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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 47, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999

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Outage Probability of Cellular Radio Systems Using Maximal Ratio Combining in the Presence of Multiple Interferers

Jian Cui and Asrar U. H. Sheikh, Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—In mobile radio systems, antenna diversity is used to combat fading and reduce the impact of cochannel interference. In this paper, we derived a new expression for probability density functions of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio and apply it to analyze the outage probability (OTP) for a maximal ratio combining diversity system when multiple cochannel interferers are present. Numerical results showing the impact of the number of antenna elements, the number of cochannel interferers, and signal-to-noise ratio on the OTP are presented. Simulation results validating the analytical results are also presented.

I. INTRODUCTION

T HE performance of digital cellular systems over fading channels, in the presence of interferers, is measured by

bit error and outage probabilities (OTP’s), e.g., see [1]–[4] and references therein. In the absence of a closed-form solution to the problem of finding outage performance of a multiple

antenna diversity system operating in the presence of multiple interferers, most of papers resort to computer simulations. The bit-error-rate (BER) performance of a dual-antenna system with channel correlation operating in the presence of an arbitrary number of cochannel interferers (CCI’s) and that of an -element array system were analyzed for maximal ratio combining (MRC) in [5] and [6]. This paper extends these analyses and obtains a closed-form expression for the probabil- ity density function (pdf) of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) for MRC when the desired and interfering signals fade independently with Rayleigh statistics. A selection of numerical results on the effect of the number of antenna elements, the number of CCI’s, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on OTP’s are presented. The simulation results validating analytical results are also presented. The analysis presented here is applicable to any constant envelope modulation system and can be extended to study the effect of lognormal fading on the system performance [7]. In Section II, we introduce the signal model and a result used later in the analysis [8]. In Section III, we analyze MRC for OTP in the presence of multiple CCI’s and present numerical results on OTP performance. The simulation results validating the analytical results are also included.

results validating the analytical results are also included. Paper approved by S. Ariyavisitakul, the Editor for

Paper approved by S. Ariyavisitakul, the Editor for Wireless Techniques and Fading of the IEEE Communications Society. Manuscript received June 26, 1998; revised December 1, 1998 and January 4, 1999. This paper was presented in part at the IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Ottawa, Canada, May 18–21, 1998. J. Cui is with Nortel, Ottawa, ON K1Y 4H7 Canada. A. U. H. Sheikh is with the WISR Centre, Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Publisher Item Identifier S 0090-6778(99)06287-X.

II. SIGNAL MODEL AND MATHEMATICAL BACKGROUND

The input to an

M ATHEMATICAL B A C K G R O U N D The input to an

-element antenna array operating in the

presence of

cochannel interferers may be written asto an -element antenna array operating in the presence of (1) and its covariance matrix is

in the presence of cochannel interferers may be written as (1) and its covariance matrix is

(1)

and its covariance matrix is given by

may be written as (1) and its covariance matrix is given by (2) are the transmitted

(2)

are the transmitted data

where

sequences, and directional-of-arrivals of the desired and

cochannel in-

terfering users, respectively. Each component of vectors

and

Gaussian distribution with mean power of

, respectively. This implies that a flat fading channel model is considered. In the basic structure of the MRC system, shown in Fig. 1, the signal at each antenna is weighted by a corresponding complex-valued channel gain before combining. The MRC weighting vector in (1), therefore, is

(3)

The MRC weighting vector in (1), therefore, is (3) the -dimensional is assumed to follows a
The MRC weighting vector in (1), therefore, is (3) the -dimensional is assumed to follows a

the -dimensional

weighting vector in (1), therefore, is (3) the -dimensional is assumed to follows a complex and

is assumed to follows a complex

is (3) the -dimensional is assumed to follows a complex and It is assumed that the

and

is (3) the -dimensional is assumed to follows a complex and It is assumed that the
is (3) the -dimensional is assumed to follows a complex and It is assumed that the
is (3) the -dimensional is assumed to follows a complex and It is assumed that the

It is assumed that the noise power at each branch is the same. Note that MRC maximizing the array output SNR is an optimum in AWGN but not in the presence of CCI. In the general case of cochannel interfering users, the SINR of MRC is given by

of cochannel interfering users, the SINR of MRC is given by (4) where (5) Our objective
(4) where (5)
(4)
where
(5)

Our objective is to find a general expression for the pdf of SINR given in (4) and analyze the MRC system operating

in interference for OTP. Prior to the derivation of the OTP expression, we introduce a result that we shall use later.

be are defined in (1). It

Let

and and
and
and

two random variables where

is easy to show that follows Gamma distribution with pdf

and two random variables where is easy to show that follows Gamma distribution with pdf (6)
and two random variables where is easy to show that follows Gamma distribution with pdf (6)

(6)

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1999 IEEE

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1122 Fig. 1. Maximal ratio combiner structure. where component in vector Ch. 5], the pdf of

Fig. 1.

Maximal ratio combiner structure.

where component in vector Ch. 5], the pdf of

structure. where component in vector Ch. 5], the pdf of is the average power of each

is the average power of each Furthermore, based on results in [8, is given by

(7)

of each Furthermore, based on results in [8, is given by (7) III. SINR PDF FOR

III.

