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Anthropology
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ThisarticleisaboutAnthropologyinthe20thand21stcenturies.Forearlierdevelopment,seeHistoryofanthropology.Forotheruses,seeAnthropology
(disambiguation).
Anthropologyisthestudyofhumanity.[1][2][3]Itsmainsubdivisionsaresocialanthropologyandcultural
anthropology,[1][2][3]whichdescribestheworkingsofsocietiesaroundtheworld,linguisticanthropology,which

Anthropology

investigatestheinfluenceoflanguageinsociallife,andbiologicalorphysicalanthropology,[1][2][3]whichconcerns
longtermdevelopmentofthehumanorganism.Archaeology,whichstudiespasthumanculturesthrough
investigationofphysicalevidence,isthoughtofasabranchofanthropologyintheUnitedStates,[4]whilein
Europe,itisviewedasadisciplineinitsownright,orgroupedunderotherrelateddisciplinessuchashistory.
Contents[hide]
1 Originanddevelopmentoftheterm
1.1 Throughthe19thcentury
1.2 20thand21stcenturies
2 Fields
2.1 Sociocultural
2.2 Biological
2.3 Archaeological
2.4 Linguistic
3 Keytopicsbyfield:sociocultural
3.1 Art,media,music,danceandfilm
3.1.1 Art
3.1.2 Media

OutlineHistory
Types

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Archaeological

[show]

Biological

[show]

SocialCultural

[show]

Linguistic

[show]

Researchframework

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Keyconcepts

[show]

Keytheories

[show]

Lists

[show]

Anthropologyportal

3.1.3 Music

VTE

3.1.4 Visual
3.2 Economic,politicaleconomic,appliedanddevelopment
3.2.1 Economic
3.2.2 Politicaleconomy
3.2.3 Applied
3.2.4 Development
3.3 Kinship,feminism,genderandsexuality
3.3.1 Kinship
3.3.2 Feminist
3.4 Medical,nutritional,psychological,cognitiveandtranspersonal
3.4.1 Medical
3.4.2 Nutritional
3.4.3 Psychological
3.4.4 Cognitive
3.4.5 Transpersonal
3.5 Politicalandlegal
3.5.1 Political
3.5.2 Legal

5volumeEncyclopediaof
Anthropology

3.5.3 Public
3.6 Nature,scienceandtechnology
3.6.1 Cyborg
3.6.2 Digital
3.6.3 Ecological
3.6.4 Environmental
3.7 Historical
3.8 Religion
3.9 Urban
4 Keytopicsbyfield:archaeologicalandbiological
4.1 Anthrozoology
4.2 Biocultural
4.3 Evolutionary
4.4 Forensic
4.5 Palaeoanthropology
5 Organizations
5.1 Listofmajororganizations
6 Controversialethicalstances
6.1 Ethicsofculturalrelativism
6.2 Ethicalstancetomilitaryinvolvement
7 PostWorldWarIIdevelopments

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7.1 Basictrends
7.2 Commonalitiesbetweenfields
8 Seealso
9 Notes
10 References
11 Furtherreading
11.1 Dictionariesandencyclopedias
11.2 Fieldnotesandmemoirs
11.3 Histories
11.4 Textbooksandkeytheoreticalworks
12 Externallinks

Originanddevelopmentoftheterm

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Historyofanthropology
Theabstractnounanthropologyisfirstattestedinreferencetohistory.[5][n1]ItspresentusefirstappearedinRenaissanceGermanyintheworksofMagnus
HundtandOttoCasmann.[6]TheirNewLatinanthropologiaderivedfromthecombiningformsoftheGreekwordsnthrpos(,"human")
andlgos(,"study").[5](ItsadjectivalformappearedintheworksofAristotle.)[5]ItbegantobeusedinEnglish,possiblyviaFrenchanthropologie,bythe
early18thcentury.[5][n2]

Throughthe19thcentury

[ edit ]

In1647,theBartholins,foundersoftheUniversityofCopenhagen,definedl'anthropologieasfollows:[7]
Anthropology,thatistosaythesciencethattreatsofman,isdividedordinarilyandwithreasonintoAnatomy,whichconsidersthebodyandthe
parts,andPsychology,whichspeaksofthesoul.[n3]
Sporadicuseofthetermforsomeofthesubjectmatteroccurredsubsequently,suchastheusebytienneSerresin1838todescribethenaturalhistory,or
paleontology,ofman,basedoncomparativeanatomy,andthecreationofachairinanthropologyandethnographyin1850attheNationalMuseumofNatural
History(France)byJeanLouisArmanddeQuatrefagesdeBrau.Variousshortlivedorganizationsofanthropologistshadalreadybeenformed.TheSocit
EthnologiquedeParis,thefirsttouseEthnology,wasformedin1839.Itsmemberswereprimarilyantislaveryactivists.Whenslaverywasabolishedin
Francein1848theSocitwasabandoned.
Meanwhile,theEthnologicalSocietyofNewYork,currentlytheAmericanEthnologicalSociety,wasfoundedonitsmodelin1842,aswellastheEthnological
SocietyofLondonin1843,abreakawaygroupoftheAborigines'ProtectionSociety.[8]Theseanthropologistsofthetimeswereliberal,antislavery,andpro
humanrightsactivists.Theymaintainedinternationalconnections.
Anthropologyandmanyothercurrentfieldsaretheintellectualresultsofthecomparativemethodsdevelopedintheearlier19thcentury.Theoristsinsuch
diversefieldsasanatomy,linguistics,andEthnology,makingfeaturebyfeaturecomparisonsoftheirsubjectmatters,werebeginningtosuspectthat
similaritiesbetweenanimals,languages,andfolkwaysweretheresultofprocessesorlawsunknowntothemthen.[9]Forthem,thepublicationofCharles
Darwin'sOntheOriginofSpecieswastheepiphanyofeverythingtheyhadbeguntosuspect.Darwinhimselfarrivedathisconclusionsthroughcomparison
ofspecieshehadseeninagronomyandinthewild.
DarwinandWallaceunveiledevolutioninthelate1850s.Therewasanimmediaterushtobringitintothesocialsciences.PaulBrocainPariswasinthe
processofbreakingawayfromtheSocitdebiologietoformthefirstoftheexplicitlyanthropologicalsocieties,theSocitd'AnthropologiedeParis,
meetingforthefirsttimeinParisin1859.[10][n4]WhenhereadDarwinhebecameanimmediateconverttoTransformisme,astheFrench
calledevolutionism.[11]Hisdefinitionnowbecame"thestudyofthehumangroup,consideredasawhole,initsdetails,andinrelationtotherestofnature".[12]
Broca,beingwhattodaywouldbecalledaneurosurgeon,hadtakenaninterestinthepathologyofspeech.Hewantedtolocalizethedifferencebetweenman
andtheotheranimals,whichappearedtoresideinspeech.Hediscoveredthespeechcenterofthehumanbrain,todaycalledBroca'sareaafterhim.His
interestwasmainlyinBiologicalanthropology,butaGermanphilosopherspecializinginpsychology,TheodorWaitz,tookupthethemeofgeneralandsocial
anthropologyinhissixvolumework,entitledDieAnthropologiederNaturvlker,18591864.Thetitlewassoontranslatedas"TheAnthropologyofPrimitive
Peoples".Thelasttwovolumeswerepublishedposthumously.
Waitzdefinedanthropologyas"thescienceofthenatureofman".Bynaturehemeantmatteranimatedby"theDivinebreath"[13]i.e.,hewasananimist.
FollowingBroca'slead,Waitzpointsoutthatanthropologyisanewfield,whichwouldgathermaterialfromotherfields,butwoulddifferfromthemintheuse
ofcomparativeanatomy,physiology,andpsychologytodifferentiatemanfrom"theanimalsnearesttohim".Hestressesthatthedataofcomparisonmustbe
empirical,gatheredbyexperimentation.[14]Thehistoryofcivilizationaswellasethnologyaretobebroughtintothecomparison.Itistobepresumed
fundamentallythatthespecies,man,isaunity,andthat"thesamelawsofthoughtareapplicabletoallmen".[15]
WaitzwasinfluentialamongtheBritishethnologists.In1863theexplorerRichardFrancisBurtonandthespeechtherapistJamesHuntbrokeawayfrom
theEthnologicalSocietyofLondontoformtheAnthropologicalSocietyofLondon,whichhenceforwardwouldfollowthepathofthenewanthropologyrather
thanjustethnology.Itwasthe2ndsocietydedicatedtogeneralanthropologyinexistence.RepresentativesfromtheFrenchSocitwerepresent,thoughnot
Broca.Inhiskeynoteaddress,printedinthefirstvolumeofitsnewpublication,TheAnthropologicalReview,HuntstressedtheworkofWaitz,adoptinghis
definitionsasastandard.[16][n5]AmongthefirstassociatesweretheyoungEdwardBurnettTylor,inventorofculturalanthropology,andhisbrotherAlfred
Tylor,ageologist.PreviouslyEdwardhadreferredtohimselfasanethnologistsubsequently,ananthropologist.
Similarorganizationsinothercountriesfollowed:TheAmericanAnthropologicalAssociationin1902,theAnthropologicalSocietyofMadrid(1865),the
AnthropologicalSocietyofVienna(1870),theItalianSocietyofAnthropologyandEthnology(1871),andmanyotherssubsequently.Themajorityofthese
wereevolutionist.OnenotableexceptionwastheBerlinSocietyofAnthropology(1869)foundedbyRudolphVirchow,knownforhisvituperativeattacksonthe
evolutionists.Notreligioushimself,heinsistedthatDarwin'sconclusionslackedempiricalfoundation.

