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PRINCIPLES OF STATIC EQUILIBRIUM

Static Equilibrium
body acted upon by a balanced force system
resultant is equal to zero
action and reaction are always equal and oppositely directed
Force: action of one body upon another due to direct contact, or magnetic or gravitational
attraction
Resultant: single force, or force and couple which will produce same effect as force system
Principle of Transmissibility: external effect of a force on a body acted upon is independent of
the point of application of the force but same effect as force system
Free Body Diagram: sketch of body showing the forces exerted by other bodies on the one
being considered
AXIAL DEFORMATION: load acts parallel to member axis; stress is uniform for homogenous
sections
= P/A
= stress
P = force
A = area (m2)
Compression: shortens the body
Tension: elongates the body
= D2
= stress (for circles)
4
D = diameter

Based on Hookes Law (Stress-Strain Curve):


= PL
= deformation
A = area
E = modulus of elasticity (MPa)
BENDING: stress due to a bending moment about the perpendicular axis of the member
F = Mc
I
SHEAR: stress due to a load acting perpendicular to member axis
Shear stress perpendicular to member axis
= V
= shear stress (MPa)
A
V = shear force, N
A = cross sectional area (m2)
BEARING: stress due to direct contact between two bodies
T = T =
T
T = tensile stress (MPa)
A t(b-d)
b = bearing stress (MPa)
b = T =
T
A = area (mm2)
A
t(d)
t = plate thickness (mm)
b = plate width (mm)
d = diameter (mm)
TORSION: stress due to moment about the member axis

ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURE
Truss: articulated structure composed of links or bars assumed to be connected by frictionless
pins at the joints

Methods of Analyzing Trusses


A. Method of Joints
B. Method of Sections
BEAMS AND GIRDERS: horizontal or nearly horizontal element carrying a stress primarily due to
shear and flexure
Allowable Deflections
L/480
Roof / floor construction supporting or
Likely to be damaged
attached
L/240
supporting or attached to non-structural
not likely to be damaged
elements
L/360
Not supported or attached
Likely to be damaged
(immediate defect due to
live load ONLY)
L/180
Flat roofs not supported or attached
Likely to be damaged
DESIGN OF STEEL MEMBERS
Beams According to Function
Purlin
Carries roof load between
trusses & rafters
Rafter
Sloping beam
Lintel
Joist
Closely spaced beam
Stringer

Carries
Carries
Carries
Carries

reaction of purlins
masonry across opening
building floor
bridge floor

Girder
Spandrel
Grade
Beam
Shaft

Large-sized beam
Spans between columns
Lowermost spandrel

Carries floor beams


Carries floors and curtain walls

Circular beam that transmits


power

Carries torsion, shear, and


flexure

Steel Sections
Allowable Flexural Stress
Compact sections
Non-compact sections
Slender sections
Allowable Shear Stress

Fb = 0.66Fy
Fb = 0.60Fy
Fb < 0.60Fy
Fv = 0.40Fy

Columns
Prevailing design load is axial and failure may be initiated by material overstressing or
weak axis buckling
For Intermediate Column (Slenderness Ratio)
Fa = I 0.50 KL/r 2
Fa = allowable axial stress
Cc
Fy
L = column height
5 + 3 KL/r - 1 KL/r 3
K = effective length factor
3 8
Cc
8
Cc
r = radius of gyration
r = (I / A)
I = moment of inertia
A = cross sectional area
For Long Column
Fa = 122E .
23 (KL/r)2

WORKING STRESS DESIGN


Flexural Members
For concrete
fc = 0.45fc
For steel
fs = 138 MPa for Grades 276 and 345
fs = 165 MPa for Grades 414 and higher
Compression / Compression with bending
For concrete
fc = 0.34fc
fc = concrete compressive strength
For steel
fs = 0.40fy
fy = steel compressive strength

COLUMNS
Three Categories:
1. Pedestal or Short Compression Blocks: height is less than 3x the least dimension
2. Long or Slender Column: strength of the column is significantly reduced
3. Short Column: failure is initiated by material failure
ULTIMATE STRENGTH DESIGN
x applied load section capacity
is greater than 1
Load Factors:
U = 1.4D + 1.7L
U = 0.75[1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7W]
U = 0.9D + 1.3W
U = 1.1D + 1.3L + 1.1E
U = 0.9D + 1.1E
U = 1.4D + 1.7L + 1.7H
U = 0.9D + 1.7H (if live load reduces the effect of H)
U = 0.75[1.4D + 1.4T + 1.7L]
U = 1.4[D + T]
D = dead load
L = live load
W = wind load
E = earthquake load
H = fluid height / pressure
CODE DESIGN CRITERIA
Essential Facilities: facilities needed during and after disasters

Hazardous Facilities: occupancies and structures housing or supporting toxic or


explosive chemicals
Special Facilities
Standard Facilities
Miscellaneous Facilities
Basic Structural Systems
1. Bearing Wall System: shear walls + brace frame; bearing wall majority
2. Building Frame System: essentially complete space frame; shear walls + brace frame
3. Moment-Resisting Frame System: essentially complete space frame; flexural action
of members
4. Dual System: moment-resistant frames + shear walls / braced frames
5. Cantilevered Column Building System
6. Shear Wall-Frame Interactive System: shear wall + frames; proportion to relative
rigidity
Vertical Structure Irregularities
1. Stiffness Irregularity / Soft Story: lateral stiffness is <70% of above storey, <80% of
average stiffness of 3 storeys
2. Weight (mass) Irregularity: effective mass of storey >150% effective mass of
adjacent storey
3. Vertical Geometric Irregularity: story dimension >130% of adjacent storey
4. In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical Lateral-Force-Resisting Element: lateral-load
resisting element > length of elements
5. Discontinuity in Capacity / Weak Storey: storey strength < 80% of above storey

