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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Situation Analysis
Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in
many fields. Its many applications towards improving human life became
a very important role. It arises from many different kinds of problems
and many problems also arise within it. But the many properties and
concepts that Mathematics contains make it difficult to understand.
Mathematics can, broadly speaking, be subdivided into the study of
quantity, structure, space, and change.
An article on Graph Theory from wikepedia.com (2010) pinions
graph theory as the study of mathematical structures utilized to project
pairwise relations between objects from a collection. In here, the term
graph refers to a collection of vertices or nodes, and a collection of
edges connecting pairs of vertices.
The same article further expounded that graphs are among the
most ubiquitous models of both natural and human-made structures.
They can be used to model many types of relations and process dynamics
in physical, biological and social systems.

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Many problems of practical interest can be represented by graphs.
In

computer

science,

they

are

used

to

represent

networks

of

communication, data organization, computational devices, the flow of


computation, and the likes. In Mathematics, they are useful in Geometry
and certain parts of Topology (Graph Theory, 2010).
In the problems on vehicle routing, telecommunications, laying out
circuits on computer chips and even in solving a puzzle game, a special
kind of graph called planar graph is used.
Planar graphs are guided by numerous theorems that are
somewhat complicated and difficult to derive and prove. Like the
Kuratowski, Wagner, Euler theorems and others, lots of methods are
used in determining a graph if it is planar or not. But they are too
confusing that they seem to hinder ones ability to understand and
master the concepts.
The concepts and theorems about the planarity of graphs are,
indeed, quite hard to understand. Thus, in this thesis, concepts and
theorems will be explained and proven in a simplified manner in an effort
to shed light on the foregoing concepts to the readers.

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This thesis will not just explain what planar graphs are but will
also tell the readers the necessary details to be learned in order to
master the concepts and theorems of these graphs and try to relate its
applications and relevance in the lives of the readers.

Objectives
This thesis about the planarity of graphs will be conducted to:
1. Formulate other methods or ways to verify the planarity of
graphs.
2. Present and exemplify some special properties of planar
graphs.
3. Provide simplified proofs to theorems and formulas on
planar graphs.
4. Formulate and illustrate new propositions related to planar
graphs.
5. Cite probable applications or uses of Planarity of Graphs in
everyday life.

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Significance of the Study
Mathematics is really a broad and complicated field of knowledge
concerning numbers and figures which causes lots of confusions to
students as well as to teachers. Nevertheless, these complications serve
as an impetus for the conduct of researches for purposes of exploration
and advancing the frontiers of knowledge.
This thesis may be beneficial to the following:
Students. This thesis may help the students in solving problems
related to graphs easier and faster. It may also promote a greater
understanding to students regarding the different properties and
principles that lie within graphs.
Teachers. Teachers may use this study as a reference in shaping
the minds of students about graphs. They may also use the formulas and
proofs that will be discussed in the later part as an easier way of
teaching students on how to prove the theorems about the planarity of
graphs.
Future Researchers. Future researchers may use this thesis as a
reference in making other researches related to graphs. This will guide

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them to the prevalence of the different information regarding graphs
especially on the planarity of graphs.
School Administrators. This thesis may help in raising the
schools fame due to possible improvement of students in their
mathematical

skills

thus

can

make

them

capable

of

winning

competitions.

Scope and Delimitation


This research mainly focuses on the planarity of graphs because
they involve more complicated properties, theorems, and formulas.
This will involve the basic ideas about graphs for it is required to
be mastered first before tackling more integrated ideas to avoid
difficulties. It will also provide a suitable background and a clear view on
planar graphs in order for the readers to be familiarized on the properties
and the reasons why they were considered as planar. The researchers will
present simplified proofs to theorems and properties of planar graphs,
and formulate new propositions in relation to the study.
Different theorems and formulas on the planarity of graphs will be
discussed thoroughly along with their respective proofs and derivations.

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Related problems with answers and complete solutions will also be
included that will bring the readers the important ideas necessary in
order to master the planarity of graphs even the most confusing ones in a
simplified way.

