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PROBLEM 1 (1.

47)
KNOWN: Dimensions of a milk carton. Temperatures of milk carton and surrounding air.
Convection heat transfer coefficient and surface emissivity.
FIND: Heat transferred to milk carton for durations of 10, 60, and 300 s.
SCHEMATIC:
Tsur
qconv
qrad

Milk

Air
T = 30C
L = 200 mm
h = 10 W/m2K

Tm = 5C

= 0.90

w = 100 mm

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Negligible heat transfer from bottom surface of milk carton and from top
surface since it is not in contact with cold milk, (2) Radiation is to large surroundings at the air
temperature.
ANALYSIS: The area of the four sides is A = 4L w = 4(0.2 m 0.1 m) = 0.08 m2. Thus,
q = ( qconv + qrad ) = hA(T Ts ) + A(Tsur4 Ts4 )

= 10 W / m 2 K 0.08 m 2 (30C 5C) + 0.90 5.67 108 W/m 2 K 4 0.08 m 2 ( (303 K) 4 (278 K) 4 )
= 20.0 W + 10.0 W = 30.0 W

For a duration of 10 s,
Q = qt = 30.0 W 10 s = 300 J

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Similarly, Q = 1800 J and 9000 J for durations of 60 and 300 s, respectively.

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COMMENTS: (1) The predicted heat transfer rates do not account for the fact that the milk
temperature increases with time. If the increase in milk temperature were accounted for, the values of
Q would be less than calculated. (2) If the coefficient of performance of the refrigerator is 2, COP =
Q/W = 2, then the required work input to re-cool the milk after leaving it in the kitchen for 300 s is
4500 J. At an electricity price of $0.18/kWh, this would cost about $0.0002, which is insignificant.
Preventing bacterial growth is a more important reason to return the milk to the refrigerator promptly.
(3) The analysis neglects condensation that might occur on the outside of the milk carton.
Condensation would increase the rate of heat transfer to the milk significantly, increasing the
importance of returning the milk to the refrigerator promptly.

PROBLEM 2 (3.59)
KNOWN: Saturated steam conditions in a pipe with prescribed surroundings.
FIND: (a) Heat loss per unit length from bare pipe and from insulated pipe, (b) Pay back
period for insulation.
SCHEMATIC:
Steam Costs:
9
$4 for 10 J
Insulation Cost:
$100 per meter
Operation time:
7500 h/yr
ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) One-dimensional heat transfer, (3)
Constant properties, (4) Negligible pipe wall resistance, (5) Negligible steam side convection
resistance (pipe inner surface temperature is equal to steam temperature), (6) Negligible
contact resistance, (7) Tsur = T.
PROPERTIES: Table A-6, Saturated water (p = 20 bar): Tsat = Ts = 486K; Table A-3,
Magnesia, 85% (T 392K): k = 0.058 W/mK.
ANALYSIS: (a) Without the insulation, the heat loss may be expressed in terms of radiation
and convection rates,

4 h D T T
q= D Ts4 Tsur
s
W
q=0.8 0.2m 5.67 108
4864 2984 K 4
2
4
m K
W
+20
0.2m 486-298 K
m2 K

q= 1365+2362 W/m=3727 W/m.

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With the insulation, the thermal circuit is of the form

Continued

PROBLEM 2 (Cont.)
From an energy balance at the outer surface of the insulation,
qcond qconv qrad
Ts,i Ts,o

ln Do / Di / 2 k

4 T4
h Do Ts,o T D o Ts,o
sur

486 Ts,o K

ln 0.3m/0.2m
2 0.058 W/m K

20

W
m2 K

0.3m Ts,o 298K

+0.8 5.67 10-8

W
m2 K 4

4 2984 K 4 .
0.3m Ts,o

By trial and error, we obtain


Ts,o 305K
in which case
q=

486-305 K 163 W/m.


ln 0.3m/0.2m
2 0.055 W/m K

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(b) The yearly energy savings per unit length of pipe due to use of the insulation is

Savings Energy Savings Cost

Yr m
Yr.
Energy
Savings
J
s
h
$4
3727 163
3600 7500
Yr m
sm
h
Yr 109 J
Savings
$385 / Yr m.
Yr m
The pay back period is then

Pay Back Period =

Insulation Costs
$100 / m

Savings/Yr. m $385/Yr m

Pay Back Period = 0.26 Yr = 3.1 mo.

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COMMENTS: Such a low pay back period is more than sufficient to justify investing in the
insulation.

PROBLEM 3 (3.137)
KNOWN: Dimensions and end temperatures of pin fins.
FIND: (a) Heat transfer by convection from a single fin and (b) Total heat transfer from a 1
2
m surface with fins mounted on 4mm centers.
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, (2) One-dimensional conduction along rod, (3) Constant
properties, (4) No internal heat generation, (5) Negligible radiation.
PROPERTIES: Table A-1, Copper, pure (323K): k 400 W/mK.
ANALYSIS: (a) By applying conservation of energy to the fin, it follows that
q conv q cond,i qcond,o
where the conduction rates may be evaluated from knowledge of the temperature distribution.
The general solution for the temperature distribution is

x C1 emx C2 e-mx

T T .

The boundary conditions are (0) o = 100C and (L) = 0. Hence

o C1 C2
0 C1 emL C2 e-mL
C2 C1 e 2mL

Therefore,

e2mL
C2 o
1 e2mL
1 e 2mL
and the temperature distribution has the form
C1

e mx e2mL-mx .

1 e 2mL

The conduction heat rate can be evaluated by Fouriers law,

q cond kAc

kAc o
d

m emx e2mL-mx
2mL

dx
1 e

or, with m hP/kA c

1/ 2

hPkA c
q cond o
1 e2mL

1/ 2

e mx e 2mL-mx .

Continued

PROBLEM 3 (Cont.)
Hence at x = 0,

o hPkA c

1/ 2

q cond,i

1 e2mL

1 e2mL

at x = L

hPkAc
q cond,o o
1 e2mL
Evaluating the fin parameters:

1/ 2

1/ 2

hP
m

kAc

1/ 2

4h

kD
1/ 2

hPkAc

1/ 2

2 3

D hk

2emL
1/ 2

4 100 W/m 2 K

400 W/m K 0.001m

1/ 2

2
W
W
3

0.001m 100
400

m K
m2 K
4

mL 31.62 m-1 0.025m 0.791,

The conduction heat rates are

q cond,i
q cond,o

100K 9.93 10-3 W/K

31.62 m -1

3.865

e mL 2.204,

W
K

e2mL 4.865

5.865 1.507 W

100K 9.93 10-3 W/K

-3.865
and from the conservation relation,

9.93 10 3

4.408 1.133 W
<

q conv 1.507 W 1.133 W 0.374 W.

(b) The total heat transfer rate is the heat transfer from N = 250250 = 62,500 rods and the
2
heat transfer from the remaining (bare) surface (A = 1m - NAc). Hence,

q N q cond,i hA o 62,500 1.507 W 100W/m 2 K 0.951 m 2 100K


q 9.42 104 W+0.95 104 W=1.037 105 W.

COMMENTS: (1) The fins, which cover only 5% of the surface area, provide for more than
90% of the heat transfer from the surface.
(2) The fin effectiveness, q cond,i / hAc o , is = 192, and the fin efficiency,
q conv / h DL o , is 0.48.

(3) The temperature distribution, (x)/o, and the conduction term, qcond,i, could have been
obtained directly from Eqs. 3.82 and 3.83, respectively.
(4) Heat transfer by convection from a single fin could also have been obtained from Eq. 3.78.