SINR PDF FOR MRC WITH AN ARBITRARY NUMBER OF COCHANNEL INTERFERERS

When

and above, as
and
above, as

CCI’s are present, (4) can be simplified, using the

(8)

definitions of

It can be shown using Mellin convolution that for Rayleigh fading channels, the pdf of the random variable is in the same form as in (6) with

of the random variable is in the same form as in (6) with is given by
is given by
is given by

and if

variable

Defining a new random variable,

Using

the result

in

[9],

the pdf

of

a

(9)

, then the pdf of random

(10)

we have

(11)

random variable

is given by where is a joint pdf of and
is given by
where
is
a
joint pdf
of
and

variables, therefore be rewritten after some manipulations as

(12)

therefore be rewritten after some manipulations as (12) Since and , defined in (7) and (11),

Since and

, defined in (7) and (11), are two independent random

Now, (12) can

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 47, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999

The outage probability (OTP) under a threshold of be expressed as

The outage probability (OTP) under a threshold of be expressed as can

can

(14)

(14)

(OTP) under a threshold of be expressed as can (14) where is defined in (13). Equation

where is defined in (13). Equation (14) gives the exact OTP for the case when powers of interferers are equal. This result can also be applied to scenarios where cochannel interferers have different mean powers. To show this, we present results for a dual-antenna system in the presence of one, two, and three CCI’s.

A. OTP in the Presence of One CCI

When applied directly and OTP can be rewritten as

of One CCI When applied directly and OTP can be rewritten as (14) can be (15)

(14) can be

applied directly and OTP can be rewritten as (14) can be (15) B. OTP in the

(15)

B. OTP in the Presence of Two CCI’s

When two CCI’s have unequal powers of

joint pdf of

is given byCCI’s When two CCI’s have unequal powers of joint pdf of and , the (16) and

two CCI’s have unequal powers of joint pdf of is given by and , the (16)

and

CCI’s have unequal powers of joint pdf of is given by and , the (16) and

, theCCI’s have unequal powers of joint pdf of is given by and (16) and are defined

(16)

and are defined in (9). Following

where the pdf’s of

the procedure used in the derivation of (13), the pdf of

of the procedure used in the derivation of (13), the pdf of is given by (17)
of the procedure used in the derivation of (13), the pdf of is given by (17)
of the procedure used in the derivation of (13), the pdf of is given by (17)

is given by

used in the derivation of (13), the pdf of is given by (17) C. OTP in

(17)

C. OTP in the Presence of Three CCI’s

Following the same procedure as presented in

, the jointOTP in the Presence of Three CCI’s Following the same procedure as presented in pdf of

pdf of is found as (13) (18) where
pdf of
is found as
(13)
(18)
where

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 47, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999

TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 47, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999 Fig. 2. The OTP with different antenna

Fig. 2.

The OTP with different antenna elements using MRC.

and the pdf of is given by
and the pdf of
is given by

(19)

The system OTP in the cases and can be evaluated with the use of (14). In the following, we present selected analytical results on system OTP when the number of antenna elements , the number of cochannel interferers, and SNR are changed. For the purpose of demonstration, a reception threshold value of 18 dB has been chosen; other values depending on the modulation scheme can be used. As expected (shown in Fig. 2), an increase in the number of antenna elements has a significant impact on OTP of system. For example, for the selected threshold and target OTP of 0.1, we need CIR of 32 dB with one antenna and 19 dB for two antennas. Thus, a dual diversity gain of 13 dB results. We also notice diminishing gains when the number of antennas are increased. The case of unequal interferer powers is also of interest. With total interference power held constant, three cases are considered, 1) only one interferer, 2) two CCI’s with power distribution [0–5 dB], and 3) three CCI’s with power distribution [0–5 dB –10 dB]. The results, shown in Fig. 3, indicate that OTP depends only on the total interference power and is not sensitive to

only on the total interference power and is not sensitive to 1123 Fig. 3. The comparison
only on the total interference power and is not sensitive to 1123 Fig. 3. The comparison

1123

on the total interference power and is not sensitive to 1123 Fig. 3. The comparison of
Fig. 3. The comparison of OTP with different number of CCI’s. Fig. 4. The comparison
Fig. 3.
The comparison of OTP with different number of CCI’s.
Fig. 4.
The comparison of the analytical results with the simulation results
for
and
.

the distribution of power among the interferers. In conclusion, (14) suffices for the purpose of evaluating the system OTP. In order to confirm the validity of the analysis, we simu- lated the system for OTP. In these simulations, we assumed that the receiver has the perfect knowledge of the channel parameters and there is no channel estimation error. Note that the assumption of slowly varying channel, implicit in (8), is used in simulations. The simulation experiments were run for sufficiently long times so as to get a high degree of confidence in the results. For example, to achieve a BER of 10 , close to 10 symbols were used; for lower error rates, longer simulation runs were needed. We considered two cases with only one interferer but a different number of antennas. The comparison in Fig. 4 show- ing a strong agreement between the analytical and simulation results validates the analysis.

comparison in Fig. 4 show- ing a strong agreement between the analytical and simulation results validates
comparison in Fig. 4 show- ing a strong agreement between the analytical and simulation results validates

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IV. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, we presented exact analytical expressions of OTP’s in mobile radio systems that use MRC in the presence of multiple interferers. The numerical results indicate that the number of antenna elements and SNR have significant impact on the OTP. However, for a certain CIR, the OTP depends on the total interference power and is not sensitive to either the number of CCI’s or the power distribution among them. The pdf expressions for SINR with MRC are applicable to any constant envelope modulation scheme. The simulation results validate the accuracy of the analytical results.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 47, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999

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