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IEE International Conference on Advances in Power System Control, Operation and Management, November 1991, Hong Kong

Fuuzy Dynamic Load Dispatching

Z.Y. Mia0

K. Yasu'da

R. Yokoyama

Department of Electrical Engineering Tokyo Metropolitan University 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi Tokyo 192-03, Japan

ABSTRACT

A new planning technique presented in this paper is the fuzzy dynamic load dispatching. The proposed approach features the capacity for dealing with several fuzzy parameters, such as the forecasted loads and system security, which reflect the significant experiences of the operators. In order to

parameters depend strongly on the operator's experiences, weather variables, social behavior of the customers, and other various factors. On the other hand, today's quality requirements for power utilities are so sophisticated that the operators have to deal with a security problem of power system[4]. along with the economical aspect.

obtain an optimal load dispatching

 

The

conventional

dynamic

strategy under the fuzzy environment, a fuzzy dynamic programming model based on the fuzzy set theory, in which forecasted

programming approaches for ELD have been developed so as to obtain a optimal load dispatching, under the environment

loads, generation cost and system security are expressed by fuzzy sets, is

of

However, the conventional techniques are

conventional crisp logic.

In this paper, it is assumed that the

developed

in

this

paper.

The

not capable of treating the fuzziness or

effectiveness

of

the

proposed

uncertainty of some parameters and the

technique demonstrated is by an example.

decision procedure of the human to find a

Keywords: Electric Power System, Economic load dispatching, Dynamic programming, Fuzzy set theory.

cooperative solution for the conflicting goals.

requirements of the minimum generation

cost, and contentment of the load demand

1. INTRODUCTION

are not

crisp, but they are

fuzzy. In

order

to obtain

an

optimal load

In the control and operation of electric power systems, the system operators are required to supply customers with economical and reliable service, satisfying several operational conditions

It

in the Economic Load gispatching(ELD). The

basic purpose of the ELD, however, is to dispatch the outputs of the on-line generators at the least cost for a power system for a period of one hour to one day. It is a typical problem of

in which the objective

function is minimized over the study period under the constraints (imposed on the system) which include the power demand and supply balance, and other constraints on unit operation such as the upper and lower limits of generator output, the upper and lower limits of pickup rate of generator output, and so

optimization

at the same time.

required

must be

on.

In the conventional studies for economic load dispatching[lI-[31. several fuzzy parameters, such as forecasted load, and so on, have been treated as deterministic values (certain values).

assumes that no errors exist in

the forecasted loads, ignoring the fuzziness of the parameters. And the main goal of the optimal load dispatching strategies can be only the generation cost. However, it is impossible to ignore the fuzziness of the parameters in

i.e

it

practical operation, because these

dispatching under the fuzzy environment, forecasted loads, generation cost and system security are expressed with fuzzy sets. Then, a new approach of ELD, based on the fuzzy dynamic programming, is proposed in this paper. A numerical example is shown in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and unique feature of the presented technique.

2. FUZZY DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH

2.1. Mathematical Statement of ELD

The conventional dynamic load dispatching problems have been formulated so as to minimize crisp objective function (normally the total cost covering the entire study period) under a number of crisp constraints. The principal constraints consist of the power demand and supply balance, constraints on the generator output and constraints on the pickup rate of the generator output. The study period is digitized into N-stage.

2.1.1. Objective function

In the power system operation, the total generation cost function covering all the stages can be expressed by means of the equation given below.

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where, F: The total fuel cost covering the entire study period, fi: The fuel cost function af i-th generator, xi(h).: Output power of i-th generator at the h-th stage, Ai.Bi.Ci: Coefficents of fuel cost function,

N: Number

of

periods,

discrete

time

I: Number of generators*

In order to obtain the optimal load dispatching by means of the dynamic programming technique, the functional equation (for the repetitive algorithm minimizing the fuel cost function) for a state x of h-th stage can be expressed

gh(&(h-l),g(h)) =

Go(&(O))

=

0

For h = 1,2,

,N

(3)

fi(xi(h))

