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Module 1 Introduction to Complex Functions

Module Coverage
In this module; we shall cover:
Recaps of Complex Numbers
Presentation of Complex Numbers on Argand Diagram / Complex Plane /

z-plane
Introduction to Locus
Locus presentation on Argand Diagram
Introduction to Complex Functions

Linear Complex Functions


Inverse Complex Functions etc.

Real Numbers
The real numbers kingdom comprises of.

Complex Numbers
What is a complex number? WHY??
My life is oledi
complicated..
And now with
complex number??
The history of complex numbers
dated to ancient Greeks to solve
this problem

Complex Numbers (cont.)


Imaginary numbers occur when we have numbers like

An imaginary unit number a is specific condition when we have

A complex number is a combination of BOTH


(i) A real number

Thus, = 5; = 3

(ii) An imaginary number

Complex Numbers (cont.)


How to calculate complex numbers?
Recaps quadratic equations in Maths 2:

2 + + = 0

Finding the roots r of the characteristic equation is either through:


Direct factorization
Using the formula

2 4
=
2
The root(s) can either:

CASE I: two different real roots (r1 and r2) if 2 4 > 0


CASE II: one common real root (r only) if 2 4 = 0
CASE III: two different complex roots (r1 and r2) if 2 4 < 0

= =

;
2

and =

4; 2
2

Complex Number Algebra


Addition / subtraction of complex numbers are straightforward i.e.

by adding / subtraction real and imaginary parts SEPARATELY.

3 + 5 + 2 3 = 3 + 2 + 5 3 = 5 + 2
3 + 5 + 6 = 9 + 5
7 4 + 5 == 4 + 2

Complex Number Algebra


(cont.)
Multiplication is also straightforward as such:
3 2 + 4 = 6 + 12

5 + 3 = 5 + 3 2 = 3 + 5
2 7 3 + 4 = 6 + 8 21 28 2 = 6 13 + 28 = 34 13

Remember that
= !

Complex Number Algebra


(cont.)
Division requires the knowledge of complex conjugate:
If = +
then the complex conjugate (invert) =
Whereby = + =

This fact is used in simplifying expressions where the denominator is


a complex number as such:
1
1
;
;
;
=
= 2 = =

;
;
1
3
3
1;
3;3
3;3

=
=
1:
1:
1;
1; 2
1:1

4:7

2:5

4:7
2:5

2;5

2;5

3;3
2

8;20:14;35 2
4;25 2

3
2

3
2

8;6;35 2
4;25 2

8;6:35
4:25

43;6
29

43
6

29
29

Argand Diagram
How to visualize complex number?

A complex number z = + can be represented as a pair of coordinates


(, ) on an Argand Diagram.

The axes on Argand Diagram is as such:


the axis is the imaginary part

the axis is the real part

= +

Thus = , = (, )

The Argand Diagram which represents

complex numbers are also called as


a Complex Plane
=

Polar Representation
of Complex Numbers
A complex number can also be represented in its polar form.

For the following = 3 + 4:


(which is noted by point A);
; = = =

= +

32 + 42 = 5
4
3

; = () = = ;1 ( ) = 53.13

Thus; = 3 + 4 is equal to = [5,53.13]:

Exponentiaal Representation
of Complex Numbers
A complex number can also be represented in its exponential

form.

There are infinite number of possible exponential forms of a complex

number:

Locus
By now you should know how to plot a complex number on a

complex plane.
But what if there are a series of complex numbers on a complex
plane?
This lead to the definition of a locus.
The plural is locus
The singular is loci

Latin word for location


Loci is a set of points that

fits a given condition


A complex number =

A set of points which are 3 unit


distance from (i.e. the condition)

Locus (cont.)
In this module, you shall learn several basic shapes of locus, which

include:
Straight lines locus

Circles locus
Ellipse locus

In order to do so, we shall

recaps basic geometric


shapes that you have learnt
in secondary school.
Remember!!
Real axis =
Imaginary axis =

Straight Line Locus


For = + :
we get horizontal line for
=
We get vertical line for
=

What about
diagonal line?

Circle Locus
From the general circle equation + = ; we get a circle:
at the centre origin (, )

with radius
If ( )2 +( )2 =

2 ; then we get a circle:

at the centre (, )

with radius

( ) + ( ) =

+ =

Circle Locus (cont.)


How do we
represent these
circles on
complex plane?

Hint: =

Ellipse Locus
From the general eclipse equation
at the centre (, )
with distance at =
with distance at y =

Thus:
if > ; then we get a horizontal eclipse

if < ; then we get a vertical eclipse


(;)
(;)
If + = 1; we get an eclipse:

at the centre (, )
with distance at =
with distance at y =

= 1; we get an eclipse:

Ellipse Locus (cont.)


+
=

( ) ( + )
+
=

Ellipse Locus (cont.)


How do we
represent these
eclipses on
complex plane?

Hint: =

Real Function for Real Numbers


All your student years (from pre-school) to Maths 2, you have probably

learn to solve real functions


A popular example of a simple real function is a linear function:
= = +

In lay man terms:


is
that can varries anywhere in set
is a real number constant of the slope
is a real number constant at
intersection axist

Both input and output of real function

are real numbers.


