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Reducing the Risks of

Nonstructural Earthquake
Damage A Practical Guide
FEMA E-74 / January 2011

FEMA

Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake


Damage A Practical Guide
Prepared by
APPLIED TECHNOLOGY COUNCIL
201 Redwood Shores Parkway, Suite 240
Redwood City, California 94065
www.ATCouncil.org
Prepared for
FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY
Cathleen M. Carlisle, Project Officer
Michael Mahoney, Project Officer
Barry Welliver, Technical Monitor
Washington, D.C.
ATC MANAGEMENT AND OVERSIGHT
Christopher Rojahn (Project Executive)
William T. Holmes (Project Technical Monitor)
Jon A. Heintz (Project Quality Control monitor)
Thomas R. McLane (Project Manager)

PROJECT MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE


Maryann Phipps (Project Technical Director)
Robert Bachman
James Carlson
Eduardo A. Fierro
Richard Kirchner
Ayse Hortacsu
Cynthia L. Perry

PROJECT REVIEW PANEL


Tim P. Brown
Mary C. Comerio
David Conover
Doug Fitts
Michael J. Griffin
John R. Henry
Steven Kuan*
Robert K. Reitherman
Jeffrey R. Soulages
*ATC Board Representative

January 2011

Notice
Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily
reflect the views of the Applied Technology Council (ATC), the Department of Homeland Security
(DHS), or the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Additionally, neither ATC, DHS,
FEMA, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, nor assumes any legal
liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, product, or
process included in this publication. Users of information from this publication assume all liability
arising from such use.

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: September 2010

PREFACE
In September of 2006, the Applied Technology Council (ATC) was awarded a task entitled
Update of FEMA 74, Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage A Practical
Guide (designated the ATC-69 Project) under its ongoing Seismic and Multi-Hazard Technical
Guidance Development and Support contract (HSFEHQ-04-D-0621) with the Federal
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The primary objective of this project is to update the
third edition of the FEMA 74 report, Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage

A Practical Guide, issued by FEMA in 1994.


FEMA 74 explains the sources of earthquake damage that can occur in nonstructural
components and provides information on effective methods for reducing risk associated with
nonstructural earthquake damage. It is intended for use by a non-engineer audience that
includes building owners, facility managers, maintenance personnel, store or office managers,
corporate or agency department heads, and homeowners. The reference material contained
within the third edition of FEMA 74 is now approaching 20 years old. A considerable amount of
new information now exists as a result of ongoing National Earthquake Hazard Reduction
Program (NEHRP) activities, local and state government programs, private sector initiatives, and
academic work focused on reducing the potential for nonstructural earthquake damage.
This fourth edition of the FEMA 74 document updates both the content and the format of the
report. The document has been redesigned for use on the internet. Currently, the report
contains seventy-two examples, complete with photos of actual damage and details illustrating
correct mitigation measures. The new format makes it simple to browse and to print out the
relevant details.

FEMA E-74

Preface

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1. INTRODUCTION
This chapter of the document describes the purposes of this e-document and describes the
intended audience for the e-document.

1.1 PURPOSE
Nonstructural failures have accounted for the majority of earthquake damage in several recent
U.S. earthquakes. Thus, it is critical to raise awareness of potential nonstructural risks, the
costly consequences of nonstructural failures, and the opportunities that exist to limit future
losses. Nonstructural components of a building include all of those components that are not
part of the structural system; that is, all of the architectural, mechanical, electrical, and
plumbing systems, as well as furniture, fixtures, equipment, and contents. Windows, partitions,
granite veneer, piping, ceilings, air conditioning ducts and equipment, elevators, computer and
hospital equipment, file cabinets, and retail merchandise are all examples of nonstructural
components that are vulnerable to earthquake damage. The primary purpose of this guide is to
explain the sources of nonstructural earthquake damage and to describe methods for reducing
the potential risks in simple terms.