2.2. Mathematical Statement of Fuzzy Dynamic Programming

Under the conventional dynamic programming technique for ELD. the error inherent in the forecasted load is assumed to be zero. However, this is impossible in practical operation. Since load demand is associated with weather variable, social behavior of the customers, operators' experiences, and so on. It is then, appropriate to think that this error be given fuzzy expression on the basis of various data and experiences. In this paper, therefore, the forecasted load is

to

apply the fuzzy dynamic programming technique and, further, the degree of satisfaction derived from the system security and the attained cost (the total cost arrived at some state) are also defined by the fuzzy sets. The three types of fuzzy sets are defined as L, S and C. And by integrating the fuzzy objective function and the fuzzy -constraints, the model of fuzzy dynamic programming has been obtained. Here a number of means for providing the objective function to be optimized are conceivable., but in this paper the intersection of the fuzzy sets of the three membership functions shown in eq.(7) is taken as the objective function, and maximization of this objective function is taken as the optimal plan.

treated as a fuzzy number in order

--

D=C n L ri s

(7)

where Gh : Minimum generation cost up to the state r(h) and the stage h. : Generation cost of state &(h),

2.2.1. Membership function of fuzzy decision

Logical operation of fuzzy sets is

-x(hgy

:

A state vector of generator

actually executed with membership

-u(h)

:

output power at the h-th stage, A control vector of generator output power at the h-th stage.

functions. Accordingly. the optimal load dispatching operation indicated by membership functions gives the equation below.

2.1.2. Constraint function

The demand and supply balance constraint is shown by the equation given below.

~~(h.x(h)) Max Cmin 5 ~(h)5 %ax

[ Min IfiC(h.x(h),

I

Z

i=l

xi(h) = LOAD(h)

(4)

where LOAD(h) is the forecasted load demand at the h-th stage.

Moreover, the upper and lower limits on generator output and the limits on the pickup rate of generator output are respectively shown as below.

-u(h)).p,(h,X(h).g(h)),ps(h).

Z(h)) }./.fD(h-1.5(h-l))1

(8)

for p D (0,x(0)) =l.00

where p~(h,&(h)) : Grade of membership function against the optimal decision made under the state x(h) at h-th stage, pL(h,&(h)) : Grade of membership function of forecasted

Ximin 5 xi(h) 5 Ximax

Aximin 5 Axi(h) 5 Aximax

 

load L

under the

(5)

state x(h),

(6)

pS(h.x(h)) : Grade of membership function of system

security S

under the

provided,

state x(h), pc(h,x(h)) : Grade of membership

AXi(h) = Xi(h)-Xi(h-l)

function of objective function C under the

where ximin: Minimum output generator i,

power

of

state &(h).

ximax: Maximum output power generator i,

of

2.2.2. Membership function of forecasted load

Aximin: Minimum pickup generator i, Aximax: Maximum pickup generator i.

rate

rate

of

of

The forecasted load is provided from the operator side. Since the forecasted load is comprehensively estimated by the operator from his past experience, on the

312

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LO

Fig.1. Membership Function of Forecasted Load

basis of weather variables, social behaviors of customers and the increasing rate of load demand, it is high uncertainty or fuzziness. Under the conventional techniques the forecasted loads have been treated as deterministic values, but for a practical problem, the forecasted load errors cannot be ignored. In this study, the forecasted load having such fuzziness is treated as a fuzzy number. While an example of the membership function is shown in Fig.1, however. Lo is the forecasted load having the maximum grade of membership function.

2.2.3. Membership function of system security

The system security is the evaluation of the degree of satisfaction concerning power system operation made by the operator's side, and it is provided by the operator's side. This is a highly complex evaluation involving the operating condition of each equipment in the system and system operation stability against load demand; it is. therefore, a highly fuzzy evaluation. However, because the load demand is the principal factor among the many factors, it is pertinent that the system security is evaluated from the load demand. In this study the system security is assumed to be evaluated in correspondence with the load demand. An example of the membership function is given in Fig.2. As stated before, moreover, the membership function having an arbitrary shape can be used in the proposed method since it is based on the dynamic programming technique.

"i

Lo

PO

Fig.2. Membership Function of System Security

Fig.3. Membership Function of Fuzzy Objective Function

2.2.4. Membership function of fuzzy objective function

In this paper, the generation cost function, which is the economic evaluation, is fuzzy objective function. When the generation cost function is evaluated by the fuzzy set, several function may be used, but it is the primal aim that the evaluation of the generation

LrJ

START

INPUT SYSTEM DATA, AND DE- FINE SYSTEM INITIAL STATE

-v

FIND ALL FEASIBLE STATES x(h) UNDER CONSTRAINTS, AND CALCULATE THE COSTS

ATTAINED IN THESE STATES:

Gh(&(h))

THE LAST STAGE?

