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# UKA

B. Tech (Mechanical) (6thSemester)
Subject :030050603Computer Aided Design (Theory)
Date : 15/05/2015
Max. Marks: 70

## Time : 2:30 pm to 5:30 pm

Duration : 3 Hours

Instructions:
1. Attempt all questions.
2. Write each section in a separate answer book.
3. Make suitable assumptions wherever necessary.
4. Figures to the right indicate full marks allocated to that question.
5. Draw diagrams/figures whenever necessary.

SECTION 1



II) What is design work station?
III) Write down one example for computer aided process application.
IV) What is the use of Graphic Software in CAD?
V) Write the parametric equation for cubic spline.
Q1 (B) Answer the following in brief. (Any 5)



## I) What is meant by raster scan technique?

II) What are the functions of input and output devices?
III) Write in brief about scan conversion.
IV) Write the application of transformation operations.
V) What do you mean by geometric modeling?
VI) Explain wire-frame modeling in brief.
VII) What do you understand by synthetic curves? Write down the continuity conditions.



A) What do you understand by inverse transformation? Obtain the inverse transformation matrices for the
following operations:
Translation
Rotation
Scaling
Reflection
OR
A) Perform following operations on triangle ABC with vertices A (0, 0), B (4, 0) and C (2, 3).
Translation through 4 and 2 units along X and Y directions respectively.
Rotation through 90 in counterclockwise direction about the new position of point C. Determine
(i) the concatenated transformation matrix; and (ii) the new position of triangle.
B) Explain Bresenhams algorithm for generation of line.
OR
B) Explain DDA algorithm for generation of line.
Q3 Answer the following in detail. (Any 2)
A) A triangle ABC with vertices A (50, 40), B (100, 60), C (70, 80) is to be scaled using scale factors
Sx = 0.5 and Sy = 0.7 about the point A. Determine
(i) The composite transformation matrix; and
(ii) The coordinates of the vertices for a scaled triangle.



B) Find the equation of the two dimensional Hermite Cubic Spline for given points P0 (2, 3), P1 (8, 6) and
P2 (10, 1) that connects points P0 and P1 and that is tangent to lines P0 P2 and P2 P1. Calculate five points
on the curve.
C) Write down the relative advantages and disadvantages of constructive solid geometry approach and
boundary representation approach.

SECTION 2



I) What is your opinion if element has aspect ratio slightly greater than 3 in FEM analysis?
II) Apart of linear interpolation, what are the other types of interpolation in FEM?
III) Which industry is widely using 2D Finite element analysis (triangular and quadrilateral elements)?
IV) Define: Entities and Primitives.
V) Write full form of graphics standard STEP and DIMS.
Q4 (B) Answer the following in brief. (Any 5)



## I) What functions Node serve in FEM?

II) For given 1-D element as shown in Fig.1, find the displacement q at x = 16 mm. provided displacements at
nodes. Use linear interpolation.
III) Find the aspect ratio for the 2-D element as shown in Fig.2.
IV) A cantilever uniform rod is subjected to a uniform axial load as shown in fig.3. The deformation of the bar
is governed by following differential equation and boundary conditions;

A.E.

+ q0 = 0

&

(II)

(at x = L) = 0

## Find the solution of differential equation using weighted residual method.

V) Explain Programmers Hierarchical Interface for graphics Standard (PHIGS) in brief.
VI) Write difference between the Adequate Design and Optimum Design.
VII) What is functional requirement parameter in optimum design? Explain its characteristics.



A) Derive the equation [K].[Q] = [F] for elimination approach method in FEM.
OR
A) Draw higher order 2D and 3D elements. Name the element type. Also show the nodes.
B) Write optimum design procedure of design problem for normal specification.
OR
B) A thin spherical pressure vessel is subjected to an internal pressure of 4 N/mm2. The mass of the empty
vessel should not exceed 125 kg. Design the pressure vessel with objective of maximizing the gas storage
capacity with factor of safety to be 3. The material of construction is as follows;
Ultimate tensile strength
Density
Material
ut =N/mm2
=kg/m3
Low alloy steel
7800
500
Aluminum alloy
2800
250
Copper alloy
8400
420
Q6 Answer the following in detail. (Any 2)
A) Use elimination approach to find the stress in all elements for 1-D problem shown in Fig.4. Prepare the
figure showing the elements and nodes clearly. Consider point load only.
B) Use Penalty approach to find the stress in 1-D (X-Axis) problem shown in Fig. 5 in all elements.
Prepare the figure showing the elements and nodes clearly. Avoid body loads and traction loads. The point
load P is acting at 45 with X-Axis as shown in figure.
C) In a light weight equipment, a shaft is required to transmit 40 kW power at 425 rpm. The required stiffness
of the shaft is 90 N-m/degree. The factor of safety based on yield strength in shear is 1.5. Using the
maximum shear stress theory, design the shaft with the objective of minimizing the material cost, out of
following materials.



Material

Density
=kg/m3

Alloy steel
Aluminum alloy
Titanium steel
Magnesium steel

7800
2800
4500
1800

Material cost
per weight
C = Rs/N
7.50
9.00
150.00
10.00

Yield strength
yt =N/m2
400 106
150 106
800 106
100 106

Modulus of
rigidity
G = N / m2
82 109
27 109
41 109
17 109

Figures

Fig. 1

Fig.2

Fig.3

Fig. 4

Fig.5