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Theories on the Origin of the World:

1. Biblical story
2. Big Bang Theory explosion of dust.
3. Darwinian Theory theory of evolution.
Theory of the Origin of the Philippines:
1. Land bridge landmass bridging China and
Asian mainland, to Borneo, Indonesia.
2. Remnant of a lost continent Kumari
Kandam (Lenuria)
3. Volcanic Theory erruptio of sea volcanoes in
remote ephocus.
Theories on the Origin of Man:
Paleolitic age (old stone age) Nomadic people
NPA
Stages:
1. Australopitheine / Hominids
1. Homohabilis (man of skills) emerged in mideast.
2. Homoerectus (upright human beings) migrated
in Europe.
3. Homosapiens (wise human beings)
Neanderthals
Cro-magnons wiser.
Neolitic Age (new stone age) start farming,
civilization in
Iraq, Ideas of potteries.
Austronesian Migration theory austronesian family.
Tattooing, outriggers canoes,
prehistoric art styles, social
character,language
Wave migration Theory (by Dr. Otley Beyer)
Dawn man
Negritos Aboriginal pygmy group.
Indonesian group used balangay (boat)
Malays most advanced migrators.
Felipe Landa Jocanos theory
Filipino stand with ethnic groups without any
migrators.
Evidence: Tabon man Skull cap from tabon
cave.
Wilhelm Sulheims
Archaic period
Incipient Filipino period
Formative Filipino period
Established Filipino period

Philippines:
-

South east Asia


Archipelagic nation
Part of western pacific arc
Highest point: Mt. Apo
Lowest point Phil sea
Manila bay finest harbor in far east.

-A Filipino is basically a Malay.


COMMON TRAITS

Hospitality- makes life worth living for you.


Close family ties-father is the head of the
family.
-the mother governs.
-the grandparents opinions and decisions are
the most sought.
-the tyranny of the elders has remained basically
the same.
Respect for elders- the filipino parent exercise
almost absolute powers.
-the elders believe and demand that they must
be obeyed- whether right or wrong.
-Yours is the knowledge, theirs is the wisdom.
-the closeness of the family ties, the collective
responsibility, accounts for late development of
Filipino nationalism.
Fatalistic- he believes that whatever happens
to him is a work of fate.
-bahala na
- such fatalism has bred in Filipino a sense of
resignation.
-bahala na attitude prevents him from being a
crackpot.
Loyalty- ostracism is the lightest punishment
that can be meted out to a person who betrayed
his friend.
Indolent- Rizal explained this as a result of the
tropical climate.
-also because of abundance of Nature.
Lack of Iniative- explained by filipinos fear of
competition.
-filipinos are cooperative, not competitive.
-the segurista attitude of Filipinos.
Individualistic
Regionalistic- lalo na kapag political situations.
-Tagalogs are the least, if, all, regionalistic.
-Thye Filipino region looks down upon his
countryman of another region.
-influenced by the divide and conquer of
Spain.
Pakikisama- most discussed trait.
-nagbago na ang meaning as time pass by.
-mabuting pakikisama= stealing at government.
-masamang pakikisama= too honest.
-

Orang Dampuan, or the Men form Champa,


established trading posts in Sulu,resulting to
flourishing trade between Sulu and Southern
Annam.
Aspects of Civilization:
G Govt
R Religion
A Ars / Archi.
P Public Works
E Econ.

S Social Structure
[CULTURE CLOSE TO MALAYS]
CLOTHING
-Male KANGGAN upper, black or blue collarless jacket
w/ short sleeves. BAHAG strip of cloth; thighs and
legs exposed. PUTONG cloth wrapped around the
head.
-Woman BARO/CAMISA jacket with sleeves. SAYA by
the Tagalogs. PATADYONG by the Visayas. TAPIS
cloth wrapped around the waist.

(Muslim customs are a bit similar pp.38-39)


INHERITANCE and SUCCESSION
-The legitimate children automatically inherits the
property of their parents.
-Property was divided among the children (favoritism
may occur)
-The first son of a barangay chiefcaptain can succeed his
father, if he died without leaving an heir the second
son will follow.
-In absence of any male heir , the eldest daughter will
became chiefcaptain.

GOVERNMENT
ORNAMENTS Bracelets, rings, earrings, leglets, gold
BARANGAY (Malay word balangay or boat)
ornaments, and tatoos.
Ruled by a chieftain (executive, legislator, judge and
Pintados the Visayans or tattooed people called by
supreme commander in time of war)
the early Spanish writers
Consisted from 30-100 families
BUWIS or tributes paid to the chieftain; crops
SANGDUGUAN/blood compact, a treaty of friendship
HOUSES
and alliance; blood-brothers
Barrio House = Ancient House (made of wood, bamboo
VENGEANCE motive power that drove the men of
and nipa-palm leaves)
the barangays to cut each others throat.
Ilongots , Kalingas, Mandayas, Bagobos houses
on tree tops
LAWS
Bajaos (Sea Gypsies of Sulu) houses on boats
Customary lawshanded down orally from generation
SOCIAL CLASSES
3 Classes of the Philippine Society:
1. Datus cheifs and their families, tremendous
influence. In the Taglog region they are are called
GAT of LAKAN.
2. Timawa dependents who earned freedom.
3. Alipin acquired his status by inheritance, captivity
in war, failing to pay his debts, by purchase, or by
commiting crime.
ALIPING NAMAMAHAY has own family and house,
helps his master.
ALIPING SAGIGILID no property of his own, lived
with his master, cannot marry without masters
consent.
VISAYANS: TUMATABAN (work when told so)
TUMARAMPUK (one day work) AYUEY (three-day
work)
POSITION OF WOMEN
-Right to be equal of men, own and inherit property,
engage in trade and industry, chief of a barangay in
the absence of a male heir, right to give names to
their children.
MARRIAGE CUSTOMS
-No strict custom; courtship, marriage ceremony, and
wedding festival
-BIGAY-KAYA or dowry, land, gold or dependents
-PANGHIMUYAT payment for the mothers nocturnal
efforts in rearing the girl to womanhood.
-BIGAY-SUSO girls wet nurse who fed her during her
infancy with her own milk.
-HIMARAW reimbursement for the amount spend in
feeding the girl during her infancy; for the parents
-PAMUMULUNGAN/ PAMAMALAE courtship
immediately before the marriage

