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# MODULE T4 CIRCLE THEOREMS

LEARNING INTENTIONS:
By the end of this topic you should be able to:
Know and use the angle and tangent properties of a circle
o Angle in a semi-circle
o Angle at centre and angle at circumference
o Angles in the same segment
o Angle between radius and tangent
o Tangent kite
o Alternate segment theorem
PARTS OF THE CIRCLE
Before starting this topic it is important that you know the parts of the circle

KEY WORDS

tangent

segment
arc

diameter

kite

subtend

chord
circumference
sector

## Diagram not drawn

accurately

Do you know?
The sum of the angles in a triangle
What is special about an isosceles triangle
How to name an angle using 3 letters
What is meant by prove?
A proof means that you give an explanation of a theory to show that it works for every
situation. This involves using mathematical symbols, notation and words
Quality of Written Communication (QWC) is the candidates ability to communicate clearly
using both mathematical symbols and language and the written word. This may be through,
for example, an explanation of geometrical properties of a given shape or, for example,
through concise mathematical argument in a multi-step problem.
Assessment:
Your assessment will contain a number of past paper questions where you will be expected to;
Find given angles
Give reasons (must use mathematical language and symbols)
Prove theorems (using mathematical language and symbols)

CIRCLE THEOREMS
Theorem
Angle at the centre is twice the angle at the
circumference
OR
Angle at the circumference is half the
angle at the centre

## Angles in the same segment are equal

Angle in a semi-circle is 90

Proof

EXAMPLE 1:
What are the values of x and y? What is the value of x?

## What is the value of y?

EXERCISE 1:

What is a cyclic quadrilateral? ______________________________________________
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Opposite angles of a cyclic

## Find the values of x and y

EXERCISE 2:

TANGENTS
There are some further properties of circles relating to tangents
The angle between a tangent and a radius at the point of contact is 90
Both tangents drawn from the same point to a circle are equal in length

EXAMPLE 3:

TANGENT KITE
A tangent kite is a special quadrilateral formed by the two radii and the two tangents. The
following example uses circle properties to find angles in a tangent kite.
EXAMPLE 4:

EXERCISE 3:

## ALTERNATE SEGMENT THEOREM

We now know that the angle between a tangent and a radius is always 90. The angle
between a tangent and a chord will not be 90 - and it will be different for every different
chord. However, there is a special relationship between the angles which is explained in the
following alternate segment theorem
Theorem
The angle between a tangent and a chord
equals the angle on the circumference in the
exact opposite segment

EXAMPLE 5:
Find the values of the angles x and y

Proof

EXERCISE 4:

EXERCISE 5:

## PAST PAPER QUESTIONS

1
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2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

REVIEW OF LEARNING
LEARNING INTENTIONS

Go!
I fully
understand

Unsure
I nearly
understand

Stop
I dont
understand

## Keywords can you spell and define the

keywords in this topic
Know and use the angle and tangent
properties of a circle
o Angle in a semi-circle
o Angle at centre and angle at
circumference
o Angles in the same segment
tangent
o Tangent kite
o Alternate segment theorem
Prove the following theorems
o Angle in a semi-circle
o Angle at centre and angle at
circumference
o Angles in the same segment
o Alternate segment theorem

Assessment:
How will you prepare for your assessment?
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What skills must you be able to use in your assessment?
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