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BFP 40603 INDUSTRIALISED BUILDING SYSTEMS (IBS)

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
TO IBS

Content Summary
i.

Overview of Malaysias construction industry

ii.

Issues and the need of IBS

iii.

IBS development in Malaysia

iv.

IBS definition and related terms

v.

IBS benefits

vi.

Challenges in IBS implementation

vii.

From prefabrication, mechanisation to reproduction

viii.

Case study - FASTBUILD an attempt towards reproduction

ix.

Conclusion

Construction robotics
Vision 2000 by French artist Villemard in 1910

Malaysia Construction industry at a glance

Contribute 8% to GDP. 11.5% growth 2015.

Easily effected by economic condition

Government spending is reduce (except for infrastructure projects).

More private spending (70% in 2014)

TPPA professionals can open firm here and/or work borderless

64,000 contractors

More than 90% SME (less than 20 workers)

56% Bumiputra

Increase in value in residential & nonresidential building

Value of Projects Awarded by Sub-Sectors


120.0
100.0

5.0

MYR (billion)

4.3
80.0

32.7

4.1
32.3

60.0
40.0
20.0

4.7
18.3

28.2

4.4
18.2

5.4
17.2

5.6
15.7

20.3

24.3

27.1

25.2

13.1

12.3

16.1

20.9

25.0

30.5

15.5
2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

0.0

Residential buildings

Non-Residential buildings

34.3
27.5

Civil Engineering

29.3

Special Trade

Source: CIDB , printed March 2015

The Klang Valley and Johor are the key areas


of growth

Northern

Pop: 6.42M

Double Railway Track


from Thai border to
Ipoh
Penang Outer Ring
Road

19%

12%

East Coast

BioDiesel Plant at
Kuantan
Oil & Gas Industrial Park
at Pekan
Lanthanide processing
plant at Gebeng
MCKIP (Malaysia-China
Kuantan Industrial Park)

Central

Pop: 7.68M Pahang


Selangor Water Transfer
Greater KL projects
LRT Extension
MRT project (RM 36
bil)
LRT project
Tun Razak Exchange
Kwasa Development
Bandar Malaysia

Pop: 4.42M

29%

Southern

Pop: 5.47M

28%

Petronas RAPID
(Refinery and
Petrochemical Integrated
Development)
Southkey Mixed
Development
Country Garden Mixed
Development
Water Front Mixed
Development
Medini Development
6

Source: CIDB , printed March 2015

Malaysia construction industry

Shortage of skilled labour

Inconsistent quality

Traditional practices & use of


conventional materials

Manual work

Construction industry is not performing well at


this moment

2.5 years to deliver the project

High occupancy death per year (2014)

Construction 69

Manufacturing 58

Agriculture, fisheries and logging 33

8% total workforce. 60% foreign workers. Total 4 millions

Local 40% skilled. 60% unskilled

Foreign 7% skilled. 93% unskilled

Productivity very low RM 24,000 of output per year per employee

Malaysia Retail RM76,000, Transport RM106,00, IT RM 170,000

Construction US RM 57,000, China RM 213,000, Aus. RM 288,000

Introduction of IBS in Malaysia

Introduced in 1999.

The use of pre-cast since 1960s


Pekeliling Flat, PNKS house

IBS precast, steel frame, blocks,


formwork, timber frame and
innovative solutions

Objective Increase productivity.


Reducing manpower

1999 IBS Strategic Plan

2003 2010 Roadmap

2011 2015 Roadmap


Catalogue IBS components

IBS Thrust in the CIMP 2006-2015

IBS policy milestone for Malaysia (1999-2010) (Source: CIDB, 2010)

IBS Roadmap 2011-2015


The new IBS Roadmap 2011-2015 to
replace the current roadmap will be
published in late 2010.
The policy objective is to impose high level
intended outcomes of implementing IBS.
The new roadmap will be focusing on
private sector adoption of IBS. To remain
focus, it has been narrowed down to four
policy objectives; which are quality,
efficiency, competency and sustainability.
A sustainable IBS industry will contribute to
the competitiveness of the construction
industry.

