an assemblage of pieces of asymmetrical cross-ply

laminates. The two-dimensional extent of the laminate

is simplied by considering two one-dimensional

models, i.e. a parallel model and a series model. In the

parallel model, a constant strain state (iso-strain) is

assumed in the laminate and elastic stiness matrices

are derived which give upper bounds on in-plane stiness. In the series model or iso-stress model, the

assumption of constant stress is made and elastic stiness matrices are derived. The assumption of constant

stress leads to lower bounds for in-plane stiness of the

fabric. In the above studies the undulation of the ber is

not considered.

In the ber-undulation model [24], the undulation of

the fabric is considered in deriving the stiness matrices.

It is an extension of the series model considered above

[1]. The undulation of the bers in the warp direction is

not taken into account. This model is suitable for

weaves with lower order repeats in the unit cell. The inplane stiness constants obtained using this model are

lower than those obtained by the mosaic model (parallel

model).

The bridging model [4] is an extension of the ber

undulation model applied to general satin-weave composites wherein there are straight thread regions surrounding an interlaced region and interlaced regions are

thus separated from one another. This model is a combination of series and parallel models. It is found that the

results obtained using the above model agree well with

the experimental results for satin-weave composites.

Raju and Wang [5], using classical thin laminate theory (CTLT), obtained stiness coecients and thermal

expansion coecients for plain weave, 5- and 8-harness

satin weave composites. The tow geometry was assumed

to be sinusoidal. They derived closed form expressions

for CTLT stiness matrices from which they evaluated

elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and coecients of thermal

expansion.

The analytical models mentioned above are all based

on classical laminate theory, hence no predictions can

be made for transverse moduli, E 33 , G 13 and Poisson's

ratios 13 and 23 .

Naik [6] developed a micromechanics model based on

the iso-strain assumption that discretely models the

yarn architecture in the unit cell of a textile composite to

predict the overall mechanical properties. The analytical

technique was implemented in a code called TEXCAD.

available 3-D nite element results and test data for

woven and braided composites.

Whitcomb [7] used a three-dimensional nite-element

model to analyze plain-weave composites. He found

that the in-plane moduli decreased linearly with

increasing tow waviness. Also, waviness was found to

cause large normal and shear strain concentrations in

the composites when subjected to uniaxial load. He

found some inconsistencies between the nite-element

and experimental results for Poisson's ratios. It is mentioned in Ref. [7] that to reduce the number of elements

in the model, compatibility in the center portion where

matrix resin is present is not maintained. The accurate

three-dimensional nite-element modeling of woven

composites requires enormous modeling eort and it

leads to a large number of elements when tow and resin

constituents are discretely modeled.

Foye [8] used a fabric-analysis method to predict the

stiness properties of a variety of simple and complex

weaves. In this analysis, the unit cell of a woven composite is divided into smaller rectangular subcells in

which the reinforcing congurations are easier to visualize, dene and analyze. Each subcell is modeled as an

inhomogeneous hexahedral nite element. The eective

properties are discontinuous in the subcell and numerical integration is used to evaluate the stiness matrices.

After assembling the subcells, the boundary conditions

on all the faces of the unit cell are prescribed in terms of

displacements corresponding to six independent unit

strain cases of 3-D elasticity. The stiness results thus

obtained are found to be in close agreement with the

experimental results.

Dasgupta et al. [9] analyzed plain-weave composites

for stiness and thermal properties using the homogenization technique. A two-scale asymptotic expansion

was used to relate the microscale behavior with macroscale behavior of the composite. The microscale boundary-value problem, dened over a periodic unit cell of

the composite, was solved using the nite-element

method.

In the present paper, a new analytical/numerical

model is developed to analyze woven-fabric composites.