1.2 INTENDED AUDIENCE


This guide is intended for use by a non-engineer audience located within the United States; this
audience includes building owners, facility managers, maintenance personnel, store or office
managers, corporate or agency department heads, business proprietors, risk managers, and
safety personnel. The guide is also designed to be useful for design professionals, especially
those who are not experienced with seismic protection of nonstructural components. It
addresses nonstructural issues typically found in schools, office buildings, retail stores, hotels,
data centers, hospitals, museums, and light manufacturing facilities. It is not intended as a
guide for homeowners. How to make homes safer from earthquakes is covered in FEMA 232

Homebuilders Guide to Earthquake-Resistant Design and Construction (2006). This document


is also not intended to address nonstructural issues relevant to heavy manufacturing,
specialized industrial manufacturing, or power generation facilities.
The guide is aimed at a wide audience with varying needs. Some readers may be small business
owners with a limited number of potential problems, which could be addressed in a few days by
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hiring someone to install some of the non-engineered or prescriptive details that are presented
in Chapter 6 of this guide. Other readers may be responsible for hundreds of facilities and may
need a survey methodology like the one described in Chapter 3, to help them understand the
magnitude of their potential risk. For those who need to implement nonstructural details, the
specification and responsibility matrices in Appendices A and B can be used to clarify the scope
of work and assign parties responsible for
implementation. The prospective audience can be
subdivided into the following four general categories:

General Interestthe non-engineer reader


who wants an illustrated overview of the
subject of nonstructural earthquake damage.

Small Business Ownerthe reader who wants


a general overview of the subject, along with

General Interest Sidebar


This style of sidebar is used
in this guide to provide
additional clarification or
examples for the general
interest reader.

help in identifying potential risks and specific


guidance on suggested protective measures that the reader can implement on his or
her own. This may be all that is required for a small business or simple facility, if
the items can be addressed using the non-engineered or prescriptive details shown
in Chapter 6.

Facilities and Planning Personnelthe reader who needs an overview of the subject,
as well as a survey methodology that is applicable to an organizational setting. This
guide contains forms and checklists that can be used to survey a facility, in order to
identify potential risks and to estimate seismic vulnerability and potential
earthquake losses. The guide includes suggestions for both existing and new
construction and differentiates between
methods that can be readily implemented by
a handy worker following the nonengineered and prescriptive details in
Chapter 6 and methods that require
professional design assistance and additional
engineered details.

Technical Sidebar
This style of sidebar is used in this
guide to provide additional
technical details for architects and
engineers.

Architect or Engineerthe architect or


engineer who has limited knowledge of
nonstructural earthquake damage and who needs an introduction to the subject,
along with a list of resources that will provide more detailed technical information.
For this audience, the examples provided in Chapter 6 may serve as a starting point

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or conceptual design for common conditions; calculations may be required to size


members and connection hardware for each particular situation. The specification
and responsibility matrices in Appendices A and B are targeted for this audience;
these are tools intended to help clarify the scope of work and assign responsibility
for the various tasks involved.
Table 1.2-1 below is intended to help readers identify those portions of the guide that may
apply to their particular situation and interests. The chapters and their respective audiences are
intended to be helpful, not restrictive. Readers are encouraged to use this guide and to adapt
the forms and checklists herein in any way that is helpful to their particular circumstances. The
flowchart on the following page provides some additional guidance on how to use this
document. While earlier editions of FEMA 74 were aimed at a more general audience, the 4th
edition has been greatly expanded to assist owners, facility managers, and design professionals
implement nonstructural mitigation programs. A flowchart is also provided in Figure 1.2-1 to
help readers identify portions of the guide that may apply to their situation.
Table 1.2-1

How to use this guide


Chapter Title

Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Behavior of Nonstructural
Components