IBS Roadmap 2011-2015

The pillars of the new roadmap are as follows :


1. Good quality designs, components and
buildings are the desired outcomes of IBS.
Aesthetics should be promoted through
innovations.
2. To ensure that, by using IBS, completion time
of a building is speedier, more predictable and
well managed.
3. To have a ready pool of component IBS
professionals and workers throughout the
entire project lifecycle : from design,
manufacture, build and maintenance.
4. To create a financially sustainable IBS
industry that balances users affordability and
manufacturers viability.

IBS Roadmap 2011-2015


Four workstreams have been established as an
action plan to achieve the new roadmap pillars:
Workstreams 1 : Institutional Strengthening
Workstreams 2 : Focusing on User
Workstreams 3 : Product Focus
Workstreams 4 : Industry Focus
Based on this workstreams, 37 action steps have
been recommended to be accomplished by 2015.
It is hoped that the roadmap will drive the way
forward for sustainable IBS adoptions; both in
public and private sector.
The goals for the Roadmap are encapsulated
below:
- To sustain the existing momentum of 70% IBS
content for public sector building projects through to
2015
- To increase the existing IBS content to 50% for
private sector building projects by 2015

IBS Definition

A construction technique in which components are manufactured in a


controlled environment (on or off site), transported, positioned and installed
into a structure with minimal additional site works (CIDB, 2003).

an innovative process of building construction that incorporates: the


concept of mass-production of industrialised systems; produces products at
the factory or onsite within controlled environments; includes the logistical
and assembly aspects of it; and is coordinated with thorough planning and
integration (Kamar et al, 2003).

Presentation name or chapter

Date | 16

IBS other related terms

Modern method of construction

Prefabrication a manufacturing process, generally taking place at a


specialised facility, in which various materials are joined to form a
component part of the final installation

Pre-assembly - process by which various materials, prefabricated


components, and/or equipment are joined together at a remote location for
subsequent installation as a sub-unit. It is generally focused on a system

Off-site production (OSP)/off-site manufacturing (OSM)/off-site


construction (OSC) - part of the construction process which is carried out
away from the building, such as in a factory or sometimes in specially
created temporary production facilities close to the construction site or field
factories

Presentation name or chapter

Date | 17

Classification of IBS MMC

18

Classification of offsite system for different countries


Countries
USA

UK

Australia

Malaysia

Classification of offsite system


Offsite preassembly
Hybrid system
Panellized system
Modular building
Component manufacture and subassembly
Non-volumetric preassembly
Volumetric pre-assembly
Modular building
Non-volumetric preassembly
Volumetric preassembly
Modular building
Precast concrete systems
Formwork systems
Steel framing systems
Prefabricated timber framing systems
Blockwork systems
Innovative

Author
Lu (2009)
.

Goodier and Gibb (2004)

Blismas and Wakefield


(2008)
(CIDB, 2003, 2010b)

19

Level of industrialized production and definition (Source: Gibb, 1999).


Level
number

Description

Definition

Level 0

Basic Materials

With no pre-installation assembly aspect

Level 1

Component sub-assembly

Small sub-assemblies that are habitually


assembled prior to installation

Level 2

Non-volumetric pre-assembly

Planar, skeletal or complex units made up


from several individual components and
that are sometimes still assembled on-site
in traditional construction

Level 3

Volumetric pre-assembly

Pre-assembled units that enclose usable


space can be walked into installed
within or onto other structures usually fully
finished internally

Level 4

Modular building

Pre-manufactured buildings volumetric


units that enclose usable space but also
form the structure of the building itself
usually fully finished

BENEFITS OF IBS
Low site workers requirement due to
simplified construction methods
Quality controlled and highly
aesthetic end products through the
process of controlled pre-fabrication
and simplified installations
Reduction of construction materials
at sites through the use of prefabricated components
Cleaner sites due to lesser
construction waste
Pre-fabrication
takes
place
at
centralized factory, thus reducing labour
requirement at site.

