Sei sulla pagina 1di 37

# Module 1 Introduction to Complex Functions

Module Coverage
In this module; we shall cover:
Recaps of Complex Numbers
Presentation of Complex Numbers on Argand Diagram / Complex Plane /

z-plane
Introduction to Locus
Locus presentation on Argand Diagram
Introduction to Complex Functions

## Linear Complex Functions

Inverse Complex Functions etc.

Real Numbers
The real numbers kingdom comprises of.

Complex Numbers
What is a complex number? WHY??
My life is oledi
complicated..
And now with
complex number??
The history of complex numbers
dated to ancient Greeks to solve
this problem

## Complex Numbers (cont.)

Imaginary numbers occur when we have numbers like

## A complex number is a combination of BOTH

(i) A real number

Thus, = 5; = 3

## Complex Numbers (cont.)

How to calculate complex numbers?
Recaps quadratic equations in Maths 2:

2 + + = 0

## Finding the roots r of the characteristic equation is either through:

Direct factorization
Using the formula

2 4
=
2
The root(s) can either:

## CASE I: two different real roots (r1 and r2) if 2 4 > 0

CASE II: one common real root (r only) if 2 4 = 0
CASE III: two different complex roots (r1 and r2) if 2 4 < 0

= =

;
2

and =

4; 2
2

## Complex Number Algebra

Addition / subtraction of complex numbers are straightforward i.e.

## by adding / subtraction real and imaginary parts SEPARATELY.

3 + 5 + 2 3 = 3 + 2 + 5 3 = 5 + 2
3 + 5 + 6 = 9 + 5
7 4 + 5 == 4 + 2

## Complex Number Algebra

(cont.)
Multiplication is also straightforward as such:
3 2 + 4 = 6 + 12

5 + 3 = 5 + 3 2 = 3 + 5
2 7 3 + 4 = 6 + 8 21 28 2 = 6 13 + 28 = 34 13

Remember that
= !

## Complex Number Algebra

(cont.)
Division requires the knowledge of complex conjugate:
If = +
then the complex conjugate (invert) =
Whereby = + =

## This fact is used in simplifying expressions where the denominator is

a complex number as such:
1
1
;
;
;
=
= 2 = =

;
;
1
3
3
1;
3;3
3;3

=
=
1:
1:
1;
1; 2
1:1

4:7

2:5

4:7
2:5

2;5

2;5

3;3
2

8;20:14;35 2
4;25 2

3
2

3
2

8;6;35 2
4;25 2

8;6:35
4:25

43;6
29

43
6

29
29

Argand Diagram
How to visualize complex number?

## A complex number z = + can be represented as a pair of coordinates

(, ) on an Argand Diagram.

## The axes on Argand Diagram is as such:

the axis is the imaginary part

= +

Thus = , = (, )

## complex numbers are also called as

a Complex Plane
=

Polar Representation
of Complex Numbers
A complex number can also be represented in its polar form.

## For the following = 3 + 4:

(which is noted by point A);
; = = =

= +

32 + 42 = 5
4
3

; = () = = ;1 ( ) = 53.13

## Thus; = 3 + 4 is equal to = [5,53.13]:

Exponentiaal Representation
of Complex Numbers
A complex number can also be represented in its exponential

form.

## There are infinite number of possible exponential forms of a complex

number:

Locus
By now you should know how to plot a complex number on a

complex plane.
But what if there are a series of complex numbers on a complex
plane?
This lead to the definition of a locus.
The plural is locus
The singular is loci

## Latin word for location

Loci is a set of points that

## fits a given condition

A complex number =

## A set of points which are 3 unit

distance from (i.e. the condition)

Locus (cont.)
In this module, you shall learn several basic shapes of locus, which

include:
Straight lines locus

Circles locus
Ellipse locus

## recaps basic geometric

shapes that you have learnt
in secondary school.
Remember!!
Real axis =
Imaginary axis =

## Straight Line Locus

For = + :
we get horizontal line for
=
We get vertical line for
=

diagonal line?

Circle Locus
From the general circle equation + = ; we get a circle:
at the centre origin (, )

If ( )2 +( )2 =

## 2 ; then we get a circle:

at the centre (, )

( ) + ( ) =

+ =

## Circle Locus (cont.)

How do we
represent these
circles on
complex plane?

Hint: =

Ellipse Locus
From the general eclipse equation
at the centre (, )
with distance at =
with distance at y =

Thus:
if > ; then we get a horizontal eclipse

## if < ; then we get a vertical eclipse

(;)
(;)
If + = 1; we get an eclipse:

at the centre (, )
with distance at =
with distance at y =

= 1; we get an eclipse:

+
=

( ) ( + )
+
=

How do we
represent these
eclipses on
complex plane?