The aim of the present study is to obtain reasonably

accurate results with minimum modeling and computational eort. The unit cell of the woven-fabric composite is considered to evaluate the eective stiness

properties. A unit cell of the woven composite is discretized with eight node brick elements with one element

through the thickness of the cell. Based on assumed tow

geometry, the tow-volume fraction and average tow

inclination in an element can be determined as a function of its spatial location. The average stiness properties of each element in the unit cell are determined

from the ber-volume fraction and constitutive properties of layers in the element using eective moduli theory

V.R. Aitharaju, R.C. Averill / Composites Science and Technology 59 (1999) 19011911

input to the nite-element model. A superposition

method is used to determine the overall eective properties of the woven composites. A brief description of

assumed ber geometry and eective moduli theory is

given below.

2. Fabric geometryconguration in unit cells

All woven fabrics consist of two sets of interlaced

threads known as warp and ll threads. The type of

fabric can be identied by the pattern of repeat of

interlaced regions. Two basic geometric parameters are

required to characterize a fabric. nfg denotes that a warp

thread is interlaced with every nfg th ll thread and nwg

denotes that a ll thread is interlaced with every nwg th

warp thread. For non-hybrid fabrics, the geometric

parameters nfg and nwg are equal (ng nfg nwg ).

Fabrics with ng 54 are called satin weaves. Fig. 1 shows

ber architectures of plain weave (ng 2), 5-harness

satin weave (ng 5) and 8-harness satin weave (ng 8).

The unit cells of the woven composites are shown in

dark boxes.

The unit cell of a woven-fabric composite can be

broadly divided into regions characterized by no waviness

(cross-ply region; denoted region A), waviness in one

direction (either warp or ll has undulation; denoted

region B) and waviness in two directions (both warp and

ll threads undulate; denoted region C). Obviously there

are sub-categories within each of these three primary

categories that distinguish whether the warp or ll tows

are on top or are undulating, etc. For brevity, only representative cases are described in detail here (see Fig. 2).

1903

be sinusoidal and undulation in two directions is considered. Fig. 1, which is a plan form of the woven composite, does not show the details of tow cross-sections

and undulations. The division of a unit cell of plain

weave and 5-harness satin weave with regions A, B and C

is shown in Fig. 2. By assembling the regions A, B and C

suitably, keeping the sub-classications in mind, one can

generate unit cells of any woven-fabric composite.

The geometry of the tows in the regions A, B and C is

shown in Fig. 3. The origin of the coordinate system is

xed at the lower left corner of the cell and the x3 axis is

assumed to lie along the thickness direction of the composite. The thickness of the woven composite, t, is

assumed to be 2h. It is necessary to mention that only

one of the possible tow geometries in regions A, B and

Fig. 2. Divisions of unit cells of plain weave and 5-harness satin weave.

1904

V.R. Aitharaju, R.C. Averill / Composites Science and Technology 59 (1999) 19011911

belonging to each group can be easily visualized by

rotating the ber geometries about the x3 axis.

2.1. Region A (cell dimensions a0 =2 a0 =2 2h)

The geometric parameters, h1 x1 ; x2 , h2 x1 ; x2 and

h3 x1 ; x2 of warp and ll threads are given below (see

Fig. 3).

a0

a0

and 0 < x1 <

for 0 < x2 <

2

2

h1 x1 ; x2 2h

h2 x1 ; x2 h

tf x1 ; x2 h

2.2. Region B (cell dimensions au a0 =2 2h)

In this region, the geometric parameters h1 x1 ; x2 ,

h2 x1 ; x2 , h3 x1 ; x2 and h4 x1 ; x2 of warp and ll

threads are given below.