Definition of Terms
Bipartite Graph. It is a graph whose vertex set can be partitioned
into two subsets X and Y, so that each edge has one end in X and one
end in Y.
Boundary. It is a subgraph that is formed by the vertices and
edges that are incident with a region.
Complete Graph. It is a simple graph in which each pair of
distinct vertices is joined by an edge.
Complete bipartite graph. It is a simple bipartite graph with
bipartition (X, Y) in which each vertex in X is joined to each vertex in Y.
Cycle. The edge set of an undirected closed path without repeated
vertices or edges. This may also be called a circuit, circle, or polygon
(Cycle (Graph Theory), 2010).

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Degree. The degree of a vertex of a graph is the number of edges
incident to the vertex, with loops counted twice. The degree of a vertex v
is denoted deg (v).
Edge. It is a line or curve that connects an unordered pair of
vertices.
Embeddings. An embedding of a graph into a surface is a drawing
of a graph on the surface in such a way that its edges may intersect only
at their endpoints (Graph Embedding, 2010).
Graph. It is an abstract representation of a set of objects where
some pairs of the objects are connected by links. The interconnected
objects are represented by mathematical abstractions called vertices, and
the links that connect some pairs of vertices are called edges (Graph
(Mathematics), 2010).
Homeomorphism. In graph theory, two graphs G and G' are
homeomorphic if there is an isomorphism from some subdivision of G to
some subdivision of G'.
Inductive proof. Formal method of proof in which the proposition
P(n + 1) is proved true on the hypothesis that the proposition P(n) is true
(Inductive Proof, 2009).

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Isomorphic Graphs. These are graphs that contain the same
number of graph vertices connected in the same way (Weisstein, 2010).
Maximal planar graph. It is a planar graph to which no new arcs
can be added without forcing crossings and hence violating planarity.
Minor. A graph H is a minor of a graph G if a copy of H can be
obtained from G by deleting and/or contracting edges of G.
Planar graph. It is a graph that can be drawn in a plane without
any of its edges intersecting.
Plane. In mathematics, a plane is any flat, two-dimensional
surface (Plane (Geometry). 2010).
Plane graph. It is a planar graph that is drawn in the plane so
that no two edges intersect.
Proof. It is an organized process which shows the validity of a
certain theorem by giving mathematical statements and reasons for every
statement in a theorem.
Region. It is the connected pieces of the plane that remain when
the vertices and edges of a graph are removed. It is sometimes called
face.

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Subdivision. A subdivision of a graph G is a graph resulting from
the subdivision of edges in G.
Subgraph. It is a graph whose graph vertices and graph edges
form subsets of the graph vertices and graph edges of another graph
(Weisstein, 2010).
Supergraph. If a graph A is a subgraph of graph B, then graph B
is said to be a supergraph of graph B.
Theorem. In mathematics, a theorem is a statement that has been
proven on the basis of previously established statements (Theorem,
2010).
Vertex. In graph theory, a vertex (plural vertices) or node is the
fundamental unit out of which graphs are formed (Vertex (Graph
Theory), 2010).

Mathematical Symbols and Notations


v

denotes the number of vertices

denotes the number of edges

denotes the number of regions

V(G)

the set of vertices of a graph G

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E(G)

the set of edges of a graph G

incidence function of a graph G

Kn

complete graph with n vertices

Km,n

complete bipartite graph with bipartition (m,n) in which


each vertex in m is joined to each vertex in n.

deg Vi

summation of all the degrees

less than or equal to

greater than or equal to

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Chapter 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Different mathematicians all over the world have contributed their
knowledge on graphs to improve everybodys point of view about the
complicated world of mathematics. One of their contributions is the
discovery of graphs that is used to model both natural and human-made
structures. And due to several arising problems on the subject, some of
these mathematicians discovered a special graph known as planar graph
which serves as a solution to various practical problems. Planar graphs
have complicated properties and theorems that are hard to understand
that is why many researchers conduct related studies and never give up
sharing their ideas on the planarity of graphs.
The planarity of graphs was adopted from the theorems made by
well known mathematicians such as Euler. The different properties of