Hint: =

## Real Function for Real Numbers

All your student years (from pre-school) to Maths 2, you have probably

## learn to solve real functions

A popular example of a simple real function is a linear function:
= = +

## In lay man terms:

is
that can varries anywhere in set
is a real number constant of the slope
is a real number constant at
intersection axist

## are real numbers.

For () = + 5, 0 = 5

## Complex Function for

Complex Numbers
Similarly, a complex number variable that varies anywhere within a

## complex set (i.e. z ) can be represented via a complex function

= = (, )
For every = , there are:
Real part of the complex function =

## Imaginary part of the complex function () =

Thus, = = , = + = , + (, )
And we can do mapping and visualize it on a complex plane
from axes of z plane
to axes of w plane
& are to
visualize..

Example 1
For example, calculate the value of and for:

= = 2 + 3 = 1 + 3

Thus:

= = 1,3 = (1 + 3)2 +3 1 + 3
= = 1 + 6 + 9 2 + 3 + 9
= = 4 + 15 9 = (5) + (15)
= = 5 = = 15
v

y
(, )

w(, )
x

Z-plane

W-plane

## This is only at one

instance of

Example 2
If is any variables from set . . ; find the image for:
= () = 2
Thus:
= () = ( + )( + )
Now is variable of
= () = 2 + 2 + 2 2
any value of
= () = 2 + 2 2
= () = ( 2 2 ) + (2)
= = 2 2 = = 2

S
x
Z-plane

W-plane
The transformed set S is often called as the image

Example 3
If is any any variables from set . . ; find the image for :
= = 2 =
Thus:
Now there are only
= () = ( + )( )

## real positive values

= = 2 22
at axis
= = ( 2 + 2 )
= = 2 + 2 = = 0

S
u

x
Z-plane

W-plane

Example 4
If is a locus at = 2 + 4; find the image for :
= = 2 + 6
Thus:
= = 2 + + 6
= = 2 + 2 + 6
= = (2 + 6) + (2)
= = 2 + 6 = = 2

=

;6
2

## Substitute & back in the locus equation:

= 2 + 4
2 6
=
+4
2
2
= 2 12 + 8
= 2 4

Example 4 (cont.)
And.
y

2u-4

2x+4
x
Z-plane

u
W-plane

## Note: the arrow heads indicate the

direction of the mapping
Try calculate and plot 2 points in zplane.

## Point(0,4) in z-plane is mapped to point (6,8) in w-plane

Point (-2,0) in z-plane is mapped to point (2,0) in w-plane

Linear Mapping
Example 4 is a classic case of a linear mapping where the image is

## magnified and translated.

All linear mappings fit into the general linear function:
= = +
A general linear mapping can results in any of the following (or a
combination of them depending on )
image magnification (i.e. to become bigger or smaller)

## image translation (i.e. to move its position)

image rotation (i.e. to rotate with regards to axes to specified degrees)

## Linear mapping preserve the shape of the image

A straight line in z-plane remains a straight line in w-plane

## A circle in z-plane remains a circle un w-plane

Etc.

Example 5
Plot the image under the given function:
= = 1+ +1
and
y

P1 (0,2)
P2 (2,0)
P4 (-2,0)
P3 (0,-2)

Z-plane

Example 5 (cont.)
Thus:
= 1+ +1
= 1 + + + 1
= + + + 2 + 1
= + + + 1
= ( + 1) + ( + 1)
= = + 1 = = + 1

Point

P1

=0-2+1=-1

=0+2-1=1

P2

=2-0+1=3

=2+0-1=1

P3

-2

=0-(-2)+1=3

=0+(-2)-1=-3

P4

-2

=-2-0+1=-1

=-2+0-1=-3

Example 5 (cont.)
Plot the image under the given function:
= 1+ +1
and

## Thus: image is magnified, translated & rotated

P1 (0,2)

P2 (3,1)

P1 (-1,1)

x
P2 (2,0)

P4 (-2,0)

u
P3 (3,-3)

P3 (0,-2)
Z-plane

P4 (-1,-3)
W-plane

Inversion Mapping
All inversion mapping use the

following function:
= =

## preserve the shape of the image.

Note:
The shape does not matter.
Do not try to memorizes them.
and plot.

Exercises
Find in the Cartesian form = + , the equations of the following

## straight lines in the z-plane:

2 + = + 3 (: = + )
+ + 4 = 6 (: = )

## The function w = + 4 3, is a combination of translation and

rotation. Show this in the diagram. Find the image of the line
6 + = 22 in the w plane under this mapping.

Exercises (cont.)
Find the images of the following curves under the mapping:

= + 3 + 31
=0

=0
2 + 2 = 1

[;
( + ) ( + )
. ]
2 + 2 + 2 = 1
[:
]

Summary
By the end of this module, we have covered:
Recaps of Complex Numbers
Presentation of Complex Numbers on Argand Diagram / Complex Plane /

z-plane
Introduction to Locus
Locus presentation on Argand Diagram
Introduction to Complex Functions

## Linear Complex Functions

Inverse Complex Functions etc.

## Those who do not learn from history are

doomed to repeat the past mistakes..