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Duringthelastthreedecadesofthe19thcenturyaproliferationofanthropologicalsocietiesandassociationsoccurred,mostindependent,mostpublishing
theirownjournals,andallinternationalinmembershipandassociation.Themajortheoristsbelongedtotheseorganizations.Theysupportedthegradual
osmosisofanthropologycurriculaintothemajorinstitutionsofhigherlearning.By1898theAmericanAssociationfortheAdvancementofSciencewasableto
reportthat48educationalinstitutionsin13countrieshadsomecurriculuminanthropology.Noneofthe75facultymemberswereunderadepartmentnamed
anthropology.[17]

20thand21stcenturies

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Thismeagrestatisticexpandedinthe20thcenturytocompriseanthropologydepartmentsinthemajorityoftheworld'shighereducationalinstitutions,many
thousandsinnumber.Anthropologyhasdiversifiedfromafewmajorsubdivisionstodozensmore.Practicalanthropology,theuseofanthropological
knowledgeandtechniquetosolvespecificproblems,hasarrivedforexample,thepresenceofburiedvictimsmightstimulatetheuseofaforensic
archaeologisttorecreatethefinalscene.Organizationhasreachedgloballevel.Forexample,theWorldCouncilofAnthropologicalAssociations(WCAA),"a
networkofnational,regionalandinternationalassociationsthataimstopromoteworldwidecommunicationandcooperationinanthropology",currently
containsmembersfromaboutthreedozennations.[18]
SincetheworkofFranzBoasandBronisawMalinowskiinthelate19thandearly20thcenturies,socialanthropologyinGreatBritain
andculturalanthropologyintheUShavebeendistinguishedfromothersocialsciencesbyitsemphasisoncrossculturalcomparisons,longtermindepth
examinationofcontext,andtheimportanceitplacesonparticipantobservationorexperientialimmersionintheareaofresearch.Culturalanthropologyin
particularhasemphasizedculturalrelativism,holism,andtheuseoffindingstoframeculturalcritiques.[19]ThishasbeenparticularlyprominentintheUnited
States,fromBoas'argumentsagainst19thcenturyracialideology,throughMargaretMead'sadvocacyforgenderequalityandsexualliberation,tocurrent
criticismsofpostcolonialoppressionandpromotionofmulticulturalism.Ethnographyisoneofitsprimaryresearchdesignsaswellasthetextthatisgenerated
fromanthropologicalfieldwork.[20][21][22]
InGreatBritainandtheCommonwealthcountries,theBritishtraditionofsocialanthropologytendstodominate.IntheUnitedStates,anthropologyhas
traditionallybeendividedintothefourfieldapproachdevelopedbyFranzBoasintheearly20thcentury:biologicalorphysicalanthropologysocial,cultural,
orsocioculturalanthropologyandarchaeologyplusanthropologicallinguistics.Thesefieldsfrequentlyoverlap,buttendtousedifferentmethodologiesand
techniques.
Europeancountrieswithoverseascoloniestendedtopracticemoreethnology(atermcoinedanddefinedbyAdamF.Kollrin1783).Innoncolonial
Europeancountries,socialanthropologyisnowdefinedasthestudyofsocialorganizationinnonstatesocieties.Itissometimesreferredtoassociocultural
anthropologyinthepartsoftheworldthatwereinfluencedbytheEuropeantradition.[23]

Fields

[ edit ]

Furtherinformation:Americananthropology
Anthropologyisaglobaldisciplinewherehumanities,social,andnaturalsciencesareforcedtoconfrontoneanother.Anthropologybuildsuponknowledge
fromnaturalsciences,includingthediscoveriesabouttheoriginandevolutionofHomosapiens,humanphysicaltraits,humanbehavior,thevariationsamong
differentgroupsofhumans,howtheevolutionarypastofHomosapienshasinfluenceditssocialorganizationandculture,andfromsocialsciences,including
theorganizationofhumansocialandculturalrelations,institutions,socialconflicts,etc.[24][25]EarlyanthropologyoriginatedinClassicalGreeceandPersia
andstudiedandtriedtounderstandobservableculturaldiversity.[26][27]Assuch,anthropologyhasbeencentralinthedevelopmentofseveralnew(late20th
century)interdisciplinaryfieldssuchascognitivescience,[28]globalstudies,andvariousethnicstudies.
AccordingtoCliffordGeertz,
"anthropologyisperhapsthelastofthegreatnineteenthcenturyconglomeratedisciplinesstillforthemostpartorganizationallyintact.Longafter
naturalhistory,moralphilosophy,philology,andpoliticaleconomyhavedissolvedintotheirspecializedsuccessors,ithasremainedadiffuse
assemblageofethnology,humanbiology,comparativelinguistics,andprehistory,heldtogethermainlybythevestedinterests,sunkcosts,and
administrativehabitsofacademia,andbyaromanticimageofcomprehensivescholarship."[29]
Socioculturalanthropologyhasbeenheavilyinfluencedbystructuralistandpostmoderntheories,aswellasashifttowardtheanalysisofmodernsocieties.
Duringthe1970sand1990s,therewasanepistemologicalshiftawayfromthepositivisttraditionsthathadlargelyinformedthe
discipline.[30][pageneeded]Duringthisshift,enduringquestionsaboutthenatureandproductionofknowledgecametooccupyacentralplaceinculturaland
socialanthropology.Incontrast,archaeologyandbiologicalanthropologyremainedlargelypositivist.Duetothisdifferenceinepistemology,thefoursubfields
ofanthropologyhavelackedcohesionoverthelastseveraldecades.

Sociocultural

[ edit ]

Mainarticles:Culturalanthropology,SocialanthropologyandSocioculturalanthropology
Socioculturalanthropologydrawstogethertheprincipleaxesofculturalanthropologyandsocialanthropology.Culturalanthropologyisthecomparativestudy
ofthemanifoldwaysinwhichpeoplemakesenseoftheworldaroundthem,whilesocialanthropologyisthestudyoftherelationshipsamongpersonsand
groups.[31]Culturalanthropologyismorerelatedtophilosophy,literatureandthearts(howone'scultureaffectsexperienceforselfandgroup,contributingto
morecompleteunderstandingofthepeople'sknowledge,customs,andinstitutions),whilesocialanthropologyismorerelatedtosociologyandhistory.[31]in
thatithelpsdevelopunderstandingofsocialstructures,typicallyofothersandotherpopulations(suchasminorities,subgroups,dissidents,etc.).[32][33]There
isnohardandfastdistinctionbetweenthem,andthesecategoriesoverlaptoaconsiderabledegree.
Inquiryinsocioculturalanthropologyisguidedinpartbyculturalrelativism,theattempttounderstandothersocietiesintermsoftheirownculturalsymbols
andvalues.[20]Acceptingotherculturesintheirowntermsmoderatesreductionismincrossculturalcomparison.[34]Thisprojectisoftenaccommodatedinthe
fieldofethnography.Ethnographycanrefertobothamethodologyandtheproductofethnographicresearch,i.e.anethnographicmonograph.As
methodology,ethnographyisbaseduponlongtermfieldworkwithinacommunityorotherresearchsite.Participantobservationisoneofthefoundational
methodsofsocialandculturalanthropology.[35]Ethnologyinvolvesthesystematiccomparisonofdifferentcultures.Theprocessofparticipantobservationcan
beespeciallyhelpfultounderstandingaculturefromanemic(conceptual,vs.etic,ortechnical)pointofview.