DECIDE OPTIMAL STRATEGY ALONG THE PATH BACKWARDS FROM THE HIGHEST

Fig.4. Decision Procedure of Fuzzy Dynamic Economic Load dispatching

313

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Table 1 The Coefficients of Generators

No. of

UNIT

F

I

r

= A,G'+B

G

tc

A,

B,

.

C

1

0.005

 

5. 627

261. l_S6

 

2

0.006

5. 506

264. 634

3

0.004

6.

383

1 9 0 .

5 0 2

'

4

0.005

6. 295

230. 154

5

0.016

6. 268

154. 298

6

0.

030

7.

667

9 9 .

9 6 0

7

0.

010

1

1

.

7 5 2

100. 659

 

a

0.007

6. 654

112. 922

9

0.012

6. 362

143.092

10

0.012

6. 515

135,334

cost can be expressed through fuzzy membership grade. An example of the membership function against the fuzzy objective function is given in Fig.3. In the figure, the formula AC(h,&(h)) is given in eq.(9):

Ghmin

where G (x(h)) is the total

arrivedhat state E, h-th stage.

cost

to

(9)

be

3.

Ghmin(h)= Min { Gh(&(h)) 1

{x?

ALGORITHM OF

FUZZY

DYNAMIC

PROGRAMMING

The dynamic load dispatching algorithm based on the dynamic programming technique, the optimal decision is obtained by means of objective function and all the constraints, but in this paper the optimal load dispatching is obtained by means of the fuzzy set intersection operation of the fuzzy objective function (generation cost), fuzzy function of forecasted load and fuzzy function of system security. The algorithm of optimum load dispatching based on the fuzzy

OUTPUT LIMIT(WM)

RATE LIMIT

UPPER

 

LOWER

(MW/M IN)

70.0

225.0

5.0

70.0

240.0

5.0

110.0

285.0

8.0

110.0

282.0

a.

o

30.0

-

104.0

3.5

35.0

77.0

3.8

20.0

118.0

3.0

30. 0

114.0

3.5

30.

0

91. 0

3.5

40.

0

105.0

3.5

dynamic programming technique shown in Fig.4 is as shown below.

Step 1 : By inputting the system data and the coefficients of generators, the initial state is provided for each generator. The initial fiD(O,x(0))of the membership function of the-fuzzy decision is taken as 1.00. Stage h is taken as 1.

Step 2 : At h-th stage, assumed load demands, which are corresponded to some higher grades among the fuzzy membership function of the forecasted load given respectively, are selected under the limits on generator output and the limits on pickup rate of generator output, while at the same time determining the feasible state x (combination of generators output powers) and calculating the generation cost for each state.

Step 3 : The grade of the membership function fi (h x(h),u(h)) of forecasted load and tke 'grade-of the membership function fi S(h,x(h) ,g(h)) of all adaptable states are determined. Here, each grade of membership function is the grade of membership function against the assumed load demand. Moreover, the grade of fuzzy objective membership function

Table 2 Forecasted Load and System security

STAGE

1

3

4

5

6

7

8

MEMBERSHIP VALUES OF FORECASTED LOAD

MEMBERSHIP VALUES OF SYSTEM SECURITY

FORECASTED LOADS (MW)

OL8!

0.00

1 1095.0

1 1125.0

1115.0

1 1090.0

I

1122.0!!L!

1110.0

I

I

I

I

I

0L!5

0.00

1110.0

1130.0

1130.0

1120.0

1114.0

1135.0

1120.0

1139.0

1138.0

1130.0

0.00

00

1

-:--0.00

0.90

0.

90

----

0.90

----0.87

0.94

0.

90

----

0.95

flff1 1134.0

1.00

----

0.00

1125.0

0.00

0.85

----

0.00

0.00

0.90

----

0.00

----

O.0.

0.85

----

0.

0.80

----

0.97

0.85

98

go95

----

0.

98

1111.0

1140.0

1140.0

1113.0

-L--0 75

0.00

0.00

0.93

----

0.00

oL84

0.00

1116.0

1145.0

1145.0

1116.0

!,!A

0.00

f::!

OL9!

0.00

0.00

1120.0

1150.0

1150.0

1120.0

I:!!