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these graphs were also studied and proven by some mathematicians in
order to be valid and reliable.
Some authors of mathematics books also gave their support in
order to provide more reliable sources of information regarding the
planarity of graphs. Some of these books were all about Discrete
Mathematics and Graph Theory, and they contain the details and facts
about the planarity of graphs. Most of these details, facts and important
information were combined, enhanced and published in order to provide
more systematic references for the planarity of graphs. Examples of these
books were Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications, Sixth Edition, by
K. H. Rosen, published in 2007, Introduction to Graph Theory, by R. J.
Trudeau, published in 1993, The Theory of Graphs and its Applications
by C. Berge, published in 1958 and Introductory Graph Theory, by G.
Chartrand, 1977. The authors of these books made an outstanding effort
in presenting different proofs to some theorems on the planarity of
graphs. They considered the three houses and three utilities problem
wherein each house will be connected to each of the utilities which by
tradition are gas, water, and electricity. Is it possible to join these houses
and utilities so that none of the connections cross? This problem can be
modeled using the complete bipartite graph K3,3.

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Douglas B. West in the second edition of his book entitled
Introduction to Graph Theory published in 2001 discussed on the
characterization of planar graphs which is the Kuratowskis Theorem. He
mentioned that the graphs K5 and K3,3 are the crucial graphs that lead to
the characterization of planar graphs known as Kuratowskis Theorem.
V. K. Balakrishnan in his book Shaums Outlines on Graph
Theory discussed on graph embeddings with the theorems and provided
about a hundred of problems on planarity on graphs with their
respective answers with solutions. He discussed that such drawings of a
planar graph in a plane is a planar embedding of the graph. A plane
graph is a particular representation of a planar graph in the plane drawn
in such a way that any pair of edges meets only at their end vertices.
Some books and studies were also published by several authors.
One of these which is present in the internet is the study of D. Dolev, T.
Leighton, and H. Trickey entitled Planar Embedding of Planar Graphs.

IMPORTANT CONCEPTS
A. Preliminary Concepts
I. Graphs

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A graph refers to a collection of vertices or 'nodes' and a
collection of edges that connect pairs of vertices. A graph may be
undirected, meaning that there is no distinction between the two
vertices associated with each edge, or its edges may be directed from
one vertex to another (Graph (Mathematics), 2010).
A graph G is an ordered triple denoted by V(G), E(G), G
consisting of a non empty set V(G) of vertices, a set E(G) of edges,
and an incidence function G that associates with each edge of G to
an unordered pair of vertices of G. There is no unique way of
drawing a graph, the relative positions of points representing the
vertices and lines representing the edges have no significance, and
thus we can draw a graph in infinite number of ways.

Special Classes of Graphs


1. Complete graph (kn) it is a simple graph in which each
pair of distinct vertices is joined by an edge.
2. Empty/ null graph it is a graph with no edges.
3. Bipartite graph it is a graph whose vertex set can be
partitioned into two subsets X and Y, so

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that each edge has one end in X and one
end in Y, such partition (X,Y) is called a
bipartition of the graph.
4. Complete bipartite graph (km,n) it is a simple bipartite
graph with bipartition (X,Y) in which each
vertex of X is joined to each vertex of Y.
II. Isomorphic Graphs
Two graphs G and H are identical (G H) if V(G) = V(H), E(G) =
E(H) and G = H. They can be represented by identical diagram
A

1
C

D
G

4
H

However, two graphs that are not identical may have the same
diagram. Such graphs are called isomorphic graphs. Two graphs G
and H are said to be isomorphic if there are bijections: : V(G)V(H)
and : E(G)E(H) such that G (e) = uv if and only if H (e) =

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(u)(v); such that a pair (,) of mappings is called an isomorphism
between G and H.
To show that two graphs are isomorphic, one must indicate an
isomorphism between them. The pair of mappings (,) defined by
(v1) = y

(v2) = x

(v3) = u

(v4) = v

(v5) = w

and
(e1) = h

(e2) = g

(e3) = b

(e4) = a

(e5) = e

(e6) = c

(e7) = d

(e8) = f

is an isomorphism between the graphs G and H. graphs G and


H have the same structure and differ only in the names of vertices
and edges.