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Thestudyofkinshipandsocialorganizationisacentralfocusofsocioculturalanthropology,askinshipisahumanuniversal.Socioculturalanthropologyalso
coverseconomicandpoliticalorganization,lawandconflictresolution,patternsofconsumptionandexchange,materialculture,technology,infrastructure,
genderrelations,ethnicity,childrearingandsocialization,religion,myth,symbols,values,etiquette,worldview,sports,music,nutrition,recreation,games,
food,festivals,andlanguage(whichisalsotheobjectofstudyinlinguisticanthropology).
Comparisonacrossculturesisakeyelementofmethodinsocioculturalanthropology,includingtheindustrialized(anddeindustrialized)West.Culturesin
theStandardCrossCulturalSample(SCCS)[36]ofworldsocietiesare:
Nama(Hottentot)Kung(San)ThongaLoziMbunduSukuBembaNyakyusa(Ngonde)HadzaLuguruKikuyuGandaMbuti(Pygmies)Nkundo
(Mongo)BanenTivIgboFonAshanti(Twi)MendeBambaraTallensiMassaAzandeOtoroNubaShillukMaoMaasai

Africa
Circum
Mediterranean

WolofSonghaiWodaabeFulaniHausaFurKaffaKonsoSomaliAmharaBogoKenuziNubianTedaTuaregRiffiansEgyptians
(Fellah)HebrewsBabyloniansRwalaBedouinTurksGheg(Albanians)RomansBasquesIrishSami(Lapps)RussiansGeorgian
(Iberian)AbkhazArmeniansKurd

EastEurasia

Yurak(Samoyed)BasseriWestPunjabiGondTodaSantalUttarPradeshBurushoKazakGujaratiBengaliKhalka
MongolsLoloLepchaGaroLakherBurmeseLametVietnameseRhadeKhmerSiameseSemangNicobareseAndamaneseVeddaTanalaNegeri
SembilanAtayalChineseManchuKoreansJapaneseAinuGilyakYukaghir

InsularPacific

Javanese(Miao)BalineseIbanBadjauTorajaTobeloreseAloreseTiwiArandaOrokaivaKimamKapaukuKwomaManusNew
IrelandTrobriandersSiuaiTikopiaPentecostMbauFijiansAjieMaoriMarquesansWestern
SamoansGilberteseMarshalleseTrukeseYapesePalauansIfugaoChukchi

NorthAmerica

IngalikAleutCopperEskimoMontagnaisMi'kmaqSaulteaux(Ojibwa)SlaveKaska
(Nahane)EyakHaidaBellacoolaTwanaYurokPomoYokutsPaiute(Northern)KlamathKutenaiGrosVentresHidatsaPawneeOmaha
(Dhegiha)HuronCreekNatchezComancheChiricahuaZuniHavasupaiTohonoO'odhamHuicholAztecPopoluca
QuichMiskito(Mosquito)Bribri(Talamanca)CunaGoajiroHaitiansCalinagoWarrau
(Warao)YanomamoCaribSaramaccaMundurukuCubeo
(Tucano)CayapaJivaroAmahuacaIncaAymaraSirionoNambicuaraTrumaiTimbiraTupinambaBotocudoShavanteAweikomaCayua
(Guarani)LenguaAbiponMapucheTehuelcheYaghan

South
America

Seealso:Listofindigenouspeoples

Biological

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Biologicalanthropology
BiologicalAnthropologyandPhysicalAnthropologyaresynonymoustermstodescribeanthropologicalresearch
focusedonthestudyofhumansandnonhumanprimatesintheirbiological,evolutionary,anddemographic
dimensions.Itexaminesthebiologicalandsocialfactorsthathaveaffectedtheevolutionofhumansandother
primates,andthatgenerate,maintainorchangecontemporarygeneticandphysiologicalvariation.[37]

Archaeological

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Archaeology
Forensicanthropologistscanhelp
identifyskeletonizedhumanremains,
suchasthesefoundlyinginscrubin
WesternAustralia,c.19001910.

Archaeologyisthestudyofthehumanpastthroughitsmaterialremains.
Artifacts,faunalremains,andhumanalteredlandscapesareevidenceofthe
culturalandmateriallivesofpastsocieties.Archaeologistsexaminethese
materialremainsinordertodeducepatternsofpasthumanbehaviorand
culturalpractices.Ethnoarchaeologyisatypeofarchaeologythatstudiesthe
practicesandmaterialremainsoflivinghumangroupsinordertogainabetter

understandingoftheevidenceleftbehindbypasthumangroups,whoarepresumedtohavelivedinsimilarways.[38]

Linguistic

[ edit ]

Excavationsatthe3800year
oldEdgewaterParkSite,Iowa

Mainarticle:Linguisticanthropology
Linguisticanthropology(alsocalledanthropologicallinguistics)seekstounderstandtheprocessesofhuman

communications,verbalandnonverbal,variationinlanguageacrosstimeandspace,thesocialusesoflanguage,andtherelationshipbetweenlanguage
andculture.Itisthebranchofanthropologythatbringslinguisticmethodstobearonanthropologicalproblems,linkingtheanalysisoflinguisticformsand
processestotheinterpretationofsocioculturalprocesses.Linguisticanthropologistsoftendrawonrelatedfields
includingsociolinguistics,pragmatics,cognitivelinguistics,semiotics,discourseanalysis,andnarrativeanalysis.[39]

Keytopicsbyfield:sociocultural
Art,media,music,danceandfilm

[ edit ]

[ edit ]

Art [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Anthropologyofart
Oneofthecentralproblemsintheanthropologyofartconcernstheuniversalityof'art'asacultural

Partofaseriesonthe

Anthropologyofart,
media,music,dance
andfilm

phenomenon.SeveralanthropologistshavenotedthattheWesterncategoriesof'painting','sculpture',or
'literature',conceivedasindependentartisticactivities,donotexist,orexistinasignificantlydifferentform,in
mostnonWesterncontexts.[40]Tosurmountthisdifficulty,anthropologistsofarthavefocusedonformalfeatures
inobjectswhich,withoutexclusivelybeing'artistic',havecertainevident'aesthetic'qualities.Boas'PrimitiveArt,
ClaudeLviStrauss'TheWayoftheMasks(1982)orGeertz's'ArtasCulturalSystem'(1983)aresome
examplesinthistrendtotransformtheanthropologyof'art'intoananthropologyofculturallyspecific
'aesthetics'.
Media [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Mediaanthropology

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Basicconcepts

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Casestudies

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Mediaanthropology(alsoknownasanthropologyofmediaormassmedia)

Museums

[show]

emphasizesethnographicstudiesasameansofunderstandingproducers,

Relatedarticles

[show]

audiences,andotherculturalandsocialaspectsofmassmedia.Thetypesof

Majortheorists

[show]

ethnographiccontextsexploredrangefromcontextsofmediaproduction(e.g.,

Socialandculturalanthropology

ethnographiesofnewsroomsinnewspapers,journalistsinthefield,film

VTE

production)tocontextsofmediareception,followingaudiencesintheireveryday
responsestomedia.Othertypesincludecyberanthropology,arelativelynew
areaofinternetresearch,aswellasethnographiesofotherareasofresearchwhichhappentoinvolvemedia,suchas

developmentwork,socialmovements,orhealtheducation.Thisisinadditiontomanyclassicethnographiccontexts,where
mediasuchasradio,thepress,newmediaandtelevisionhavestartedtomaketheirpresencesfeltsincetheearly
1990s.[41][42]
Music [ edit ]
APunutribemask.Gabon
CentralAfrica

Mainarticle:Ethnomusicology
Ethnomusicologyisanacademicfieldencompassingvariousapproachestothestudyofmusic(broadlydefined),that
emphasizeitscultural,social,material,cognitive,biological,andotherdimensionsorcontextsinsteadoforinadditiontoits

isolatedsoundcomponentoranyparticularrepertoire.
Visual [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Visualanthropology
Visualanthropologyisconcerned,inpart,withthestudyandproductionofethnographicphotography,filmand,sincethemid1990s,newmedia.Whilethe
termissometimesusedinterchangeablywithethnographicfilm,visualanthropologyalsoencompassestheanthropologicalstudyofvisualrepresentation,
includingareassuchasperformance,museums,art,andtheproductionandreceptionofmassmedia.Visualrepresentationsfromallcultures,suchas
sandpaintings,tattoos,sculpturesandreliefs,cavepaintings,scrimshaw,jewelry,hieroglyphics,paintingsandphotographsareincludedinthefocusofvisual
anthropology.

