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PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

2nd Semester 2015; SWU College of Law


Atty. Annabel G. Pulvera-Page
DISCUSSION OUTLINE
1. Introduction to International Law - General Principles
[a]
[b]
[c]
[d]
[e]
[f]
[g]
[h]

International Law Definition


Three (3) Main/Grand Division of International Law
Three (3) Main Schools of International Law
Basis of International Law
International Comity
Public International Law vs. Private International Law
Brief Historical Development of International Law
International Law A True Law?

2. Sources of International Law


[a] Article 38, Statute of the International Court of Justice
[b]International Customs/International Customary Law

Distinguished from Soft Laws and Jus Cogens

[c] Treaties & International Conventions

1980 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties


Treaty-Making Process
Section 21, Art. VII, 1987 Constitution
Section 25, Art. XVIII, 1987 Constitution
Executive Order No. 459
Interpretation and Observance of Treaties
Invalidation, Termination and Suspension
Executive Agreements

[d]General Principles of Law


[e] Judicial Decisions
[f] Teachings of highly qualified Writers and Publicists of
various nations
[g]Equity in International Law

Ex Aequo et Bono
Distinguished from Equity under Philippine Law

3. International Law and Municipal Law


[a] Dualism v Monism
[b]Doctrine of Incorporation
Section 2, Article II, 1987 Constitution
Nature of the Incorporation Clause of the 1987 Constitution

[c] Doctrine of Transformation


Section 21, Article VII, 1987 Constitution
Section 25, Article XVIII, 1987 Constitution

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[d]Conflict between International Law and Philippine law
Rule under International Law
Rule under Philippine Law

4. Subjects & Objects of International Law


a. The International Community

5. The United Nations


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

The
The
The
The
The
The

General Assembly
Security Council
International Court of Justice
Economic and Social Council [ECOSOC]
Trusteeship Council
Secretariat

6. The Individual under International Law


a. Object/Subject of International Law?

7. The Concept of the State


a. Elements of a State (People, Territory, Government & Sovereignty)
b. Rights and Duties of a State [Draft Declaration on Rights and Duties of
the State]
c. State Succession
d. State Continuity

8. Recognition
a.
b.
c.
d.

Recognition of States
Recognition of Governments
Recognition of Belligerent Communities
Obligation erga omnes

9. Fundamental Rights of the States/States in the


International System
a. The Right of Existence and Self-Defense/Self-Preservation

Art. 51, UN Charter


Collective Self-Defense
Section 2, Article II, 1987 Constitution
Section 23, Article VI, 1987 Constitution

b. The Right of Independence


c. The Right of Equality
d. The Right to Jurisdiction and Territorial Integrity

Article 1, 1987 Constitution


RA No. 9522 [Philippine Archipelagic Baselines]
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Air and Outer Space Law
Article 2, Revised Penal Code
Articles 14 and 15, New Civil Code
English Rule and French Rule

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e. The Right of Legation

Roles and Status of Diplomats and Consuls


Diplomatic Relations [Vienna Convention on Diplomatic
Relations]
Consular Relations [Vienna Convention on Consular Relations]

10.

11.

13.

The Right to a Child to Nationality under the 1989 Convention on the


Rights of the Child entered into force on 02-September-1990
The Right to Nationality under the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights
1930 Hague Convention on Conflict of Nationality Laws
Doctrine of Effective Nationality
Art. IV of the 1935, 1973 and 1987 Constitutions
Dual Citizenship v Dual Allegiance
Rights of Stateless Individuals
1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons (Entered
into force on 06 June 1960)
Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (Entered into force on 13
December 1975)

Treatment of Aliens

12.

Nationality and Statelessness

14.

State Responsibility
International Standard of Justice
National Treatment Standard
Extradition [PD 1069 Philippine Extradition Law]
Deportation

Settlement of International Disputes


Non-Judicial Methods
Quasi-Judicial Methods
Judicial Methods [The International Court of Justice]
Measures of Redress Short of War
Resort to the United Nations [General Assembly & Security Council)
Articles 40-42, UN Charter
Uniting for Peace Resolution

The Law of War and Armed Conflict


Outlawry of War
Legitimate Use of Armed Forces
Commencement & Termination of War
Effects of the Outbreak of War
Uti Possidetis & Jus Postliminium

The Law of Neutrality

15.

Neutrality v Neutralization

International Criminal Law

Nuremberg Principles
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC)
Command Responsibility v Superior Responsibility

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16.

17.

19.

