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ACI 318 2005

(Chapter 12 Dev & Splices of Reinforcement Pg 211 and Chapter 21 Special provisions for seismic design Pg 311 312)

Chapter 12 Development and Splices of Reinforcement Pg 211 Clause 12.14.3.


12.14.3 Mechanical and welded splices.
12.14.3.1 Mechanical and welded splices shall be permitted.
12.14.3.2 A full mechanical splice shall develop in tension or compression, as required, at least 1.25 fy of the bar.
Chapter 21 Special provisions for seismic design Pg 311 312
21.2.6 Mechanical splices.
21.2.6.1 - Mechanical splices shall be classified as either Type 1 or Type 2 mechanical splices, as follows:

(a) Type 1 mechanical splices shall confirm to 12.14.3.2;


(b) Type 2 mechanical splices shall confirm to 12.14.3.2 and shall develop the specified tensile strength of the
spliced bar.
21.2.6.2 Type 1 mechanical splices shall not be used within a distance equal to twice the member depth from the
column or beam face for special moment frames or from sections where yielding of the reinforcement is likely to
occur as a result of inelastic lateral displacements. Type 2 mechanical splices shall be permitted to be used at
any location.
ASME SECTION III, Division 2, 2004 ( CC 4330 SPLICING OF REINFORCING BARS)
CC-4331.2 Permitted types of Splices and Joints.
The types of splices and joints listed in (a), (b),and (c) below are permitted within the limitations described in the
following subparagraphs:
1. lap splices
2. mechanical splices of the following types:
a. sleeve with ferrous filler metal splices,
b. taper threaded splices,
c. swaged splices,
d. threaded splices in thread deformed reinforcing bars,
e. sleeve with cementitious grout,
f. cold roll formed parallel threaded splices
3. arc welded joints.

BS 8110 : Part 1 : 1985 Section Three, Issue 2, May 1989 (page 3/51 clause 3.12.8.16.2)
3.12.8.16.2 - Bars in tension
The only acceptable form of full-strength butt joint for a bar in tension comprises a mechanical satisfying the following
criteria.
(a) When a test is made of a representative gauge length assembly comprising reinforcement of the size, grade
and profile to be used and a coupler of the precise type to be used, the permanent elongation after loading
to 0.6fy should not exceed 0.1mm.
(b) The tensile strength of the coupled bar should 287.5 N/mm2 for grade 250, 529 N/ mm2 for grade 460, hot
rolled steel and 506 N/mm2 for grade 460, cold worked steel.
BS 5400 : Part 4 : 1990 (Page 31 Clause 5.8.6.6)
5.8.6.6 Laps and joints.
Continuity of reinforcement may be achieved by a connection using any of the following jointing methods:
(a) Lapping bars;
(b) Butt welding (see 4.7);
(c) Sleeving (see 7.3.2.2);
(d) Threading of bars, parallel threads (see 7.3.2.2);
(e) Threading of bars, taper threads.
Such connections should occur, if possible, away from points of high stress and should be staggered appropriately.
The use of the jointing methods given in (c) and (d) and any other method not listed should be verified by test
evidence.
In the tests the following criteria should be satisfied.
(a) When a test is made of a representative gauge length assembly comprising reinforcement of the size,
grade and profile to be used and a coupler of the precise type to be used, the permanent elongation
after loading to 0.6fy should not exceed 0.1mm.
(b) The design ultimate strength of the coupled bar should exceed the specified characteristic strength by
the percentage specified in clause 10 of BS 4449 : 1988.
7.3.2.3 Threading.
The following methods may be used for joining threaded bars.
(a) The threaded ends of bars may be joined by a coupler having left and right hand threads. This type of
threaded connection requires a high degree of accuracy in manufacture in view of the difficulty of ensuring
alignment.

(b) One set of bars may be welded to a steel plate that is drilled that is drilled to receive the threaded ends of
the second set of bars; the second set of bars are fixed to the plate by means of nuts.
(c) Threaded anchors may be cast into a precast unit to receive the threaded ends of reinforcement.
Where there is a risk of the threaded connection working loose e.g. during vibration of in situ concrete, a locking
device should be used.
Where there is difficulty in producing a clean thread at the end of a bar, steel normally specified for black bolts (see
BS 4190) having a characteristic strength of 430 N/ mm2 should be used.
The structural design of special threaded connections should be based on tests in accordance with Part 1, including
behaviour under fatigue conditions where relevant. Where test have shown the strength of the threaded connection
to be at least as strong as the parent bar, the strength of the joint may be based on 80% of the specified
characteristic strength of the joined bars in tension and on 100% for bars in compression, divided in each case by the
appropriate ym factor.