a0

2

x1 h

h2 x1 ; x2 3 cos

au

2

0 < x1 < au

au

2

3

h3 x1 ; x2 h2 x1 ; x2 h 0 < x1 < au

x1 h

h4 x1 ; x2 1 cos

au

2

au

< x < au

2

As geometric parameters depend only on the x1 coordinate, the thickness of warp and ll bers can be written

as,

tw x1 h

of warp and ll bers can be calculated as

0 < x1 <

h3 x1 ; x2 0

tw x1 ; x2 h

x1 h

h1 x1 ; x2 3 cos

2

au

a0

2

0 < x1 < au

au

2

The local angle between the warp tow and the x1 -axis of

the global coordinate system is given by

1 dh2 x1 ; x2

w x1 tan

dx1

x1 h

5

tan1 sin

au 2au

a0

0 < x1 < au and 0 < x2 <

2

tf x1 h1 x1 ; x2 h2 x1 ; x2

0 < x1 <

along the x2 axis.

V.R. Aitharaju, R.C. Averill / Composites Science and Technology 59 (1999) 19011911

1905

with m elements in the x1 direction and n elements in the

x2 direction and one division through the thickness, the

geometric parameters of warp and ll threads in an element P in the domain 0 < x1 < au =2 and 0 < x2 < a0 =2

can be written as (see Fig. 4):

thickness of warp and ll bers in an element P in the

region 0 < x1 < au =2 and 0 < x2 < au =2 can be written

as (see Fig. 5):

tPw tf xn1

2 on edge 3 and edge 4

tPf tf xm

1 on edge 1 and edge 4

and

tPf tf xm

1

tPf tf xm1

1

Assuming the element P is suciently small, the average

thickness of warp, ll bers and the resin is taken to be

tPw h

1

m1

tPf tf xm

1 tf x1

2

The average warp ber orientation in the element can

then be written as,

1

m1

wP w xm

1 w x1

2

tPf tf xm1

1

Assuming once again that the element P is suciently

small, the average thickness of warp, ll bers and

thickness of resin in the element P is given by:

1

tPw tf xn2 tf xn1

2

2

10

1

m1

tPf tf xm

1 tf x1

2

tPr 2h tPw tPf

The average ber orientations of warp and ll bers in

the element P can be written as:

1

m1

wP w xm

1 w x1

2

with m elements in the x1 direction and n elements in the

1

fP w xn2 w xn1

2

2

about the x1 axis

11

1906

V.R. Aitharaju, R.C. Averill / Composites Science and Technology 59 (1999) 19011911

The basic assumption of the eective moduli theory

proposed by Chou et al. [10] is a combination of Voigt's

(constant strain) and Reuss's (constant stress) hypothesis. In particular, it is assumed that: (1) the normal

strains parallel to the layers and shear strains in the

plane of layers are uniform and equal for all the layers,

and the corresponding stresses are average values; (2)

the normal stress perpendicular to layers and the shear

stresses in the planes perpendicular to the layers are

uniform and equal in each material, and the corresponding strains are average values. With these

assumptions both the equilibrium at the interfaces and

compatibility of the material are satised.

Fig. 6 shows an element in a multilayer laminate with

N layers. The layer number in the element is denoted

with index k. The plane of the layering is assumed to be

the x1 x2 plane and the laminate is stacked in the x3

direction. According to the eective moduli theory, the

assumptions regarding strain and stress quantities are

given below. The overbar quantities represent the average

quantities in the laminate thickness.

where ijk and "kij are the stress and strain components in

the layer k. ij and "ij are the average stress and strain in

the laminate. Vk is the volume fraction of the layer k. In

the above equation, indicial notation is used, wherein

summation on repeated indices is implied (14k4N).

Hooke's law applied to each layer can be written as

k

k

k

; 23 23

; 33 33

13 13

k C k "k

~ ~

~

and

k

k

k

; 22 Vk 22

; 12 Vk 12

11 Vk 11

12

13

written as,

k k k k k k T

; 22 ; 33 ; 23 :13 ; 12

k 11

~

and

14

V.R. Aitharaju, R.C. Averill / Composites Science and Technology 59 (1999) 19011911

~

15

strains using average constituent material constants can

be written as:

C "

~

~ ~

16

12N 12 variables.