The Law against Terrorism


International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of
Terrorism
International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings
1970 Hague Convention for the Suppression of Hijackings
1963 Tokyo Convention on the Safety of Aviation
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of
Maritime Navigation
1979 Hostages Convention
1973 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against
Internationally Protected Persons
19721 Montreal Convention on Air Safety
Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports
Serving International Civil Aviation
Security Council Resolution No. 1368 [12 September 2001]
Un Security Council Resolution No. 1373 [28 September 2001
Philippines: Human Security Act of 2007 [RA No. 9372]

International Human Rights Law

18.

RA No. 9852 (Philippine Act on Crimes against International


Humanitarian Law, Genocide and other Crimes against Humanity)

Universal Declaration of Human Rights ("Declaration")


International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
(ICESCR)
Sections 17-19, Article XIII, 1987 Constitution
International Convention for the Protection of all Persons from Enforced
Disappearance
RA No. 10353 [An act defining and penalizing Enforced or Involuntary
Disappearance]

International Environmental Law


Section 16, Article II, 1987 Constitution
Principle of Intergenerational Responsibility
Good Neighborliness Principle
1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
The Stockholm Declaration
The Rio Declaration

International Economic Law


World Trade Organization (WTO) and General Agreement on Tariff and
Trade (GATT)
Key Principles of International Trade Law

ASSIGNED CASES
Sources of International Law

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1. Republic v Sandiganbayan, 407 SCRA 10; GR No. 104768; 23-July-2003
(Customary International Law; International Convention on Civil and Political
Rights and Declaration of Human Rights)
2. Magallona, et. al. v Ermita, et. al., GR No. 187167; 16-July-2011 (Customary
International Law; Right of Innocent Passage]
3. Razon, Jr. v Tagitis, GR No. 182498; 03-December-2009 (Customary
International Law; Enforced Disappearance)
4. Pharmaceutical and Health Care Association of the Philippines v Duque III, 535
SCRA 265; G.R. No. 173034; 09-October-2007 (Customary International Law;
General Principles of International Law)
5. Agustin v Edu; G.R. No. L-49112; 02-February-1979 (General Principles of
International Law Pacta sunt servanda)

Treaties
1. Tanada v Angara, 272 SCRA 18; GR No. 118295; 02-May-2997 (Limitations of
Treaties; Pacta sunt servanda)
2. Bayan Muna et. al. vs. Romulo; G.R. No. 159618, 01-February-2011 (RP-US
Non-Surrender Agreement; ICC Rome Statute; Art. 18 (a), Vienna Convention
on the Law of Treaties; Treaties v Executive Agreement; Pacta sunt servanda;
Limitation of Sovereignty International Argreements)
3. Bayan v Zamora; GR No. 138570; 10-October-2000; 342 SCRA 449 and
Consolidated Cases (Visiting Forces Agreement; Treaty & Executive
Agreements; Ratification & Senate Concurrence; Section 21, Art. VII and
Section 25, Article XVIII of the 1987 Constitution; Pacta sunt servanda)
4. Pimentel, Jr. v Office of the Executive Secretary, 462 SCRA 622; 06 July 2005;
En Banc (Signature, Ratification and Senate Concurrence)
5. Agustin v Edu, GR No. L-49112, 02-February-1979 (Pacta sunt servanda)
6. Edna Diago Lhuiller v British Airways, GR No. 171092; 01-March-2010 (Warsaw
Convention; Pacta sunt servanda)
7. Commissioner of Internal Revenue v Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corporation, GR
No. 188497; 19-February-2014 (Pacta sunt servanda; Harmonization of
Statutes with Treaties)
8. Santos, III v Northwest Orient Airlines and Court of Appeals; GR No. 101538;
23-June-1992 (Warsaw Convention; Presumption of Constitutionality of
Treaties; Rebus sic stantibus)
9. USAFE Veterans Association Inc. v Treasurer of the Philippines, GR No. L10500, 30-June-1959 (Treaty & Executive Agreements)
10. Commissioner of Customs v. Eastern Sea Trading; G.R. No. L-14279; 31October-1961 (Treaty & Executive Agreements)
11. China National Machinery & Equipment Corp. v Hon. Cesar D. Santamaria; GR
No. 185572; 07-February-2012 (Treaty & Executive Agreements)