Reduction / elimination of
conventional timber formwork,
replaced by pre-fabricated
components and alternative
moulds with multiple usage
capability
Safer construction sites due to the
reduction of site workers, material
and construction waste
The repetitive use of system formwork
made up steel, aluminum, etc and
scaffolding provides considerable cost
savings.
Construction operation is not affected by
adverse weather condition because prefabricated component is done in a factory
controlled environment.

BENEFITS OF IBS

1) Save construction time

Presentation name or chapter

Date | 22

DISADVANTAGES
The size being very gigantic:
Difficulty in sending the components
but also it needs specific and large
type of formwork.
Needs large area for building the
factory, place to store the products and
movement of the lorry and so on.

The design of joints is one difficult


matter and need great expertise:
Joint is important to give the
suitable strength
Problem at home where theres
leakage between the joints

DISADVANTAGES
The handling of the components needs
the involvement of heavy vehicles
such as trailers which needs a huge
amount of expenses:
It is expensive if compared to the
conventional system
Only suitable if done in a large scale,
meaning small-scale projects are not
economical

Hard to do the renovation works:


If the precast panel is used and
renovation works needs to be done,
then its a big possibility that the whole
wall needs to be demolished.

We have good policy and incentives in place


on IBS

Introduced in 2005 private


residential project IBS score
more than 50 contractor is
exempted to pay CIDB levy
(0.0025% construction value)

In 2008, all government project


value RM 10 million need to have
IBS score 70

In 2016, private sector IBS Score


55 (project value more than RM 50
millions)

RM 500 millions soft loans to


developers and contractors in the
category of G5 and below (Budget
2016)
25

However, only 24% targeted public sector use


IBS. Private 15%

IBS is not implemented as


holistic only product
replacement exercise

Thinking and coordination still


conventional

Construction still 2 years

High cost if apple to apple

Precast beam and column wall


using bricks hardly improve
productivity and reduce
construction time

Workers issues

Coordination issues M&E

26

Pivotal questions & Hypothesis


PQ
How to develop IBS that are holistic that give overall benefit to the
implementers rather than a product replacement exercise?

Hypothesis
IBS should look beyond product by understanding the level of industrialisation

27

Degree of industrialisation
Roger-Bruno Richard,1998
High

Robotics

Reproduction

Automation
Mechanisation

Prefabrication

Low

Prefabrication

Prefabrication is a manufacturing
process that generally takes place
at a specialized facility (factory) or
onsite

Small scale production. Use large


number of semi-skilled labour
along production line and onsite

Small number of machines and


equipment

Non-complex machines and


equipment

Degree of Industrialisation
Roger-Bruno Richard, 1998
High

Robotics

Reproduction

Automation
Mechanisation

Prefabrication

Low

Mechanisation

Extensive usage of mechanical


and electrical equipment and
machineries in aiding
prefabrication and construction
activities

Machine is still controlled by labour

Use of complex machines and


equipment

Machines substantially reduce the


need of manpower as compared to
prefabrication

J&P Building Systems, UK. Manufactured by Evans Concrete, UK

Degree of Industrialisation
Roger-Bruno Richard, 1998
High

Robotics

Reproduction

Automation
Mechanisation

Prefabrication

Low

Automation

Automation is defined as a selfregulating process performed by


using programmable machines to
carry out series of tasks.

Automation is also a situation


when the tooling (machine)
completely takes over the tasks
performed by the laborer.

Mass-customization

Degree of Industrialisation
Roger-Bruno Richard, 1998
High

Robotics

Reproduction

Automation
Mechanisation

Prefabrication

Low

Robotics

Ability of the same tooling which


has the multi-axis flexibility (robot
arm) to perform diversified tasks
by itself

Consist of using high technology


machine with total control of
machines using artificial intelligent
capability

Eliminate the need of manpower

Happen in other industry using


of drones

Using drone to construct building

Construction Robotics

Construction Robotics

Construction Robotics

Robotic Construction of High Rise Buildings

Degree of Industrialisation
Roger-Bruno Richard, 1998
High

Robotics

Reproduction

Automation
Mechanisation

Prefabrication

Low

Reproduction

Innovative processes are truly


capable of simplifying the production
process or complex goods by
introducing a different technology

3D printing technology

Reengineering of processes
printing of component or the whole
house

Materials cement fiber and other


materials

3- D Printing Technology

The ink used for 3D printed houses is based on highgrade cement and glass fibre.