The average constitutive constants, C ij can be

obtained as [10].

C ij

N

X

k1

"

C ij

Vk Ckij

N

X

N

X

"

k1

N

X

k1

17

Ckij =k

=

i; j 4; 5

18

U1 a1 ; x2 ; x3 U

V Ck44 =

k

#"

V Ck45 =k

#2

N

X

k1

Vk Ck55 =k

U2 x1 ; a2 ; x3 V

22

Sub-problem 3:

19

Ck44 Ck55

21

Sub-problem 2:

U1 a1 ; x2 ; x3 0

U2 x1 ; a2 ; x3 0

U3 x1 ; x2 ; a3 0

U1 a1 ; x2 ; x3 0 U2 x1 ; a2 ; x3 0

U3 x1 ; x2 ; a3 W

23

with

and

k

matrix of the elements for the nite-element formulation.

The dimensions of the unit cell are assumed to be

2a1 2a2 2a3 , respectively. The origin of the coordinate

system is xed at the center of the unit cell.

For woven-fabric composites, when the material

properties along two in-plane directions are the same,

only six of the nine elastic constants (E 11 , E 33 , G 12 , 12 ,

G 13 , 13 ) have to be computed.

To determine the moduli and Poisson's ratios, three

sub-problems with the following boundary conditions

are considered.

Sub-problem 1:

U3 x1 ; x2 ; a3 0

#

k

k1

where

"

i; j 1; 2; 3; 6

1907

Ck45 Ck54

20

properties in the ber directions are transformed to the

global coordinate system x1 ; x2 ; x3 , depending on the

ber orientation.

4. Finite element analysis for eective stiness properties

The unit cell of the woven-fabric composite is rst

identied and it is divided into regions A, B and C. If

there is symmetry in the unit cell, it is exploited in the

analysis. The regions A, B and C are discretized with three

dimensional brick nite elements. Based on assumed geometry in the regions A, B and C, the average thickness and

orientations of warp and ll bers are determined in the

elements depending on their spatial location. From the

average thickness of warp and ll bers, the average

thickness of resin in an element can be found. Knowing

the average ber orientations, the material properties of

the warp and ll bers in the elements are transformed

into global x1 x2 x3 coordinates. Using the volume fractions of layers and the constitutive matrix in the global

directions, the eective properties of the elements are

determined from Eqs. (17) and (18). These elemental

U1 a1 ; x2 ; x3 0

U2 x1 ; a2 ; x3 0

U3 x1 ; x2 ; a3 0

24

U1 , U2 and U3 are the displacements in x1 , x2 and x3

directions, respectively. For the three sub-problems, the

sum of the normal reaction forces on boundary surfaces, x1 a1 , x2 a2 and x3 a3 are calculated

and denoted as F1n , F2n , F3n for each case. The subscript n represents here the sub-problem number.

The eective modulus in the x1 direction is determined as follows. From the nine constraint forces, the

coecients , and the resultant load P1 are calculated

from the following equations:

F11 F12 F13 P1

25

F31 F32 F33 0

The average normal strains and the average Poisson's

ratios can be determined as:

"11

U

2a1

"22

V

2a2

"33

W

2a3

26

1908

12

V.R. Aitharaju, R.C. Averill / Composites Science and Technology 59 (1999) 19011911

"22

"11

13

"33

"11

is calculated from the following energy balance equation:

1

1

P1 U E 11 "11 2 2a1 2a2 2a3

2

2

27

where 2a1 2a2 2a3 represents the volume of the unit cell.

The remaining Poisson's ratios and Young's moduli in

other directions can be calculated in a similar manner.

To estimate G12 , G23 and G13 , the following boundary

conditions are used.