Concept of Jus Cogens

1. Isabelita C. Vinuya, et. al. v. Hon. Executive Secretary Romulo, et. al., GR No.
162230, 28-April- 2010

Doctrine of Incorporation and Transformation


1. Republic v Sandiganbayan, 407 SCRA 10; GR No. 104768; 23-July-2003
(Doctrine of Incorporation; Exclusionary Rule; International Convention on Civil
and Political Rights and Declaration of Human Rights)
2. Pharmaceutical and Health Care Association of the Philippines v Duque III, 535
SCRA 265; G.R. No. 173034; 09-October-2007 (Doctrines of Incorporation &
Transformation)
3. United States v Guinto, 182 SCRA 644; G.R. No. 76607; 26-Febuary-1990
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4. Peralta v Director of Prisons, 75 Phil 287; G.R. No. L-49; 12-November-1945
(Generally accepted principles of international law as part of Philippine law)
5. Kuroda v Jalandoni, 83 Phil 171; G.R. No. L-2662; 26-March-1949 (Hague and
Geneva Conventions [war crimes], part of Philippine law).
6. Lo Ching v Archbishop of Manila, 81 Phil 601; G.R. No. L-1337; 16-October1948 (Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
7. Borovski v Commissioner of Immigration, GR No. L-4362; 28-September-1951
(Universal Declaration of Human Rights, incorporated in Philippine Law.
8. Laguna Lake Development Authority v Court of Appeals, 231 SCRA 292; G.R.
Nos. 120865-71; 07-December-1995 (Universal Declaration of Human Rights
and the Alma Conference Declaration of 1978)

Conflict of International Law and Municipal Law


1. Lim, et. al. v Executive Secretary; GR No. 151445; 11-April-2002 (Balikatan 021; Treaty v Municipal Law under International Law; Pacta sunt servanda; Treaty
v Police Power Measure under Philippine Law)
2. Commissioner of Internal Revenue v Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corporation, GR
No. 188497
19-February-2014 (Pacta sunt servanda; Harmonization of Statutes with
Treaties)
3. Santos, III v Northwest Orient Airlines and Court of Appeals; GR No. 101538;
23-June-1992 (Warsaw Convention; Presumption of Constitutionality of
Treaties)
4. In Re: Arturo Efren Garcia, 02 SCRA 984; 15-August-1961(Treaty v
Constitution)
5. Drilon v Lim, G.R. No. 112497, 04-August-1994 (Review of Treaties by Supreme
Court & Lower Courts)
6. Ichong v Hernandez, 101 Phil 115; GR No. L-7995; 31-May-1957 (Treaty v
Statute; Police Power)
7. Gonzales v Hechanova, 9 SCRA 230; G.R. No. L-21897; 22-October-1963
(Treaty v Statute)
8. Philip Morris, Inc. v Court of Appeals, 224 SCRA 576; G.R. No. 91332; 16-July1993 (International Agreements & Statute Equal Standing)
9. Secretary of Justice v Judge Lantion, GR No. 139465, 18-January-2000; 322
SCRA 160 (Lex posterior derogate priori)
10. Deutsche Bank AG Manila Branch v Commissioner of Internal Revenue, G.R.
No. 188550 ;19-August-2013; 1st Division (Tax Treaty v BIR Revenue
Memorandum Order)

The International
International Law

Community

Subjects

&

Objects

of

1. Isabelita C. Vinuya, et. al. v. Hon. Executive Secretary Romulo, et. al., GR No.
162230, 28-April- 2010 (Diplomatic Relations; Executive Prerogative to
espouse claims against other states)

The Concept of the State


1. Province of North Cotabato v Government of the Republic of the Philippines
Peace Panel on Ancestral Domain (GRP); 568 SCRA 402; 2008 (International
Law Concept of Association)
2. Isabelita C. Vinuya, et. al. v. Hon. Executive Secretary Romulo, et. al., GR No.
162230, 28-April-2010 (Erga Omnes Obligation)

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State Sovereignty

1. Tanada v Angara, GR No. 118295; 02-May-1997 (WTO Agreement; Limitations


on Sovereignty Principle of Auto-Limitation)
2. Bayan Muna, as represented by Rep. Satur Ocampo, et al. v. Alberto Romulo,
in his capacity as Executive Secretary, et al., G.R. No. 159618, 01-February2011 (International Agreements Limitations on Sovereignty)

Recognition
1. Lawyers League for a Better Philippines vs. Corazon Aquino, G.R. No. 73748,
22-May-1986
2. Joseph E. Estrada v Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo; G.R. No. 146738; 02-March2001

Fundamental Rights of the States The Right to Territorial


Integrity
1. Magallona, et. al. v Ermita, et. al., GR No. 187167; 16-July-2011 (RA 9522;
Archipelagic Waters v Internal Waters)
2. Republic of the Philippines vs. Peoples Republic of China; PCA Case No. 201319; In the matter of an arbitration under Annex VII to the United Nations
Convention on the Law of the Sea (Permanent Court of Arbitration; Peace
Palace, The Hague, Netherlands)