to another and consisted the bulk of the laws of the


barangay
Written laws made by the chieftain and his elders;
Code of Kalantiyaw and the Muslim Laws
-Major crimes punishable by death or heavy fine
-Minor crimes punished by exposure to ants, small fine,
flogging, cutting fingers, swimming for a number of
hours
HOW A LAW WAS MADE
-ELDERS the ones who approve of the chieftains
decisions; the jury
-UMALOHOKAN or public announcer; announcer of new
rules and regulations; carries a bell to call attention
TRIAL BY ORDEAL
-Taking out a stone by dipping ones hand in a vessel with
boiling water; refuse=guilty; most scalded
hand=guilty
-Lighted candles; fire out=guilty
-Plunge into the river or lake with lances; came to the
surface first=guilty
-Chewing of uncooked rice and then spitting it out; thick
saliva=guilty
IFUGAOS
-BULTONG/wrestling ordeal; loser=guilty
-ALAW/combat;loser=guilty
RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
-Immortality of the soul and life after death
-BATHALANG MAYKAPAL a ranking deity
-BATHALA equivalent of the Spanish DIOS; creator of the
earth and man
Mandarangan war
Agni fire
-Importance of the relationship between man and the
object of Nature

Anitos or saints (Tagalog); diwata (Visayan)


Baylana or Katalona priests or priestesses
Bullol
-Manunggul jar oldest jar.
DIVINATION and MAGIC CHARMS
-Interpreted signs in Nature
Beings:
PANGATAUHAN tells the fortune of anybody who
cared to know beforehand what the days ahead had
in store for him
ASUWANG or poltergeist (European)
MANGKUKULAM pricking an image of a man in any
part of the anatomy
MANGGAGAWAY
brings harm to anybody he
wanted to destroy
TIYANAK sucking blood from unborn babies
TIKBALANG misleads travelers by shifting its own
form
Charms:
Anting-anting/agimat insured against dangers
Gayuma makes a man lovable to all the ladies
Odom/Tagabulag(Tagalog) makes a Bicolano
invisible
Wiga(Visayan)/Sagabe(Tagalog) walk in a storm
or swim in a river without getting wet
Tagahupa the unfortunate drinker will be a
vassal to the man with the magic potion

Princess Bidasari story


Examples: sabi, sawikain, bugtong, suliranin and
indulanin, talindaw, diyuma,
kumintang,tagumpay,hiliraw,uyayi and hele
MUSIC and DANCE
Filipinos are born musicians, for they easily learn
tunes by ear
KUDYAPI small guitar; symbol of poetry
Numerous musical instruments, songs, and dances
around the country
(pp.62-64)
ART
First glimpse of artistic sense are through tools and
weapons
Zizag designs on combs, rough jewalries or weapons
before now smoothened, embroidered garments
Basketry, weaving, metal work, wood carving, wood
painting, multi-colored paintings by the Lanao
Muslims
UNDER IMPERIAL SPAIN
GOSPEL spreading of the Catholic religion
GOLD economic ideals, riches, spices, minerals
GLORY- to be known throughout the world; strong
country, more territories

Maritime discovery of the Philippines, (1) by Portugal (2)


ECONOMIC LIFE
by Spain
AGRICULTURE is the main source of livelihood
Land cultivation: Kaingin and Tillage
Foreign trade with China, Japan, Siam, Cambodia, EAST MEETS WEST
Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and other islands of the old -Food more palatable; search for spices: pepper,
cinnamon, cloves,nutmeg and ginger
Malaysia.
-Black
pepper (very expensive) = buy land, pay taxes,
Barter System was used
liberate
a city, pay dowries
Prices in terms of gold or metal gongs
-The POPE, only known power in European relations
LANGUAGES
8 major languages; Tagalog, Iloko, Pangasinan,
Pampangan, Sugbuhanon, Hiligaynon, Samarnon or
Samar-Leyte, and Magindanao
SYSTEM OF WRITING
TAGALOG has four qualities of the four greatest
languages of the world; Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and
Spanish.
Ancients wrote on the bark of trees, on leaves and
bamboo tubes, using their knives, daggers, pointed
sticks or iron as pens
LITERATURE
Floating or oral literature and written literature.
Maranao Lit. tubad-tubad
Igorot Lit. - hud hud

THE MAGELLAN EXPEDITION(1518-1521)


RUY FALEIRO a brilliant cosmographer that egged to
serve Spain as he was then not in the good graces of
Lisbon court
FERDINAND MAGELLAN received royal instruction to
sail directly to the Maluku and to bring back a cargo
of the priceless spices; five antiquated shipes and
with a crew of 235 men
MARCH 17, 1521 Magellan reached the Philippines
APRIL 1521 Magellan was defeated and killed in
battle in a dispute between Lapulapu and Zula, the
chieftans of Mactan
VICTORIA the only ship that completed the voyage
back to Spain in 1522, led by JUAN SEBASTIAN DEL
CANO; 18 Europeans and 4 Malays survived

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