Economic,politicaleconomic,appliedanddevelopment

[ edit ]
Partofaserieson

Economic [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Economicanthropology
Economicanthropologyattemptstoexplainhumaneconomicbehaviorinitswidesthistoric,geographicand
culturalscope.Ithasacomplexrelationshipwiththedisciplineofeconomics,ofwhichitishighlycritical.Its

Economic,applied,
anddevelopment
anthropology
Basicconcepts

[show]

Provisioningsystems

[show]

Casestudies

[show]

analternativetomarketexchange.EconomicAnthropologyremains,forthemostpart,focuseduponexchange.

Relatedarticles

[show]

TheschoolofthoughtderivedfromMarxandknownasPoliticalEconomyfocusesonproduction,in

Majortheorists

[show]

originsasasubfieldofanthropologybeginwiththePolishBritishfounderofAnthropology,Bronislaw
Malinowski,andhisFrenchcompatriot,MarcelMauss,onthenatureofgiftgivingexchange(orreciprocity)as

contrast.[43]EconomicAnthropologistshaveabandonedtheprimitivistnichetheywererelegatedtoby
economists,andhavenowturnedtoexaminecorporations,banks,andtheglobalfinancialsystemfroman

Socialandculturalanthropology
VTE

anthropologicalperspective.
Politicaleconomy [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Politicaleconomyinanthropology
PoliticaleconomyinanthropologyistheapplicationofthetheoriesandmethodsofHistoricalMaterialismtothetraditionalconcernsofanthropology,

including,butnotlimitedto,noncapitalistsocieties.PoliticalEconomyintroducedquestionsofhistoryandcolonialismtoahistoricalanthropologicaltheoriesof
socialstructureandculture.Threemainareasofinterestrapidlydeveloped.Thefirstoftheseareaswasconcernedwiththe"precapitalist"societiesthat
weresubjecttoevolutionary"tribal"stereotypes.SahlinsworkonHuntergatherersasthe'originalaffluentsociety'didmuchtodissipatethatimage.The
secondareawasconcernedwiththevastmajorityoftheworld'spopulationatthetime,thepeasantry,manyofwhomwereinvolvedincomplexrevolutionary
warssuchasinVietnam.Thethirdareawasoncolonialism,imperialism,andthecreationofthecapitalistworldsystem.[44]Morerecently,thesePolitical
Economistshavemoredirectlyaddressedissuesofindustrial(andpostindustrial)capitalismaroundtheworld.
Applied [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Appliedanthropology
AppliedAnthropologyreferstotheapplicationofthemethodandtheoryofanthropologytotheanalysisandsolutionofpracticalproblems.Itisa,"complexof
related,researchbased,instrumentalmethodswhichproducechangeorstabilityinspecificculturalsystemsthroughtheprovisionofdata,initiationofdirect
action,and/ortheformulationofpolicy".[45]Moresimply,appliedanthropologyisthepracticalsideofanthropologicalresearchitincludesresearcher
involvementandactivismwithintheparticipatingcommunity.ItiscloselyrelatedtoDevelopmentanthropology(distinctfromthemorecriticalAnthropologyof
development).
Development [ edit ]
Mainarticle:anthropologyofdevelopment
Anthropologyofdevelopmenttendstoviewdevelopmentfromacriticalperspective.Thekindofissuesaddressedandimplicationsfortheapproachsimply
involveponderingwhy,ifakeydevelopmentgoalistoalleviatepoverty,ispovertyincreasing?Whyistheresuchagapbetweenplansandoutcomes?Why
arethoseworkingindevelopmentsowillingtodisregardhistoryandthelessonsitmightoffer?Whyisdevelopmentsoexternallydrivenratherthanhavingan
internalbasis?Inshortwhydoessomuchplanneddevelopmentfail?

Kinship,feminism,genderandsexuality
Kinship [ edit ]

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Mainarticle:Kinship

Anthropologyofkinship

Kinshipcanreferbothtothestudyofthepatternsofsocialrelationshipsinoneormorehumancultures,oritcan

Basicconcepts

[show]

refertothepatternsofsocialrelationshipsthemselves.Overitshistory,anthropologyhasdevelopedanumberof

Terminology

[show]

relatedconceptsandterms,suchas"descent","descentgroups","lineages","affines","cognates",andeven

Casestudies

[show]

"fictivekinship".Broadly,kinshippatternsmaybeconsideredtoincludepeoplerelatedbothbydescent(one's

Majortheorists

[show]

socialrelationsduringdevelopment),andalsorelativesbymarriage.

Relatedarticles

[show]

Socialanthropology
Culturalanthropology

Feminist [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Feministanthropology

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Feministanthropologyisafourfieldapproachtoanthropology(archeological,biological,cultural,linguistic)that
seekstoreducemalebiasinresearchfindings,anthropologicalhiringpractices,andthescholarlyproductionof
knowledge.AnthropologyengagesoftenwithfeministsfromnonWesterntraditions,whoseperspectivesandexperiencescandifferfromthoseofwhite
EuropeanandAmericanfeminists.Historically,such'peripheral'perspectiveshavesometimesbeenmarginalizedandregardedaslessvalidorimportant

thanknowledgefromthewesternworld.Feministanthropologistshaveclaimedthattheirresearchhelpstocorrectthissystematicbiasinmainstreamfeminist
theory.Feministanthropologistsarecentrallyconcernedwiththeconstructionofgenderacrosssocieties.Feministanthropologyisinclusiveofbirth
anthropology asaspecialization.

Medical,nutritional,psychological,cognitiveandtranspersonal

[ edit ]

Medical [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Medicalanthropology

Partofaserieson

Medicalandpsychological
anthropology

Medicalanthropologyisaninterdisciplinaryfieldwhichstudies"humanhealthanddisease,healthcaresystems,

Basicconcepts

[show]

andbioculturaladaptation".[46]Currently,researchinmedicalanthropologyisoneofthemaingrowthareasinthe

Casestudies

[show]

Relatedarticles

[show]

Majortheorists

[show]

Journals

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fieldofanthropologyasawhole.Itfocusesonthefollowingsixbasicfields:[citationneeded]
thedevelopmentofsystemsofmedicalknowledgeandmedicalcare
thepatientphysicianrelationship
theintegrationofalternativemedicalsystemsinculturallydiverseenvironments

Socialandculturalanthropology

theinteractionofsocial,environmentalandbiologicalfactorswhichinfluencehealthandillness

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bothintheindividualandthecommunityasawhole
thecriticalanalysisofinteractionbetweenpsychiatricservicesandmigrantpopulations("critical
ethnopsychiatry":Beneduce2004,2007)
theimpactofbiomedicineandbiomedicaltechnologiesinnonWesternsettings
Othersubjectsthathavebecomecentraltomedicalanthropologyworldwideareviolenceandsocialsuffering(Farmer,1999,2003Beneduce,2010)aswell
asotherissuesthatinvolvephysicalandpsychologicalharmandsufferingthatarenotaresultofillness.Ontheotherhand,therearefieldsthatintersect
withmedicalanthropologyintermsofresearchmethodologyandtheoreticalproduction,suchasculturalpsychiatryandtranscultural
psychiatryorethnopsychiatry.
Nutritional [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Nutritionalanthropology
Nutritionalanthropologyisasyntheticconceptthatdealswiththeinterplaybetweeneconomicsystems,nutritionalstatusandfoodsecurity,andhowchanges
intheformeraffectthelatter.Ifeconomicandenvironmentalchangesinacommunityaffectaccesstofood,foodsecurity,anddietaryhealth,thenthis
interplaybetweencultureandbiologyisinturnconnectedtobroaderhistoricalandeconomictrendsassociatedwithglobalization.Nutritionalstatusaffects
overallhealthstatus,workperformancepotential,andtheoverallpotentialforeconomicdevelopment(eitherintermsofhumandevelopmentortraditional
westernmodels)foranygivengroupofpeople.
Psychological [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Psychologicalanthropology
Psychologicalanthropologyisaninterdisciplinarysubfieldofanthropologythatstudiestheinteractionofculturalandmentalprocesses.Thissubfieldtendsto
focusonwaysinwhichhumans'developmentandenculturationwithinaparticularculturalgroupwithitsownhistory,language,practices,andconceptual
categoriesshapeprocessesofhumancognition,emotion,perception,motivation,andmentalhealth.Italsoexamineshowtheunderstandingofcognition,
emotion,motivation,andsimilarpsychologicalprocessesinformorconstrainourmodelsofculturalandsocialprocesses.[47][48]
Cognitive [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Cognitiveanthropology
Cognitiveanthropologyseekstoexplainpatternsofsharedknowledge,culturalinnovation,andtransmissionovertimeandspaceusingthemethods
andtheoriesofthecognitivesciences(especiallyexperimentalpsychologyandevolutionarybiology)oftenthroughclosecollaborationwithhistorians,
ethnographers,archaeologists,linguists,musicologistsandotherspecialistsengagedinthedescriptionandinterpretationofculturalforms.Cognitive
anthropologyisconcernedwithwhatpeoplefromdifferentgroupsknowandhowthatimplicitknowledgechangesthewaypeopleperceiveandrelatetothe
worldaroundthem.[49]
Transpersonal [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Transpersonalanthropology
Transpersonalanthropologystudiestherelationshipbetweenalteredstatesofconsciousnessandculture.Aswithtranspersonalpsychology,thefieldismuch
concernedwithalteredstatesofconsciousness(ASC)andtranspersonalexperience.However,thefielddiffersfrommainstreamtranspersonalpsychologyin
takingmorecognizanceofcrossculturalissuesforinstance,therolesofmyth,ritual,diet,andtextsinevokingandinterpretingextraordinaryexperiences