For G12 :

U1 Kx2

U2 Kx1 on x1 a1 ; a1 and x2 a2 ; a2

28

U3 0 on x3 a3 ; a3

For G23 :

U2 Kx3

U3 Kx2 on x2 a2 ; a2 and x3 a3 ; a3

29

U1 0 on x1 a1 ; a1

For G13 :

U1 Kx3

U3 Kx1 on x1 a1 ; a1 and x3 a3 ; a3

30

U2 0 on x2 a2 ; a2

where K is a scalar that can be chosen arbitrarily.

The reaction forces for the above boundary-value

problems are summed on the boundaries and average

stresses are calculated. The shear modulus is determined

from the calculated average stress and the strain

applied.

requires the use of sophisticated state-of-the-art 3-D

modeling packages. When the ber and resin regions are

discretely modeled, the number of elements in the model

becomes large [9]. Above all, the eort in preparing the

input data for material properties of the elements can

become overwhelming, as the elemental local coordinate

systems vary from one element to the other due to tow

undulation. The present model has the ability to capture

the eects of dierent layers in a single element through

the thickness, so one needs to discretize the unit cell

region in the x1 ; x2 plane only. Thus only a small number of elements is required to represent the unit cell.

Also, based on the assumed geometry in the regions of

the unit cell, one can calculate analytically the volume

fractions and average tow inclinations of each layer in

the element as a function of spacial location. From the

volume fraction and constitutive properties of each

layer, the average stiness properties can be calculated

and given as input in computing the elemental stiness

matrix. The sub-problems for estimating the stiness

properties only dier by load terms, so the nite element

method can be eectively used to solve the sub-problems eciently. The complete procedure can be automated, and the computational eort involved is much

less than that of a full three dimensional model [7,9].

In the present work, plain weave composites with

waviness ratios of 0.167, 0.25 and 0.5 are considered.

The waviness ratio, l, of a plain weave is dened as

au

a0 au

31

In the present paper, eective properties of plainweave composites will be predicted and the results from

the present model will be compared with three dimensional nite-element results of Whitcomb [7] and classical laminate theory (CLT) results of Raju and Wang [5].

Whitcomb analyzed symmetrically stacked plain-weave

composites using 3-D nite elements. The unit cell used

for analysis is shown in Fig. 7, where resin regions have

been removed to increase clarity of the tow structure.

It should be noted that the eort needed to accurately

model this simple woven architecture using a traditional

length of straight portion. The width of the plain weave

is dened as a a0 au .

5.1. Tow-volume fraction

The portion of the plain weave used for analysis is

divided into regions A, B and C. As the tow geometries

in these regions are dened, the volume of tows can be

calculated. In Fig. 8, a plot of tow-volume fraction versus waviness ratio, l, is given. It can be seen from the

V.R. Aitharaju, R.C. Averill / Composites Science and Technology 59 (1999) 19011911

a tow-volume fraction of 0.88. Also from the gure, it

can be seen that tow-volume fraction decreases linearly

with waviness ratio.

5.2. Eective moduli and poisson's ratio estimation

eect of waviness ratio

Fig. 9 shows the discretization of the quarter model of a

unit cell with 8-node brick elements with various levels of

mesh renement. One element through the thickness is

used. Three types of nite element meshes are used. The

coarse and medium mesh contain 64 elements (162 nodes)

and 100 elements (242 nodes), respectively. The ne mesh

contains 196 elements (450 nodes) in the model. The nite

element mesh used by Whitcomb [7] has 96 20-node brick

elements (595 nodes) in the model.

While estimating the shear modulus, antisymmetric

boundary conditions must be used on the symmetry edges.

These antisymmetric boundary conditions can be imposed

through multipoint constraints. But in the present study,

1909

constraints, approximate boundary conditions given in

Eqs. (2830) are used on the quarter model.

The material properties used for tow and resin

regions are given in Table 1. Table 2 compares the

eective stiness properties obtained by the present

model with Whitcomb's results as a function of waviness ratio for various mesh renements. The moduli and

Poisson's ratio of the plain weave are normalized with

respect to the equivalent properties of a (0/90/90/0)

laminate with the same dimensions. The classical laminate theory results given by Raju and Wang [5] are also

given for comparison.