For () = + 5, 0 = 5

Complex Function for


Complex Numbers
Similarly, a complex number variable that varies anywhere within a

complex set (i.e. z ) can be represented via a complex function


= = (, )
For every = , there are:
Real part of the complex function =

Imaginary part of the complex function () =

Thus, = = , = + = , + (, )
And we can do mapping and visualize it on a complex plane
from axes of z plane
to axes of w plane
& are to
help you to
visualize..

Example 1
For example, calculate the value of and for:

= = 2 + 3 = 1 + 3

Thus:

= = 1,3 = (1 + 3)2 +3 1 + 3
= = 1 + 6 + 9 2 + 3 + 9
= = 4 + 15 9 = (5) + (15)
= = 5 = = 15
v

y
(, )

w(, )
x

Z-plane

W-plane

This is only at one


instance of

Example 2
If is any variables from set . . ; find the image for:
= () = 2
Thus:
= () = ( + )( + )
Now is variable of
= () = 2 + 2 + 2 2
any value of
= () = 2 + 2 2
= () = ( 2 2 ) + (2)
= = 2 2 = = 2

S
x
Z-plane

W-plane
The transformed set S is often called as the image

Example 3
If is any any variables from set . . ; find the image for :
= = 2 =
Thus:
Now there are only
= () = ( + )( )

real positive values


= = 2 22
at axis
= = ( 2 + 2 )
= = 2 + 2 = = 0

S
u

x
Z-plane

W-plane

Example 4
If is a locus at = 2 + 4; find the image for :
= = 2 + 6
Thus:
= = 2 + + 6
= = 2 + 2 + 6
= = (2 + 6) + (2)
= = 2 + 6 = = 2

Get & & :


=

;6
2

Substitute & back in the locus equation:


= 2 + 4
2 6
=
+4
2
2
= 2 12 + 8
= 2 4

Example 4 (cont.)
And.
y

2u-4

2x+4
x
Z-plane

u
W-plane

Note: the arrow heads indicate the


direction of the mapping
Try calculate and plot 2 points in zplane.

Point(0,4) in z-plane is mapped to point (6,8) in w-plane


Point (-2,0) in z-plane is mapped to point (2,0) in w-plane

Linear Mapping
Example 4 is a classic case of a linear mapping where the image is

magnified and translated.


All linear mappings fit into the general linear function:
= = +
A general linear mapping can results in any of the following (or a
combination of them depending on )
image magnification (i.e. to become bigger or smaller)

image translation (i.e. to move its position)


image rotation (i.e. to rotate with regards to axes to specified degrees)

Linear mapping preserve the shape of the image


A straight line in z-plane remains a straight line in w-plane

A circle in z-plane remains a circle un w-plane


Etc.

Example 5
Plot the image under the given function:
= = 1+ +1
and
y

P1 (0,2)
P2 (2,0)
P4 (-2,0)
P3 (0,-2)

Z-plane

Example 5 (cont.)
Thus:
= 1+ +1
= 1 + + + 1
= + + + 2 + 1
= + + + 1
= ( + 1) + ( + 1)
= = + 1 = = + 1

Point

P1

=0-2+1=-1

=0+2-1=1

P2

=2-0+1=3

=2+0-1=1

P3

-2

=0-(-2)+1=3

=0+(-2)-1=-3

P4

-2

=-2-0+1=-1

=-2+0-1=-3

Example 5 (cont.)
Plot the image under the given function:
= 1+ +1
and

Thus: image is magnified, translated & rotated

P1 (0,2)

P2 (3,1)

P1 (-1,1)

x
P2 (2,0)

P4 (-2,0)

u
P3 (3,-3)

P3 (0,-2)
Z-plane

P4 (-1,-3)
W-plane

Inversion Mapping
All inversion mapping use the

following function:
= =

Inversion mapping may not

preserve the shape of the image.

Note:
The shape does not matter.
Do not try to memorizes them.
Instead, understand how to derive
and plot.

Exercises
Find in the Cartesian form = + , the equations of the following

straight lines in the z-plane:


2 + = + 3 (: = + )
+ + 4 = 6 (: = )

The function w = + 4 3, is a combination of translation and

rotation. Show this in the diagram. Find the image of the line
6 + = 22 in the w plane under this mapping.

Exercises (cont.)
Find the images of the following curves under the mapping:

= + 3 + 31
=0

=0
2 + 2 = 1

[;
( + ) ( + )
. ]
2 + 2 + 2 = 1
[:
]

Summary
By the end of this module, we have covered:
Recaps of Complex Numbers
Presentation of Complex Numbers on Argand Diagram / Complex Plane /

z-plane
Introduction to Locus
Locus presentation on Argand Diagram
Introduction to Complex Functions

Linear Complex Functions


Inverse Complex Functions etc.

Those who do not learn from history are


doomed to repeat the past mistakes..
So read the Quran,
and learn the lessons from previous Ummah.