The objectives of IBS achieve via


industrialisation

Basic and
fundamental
objectives of IBS
Productivity and
manpower
reduction

Prefabrication Increase the number of


components that are fabricate offsite
IBS

Mechanisation Increase the use of


mechanical and electrical equipment to
aid process (site & prefab yard)

Automation we can increase


autonomy of a machines thus reducing
manpower

Robotics we can handover the task to


mechanical arm thus eliminating the
need of manpower

Reproduction reengineering of
processes and look into material to
eliminate manpower

47

Case study FASTBUILD

One of the fastest cast-in-situ reinforced concrete


structure construction methods in Malaysia

Date
48|

Lafarge solution for Current Construction


challenges
Lafarge MFE Monolithic Building System
Material and process improvement
towards industrialisation
Slabs & walls are
formed separately

High material
wastages

High inaccuracy,
expensive rework

Labour intensive

Costly & timing


consuming brick
laying & plastering (36 months)

Hacking of bricks to
embed M&E

49

A self-compacting and self leveling concrete that


provides solutions for design & placement

Agilia

Normal Concrete

Spread 650mm to 750mm

Slump 50mm to 100mm

4-5hr

4-5hr

Compressive
strength at 28days

35MPa 50MPa

25MPa 50MPa

Pumping discharge
rate

1m3/min

0.6m3/min

10MPa

10MPa

Self levelling properties

Requires troveling

Compaction

No vibration needed

Requires vibration or
external energy

Workability

High

Low

2hr

2hr

Reduced air trapped

Requires vibration to
reduce air trapped

Spread/Slump

Initial setting

Achievable
compressive
strength at 12hr
Levelling

Retention period

Wall surface finish

Comparing two building systems


CONVENTIONAL

FASTBUILD

Beam and column system using G30


concrete. Non-load bearing cementsand bricks as structural envelope and
partition walls. Flat roof (concrete)
1.

Construction of foundation
(Reinforcement bars + concrete)

2.

Casting of floor slab


(Reinforcement bars + concrete)

3.

In-situ/precast column construction


(Reinforcement bars + concrete)

4.

In-situ/precast beam construction


(Reinforcement bars + concrete)

5.

Brick laying & plastering

Monolithic system (in-situ single


cast) . All using reinforced concrete
(envelope structure including
partition walls). Flat roof (concrete)
1. Installation of vertical rebar &
wall formwork
VS

2. Installation of horizontal rebar &


deck formwork

3. Formwork alignment and Agilia


concreting
4. Removal of formwork

52

4 days to build a house structure


Day 1 Installation of vertical rebar & wall
formwork

Day 2 Installation of horizontal rebar & deck


formwork
2

Day 3 - M & E, formwork alignment and Agilia


concreting
Day 4 - Removal of formwork
- Wall at 12 hours (concrete strength 2 MPa)
- Deck at 24 hours (concrete strength 20 MPa)

Watch video
4
53

We built 2 houses to compare the speed & cost

The results
36% savings in cost
84% savings in time

Conventional formwork
(timber)

FastBuild
54

The save 36% of total construction cost


(structure only)
FastBuild

Conventional System

Percentage of saving
(based on 100
repetition)

Based on project at
CDL platform
Comparison on
structure only which
involved our products
Checked and verified
by chartered Quantity
Surveyor

RM 35,209.00

RM 55,746.00

36 %

1. Formwork
2. Reinforcement bars
3. Concrete

1. Formwork (beam &


column)
2. Reinforcement bars
3. Concrete
4. Bricklaying
5. Plastering

Additional works in
bricklaying and
plastering. Not material
to material comparison
include labour

