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PANDEY

Class : XIIth

ROLL.NO :

PANDEY Is in partial fulfillment of PHYSICS PRACTICAL

Examinations CBSE 2015

own effort with guidance of the teacher.

(Dept. of PHYSICS)

for her guidance and advices to complete my work

successfully. I also thank our Friends for providing me the

facilities to finish the project on time.

I also take this opportunity to place on record my deep

gratitude to LORD ALMIGHTY for the countless

blessings showered on me while doing the work and to

complete it.

Last but not least I thank my parents for their

encouragement and support in my humble venture.

INTRODUCTION

PRINCIPLE

CONSTRUCTION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION

A transformer is an electrical device which is

used for changing

widely used device in

both low and high current circuit. As such

transformers are built

in an amazing strength of sizes. In electronic,

measurement and

control circuits, transformer size may be so

small that it weight

only a few tens of grams where as in high

voltage power circuits,

it may weight hundred of tones.

one circuit to another circuit takes place without the use of

moving parts.

A transformer which increases the voltages is called a

step-up transformer. A transformer which decreases the A.C.

voltages is called a step-down transformer.

Transformer is, therefore, an essential piece of

apparatus both for high and low current circuits.

Principle

according to this principle, the amount of magnetic flux linked

with a coil changing, an e.m.f is induced in the neighbouring coil.

Construction

laminated sheets, well insulated from one another. Two coils p 1 &

p2 and s1 & s2 are wound on the same core, but are well insulated

with each other. Note that the both the coils are insulated from

the core, the source of alternating e.m.f is connected to p 1p2, the

primary coil and a load resistance R is connected to s 1 s2, the

secondary coil through an open switch S. thus there can be no

current through the sec. coil so long as the switch is open.

For an ideal transformer, we assume that the resistance of the

primary & secondary winding is negligible. Further, the energy

loses due to magnetic the iron core is also negligible.

TRANSFORMER

When an altering e.m.f. is supplied to the primary coil p 1p2, an

alternating current starts falling in it. The altering current in the

primary produces a changing magnetic flux, which induces

altering voltage in the primary as well as in the secondary. In a

good-transformer, whole of the magnetic flux linked with primary

is also linked with the secondary, then the induced e.m.f. induced

in each turn of the secondary is equal to that induced in each turn

of the primary. Thus if Ep and Es be the instantaneous values of

the e.m.f.s induced in the primary and the secondary and N p and

Ns are the no. of turns of the primary secondary coils of the

transformer and

D / dt = rate of change of flux in each

turnoff the coil at this instant, we have

(1)

(2)

Ep = -Np d/dt

-----------------

Es = -Ns d/dt

-----------------

And

2 by 1, we get

E s / Ep = - N s / N p

----------------

(3)

As Ep is the instantaneous value of back e.m.f induced in the

primary coil p1, so the instantaneous current in primary coil is due

to the difference (E Ep ) in the instantaneous values of the

applied and back e.m.f. further if Rp is the resistance o, p1p2 coil,

then the instantaneous current Ip in the primary coil is given by

Ip

= E Ep / Rp

E E p = Ip R p

When the resistance of the primary is small, R p Ip can be

neglected so therefore

E Ep = 0 or Ep = E

Thus back e.m.f = input e.m.f

Hence equation 3 can be written as

Np = K

Where K is constant, called turn or transformation ratio.

In a step up transformer

Es > E so K > 1, hence Ns > Np

Es < E so K < 1, hence Ns < Np

If

Ip =

And

Is

value of sec. current at this instant, then

Ep Ip and

Es Is

Input power = output power

Ep I p =

Es / Ep

Or

Es Is

Ip / Is

Or

=

In a step up transformer

As k > 1, so Ip > Is or Is < Ip

i.e. current in sec. is weaker when secondary voltage is higher.

Hence, whatever we gain in voltage, we lose in current in the same ratio.

Similarly it can be shown, that in a step down transformer, whatever we lose in

voltage, we gain in current in the same ratio.

Thus a step up transformer in reality steps down the current & a step down

transformer steps up the current.

Efficiency

Efficiency of a transformer is defined as the ratio of output power to the input

power. i.e.

=

Es Is / Ep Ip

practice, there are many power losses, therefore the efficiency of transformer is less

than one.

ENERGY LOSSES

Following are the major sources of energy loss in a transformer:

1. Copper loss

2. Iron loss

is the energy loss in the form of heat in the iron core of the

taking laminated cores.

Therefore, rate of change of magnetic flux linked with each turn of S 1S2 is less than

the rate of change of magnetic flux linked with each turn of P 1P2.

4. Hysteretic loss

5. Magneto striation

USES OF TRANSFORMER

A transformer is used in almost all a.c. operations

In the induction furnaces.

advertisement.

supplies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. SL ARORA PHYSICS-XII

2. Comprehensive practical PHYSICS XII

3. NCERT PHYSICS

-XII

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