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(YoungandGoulet1994).

Politicalandlegal

[ edit ]
Partofaserieson

Political [ edit ]

Politicaland
legalanthropology

Mainarticle:Politicalanthropology
Politicalanthropologyconcernsthestructureofpoliticalsystems,lookedatfromthebasisofthestructureof

Basicconcepts

[show]

Casestudies

[show]

anewdevelopmentstartedfromthe1960s,andisstillunfolding:anthropologistsstartedincreasinglytostudy

Relatedarticles

[show]

more"complex"socialsettingsinwhichthepresenceofstates,bureaucraciesandmarketsenteredboth

Majortheorists

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societies.Politicalanthropologydevelopedasadisciplineconcernedprimarilywithpoliticsinstatelesssocieties,

ethnographicaccountsandanalysisoflocalphenomena.Theturntowardscomplexsocietiesmeantthatpolitical

Socialandculturalanthropology

themesweretakenupattwomainlevels.Firstofall,anthropologistscontinuedtostudypolitical
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organizationandpoliticalphenomenathatlayoutsidethestateregulatedsphere(asinpatronclientrelationsor
tribalpoliticalorganization).Secondofall,anthropologistsslowlystartedtodevelopadisciplinaryconcernwith

statesandtheirinstitutions(andofcourseontherelationshipbetweenformalandinformalpoliticalinstitutions).Ananthropologyofthestatedeveloped,and
itisamostthrivingfieldtoday.Geertz'comparativeworkon"Negara",theBalinesestateisanearly,famousexample.
Legal [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Legalanthropology
Legalanthropologyoranthropologyoflawspecializesin"thecrossculturalstudyofsocialordering".[50]Earlierlegalanthropologicalresearchoftenfocused
morenarrowlyonconflictmanagement,crime,sanctions,orformalregulation.Morerecentapplicationsincludeissuessuchashumanrights,legal
pluralism,[51]andpoliticaluprisings.
Public [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Publicanthropology
PublicAnthropologywascreatedbyRobertBorofsky,aprofessoratHawaiiPacificUniversity,to"demonstratetheabilityofanthropologyandanthropologists
toeffectivelyaddressproblemsbeyondthedisciplineilluminatinglargersocialissuesofourtimesaswellasencouragingbroad,publicconversationsabout
themwiththeexplicitgoaloffosteringsocialchange"(Borofsky2004 ).

Nature,scienceandtechnology

[ edit ]

Cyborg [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Cyborganthropology

Partofaserieson

Anthropologyofnature,
scienceandtechnology

CyborganthropologyoriginatedasasubfocusgroupwithintheAmericanAnthropologicalAssociation'sannual

Basicconcepts

[show]

meetingin1993.ThesubgroupwasverycloselyrelatedtoSTSandtheSocietyfortheSocialStudiesof

Relatedarticles

[show]

Science.[52]DonnaHaraway's1985CyborgManifestocouldbeconsideredthefoundingdocumentofcyborg

Majortheorists

[show]

anthropologybyfirstexploringthephilosophicalandsociologicalramificationsoftheterm.Cyborganthropology

Socialandculturalanthropology

studieshumankindanditsrelationswiththetechnologicalsystemsithasbuilt,specificallymoderntechnological
systemsthathavereflexivelyshapednotionsofwhatitmeanstobehumanbeings.

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Digital [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Digitalanthropology
Digitalanthropologyisthestudyoftherelationshipbetweenhumansanddigitaleratechnology,andextendstovariousareaswhereanthropology
andtechnologyintersect.Itissometimesgroupedwithsocioculturalanthropology,andsometimesconsideredpartofmaterialculture.Thefieldisnew,and
thushasavarietyofnameswithavarietyofemphases.Theseincludetechnoanthropology,[53]digitalethnography,cyberanthropology,[54]andvirtual
anthropology.[55]
Ecological [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Ecologicalanthropology
Ecologicalanthropologyisdefinedasthe"studyofculturaladaptationstoenvironments".[56]Thesubfieldisalsodefinedas,"thestudyofrelationships
betweenapopulationofhumansandtheirbiophysicalenvironment".[57]Thefocusofitsresearchconcerns"howculturalbeliefsandpracticeshelpedhuman
populationsadapttotheirenvironments,andhowpeopleusedelementsoftheirculturetomaintaintheirecosystems."[56]
Environmental [ edit ]
Mainarticle:Environmentalanthropology
Environmentalanthropologyisasubspecialtywithinthefieldofanthropologythattakesanactiveroleinexaminingtherelationshipsbetweenhumansand
theirenvironmentacrossspaceandtime.[58]Thecontemporaryperspectiveofenvironmentalanthropology,andarguablyatleastthebackdrop,ifnotthe
focusofmostoftheethnographiesandculturalfieldworksoftoday,ispoliticalecology.Manycharacterizethisnewperspectiveasmoreinformedwithculture,
politicsandpower,globalization,localizedissues,andmore.[59]Thefocusanddatainterpretationisoftenusedforargumentsfor/againstorcreationofpolicy,
andtopreventcorporateexploitationanddamageofland.Often,theobserverhasbecomeanactivepartofthestruggleeitherdirectly(organizing,
participation)orindirectly(articles,documentaries,books,ethnographies).SuchisthecasewithenvironmentaljusticeadvocateMelissaCheckerandher
relationshipwiththepeopleofHydePark.[60]

Historical

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Ethnohistory
Seealso:Historicalanthropology
Ethnohistoryisthestudyofethnographicculturesandindigenouscustomsbyexamininghistoricalrecords.Itisalsothestudyofthehistoryofvariousethnic

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groupsthatmayormaynotexisttoday.Ethnohistoryusesbothhistoricalandethnographicdataasitsfoundation.Itshistoricalmethodsandmaterialsgo
beyondthestandarduseofdocumentsandmanuscripts.Practitionersrecognizetheutilityofsuchsourcematerialasmaps,music,paintings,photography,
folklore,oraltradition,siteexploration,archaeologicalmaterials,museumcollections,enduringcustoms,language,andplacenames.[61]

Religion

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Anthropologyofreligion

Partofaserieson

Theanthropologyofreligioninvolvesthestudyofreligiousinstitutionsinrelationtoothersocialinstitutions,and
thecomparisonofreligiousbeliefsandpracticesacrosscultures.Modernanthropologyassumesthatthereis
completecontinuitybetweenmagicalthinkingandreligion,[62][n6]andthateveryreligionisaculturalproduct,
createdbythehumancommunitythatworshipsit.[63]

Urban

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Urbananthropology
Urbananthropologyisconcernedwithissuesofurbanization,poverty,andneoliberalism.UlfHannerzquotesa

Anthropologyofreligion
Basicconcepts

[show]

Casestudies

[show]

Relatedarticles

[show]

Majortheorists

[show]

Journals

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Religions

[show]

Socialandculturalanthropology

1960sremarkthattraditionalanthropologistswere"anotoriouslyagoraphobiclot,antiurbanbydefinition".