Fundamental Rights of the States The Right to Jurisdiction


Sovereign Immunity from Suit
1. The Holy See v Hon. Eriberto U. Rosario, Jr., GR No. 101949; 01-December1994; 238 SCRA 524 (Sovereign Immunity)
2. China National Machinery & Equipment Corp. v Hon. Cesar D. Santamaria; GR
No. 185572; 07-February-2012; 665 SCRA 189 (Sovereign Immunity)
3. Republic of Indonesia v Vinzon; GR No. 154705; 26-June-2003 (Sovereign
Immunity)
English Rule
4. U.S. v. Look Chaw, 18 Phil 573
5. People v. Wong Cheng, 46 Phil 729

Right of Legation Diplomatic and Consular Relations


1. Minucher v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 97765; 24-September-1992
2. Liang v People, GR No. 125865; 26-March-2001; 355 SCRA 125 (Diplomatic v
International Immunities)
3. World Health Organization v Aquino, 48 SCRA 242
4. International Catholic Migration Commission v Calleja, 190 SCRA 130; 1990
5. Lasco v. UN Revolving Fund for National Resources Exploration, 241 SCRA 681

Nationality and Statelessness


1. Isabelita C. Vinuya, et. al. v Honorable Executive Secretary Alberto G. Romulo,
et. al., G.R. No. 162230; 28-April-2010
2. Tecson v COMELEC, GR No. 161434; 03 March 2004 (Filipino Citizenship)
3. Mercado v Manzano, 307 SCRA 630; G.R. No. 135083; 26-May-1999 (Dual
Citizenship v Dual Allegiance)
4. Calilung v Secretary of Justice; GR No. 160869, 11 May 2007
(Constitutionality of RA 9225 - An Act Making the Citizenship of Philippine

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Citizens Who Acquire Foreign Citizenship Permanent, amending for the
purpose, Com. Act No. 63; Dual Citizenship v Dual Allegiance)
5. Jack J. Bermont v RP; GR No. L-3323; 18-July-1951 (Statelessness)

Treatment of Aliens/Extradition
1. Secretary of Justice v. Lantion, G.R. No. 139465, 18-January 2000, and 17October-2000 [Right to Notice and Hearing during Evaluation Stage of the
Extradition process]
2. Government of the United States of America v Purganan; GR No. 148571; 24September-2002 [Right to Bail]
3. Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region v Hon. Olalia, Jr., GR
No. 153675; 19-April-2007 [Right to Bail]
4. Cuevas v Munoz, GR No. 140520; 18-December-2000; 348 SCRA 532 [Arrest
pursuant to Philippine Extradition Law]

Settlement of International Disputes


1. Isabelita C. Vinuya, et. al. v. Hon. Executive Secretary, et. al., GR No. 162230,
28-April-2010 (Diplomatic Relations; Executive Prerogative to espouse claims
against other states)

International Criminal Law & International Criminal Court


1. Rubrico, et. al. v Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, et. al., GR No. 183871; 18-February2010 (Command Responsibility)
2. Bayan Muna, as represented by Rep. Satur Ocampo, et al. v. Alberto Romulo,
in his capacity as Executive Secretary, et al. G.R. No. 159618, 01-February2011 (Non-Surrender Agreement ICC Rome Statute)

The Law against Terrorism


1. Southern Hemisphere Engagement Network, Inc., et. al. v Anti-Terrorism
Council, et. al..; GR No. 178552; 16-July-2007 [RA 9372 Human Security Act
of 2007]

International Human Rights Law


UN Human Rights Covenants
1. Republic v Sandiganbayan, 407 SCRA 10; GR No. 104768; 23-July-2003
(Customary International Law; International Convention on Civil and Political
Rights and Declaration of Human Rights)
2. Government of Hongkong Special Administrative Region v Olalia; GR No.
153675, 19-April-2007
3. Mejoff v Director of Prisons; 90 Phil 70; 1951
4. Mijares v Ranada; GR No. 139325, 12-April-2005; 455 SCRA 397
5. Shangri-la International Hotel Management, Ltd. v Developers Group of
Companies, Inc.; GR No. 159938; 31-March-2006; 486 SCRA 405
6. Razon, Jr. v Tagitis, GR No. 182498; 03-December-2009 (Customary
International Law; Enforced Disappearance)

International Environmental Law


1. Oposa v Factoran, GR No. 101083; 30-July-1993 [Principle of Intergenerational
Responsibility; Section 16, Art. II, 1987 Constitution]
2. Laguna Lake Development Authority v Court of Appeals, 231 SCRA 292; G.R.
Nos. 120865-71; 07-December-1995 (Universal Declaration of Human Rights
and the Alma Conference Declaration of 1978)
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International Economic Law


1. Tanada v Angara, GR No. 118295; 02-May-1997 [WTO Agreement]

-That in all things God may be glorified-

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