Table 1

Material properties of tow and resin [7]

with waviness ratio.

23

13

G12

G23

G13

(GPa) (GPa) (GPa)

Material

GPa GPa GPa

Tow

Resin

3.45 3.45 3.45 0.35 0.35 0.35 1.28

3.43

1.28

5.52

1.28

Table 2

Eect of waviness ratio on moduli and Poisson's ratio [moduli and Poisson's ratios are normalized with respect to a(0/90/90/0) laminate]

Waviness

Approach

E 11

0.167

Present results (mesh 2, 100 elements)

Present results (mesh 3, 196 elements)

Whitcomb [7] (20-node 96 elements)

Raju and Wang [5] (CTLT)

Present results (mesh 1, 64 elements)

Present results (mesh 2, 100 elements)

Present results (mesh 3, 196 elements)

Whitcomb [7] (20-node 96 elements)

Raju and Wang [5] (CTLT)

Present results (mesh 1, 64 elements)

Present results (mesh 2, 100 elements)

Present results (mesh 3, 196 elements)

Whitcomb [7] 20-node 96 elements)

Raju and Wang [5] (CTLT)

0.9380

0.9364

0.9340

0.92

0.94

0.9069

0.9064

0.8978

0.88

0.92

0.8170

0.8169

0.7746

0.75

0.79

0.25

0.5

E 33

0.9341

0.9361

0.9367

0.95

0.9035

0.9054

0.9061

0.93

0.8146

0.8152

0.8157

0.84

G 12

G 13

12

13

0.9665

0.9668

0.9745

0.96

0.97

0.9529

0.9535

0.9617

0.94

0.95

0.9157

0.9170

0.9242

0.87

0.87

0.9527

0.9537

0.9546

1.10

0.9289

0.9307

0.9318

1.14

0.8578

0.8612

0.8636

1.22

1.0343

1.0247

1.0198

0.87

1.05

1.0399

1.0384

1.0249

0.81

1.10

1.0876

1.0860

1.0242

0.60

1.25

1.0050

1.0048

1.0029

1.10

1.0076

1.0074

1.0033

1.14

1.0160

1.0154

1.0007

1.28

1910

V.R. Aitharaju, R.C. Averill / Composites Science and Technology 59 (1999) 19011911

given below.

E 11 7:25 1010

E 33 1:27 1010

G23 0:43 1010

64 elements is able to give reasonably accurate results

compared to Whitcomb's results. We can also see that,

in the case of E 11 , E 33 , G 12 , the results obtained by the

present model agree very closely with Whitcomb's

results for all waviness ratios. The maximum dierence

between the results is around 5%. Also, the present

results are in slightly better agreement with Whitcomb's

three dimensional nite element results than the CLT

results. In the case of 12 ; 32 ; 13 there is considerable

dierence between the present results and Whitcomb's

results. The Poisson's ratio values, 12 given by Whitcomb decrease with waviness, which is unexpected. But

the present results show a slow increasing trend. Whitcomb pointed out this discrepancy in his results [7] and

mentioned that test values show an increase of 12 with

increasing waviness, which is predicted by the current

and the result obtained by CLT are in reasonably good

agreement. The present transverse shear moduli results

(G 13 ) decrease with waviness in contrast with Whitcomb's

results. The present model is not able to capture an

increase in transverse shear modulus with waviness ratio.

Except for the transverse shear modulus G13 , all other

stiness properties predicted by the present theory agree

with the predictions of a complex three dimensional niteelement model. The results demonstrate that the present

model which is both simple and computationally ecient

can give very good stiness predictions compared to

complex three dimensional nite element models.