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VarioussocialprocessesintheWesternWorldaswellasinthe"ThirdWorld"(thelatterbeingthehabitualfocus
ofattentionofanthropologists)broughttheattentionof"specialistsin'othercultures'"closertotheirhomes.[64]Therearetwoprincipleapproachesinurban
anthropology:byexaminingthetypesofcitiesorexaminingthesocialissueswithinthecities.Thesetwomethodsareoverlappinganddependentofeach
other.Bydefiningdifferenttypesofcities,onewouldusesocialfactorsaswellaseconomicandpoliticalfactorstocategorizethecities.Bydirectlylookingat
thedifferentsocialissues,onewouldalsobestudyinghowtheyaffectthedynamicofthecity.[65]

Keytopicsbyfield:archaeologicalandbiological

[ edit ]

Mainarticles:ArchaeologicalandBiologicalanthropology

Anthrozoology

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Anthrozoology
Anthrozoology(alsoknownas"humananimalstudies")isthestudyofinteractionbetweenlivingthings.Itisaburgeoninginterdisciplinaryfieldthatoverlaps
withanumberofotherdisciplines,includinganthropology,ethology,medicine,psychology,veterinarymedicineandzoology.Amajorfocusofanthrozoologic
researchisthequantifyingofthepositiveeffectsofhumananimalrelationshipsoneitherpartyandthestudyoftheirinteractions.[66]Itincludesscholarsfrom
adiverserangeoffields,includinganthropology,sociology,biology,andphilosophy.[67][68][n7]

Biocultural

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Bioculturalanthropology
Bioculturalanthropologyisthescientificexplorationoftherelationshipsbetweenhumanbiologyandculture.Physicalanthropologiststhroughoutthefirsthalf
ofthe20thcenturyviewedthisrelationshipfromaracialperspectivethatis,fromtheassumptionthattypologicalhumanbiologicaldifferencesleadtocultural
differences.[69]AfterWorldWarIItheemphasisbegantoshifttowardanefforttoexploretherolecultureplaysinshapinghumanbiology.

Evolutionary

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Evolutionaryanthropology
Evolutionaryanthropologyistheinterdisciplinarystudyoftheevolutionofhumanphysiologyandhumanbehaviourandtherelationbetweenhomininsand
nonhomininprimates.Evolutionaryanthropologyisbasedinnaturalscienceandsocialscience,combiningthehumandevelopmentwithsocioeconomic
factors.Evolutionaryanthropologyisconcernedwithbothbiologicalandculturalevolutionofhumans,pastandpresent.Itisbasedonascientificapproach,
andbringstogetherfieldssuchasarchaeology,behavioralecology,psychology,primatology,andgenetics.Itisadynamicandinterdisciplinaryfield,drawing
onmanylinesofevidencetounderstandthehumanexperience,pastandpresent.

Forensic

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Forensicanthropology
Forensicanthropologyistheapplicationofthescienceofphysicalanthropologyandhumanosteologyinalegalsetting,mostoftenincriminalcaseswhere
thevictim'sremainsareintheadvancedstagesofdecomposition.Aforensicanthropologistcanassistintheidentificationofdeceasedindividualswhose
remainsaredecomposed,burned,mutilatedorotherwiseunrecognizable.Theadjective"forensic"referstotheapplicationofthissubfieldofsciencetoa
courtoflaw.

Palaeoanthropology

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Palaeoanthropology
Paleoanthropologycombinesthedisciplinesofpaleontologyandphysicalanthropology.Itisthestudyofancienthumans,asfoundinfossilhominidevidence
suchaspetrifactedbonesandfootprints.

Organizations

[ edit ]

Contemporaryanthropologyisanestablishedsciencewithacademicdepartmentsatmostuniversitiesandcolleges.Thesinglelargestorganizationof
AnthropologistsistheAmericanAnthropologicalAssociation(AAA),whichwasfoundedin1903.[70]Membershipismadeupofanthropologistsfromaround
theglobe.[71]
In1989,agroupofEuropeanandAmericanscholarsinthefieldofanthropologyestablishedtheEuropeanAssociationofSocialAnthropologists(EASA)which
servesasamajorprofessionalorganizationforanthropologistsworkinginEurope.TheEASAseekstoadvancethestatusofanthropologyinEuropeandto
increasevisibilityofmarginalizedanthropologicaltraditionsandtherebycontributetotheprojectofaglobalanthropologyorworldanthropology.

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Hundredsofotherorganizationsexistinthevarioussubfieldsofanthropology,sometimesdividedupbynationorregion,andmanyanthropologistswork
withcollaboratorsinotherdisciplines,suchasgeology,physics,zoology,paleontology,anatomy,musictheory,arthistory,sociologyandsoon,belongingto
professionalsocietiesinthosedisciplinesaswell.[72]

Listofmajororganizations

[ edit ]

Maincategory:Anthropologyorganizations
AmericanAnthropologicalAssociation

MaxPlanckInstituteforEvolutionaryAnthropology

AmericanEthnologicalSociety

NetworkofConcernedAnthropologists

AsociacindeAntroplogosIberoamericanosenRed,AIBR

N.N.MiklukhoMaklaiInstituteofEthnologyandAnthropology

MovingAnthropologyStudentNetwork

RadicalAnthropologyGroup

AnthropologicalSocietyofLondon

RoyalAnthropologicalInstituteofGreatBritainandIreland

CenterforWorldIndigenousStudies

Societyforanthropologicalsciences

EthnologicalSocietyofLondon

SocietyforAppliedAnthropology

InstituteofAnthropologyandEthnography

USCCenterforVisualAnthropology

Controversialethicalstances

[ edit ]

Anthropologists,likeotherresearchers(especiallyhistoriansandscientistsengagedinfieldresearch),haveovertimeassistedstatepoliciesandprojects,
especiallycolonialism.[73][74]
Somecommentatorshavecontended:
Thatthedisciplinegrewoutofcolonialism,perhapswasinleaguewithit,andderivedsomeofitskeynotionsfromit,consciouslyornot.(See,for
example,Gough,PelsandSalemink,butcf.Lewis2004).[75]
Thatethnographicworkwasoftenahistorical,writingaboutpeopleasiftheywere"outoftime"inan"ethnographicpresent"(JohannesFabian,Timeand
ItsOther).

Ethicsofculturalrelativism

[ edit ]

Aspartoftheirquestforscientificobjectivity,presentdayanthropologiststypicallyurgeculturalrelativism,whichhasaninfluenceonallthesubfieldsof
anthropology.[20]Thisisthenotionthatculturesshouldnotbejudgedbyanother'svaluesorviewpoints,butbeexamineddispassionatelyontheirownterms.
Thereshouldbenonotions,ingoodanthropology,ofoneculturebeingbetterorworsethananotherculture.[76]
Ethicalcommitmentsinanthropologyincludenoticinganddocumentinggenocide,infanticide,racism,mutilation(includingcircumcisionandsubincision),
andtorture.Topicslikeracism,slavery,andhumansacrificeattractanthropologicalattentionandtheoriesrangingfromnutritionaldeficiencies[77]to
genes[78]toacculturationhavebeenproposed,nottomentiontheoriesofcolonialismandmanyothersasrootcausesofMan'sinhumanitytoman.To
illustratethedepthofananthropologicalapproach,onecantakejustoneofthesetopics,suchas"racism"andfindthousandsofanthropologicalreferences,
stretchingacrossallthemajorandminorsubfields.[79][80]

Ethicalstancetomilitaryinvolvement

[ edit ]

