IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 47, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999
1121
Outage Probability of Cellular Radio Systems Using Maximal Ratio Combining in the Presence of Multiple Interferers
Jian Cui and Asrar U. H. Sheikh, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract—In mobile radio systems, antenna diversity is used to combat fading and reduce the impact of cochannel interference. In this paper, we derived a new expression for probability density functions of the signaltointerferenceplusnoise ratio and apply it to analyze the outage probability (OTP) for a maximal ratio combining diversity system when multiple cochannel interferers are present. Numerical results showing the impact of the number of antenna elements, the number of cochannel interferers, and signaltonoise ratio on the OTP are presented. Simulation results validating the analytical results are also presented.
I. INTRODUCTION
T HE performance of digital cellular systems over fading channels, in the presence of interferers, is measured by
bit error and outage probabilities (OTP’s), e.g., see [1]–[4] and references therein. In the absence of a closedform solution to the problem of ﬁnding outage performance of a multiple
antenna diversity system operating in the presence of multiple interferers, most of papers resort to computer simulations. The biterrorrate (BER) performance of a dualantenna system with channel correlation operating in the presence of an arbitrary number of cochannel interferers (CCI’s) and that of an element array system were analyzed for maximal ratio combining (MRC) in [5] and [6]. This paper extends these analyses and obtains a closedform expression for the probabil ity density function (pdf) of signaltointerferenceplusnoise ratio (SINR) for MRC when the desired and interfering signals fade independently with Rayleigh statistics. A selection of numerical results on the effect of the number of antenna elements, the number of CCI’s, and signaltonoise ratio (SNR) on OTP’s are presented. The simulation results validating analytical results are also presented. The analysis presented here is applicable to any constant envelope modulation system and can be extended to study the effect of lognormal fading on the system performance [7]. In Section II, we introduce the signal model and a result used later in the analysis [8]. In Section III, we analyze MRC for OTP in the presence of multiple CCI’s and present numerical results on OTP performance. The simulation results validating the analytical results are also included.
Paper approved by S. Ariyavisitakul, the Editor for Wireless Techniques and Fading of the IEEE Communications Society. Manuscript received June 26, 1998; revised December 1, 1998 and January 4, 1999. This paper was presented in part at the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Ottawa, Canada, May 18–21, 1998. J. Cui is with Nortel, Ottawa, ON K1Y 4H7 Canada. A. U. H. Sheikh is with the WISR Centre, Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Publisher Item Identiﬁer S 00906778(99)06287X.
II. SIGNAL MODEL AND MATHEMATICAL _{B}_{A}_{C}_{K}_{G}_{R}_{O}_{U}_{N}_{D}
The input to an
element antenna array operating in the
presence of
cochannel interferers may be written as
(1)
and its covariance matrix is given by
(2)
are the transmitted data
where
sequences, and directionalofarrivals of the desired and
cochannel in
terfering users, respectively. Each component of vectors
and
Gaussian distribution with mean power of
, respectively. This implies that a ﬂat fading channel model is considered. In the basic structure of the MRC system, shown in Fig. 1, the signal at each antenna is weighted by a corresponding complexvalued channel gain before combining. The MRC weighting vector in (1), therefore, is
(3)
the dimensional
is assumed to follows a complex
and
It is assumed that the noise power at each branch is the same. Note that MRC maximizing the array output SNR is an optimum in AWGN but not in the presence of CCI. In the general case of cochannel interfering users, the SINR of MRC is given by
Our objective is to ﬁnd a general expression for the pdf of SINR given in (4) and analyze the MRC system operating
in interference for OTP. Prior to the derivation of the OTP expression, we introduce a result that we shall use later.
be are deﬁned in (1). It
Let
two random variables where
is easy to show that follows Gamma distribution with pdf
(6)
0090–6778/99$10.00
1999 IEEE
1122
Fig. 1.
Maximal ratio combiner structure.
where component in vector Ch. 5], the pdf of
is the average power of each Furthermore, based on results in [8, is given by
(7)
III.
SINR PDF FOR MRC WITH AN ARBITRARY NUMBER OF COCHANNEL INTERFERERS
When
CCI’s are present, (4) can be simpliﬁed, using the
(8)
deﬁnitions of
It can be shown using Mellin convolution that for Rayleigh fading channels, the pdf of the random variable is in the same form as in (6) with
and if
variable
Deﬁning a new random variable,
Using
the result
in
[9],
the pdf
of
a
(9)
, then the pdf of random
(10)
we have
(11)
random variable
variables, therefore be rewritten after some manipulations as
(12)
Since and
, deﬁned in (7) and (11), are two independent random
Now, (12) can
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 47, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999
The outage probability (OTP) under a threshold of be expressed as 

can 

(14) 
where is deﬁned in (13). Equation (14) gives the exact OTP for the case when powers of interferers are equal. This result can also be applied to scenarios where cochannel interferers have different mean powers. To show this, we present results for a dualantenna system in the presence of one, two, and three CCI’s.