1
A

6
4

G
(A) = 1

(B) = 2

(C) = 3

D) = 4

(E) = 5

(F) = 6

and
(AB) = 12

(AC) = 13

(AE) = 15

(AF) = 16

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(BF) = 26

(BD) = 24

(BC) = 23

(CD) = 34

(CE) = 35

(DE) = 45

(DF) = 46

(EF) = 56

These concepts on graphs and isomorphic graphs including the


illustrations are extracted from the discussions of Dr. Raquel D.
Quiambao, the chairman of the Mathematics Department in the
College of Sciences at DMMMSU-SLUC, Agoo, La Union, in her
Graph Theory class in the school year 2009 2010 at DMMMSUSLUC.
B. Primary Concepts
I.

Planar Graphs
In graph theory, a planar graph is a graph that can be

embedded in a plane so that no edges intersect. The Polish


mathematician Kazimierz Kuratowski provided a characterization of
planar graphs, now known as Kuratowski's theorem:
A finite graph is planar if and only if it does not contain a
subgraph that is an expansion of K5 (the complete graph on 5
vertices) or K3,3 (complete bipartite graph on six vertices, three of
which connect to each of the other three); A finite graph is planar if
and only if it does not contain a subgraph that is homeomorphic to

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K5 or K3,3 and; A finite graph is planar if and only if it does not have
K5 or K3,3 as a minor.

K5

K3,3

In practice, it is difficult to use Kuratowski's criterion to quickly


decide whether a given graph is planar. However, there exist fast
algorithms for this problem: for a graph with v vertices, it is possible
to determine in time O(v) whether the graph is planar or not. For a
simple, connected, planar graph with v vertices and e edges:
Theorem 1. If v 3 then e 3v - 6
Theorem 2. If v > 3 and there are no cycles of length 3, then
e 2v - 4
Nonplanarity of K5 and K3,3 follows immediately from this two
theorems. For K5, e = 10 > 9 = 3v 6. Since K 3,3 is triangle free, we
have e = 9 > 2v 4. These graphs have too many edges to be planar.

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Another way of determining the planarity of graphs is through
the use of Eulers formula. Euler's formula states that if a finite
connected planar graph is drawn in the plane without any edge
intersections, and v is the number of vertices, e is the number of
edges and r is the number of regions (area bounded by edges,
including the outer infinitely large area), then v e + r = 2.
This study on the planarity of graphs will combine all these
important details and facts to make it possible for the readers to
understand and appreciate it in behalf of the complicated concepts it
contains.

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Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY
This thesis will make use pure descriptive research to determine
the different properties and other concepts related to graphs. The
research shall commence with the collation of preliminary concepts,
underlying principles and theoretical underpinnings which will serve as
the foundation of knowledge upon which pertinent analysis will be made.
Propositions will be made from observations and proven making
synthesized use of the collated concepts. Proving will be done in the most
simplified manner possible to eliminate confusion and complication on
the part of the readers who will consume this study either for its content
to understand and follow the process by which it was undertaken.
Examples and applications of planar graphs extracted from diverse
sources will be collated and presented still for purposes of simplification.

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Source of Data
In order to study the basic concepts on the Planarity of Graphs,
the researchers will refer to mathematics books, encyclopedia and
journals. Proofs to some theorems are also present in the internet but
the proofs are too complicated and very scholarly in approach. In order to
fulfill the objective to provide simplified proofs, more dependable sources
of information such as textbooks in mathematics and other reference
materials on Discrete Mathematics and Graph Theory will also be used.
Furthermore, other propositions and theorems will be proven by
the researchers in order to show the readers the necessary steps in
making proofs and instill to their minds the skills needed in proving.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books
Balakrishnan, V. K. (1997). Shaums Outlines Graph Theory. New York:
The McGraw - Hill Companies, Inc.
Berge, Claude. (1958). The Theory of Graphs and its Applications. Great
Britain: Dunod.
Chartrand, Gary. (1977). Introductory Graph Theory. New York: Dover
Publications, Inc.
Rosen, Kenneth H. (2007). Discrete Mathematics and its Applications (6th
ed). New York: The McGraw - Hill Companies, Inc.
Trudeau, Richard J. (1993). Introduction to Graph Theory. The Kent State
University Press.
West, Douglas B. (2001). Introduction to Graph Theory (2nd ed). New
Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.

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Online Journal Article
Dolev, D., Leighton T., & Trickey H. (1984). Planar embedding of planar
graphs. Advances in Computing Research, vol. 2, 147 161.
Retrieved January 10, 2011, from http://www.scansoft.com.