Anthropologists'involvementwiththeU.S.government,inparticular,hascausedbittercontroversywithinthediscipline.FranzBoaspubliclyobjectedtoUS
participationinWorldWarI,andafterthewarhepublishedabriefexposeandcondemnationoftheparticipationofseveralAmericanarchaeologistsin
espionageinMexicoundertheircoverasscientists.
Butbythe1940s,manyofBoas'anthropologistcontemporarieswereactiveinthealliedwareffortagainstthe"Axis"(NaziGermany,FascistItaly,and
ImperialJapan).Manyservedinthearmedforces,whileothersworkedinintelligence(forexample,OfficeofStrategicServicesandtheOfficeofWar
Information).Atthesametime,DavidH.Price'sworkonAmericananthropologyduringtheColdWarprovidesdetailedaccountsofthepursuitanddismissal
ofseveralanthropologistsfromtheirjobsforcommunistsympathies.
AttemptstoaccuseanthropologistsofcomplicitywiththeCIAandgovernmentintelligenceactivitiesduringtheVietnamWaryearshaveturnedupsurprisingly
little(althoughanthropologistHugoNutiniwasactiveinthestillbornProjectCamelot).[81]Manyanthropologists(studentsandteachers)wereactiveinthe
antiwarmovement.NumerousresolutionscondemningthewarinallitsaspectswerepassedoverwhelminglyattheannualmeetingsoftheAmerican
AnthropologicalAssociation(AAA).
Professionalanthropologicalbodiesoftenobjecttotheuseofanthropologyforthebenefitofthestate.Theircodesofethicsorstatementsmayproscribe
anthropologistsfromgivingsecretbriefings.TheAssociationofSocialAnthropologistsoftheUKandCommonwealth(ASA)hascalledcertainscholarship
ethicallydangerous.TheAAA'scurrent'StatementofProfessionalResponsibility'clearlystatesthat"inrelationwiththeirowngovernmentandwithhost
governments...nosecretresearch,nosecretreportsordebriefingsofanykindshouldbeagreedtoorgiven."
Anthropologists,alongwithothersocialscientists,areworkingwiththeUSmilitaryaspartoftheUSArmy'sstrategyinAfghanistan.[82]TheChristianScience
Monitorreportsthat"Counterinsurgencyeffortsfocusonbettergraspingandmeetinglocalneeds"inAfghanistan,undertheHumanTerrainSystem(HTS)
programinaddition,HTSteamsareworkingwiththeUSmilitaryinIraq.[83]In2009,theAmericanAnthropologicalAssociation'sCommissiononthe
EngagementofAnthropologywiththeUSSecurityandIntelligenceCommunitiesreleaseditsfinalreportconcluding,inpart,that,"Whenethnographic
investigationisdeterminedbymilitarymissions,notsubjecttoexternalreview,wheredatacollectionoccursinthecontextofwar,integratedintothegoalsof
counterinsurgency,andinapotentiallycoerciveenvironmentallcharacteristicfactorsoftheHTSconceptanditsapplicationitcannolongerbe
consideredalegitimateprofessionalexerciseofanthropology.Insummary,whilewestressthatconstructiveengagementbetweenanthropologyandthe
militaryispossible,CEAUSSICsuggeststhattheAAAemphasizetheincompatibilityofHTSwithdisciplinaryethicsandpracticeforjobseekersandthatit
furtherrecognizetheproblemofallowingHTStodefinethemeaningof"anthropology"withinDoD."[84]

PostWorldWarIIdevelopments

[ edit ]

BeforeWWIIBritish'socialanthropology'andAmerican'culturalanthropology'werestilldistincttraditions.Afterthewar,enoughBritishandAmerican

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anthropologistsborrowedideasandmethodologicalapproachesfromoneanotherthatsomebegantospeakofthemcollectivelyas'sociocultural'
anthropology.

Basictrends

[ edit ]

Thereareseveralcharacteristicsthattendtouniteanthropologicalwork.Oneofthecentralcharacteristicsisthatanthropologytendstoprovidea
comparativelymoreholisticaccountofphenomenaandtendstobehighlyempirical.[19]Thequestforholismleadsmostanthropologiststostudyaparticular
place,problemorphenomenonindetail,usingavarietyofmethods,overamoreextensiveperiodthannormalinmanypartsofacademia.
Inthe1990sand2000s(decade),callsforclarificationofwhatconstitutesaculture,ofhowanobserverknowswherehisorherowncultureendsand
anotherbegins,andothercrucialtopicsinwritinganthropologywereheard.Thesedynamicrelationships,betweenwhatcanbeobservedontheground,as
opposedtowhatcanbeobservedbycompilingmanylocalobservationsremainfundamentalinanykindofanthropology,whethercultural,biological,
linguisticorarchaeological.[85]
Biologicalanthropologistsareinterestedinbothhumanvariation[86]andinthepossibilityofhumanuniversals(behaviors,ideasorconceptssharedby
virtuallyallhumancultures).[87]Theyusemanydifferentmethodsofstudy,butmodernpopulationgenetics,participantobservationandothertechniquesoften
takeanthropologists"intothefield,"whichmeanstravelingtoacommunityinitsownsetting,todosomethingcalled"fieldwork."Onthebiologicalorphysical
side,humanmeasurements,geneticsamples,nutritionaldatamaybegatheredandpublishedasarticlesormonographs.
Alongwithdividinguptheirprojectbytheoreticalemphasis,anthropologiststypicallydividetheworldupintorelevanttimeperiodsandgeographicregions.
HumantimeonEarthisdividedupintorelevantculturaltraditionsbasedonmaterial,suchasthePaleolithicandtheNeolithic,ofparticularusein
archaeology.[citationneeded]Furtherculturalsubdivisionsaccordingtotooltypes,suchasOlduwanorMousterianorLevalloisianhelparchaeologistsandother
anthropologistsinunderstandingmajortrendsinthehumanpast.[citationneeded]AnthropologistsandgeographersshareapproachestoCultureregionsaswell,
sincemappingculturesiscentraltobothsciences.Bymakingcomparisonsacrossculturaltraditions(timebased)andculturalregions(spacebased),
anthropologistshavedevelopedvariouskindsofcomparativemethod,acentralpartoftheirscience.

Commonalitiesbetweenfields

[ edit ]

Becauseanthropologydevelopedfromsomanydifferententerprises(seeHistoryofAnthropology),includingbutnotlimitedtofossilhunting,exploring,
documentaryfilmmaking,paleontology,primatology,antiquitydealingsandcuratorship,philology,etymology,genetics,regionalanalysis,ethnology,
history,philosophy,andreligiousstudies,[88][89]itisdifficulttocharacterizetheentirefieldinabriefarticle,althoughattemptstowritehistoriesoftheentire
fieldhavebeenmade.[90]
Someauthorsarguethatanthropologyoriginatedanddevelopedasthestudyof"othercultures",bothintermsoftime(pastsocieties)andspace(non
European/nonWesternsocieties).[91]Forexample,theclassicofurbananthropology,UlfHannerzintheintroductiontohisseminalExploringtheCity:
InquiriesTowardanUrbanAnthropologymentionsthatthe"ThirdWorld"hadhabituallyreceivedmostofattentionanthropologistswhotraditionally
specializedin"othercultures"lookedforthemfarawayandstartedtolook"acrossthetracks"onlyinlate1960s.[92]
Nowthereexistmanyworksfocusingonpeoplesandtopicsveryclosetotheauthor's"home".[93]Itisalsoarguedthatotherfieldsofstudy,likeHistory
andSociology,onthecontraryfocusdisproportionatelyontheWest.[94]
InFrance,thestudyofWesternsocietieshasbeentraditionallylefttosociologists,butthisisincreasinglychanging,[95]startinginthe1970sfromscholarslike
IsacChivaandjournalslikeTerrain("fieldwork"),anddevelopingwiththecenterfoundedbyMarcAug(LeCentred'anthropologiedesmondes
contemporains,theAnthropologicalResearchCenterofContemporarySocieties).
Sincethe1980sithasbecomecommonforsocialandculturalanthropologiststosetethnographicresearchintheNorthAtlanticregion,frequentlyexamining
theconnectionsbetweenlocationsratherthanlimitingresearchtoasinglelocale.Therehasalsobeenarelatedshifttowardbroadeningthefocusbeyond
thedailylifeofordinarypeopleincreasingly,researchissetinsettingssuchasscientificlaboratories,socialmovements,governmentalandnongovernmental
organizationsandbusinesses.[96]

Seealso

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Outlineofanthropology

Book:Anthropology

AnthropologicalIndexOnline(AIO)

IntangibleCulturalHeritage

Anthropologicalsciencefiction

Listofanthropologists

Engagedtheory

Memetics

Ethnology

Originsofsociety

Ethnobiology

Prehistoricmedicine

Ethology

Qualitativeresearch

Folklore

Sociology

Humanethology

Theologicalanthropology,asubfieldoftheology

Humanevolution

Philosophicalanthropology,asubfieldofphilosophy

HumanRelationsAreaFiles

AnthropologyinTinbergen'sfourquestions

Notes

[ edit ]