5.3. Eective moduli and Poisson's ratio estimation

eect of width to thickness ratio (a/t)

Figs. 1013 show the variation of E 11 ; G 12 ; 12 and 23

versus width to thickness ratio (a=t) for the plane weave

composite for various waviness ratios. The results are

obtained using the coarse mesh. The material properties

given in Table 1 are used in this case. It can be seen that

eective stiness increases with increasing a=t ratio. In

case of E 33 , the present model predicts no change with

a=t ratio. It is observed that the Poisson's ratio, 13 , is

almost independent of waviness ratio.

Fig. 10. Variation of in-plane modulus (E 11 ) of plain weave with a=t

ratio.

Fig. 12. Variation of Poisson's ratio (12 ) of plain weave with a=t

ratio.

Fig. 11. Variation of in-plane shear modulus (G 12 ) of plain weave with

a=t ratio.

Fig. 13. Variation of Poisson's ratio (13 ) of plain weave with a=t

ratio.

V.R. Aitharaju, R.C. Averill / Composites Science and Technology 59 (1999) 19011911

6. Conclusions

The eective properties of woven-fabric composites

are estimated using a new analytical/numerical model.

The tow undulation is assumed to be sinusoidal and

undulation in two directions is considered. The unit cell

of the plain weave is identied and it is discretized with

three-dimensional brick elements. Based on the assumed

tow geometry, the tow-volume fraction and its average

orientation in an element are determined spatially.

Using the eective moduli theory, the eective properties of the element in the unit cell are determined. These

eective properties are given as input to the nite element model. The problems of determining the elastic

stinesses and Poisson's ratios are divided into three

sub-problems. These sub-problems dier only by the

load cases, hence the nite element method can be

eectively used to solve these sub-problems eciently.

From the results, the following conclusions can be

drawn.

1. Except for the transverse shear modulus G13 , all

other stiness properties predicted by the present

theory agree with the predictions of a complex

three-dimensional nite-element model.

2. The present model is simple in terms of nite element modeling compared to a full 3-D nite-element model in which tows are represented

discretely. As the tow and resin regions are not

modeled explicitly in the current model, the number of elements required is small, and hence the

analysis can be carried out with less computational

eort compared to a full three-dimensional model.

1911

extended for other ber architectures (e.g. 5-harness

satin weave, 8-harness satin weave, etc.).

Acknowledgements

This work is partially supported by the state of

Michigan Research Excellence Fund.

References

[1] Ishikawa T. Antisymmetric elastic properties of composite plates of

satin weave cloth. Fiber Science and Technology 1981;15:12745.

[2] Ishikawa T, Chou TW. One dimensional micromechanical analysis of woven hybrid composites. AIAA Journal 1983;21:171421.

[3] Ishikawa T, Chou TW. Elastic behavior of woven hybrid composites. Journal of Composite Materials 1982;16:219.

[4] Ishikawa T, Chou TW. Stiness and strength behavior of fabric

composites. Journal of Material Science 1982;17:321120.

[5] Raju IS, Wang JT. Classical laminate theory models for wovenfabric composites. Journal of Composite Technology and

Research 1994;16:289303.

[6] Naik RA. Analysis of woven and braided fabric reinforced composites. NASA CR-19493, 1994.

[7] Whitcomb JD. Three dimensional stress analysis of plain weave

composites. Paper presented at the 3rd Symposium on Composite

Materials: Fatigue and Fracture, Orlando (FL), 1989. p. 41738.

[8] Foye RL. Mechanics of ber reinforces composites. Fiber-Tex

1988, NASA Conference, Publication 3038, 1989. p. 23747.

[9] Dasgupta A, Agarwal RK, Bhandarkar SM. Three-dimensional

modeling of woven-fabric composites for eective thermomechanical and thermal properties. Composites Science and

Technology 1997;56:20923.

[10] Chou PC, Carleone J, Hsu CM. Elastic constants of layered

media. Journal of Composite Materials 1972;6:8093.

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