0.00

1124.0!!L!

0.85

1130.0

0191

0.98

1 00

-:--1153.0 -:--1259.0 ----

0

90

0.80

0.00

1.00

----

0.00

1.00

----

0.00

1155.0

1125.0

0.93

0.

91

----

0.95

0.90

----

0.94

1258.0

1230.0

0.95

98

0.80

0.

----

0.98

314

/I

I/

*

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fiC(h.x(h),g(h)) of all adaptable states is calculated as in eq.(9). Finally, the grade of membership function of fuzzy decision u~(h.~(h))of all states is calculated as in eq.(8).

Step 4 : Preserving all adaptable states (h.x) and the grade of fuzzy decision membership function b~(h.~(h)).the entry into the next step is made when all stages are completed. If the final stage has not yet been reached, h is taken as being h+l. and reverting to step 2. calculations of the next stage is continued.

Step 5 : At the final stage the fuzzy decision membership function having the highest value is selected and from its state the feasible state of the preceding stage is determined by tracing back to it. The feasible states of all the stages are thus obtained. In short, the optimal load dispatching is obtained.

4. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

For the purpose of explaining the effectiveness of the dynamic economic load dispatching method based on the fuzzy dynamic programming technique as proposed in this paper, numerical calculations of the power system model composed of 10 generators were undertaken as an example. Table 1 gives the coefficients of generators, the upper and lower limits on generator output and the upper and lower pickup rate limits on generator output for each generator used. Also, the number of stages is 8 in this example, the grade of membership function of forecasted load and the system security membership function of each time are given in Table 2. As stated before, the forecasted load membership function and the system security membership function have been provided by the operator. As the present technique is based on the fuzzy dynamic programming technique, it is applicable to the membership function with arbitrary shape. For this system model, the result of calculations through the algorithm on the basis of the proposed approach is given in Fig. 5.

5. CONCLUSIONS

In the present study a new load

POWER

t

dispatching method based on the fuzzy dynamic programming technique has been proposed, in order to treat fuzziness and multi-objective co-operation in the dynamic load dispatching. In the conventional dynamic load dispatching technique, the fuzziness of the forecasted load has been ignored and the system security has been left out of consideration. In this paper, however, the fuzziness of the forecasted load and the system security are treated as the fuzzy variables. The generation cost to be attained is also treated as the fuzzy variable, thereby providing the fuzzy membership function. Using the fuzzy set theory under such fuzzy environment, application of the fuzzy dynamic programming technique to the dynamic economic load dispatching has been developed. And from the result of numerical calculations executed on the model example the effectiveness of the dynamic economic load dispatching using the proposed fuzzy dynamic programming technique has been shown.

REFERENCES

[l] Dale W.Ross. Sungkook Kim, 'Dynamic

Economic Dispatch of Generation', IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and System, Vol. PAS-99, No.6. pp.2060-2067, Nov/Dec 1980.

[2] A.J. Korsak and R.E. Larson.'A Dynamic

Programming Successive Approximations Technique with Convergence Proofs - Parts I & 11', Automatic, Vo1.6 December 1969.

[3] D.W. Ross, et.al., 'Short Term Load Prediction for Economic Dispatch of Generation', Proceedings of 1979 Power Industry Computer Application Conference; Cleveland, Ohio, May 15-18.1979.

[4] R. Yokoyama, S.H. Bae. T. Morita. and

H. Sasaki.

optimal

generation dispatch based on probability

IEEE Trans. PWR-3,

No.1. February 1988. pp.317-324.

[5] R.E. Bellman. 'Dynamic Programming'. Princeton University Press, New Jersey,

'Multi-objective

security criteria',

1957.

[6] H.J. Zimmenrmann, 'Fuzzy Set Theory and Its Applications', Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing, 1985.

S.A.

Orlovski,

Models Using Fuzzy Sets and Possibility Theory', D.

[7] J. Kacprzyk and

'Optimization

Reidel

Publishing Company,

1987.

lD90 Y

1060 1

---- FORECASTED LOAD (Lo) DISPATCHED GENERATION

STAGE'

123456~a

Fig.5. Fuzzy Dynamic Economic Load Dispatching

[8] R.E. Bellman and L.A. Zadeh. 'Decision Making in a Fuzzy Environment', Management Science. Vo1.17. pp .bI141-b-164, 1970.

315

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