1.^RichardHarvey's1593Philadelphus,adefenseofthelegendofBrutusinBritishhistory,includesthepassage"Genealogyorissuewhichtheyhad,Arteswhichthey
studied,Acteswhichtheydid.ThispartofHistoryisnamedAnthropology."
2.^JohnKersey's1706editionofTheNewWorldofEnglishWordsincludesthedefinition"Anthropology,aDiscourseorDescriptionofMan,orofaMan'sBody."
3.^InFrench:L'Anthropologie,c'estdirelasciencequitraitedel'homme,estdiviseordinairment&avecraisonenl'Anatomie,quiconsiderelecorps&lesparties,eten
laPsychologie,quiparledel'Ame. [7]
4.^AsFletcherpointsout,theFrenchsocietywasbynomeansthefirsttoincludeanthropologyorpartsofitasitstopic.Previousorganizationsusedothernames.The
GermanAnthropologicalAssociationofSt.Petersburg,however,infactmetfirstin1861,butduetothedeathofitsfoundernevermetagain. [10]
5.^Hunt'schoiceoftheoristsdoesnotexcludethenumerousothertheoriststhatwerebeginningtopublishalargevolumeofanthropologicalstudies. [16]

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6.^"Itseemstobeoneofthepostulatesofmodernanthropologythatthereiscompletecontinuitybetweenmagicandreligion.[note35:See,forinstance,RRMarett,
Faith,Hope,andCharityinPrimitiveReligion,theGiffordLectures(Macmillan,1932),LectureII,pp.21ff.]...Wehavenoempiricalevidenceatallthatthereeverwas
anageofmagicthathasbeenfollowedandsupersededbyanageofreligion."[62]
7.^Notethatanthrozoologyshouldnotbeconfusedwith"animalstudies",whichoftenreferstoanimaltesting.

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Furtherreading

[ edit ]

Mainarticle:Bibliographyofanthropology

Dictionariesandencyclopedias

[ edit ]

Barnard,AlanSpencer,Jonathan,eds.(2010).The

Jackson,JohnL.(2013).OxfordBibliographies:

Rapport,NigelOvering,Joanna(2007).Socialand

RoutledgeEncyclopediaofSocialandCultural

Anthropology.Oxford:OxfordUniversityPress.

CulturalAnthropology:TheKeyConcepts.NewYork:

Anthropology.London:Routledge.

Levinson,DavidEmber,Melvin,eds.

Routledge.

Barfield,Thomas(1997).Thedictionaryof

(1996).EncyclopediaofCulturalAnthropology.

anthropology.Hoboken:WileyBlackwellPublishing..

Volumes14.NewYork:HenryHolt.

Fieldnotesandmemoirs

[ edit ]

Barley,Nigel(1983).Theinnocentanthropologist:

LviStrauss,Claude(1967).Tristestropiques.

(1977).Lettersfromthefield,19251975.New

notesfromamudhut.London:BritishMuseum

TranslatedfromtheFrenchbyJohnRussell.New

York:Harper&Row.

Publications.

York:Atheneum.

Rabinow,Paul(1977).Reflectionsonfieldworkin

Geertz,Clifford(1995).Afterthefact:twocountries,

Malinowski,Bronisaw(1967).Adiaryinthestrict

Morocco.QuantumBooks.Berkeley:Universityof

fourdecades,oneanthropologist.Cambridge,MA:

senseoftheterm.TranslatedbyNorbertGuterman.

CaliforniaPress.

HarvardUniversityPress.

NewYork:Harcourt,Brace&World.
Mead,Margaret(1972).Blackberrywinter:myearlier
years.NewYork:WilliamMarrow.

Histories

[ edit ]

Asad,Talal,ed.(1973).Anthropology&theColonial

D'Andrade,R.(1999)."TheSadStoryof

Gisi,LucasMarco(2007).Einbildungskraftund

Encounter.AtlanticHighlands,NJ:HumanitiesPress.

Anthropology:19501999".InCerroniLong,E.

Mythologie.DieVerschrnkungvonAnthropologie

Barth,FredrikGingrich,AndreParkin,Robert

L.AnthropologicalTheoryinNorthAmerica.Westport:

undGeschichteim18.Jahrhundert.BerlinNewYork:

(2005).OneDiscipline,FourWays:British,German,

Berin&Garvey.

deGruyter.

French,andAmericananthropology.Chicago:

Darnell,Regna.(2001).InvisibleGenealogies:A

Harris,Marvin.(2001)[1968].Theriseof

UniversityofChicagoPress.

HistoryofAmericanistAnthropology.Lincoln,NE:

anthropologicaltheory:ahistoryoftheoriesof

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culture.WalnutCreek,CA:AltaMiraPress.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropology

12/13

4/4/2016

AnthropologyWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Hunt,James(1863)."IntroductoryAddressonthe

(2005)."Anthropology,theColdWar,and

Schiller,Francis(1979).PaulBroca,Founderof

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FrenchAnthropology,ExploreroftheBrain

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F.W.HistoriesofAnthropologyAnnual,Vol.I.

Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress.

Kehoe,AliceB.(1998).TheLandofPrehistory:A

Pels,PeterSalemink,Oscar,eds.(2000).Colonial

Stocking,George,Jr.(1968).Race,Cultureand

CriticalHistoryofAmericanArchaeology.NewYork

Subjects:EssaysonthePracticalHistoryof

Evolution.NewYork:FreePress.

London:Routledge.

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Trencher,Susan(2000).MirroredImages:American

Lewis,H.S.(1998)."TheMisrepresentationof

Press.

AnthropologyandAmericanCulture,19601980.

AnthropologyandItsConsequences".American

Price,David(2004).ThreateningAnthropology:

Westport,Conn.:Bergin&Garvey.

Anthropologist100(3):716

McCarthyismandtheFBI'sSurveillanceofActivist

Wolf,Eric(1982).EuropeandthePeopleWithout

Anthropologists.Durham:DukeUniversityPress..

History.BerkeleyLosAngeles:CaliforniaUniversity

(2004)."ImaginingAnthropology's

SeraShriar,Efram(2013).TheMakingofBritish

Press.

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Anthropology,18131871.ScienceandCultureinthe

731.doi:10.1525/aa.1998.100.3.716

NineteenthCentury,18.LondonVermont:Pickering
andChatto.

Textbooksandkeytheoreticalworks

[ edit ]

Carneiro'scircumscriptiontheory

Salzmann,Zdenk(1993).Language,culture,and

Waitz,Theodor(1863).Introductionto

Clifford,JamesMarcus,GeorgeE.(1986).Writing

society:anintroductiontolinguisticanthropology.

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culture:thepoeticsandpoliticsofethnography.

Boulder,CO:WestviewPress.

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Shweder,RichardA.LeVine,RobertA.,eds.

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Geertz,Clifford(1973).TheInterpretationof

(1984).CultureTheory:essaysonmind,self,and

Roberts.

Cultures.NewYork:BasicBooks.

emotion.Cambridge,UK:CambridgeUniversity

Harris,Marvin(1997).Culture,People,Nature:An

Press.

.TranslatedbyJ.Frederick

IntroductiontoGeneralAnthropology(7thed.).
Boston:Allyn&Bacon.

Externallinks

[ edit ]

Haller,Dieter."InterviewswithGermanAnthropologists:VideoPortalfortheHistoryofGermanAnthropologypost
1945" .RuhrUniversittBochum.Retrieved22March2015.
"AAANetHome" .AmericanAnthropologicalAssociation.2010.
"Home" .EuropeanAssociationofSocialAnthropologists.2015.
Hagen,Ed(2015)."AAPA" .AmericanAssociationofPhysicalAnthropologists.
"Home" .AustralianAnthropologicalSociety.Retrieved23March2015.

Findmoreabout
Anthropology
atWikipedia'ssisterprojects
DefinitionsfromWiktionary
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"AIBR,RevistadeAntropologaIberoamericana" (inSpanish).AntroplogosIberoamericanosenRed.

NewsstoriesfromWikinews

Retrieved24March2015.

QuotationsfromWikiquote

"Home" .HumanRelationsAreaFiles.Retrieved24March2015.

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"Home" .NationalAssociationforthePracticeofAnthropology.Retrieved24March2015.
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TextbooksfromWikibooks
Learningresourcesfrom
Wikiversity

"Home" .TheSocietyforAppliedAnthropology.Retrieved24March2015.
"Anthropology" .AmericanMuseumofNaturalHistory.Retrieved25March2015.
"DepartmentofAnthropology" .SmithsonianNationalMuseumofNaturalHistory.Retrieved25March2015.
"AIOHome" .AnthropologicalIndexOnline.RoyalAnthropologicalInstitute.Retrieved25March2015

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