Structural Plan Irregularities


1. Torsional Irregularity: maximum storey drift
2. Re-Entrant Corners: structure projections beyond entrant corner > 15% of plan
dimension
3. Diaphragm Discontinuity: diaphragm with abrupt discontinuities > 50% gross
enclosed area
4. Out-of-Plane Offsets: discontinuities in a lateral force path
5. Nonparallel System: vertical lateral load resisting elements are not parallel to major
orthogonal axes
NSCP PROVISIONS FOR RC MEMBERS
Reinforced concrete structures in high seismic risk must have: strength, ductility,
toughness
Performance criteria of earthquake-resistant RC members:
o
Serviceability Limit State: material remains in the elastic range and no damage
is expected: Minor Magnitude 1 to 4 < 10 years
o
Control Limit: some yielding may occur and may have minor structural damage:
Moderate Magnitude 4 to 6 10 to 20 years
o
Survival Limit State: inelastic behavior and may have major structural damage:
Major Magnitude 7 and up 100 to 500 years
ASTM STANDARDS
ASTM A 184 fabricated deformed steel bars
ASTM A 185 steel welded wire fabric, plain

ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A

496 deformed steel wire


497 deformed steel welded wire fabric
706M low-alloy steel deformed bars
767M zinc-coated (galvanized) steel bars
775M epoxy-coated reinforcing steel bars
884M epoxy-coated steel wire and welded fabric
934M epoxy-coated pre-fabricated steel reinforcing bars
416M uncoated seven-wire steel strand
421 uncoated stress-relieved steel wire
722 uncoated high-strength steel bars

Nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not be larger than:


1/5 the narrowest dimension between side forms
1/3 slab depth
minimum clear spacing between individual reinforcing bars or wires,
bundles of bars, or pre-stressing tendons or ducts
Concrete cover shall not be less than 40mm for concrete exposed to earth or weather, or
less than 20mm for unexposed concrete
Minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in a layer shall be db, but not less than 25mm
Minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in two or more layers shall not be less than
25mm between layers

Spirally reinforced or tied reinforced compression members, clear distance between longitudinal
bars shall not be less than 1.5db or less than 40mm
Bars larger than 36mm diameter shall not be bundled in beams
CONCRETE PROTECTION FOR REINFORCEMENT
Cast-in-Place Concrete
Cast permanently exposed to earth
75mm
Exposed to earth or weather
20mm to 36mm db 40mm
16mm db and smaller 20mm
Not exposed to weather or in contact
with ground:
1. Slabs, walls, joists
45mm to 60db 40mm
36mm db and smaller 20mm
2.

Beams, columns

Primary reinforcement, ties,


stirrups, spirals 40mm

3.

Shells, folded members

20mm db and larger 20mm


16mm db and smaller 12mm

Pre-Cast Concrete
Concrete exposed to earth or weather:
1. Wall Panels

45mm and 60mm db 40mm

36mm db and smaller 20mm


2.

Other members

Not exposed to weather or in contact


with ground:
1. Slabs, walls, joists

2.

Beams, columns

3.

Shells, folded members

Pre-Stressed Concrete
Cast permanently exposed to earth
Exposed to earth or weather
Not exposed to weather or in contact

45mm and 60mm 50mm


20mm to 36mm db 20mm
16mm db and smaller 30mm

45mm and 60mm db 30mm


36mm db and smaller 15mm
Primary reinforcement db, but
not less than 15mm and need not
exceed 40mm
Ties, stirrups, spirals 10mm
20mm db and larger 15mm
16mm db and smaller 10mm
75mm
Wall panels, slabs, joists 25mm
Other members 40mm

with ground:
1. Slabs, walls, joists

20mm

2.

Beams, columns

Primary reinforcement 40mm


Ties, stirrups, spirals 25mm

3.

Shells, folded members

16mm db and smaller 10mm


Other reinforcement db but not
less than 20 mm

SPIRALS
For cast-in-place, size of spirals shall not be less than 10mm diameter
Clear spacing shall not exceed 75mm nor be less than 25 mm
Lap splice shall be by 48 db, but not less than 300mm or welded
TIES
Longitudinal bars 32mm diameter: 10mm diameter lateral ties
Longitudinal bars 36mm diameter and bundled bars: 12mm diameter lateral ties

STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS


Fkexure without axial load
Axial tension and axial tension without flexure
Axial compression and axial compression with
flexure:
Spiral reinforced
Tie reinforced
Shear and torsion
Bearing on concrete
Post-tensioned anchorage zones

0.90
0.90
0.75
0.70

0.70
0.80

MINIMUM THICKNESS OF NONPRESSURED BEAMS OR ONE-WAY SLABS


Simply
One-end
Both ends
Member
Supported
Continuous
Continuous
Solid one-way slab
L/20
L/24
L/28
Beams or ribbed
L/16
L/18.5
L/21
one-way slab

Cantilever
L/10
L/8