Our system save 84% of total construction


duration (structure) reducing site risk
FASTBUILD

Conventional System

4 days (until the point of 25 working days (until


skim coat)
the point of skim coat)
Involved installation of
reinforcement bars,
formwork and
concreting only

Involved all wet trades


brick laying, plastering
and hacking to install
electrical conduit

Percentage of saving
(Based on 100
repetition)

84 %

Eliminate plastering and bricklaying


Electrical conduit was installed
during formwork formation

Plastering stage

Construction completed
much earlier at Day 4

Bricklaying stage
& wall hacking to
install electrical
conduit

Construction completed at
Day 25

Our system save 82% of total workers on site


(man-hours) reducing workers onsite
Monolithic Building
System

Conventional System

Percentage of saving
(Based on 100
repetition)

45 x 8hrs.
= 360 man-hours

244 x 8hrs.
= 1,952 man-hours

82 %

Semi-skilled for
formwork installation
& concreting in short
construction period

Brick layers,
carpenters and
plasterers in long
construction period

Saving mitigate
issue on skilled
workforces and
reducing dependency
on foreign workers

NO

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 16 16 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
4
2
1

1
4
2
1
4
2
1
4
2
1
4
2
1
4
2
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
3

2
4

9
1

9
1

9
1

9
1

9
1

9
1

7
4
3
3
3
3

1
1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2

1
1

5
5

Calculation of man-hour
244 x 8 = 1,952 man-hour
59

Plastering works

Plastering works

Plastering works

Conduit fixing, switch base installation


and patch works
back the area
Plastering

Conduit fixing and patch back the area

Electrical setting out and wall cutting


for installation
Cutting
brick wall for conduit fixing

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Brick laying for wall

Material and work area preparation

Adjusting prop system and tighten the


prop
Brickwall
setting out, lintol
fabrication,
dowel bar fixing
Stiffener
construction
for brickwall,

Concreting work for short columns,


roof
slabsplay formwork
Striking

Roof slab formwork preparation,

Roof slab formwork preparation,

Total
Roof slab formwork preparation,

i- Civil
ii- Structural
iii- Architectural
v- Safety supervisor
Carpenter
Bar Bender
Concreter
Electrical
General Worker
Plasterer
Brick Layer
Fabrication reinforcement for Roof
Slab, Roof slab formwork preparation

Days
Striking columns formwork

1 Project Supervisor

Columns concreting work

ACTIVITY

Setting out, installation of rebar &


columns formwork

Manpower requirement for Convectional


System

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4

5
7
7
7
7

Total

Striking formwork, formwork


panel cleaning

2
3
4
5
6

Days
Project Supervisor
i- Civil
ii- Structural
iii- Architectural
v- Safety supervisor
MFE/Carpenter
Bar Bender
Concreter
Electrical
General Worker

Roof slab reinforcement,


drop frame panel, conduit,
pre-concreting inspection &
concreting

ACTIVITY

Electrical conduit, External


wall & Roof formwork.

NO

Setting out, installation of


rebar & Internal wall form
work

Manpower requirement for Monolithic Building


System

1
8
3

1
8

4 days cycle

3
2

17

12

Calculation of man-hour
45 x 8 = 360 man-hour

In summary

The fundamental of IBS increase productivity and reduction of workers

Thus, IBS need to be redefine beyond product

It involve industrialisation effort process, people and materials

Need to increase the level of industrialisation looking at the larger


perspective of prefabrication, mechanisation, automation and reproduction

61

Research for the future (applied research)

Comparative study between on productivity and cost effectiveness


conventional vs. various types of IBS
Precast
Blocks
Formwork system
Steel frame
Timber frame
Innovative system

To map up step by step process of construction involving IBS IBS


Methodology Book comprehensive method statement

Cost modelling for IBS project

62

References
Industrialised Building System (IBS): From prefabrication, mechanisation to
reproduction by Ir. Dr. Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar, Head of Innovation
and Development , Lafarge Malaysia Berhad.

Industrialised Building Systems module, KKTM Sri Gading.


Nor Abas. PhD Thesis