A. OTP in the Presence of One CCI
When applied directly and OTP can be rewritten as
(14) can be
(15)
B. OTP in the Presence of Two CCI’s
When two CCI’s have unequal powers of
joint pdf of
is given by
and
, the
(16)
and are deﬁned in (9). Following
where the pdf’s of
the procedure used in the derivation of (13), the pdf of
is given by
(17)
C. OTP in the Presence of Three CCI’s
Following the same procedure as presented in
, the joint
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 47, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999
Fig. 2.
The OTP with different antenna elements using MRC.
(19)
The system OTP in the cases and can be evaluated with the use of (14). In the following, we present selected analytical results on system OTP when the number of antenna elements , the number of cochannel interferers, and SNR are changed. For the purpose of demonstration, a reception threshold value of 18 dB has been chosen; other values depending on the modulation scheme can be used. As expected (shown in Fig. 2), an increase in the number of antenna elements has a signiﬁcant impact on OTP of system. For example, for the selected threshold and target OTP of 0.1, we need CIR of 32 dB with one antenna and 19 dB for two antennas. Thus, a dual diversity gain of 13 dB results. We also notice diminishing gains when the number of antennas are increased. The case of unequal interferer powers is also of interest. With total interference power held constant, three cases are considered, 1) only one interferer, 2) two CCI’s with power distribution [0–5 dB], and 3) three CCI’s with power distribution [0–5 dB –10 dB]. The results, shown in Fig. 3, indicate that OTP depends only on the total interference power and is not sensitive to
1123
the distribution of power among the interferers. In conclusion, (14) sufﬁces for the purpose of evaluating the system OTP. In order to conﬁrm the validity of the analysis, we simu lated the system for OTP. In these simulations, we assumed that the receiver has the perfect knowledge of the channel parameters and there is no channel estimation error. Note that the assumption of slowly varying channel, implicit in (8), is used in simulations. The simulation experiments were run for sufﬁciently long times so as to get a high degree of conﬁdence in the results. For example, to achieve a BER of 10 , close to 10 symbols were used; for lower error rates, longer simulation runs were needed. We considered two cases with only one interferer but a different number of antennas. The comparison in Fig. 4 show ing a strong agreement between the analytical and simulation results validates the analysis.
1124
IV. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, we presented exact analytical expressions of OTP’s in mobile radio systems that use MRC in the presence of multiple interferers. The numerical results indicate that the number of antenna elements and SNR have signiﬁcant impact on the OTP. However, for a certain CIR, the OTP depends on the total interference power and is not sensitive to either the number of CCI’s or the power distribution among them. The pdf expressions for SINR with MRC are applicable to any constant envelope modulation scheme. The simulation results validate the accuracy of the analytical results.
REFERENCES
[1] Q. T. Zhang, “Outage probability in cellular mobile radio due to Nakagami signal and interferers with arbitrary parameters,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 45, pp. 364–372, May 1996. [2] Y.D. Yao and A. U. Sheikh, “Outage probability analysis for microcell mobile radio systems with cochannel interferers in Rician/Rayleigh
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 47, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999
fading environment,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 864–865, June
1990.
[3] J. M. G. Linnartz, “Exact analysis of the outage probability in multiple
user mobile radio,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 40, pp. 20–23, Jan.
1992.
[4] K. W. Sowerby and A. G. Williamson, “Outage probabilities in mobile radio systems suffering cochannel interference,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 10, pp. 516–522, Apr. 1992. [5] J. Cui, D. D. Falconer, and A. U. H. Sheikh, “BER analysis of optimum
combining and maximal ratio combining with channel correlation for dual antenna systems,” in Proc. VTC’97, Phoenix, AZ, May 5–7, 1997, pp. 150–154. , “The analysis of BER for optimum combining with two co
[6]
channel interferers and maximal ratio combining with arbitrary number of interferers,” in Proc. PIMRC’96, Taipei, Taiwan, Oct. 15–18, 1996, pp. 53–57. [7] K. S. Gilhousen, I. M. Jacobs, R. Padovani, A. J. Viterbi, L. A. Seaver,
and C. E. Wheatley, “On the capacity of a cellular CDMA system,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, pp. 303–312, Feb. 1991.
New York:
[8] R. J. Muirhead, Aspects of Multivariate Statistical Theory.
Wiley, 1982. [9] A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes. New York: McGrawHill, 1991.
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.