Online Encyclopedia Articles


Cycle (graph theory). (2010). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved
December 11, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Cycle_(graph_theory)&oldid=414207670.
Graph embedding. (2010). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved
December 11, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Graph_embedding&oldid=415981619.
Graph isomorphism. (2010). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved
January 1, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Graph_isomorphism&oldid=418172522.
Graph theory. (2010). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved
November 24, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Graph_theory&oldid=418680102.
Graph

(mathematics). (2010). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.


Retrieved, December 11, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/
index.php?title=Graph_(mathematics)&oldid=414832159.

Inductive proof. (2009). The Unabridged Hutchinson Encyclopedia.


Retrieved December 11, 2010, from http://encyclopedia.
farlex.com/Inductive+proof.
Planar graph. (2010). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved
November 24, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Planar_graph&oldid=417969095.
Plane (geometry). (2010). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved
December 11, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Plane_(geometry)&oldid=419125080.

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Theorem. (2010). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved November
24,
2010,
from
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Theorem&oldid=417693975.
Vertex

(graph theory). (2010). Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.


Retrieved, November 24, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/
index.php?title=Vertex_(graph_theory)&oldid=395956133.

Weisstein, Eric W. (2010). Isomorphic Graphs. MathWorld -- A Wolfram


Web
Resource.
Retrieved
December
11,
2010,
from
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/IsomorphicGraphs.html.
Weisstein, Eric W. (2010). Subgraph. MathWorld -- A Wolfram Web
Resource. Retrieved December 11, 2010, from http://mathworld.
wolfram.com/Subgraph.html.

APPENDICES

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APPENDIX A
Letter to the Adviser
Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University
South La Union Campus
College of Sciences
Agoo, La Union

Date:
Prof. Daisy Ann A. Disu
DMMMSU SLUC
College of Sciences
Agoo, La Union

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Maam;

We the undersigned BS Mathematics students are working on a thesis


entitled On the Planarity of Graphs. In this regard, we ask your
permission to be our adviser and help us further to formulate the
particular title of our study.

We are hoping for your positive response regarding this request.

Very truly yours,

Ralph Vincent E. Alambra

Ron Denny E. Bucasas

Approved by: ______________________


Prof. Daisy Ann A. Disu
APPENDIX B
Letter to the Panel Members
Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University
South La Union Campus
College of Sciences
Agoo, La Union

Date:
Dr. Raquel D. Quiambao

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Dr. Delia V. Eisma
Mr. Tjaart Jan B. Estrada
Mr. Fernie V. Bucang

Sir/ Madam;

The undersigned students are conducting a research entitled On the


Planarity of Graphs.
In this connection, we request you to share your precious time in
evaluating this thesis. Your full cooperation and patience will surely
make this research successful. Your comments and suggestions in this
work would be greatly appreciated.
Thank you very much and more power.

Respectfully yours,

Ralph Vincent E. Alambra

Ron Denny E. Bucasas


APPENDIX C
THEOREMS
Theorem 1. If G is a plane graph, then the sum of the degrees of the
regions determined by G is 2e, where e is the number of
edges of G.

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Theorem 2. If a connected plane graph G has exactly v vertices, e edges,
and r regions, then v e + r = 2.
Theorem 3. If G is planar and connected with e edges and v vertices
where v 3, then e 3v 6.
Theorem 4. If G is planar and connected with e edges and v vertices
where v 3 and no circuits of length three, then e 2v 4.
Theorem 5. K5 is nonplanar.
Theorem 6. K3,3 is nonplanar.
Theorem 7. Any subgraph of a planar graph is planar.
Theorem 8. Every supergraph of a nonplanar graph is nonplanar.
Theorem 9. Every expansion of K5 and K3,3 is non planar.
Theorem 10. (Kuratowskis Theorem) A graph is planar if and only if it
does not contain a subgraph which is homeomorphic to K 5
and K3,3.
Theorem 11. If G is planar and H is isomorphic to G, then H is planar
also.
Theorem 12. If G is planar and connected then G has a vertex of degree
less than or equal to 5.
Theorem 13. A complete graph Kn is planar if and only if n 4.

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Theorem 14. A complete bipartite graph Km,n is planar if and only if
2 or n 2.