General
Interest

Small
Business
Owner

Facilities
and
Planning
Personnel

Architect or
Engineer

Chapter 3. Survey and Assessment


Procedures for Existing Buildings
Chapter 4. Nonstructural Risk

Reduction for Existing Buildings


Chapter 5. Nonstructural Risk
Reduction for New Buildings

Chapter 6. Seismic Protection of


Nonstructural Components

Appendix A. Specification

Appendix B. Responsibility Matrices

Appendix C. Survey Form

Appendix D. Checklist

Appendix E. Risk Ratings

Appendix F. Glossary

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Ch. 1&2 Overview of
Nonstructural Earthquake
Damage

Yes,
existing building

Ch. 3 Survey Techniques


for Existing Buildings

Complex
facility?

Yes

Need to protect
nonstructural
components?

Yes,
new building

Appendix C Survey Form


Appendix D Checklist
Appendix E Risk Ratings

No
Ch.5 Program for New
Buildings
Ch. 4 Program for Existing
Buildings
Ch. 6 Illustrated Examples
of Nonstructural
Components
(photos and details)

Implementation
Appendix A Specification
Appendix B
Responsibility Matrix

Figure 1.2-1

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Flowchart describing the relationship of document chapters and appendices.

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1.3 REGIONAL APPLICABILITY


Different geographic areas of the U.S. are likely to experience different levels of seismic shaking
in future earthquakes. In conjunction with the Probable Shaking Intensity Map shown in Figure
3.2.1-1, the following considerations will help to determine if these guidelines are applicable to
your facility:

If the Shaking Intensity Map indicates that the building


site is located in an area with minimal level of shaking,

then the seismic hazard risk is extremely low and thus

Hospitals, fire, rescue, and

seismic anchorage and bracing of nonstructural

police stations, emergency

components is not considered necessary.

vehicle garages, and

If the Shaking Intensity Map indicates that the building


site is located in an area with low level of shaking and if
the facility is not an essential type facility, then only
parapets and exterior unreinforced masonry walls should
be considered for seismic retrofit.

Essential Facilities

designated emergency
shelters are examples of
essential facilities that
require special design
considerations.

If the Shaking Intensity Map indicates that the building


site is located in an area denoted with moderate level of shaking, and if the facility is not an
essential type facility, then only architectural components should be considered for seismic
retrofit; anchorage and bracing for other nonstructural components may not be necessary.

If the Shaking Intensity Map indicates that the building site is located in an area denoted
with high level of shaking, then adequate retrofitting of all nonstructural component items
should be considered.

If in doubt about the applicability of these guidelines to a particular case, then it may be useful
to check the requirements in ASCE/SEI 7-10 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other

Structures (ASCE, 2009) for new construction. If the nonstructural component does not require
bracing for new construction at the site, then it may not be necessary to brace this component
in existing construction, pending consideration of the specific risks posed by potential damage.

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1.4 LIMITATIONS

Limitations of the

This guide advises users on how to identify nonstructural

Non-engineered Approach

hazards and how to implement earthquake protection

If this guide explained how a

measures. Earthquake engineering expertise is often

person could administer his or

desirable when identifying and reducing earthquake

her own health exam,

risks, and in some situations, it is required. This guide

diagnose any health problems,

attempts to provide advice regarding earthquake


protection measures and presumes that the advice will
be applied wisely, and that expert assistance will be
obtained whenever necessary.

and prescribe and administer


appropriate treatment, then an
obvious question would arise:
How far can an untrained
person proceed before

When in doubt about the seismic vulnerability of a


facility, one should consult a civil or structural engineer
or an architect with specific training and expertise
related to the evaluation and mitigation of nonstructural
earthquake hazards.

requiring the services of a


physician? While doctors
commonly recommend many
self-help measures, such as
taking ones own temperature
and treating minor colds with
home remedies, it is important

1.5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

to recognize when one has

ATC gratefully acknowledges the ATC-69 Project


Management Committee, including Maryann Phipps,
Cynthia Perry, Robert Bachman, James Carlson, Eduardo
Fierro, and Richard Kirchner for their efforts in
researching and developing the material contained in this
report. The Project Review Panel, consisting of Tim
Brown, Mary Comerio, David Conover, Doug Fitts,
Michael Griffin, John Henry, Robert Reitherman, and
Jeffrey Soulages, provided technical review, advice and
consultation at key stages of the work. In addition, Dawn
Anderson, Jon Gregg, and Eric Peabody provided review

exceeded the limits of


commonsense measures and
needs to seek the advice of a
medical professional.
When in doubt about a health
problem, consult a medical
professional.
When in doubt about the
seismic health of a facility,
consult a civil or structural
engineer or architect.

comments for Appendices A and B. The affiliations of


these individuals are provided in the list of project
participants.
ATC also gratefully acknowledges Cathleen Carlisle and Mike Mahoney (FEMA Project Monitor)
and Barry Welliver (Subject Matter Expert) for their input and guidance in the preparation of this

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report, Ayse Hortacsu and Peter N. Mork for ATC report production services, Scott Hiner for the
expert graphics, Thomas R. McLane as ATC Project Manager, and Steven Kuan as ATC Board
Contact on this project.

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2. BEHAVIOR OF NONSTRUCTURAL
COMPONENTS
Effective seismic risk reduction strategies for
nonstructural component damage begins by clearly
understanding the scope and nature of nonstructural
components in buildings, their behavior in earthquakes,
and the consequences of damage. The next section will
address the following key questions:

What are nonstructural components?


What are the primary causes of damage to
nonstructural components during earthquakes?

A picture is worth a thousand


words.
The Hyogo Earthquake

Engineering Research Center in

Japan has posted video footage of


shake table testing of

nonstructural components during


a simulated earthquake. Two of
these video clips speak volumes
about the hazards of

nonstructural components during


an earthquake. The video clips

focus on the behavior of furniture,


contents, and some architectural
components.

What is the significance of nonstructural


component damage?

Which nonstructural components are most


vulnerable in an earthquake?

What are the consequences of damage to


nonstructural components?

Figure 2-1 Result of shaking table test


on room contents (from 01,
2008 test)
Click on the link below and select
one of the following video clips:
-Shaking table tests on room
safety issue of a high-rise
building (01, 2008)

-Shaking table tests on non-

structure furniture in a high-rise

building (03, 2007)

http://www.bosai.go.jp/hyogo/eh
yogo/movie.html

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2.1 DEFINITIONS
Buildings consist of both structural and nonstructural components. The distinction between
the two types of building components is described below.

2.1.1 STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS


The structural components of a building resist gravity, earthquake, wind, and other types of
loads and typically include the following elements:

vertical supports such as columns, posts, pillars, and pilasters

horizontal supports such as trusses, girders, beams, joists, and purlins

load-bearing walls that provide vertical support or lateral resistance

diagonal elements such as braces

floor and roof slabs, sheathing or decking

foundation systems such as slabs on grade, mats, spread footings, or piles

The structural system of buildings is typically analyzed and designed by a civil or structural
engineer and is presented on construction drawings or plans, except in the case of houses. The
structural components of a typical building can be seen on Figure 2.1.2-1 by clicking on the
structural components only button.

2.1.2 NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS


The nonstructural components of a building include all building parts and contents except for
those previously described as structural. These components are generally specified by
architects, mechanical engineers, electrical engineers, and interior designers. However, they
may also be purchased and installed directly by owners or tenants after construction of a
building has been completed. In commercial real estate, the architectural and mechanical,
electrical, and plumbing systems may be considered a permanent part of the building and
belong to the building owner; the furniture, fixtures, equipment and contents, by contrast,
typically belong to the building occupants.
In this guide, nonstructural components are divided into three broad categories:

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ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS such as partitions, ceilings, storefronts, glazing,


cladding, veneers, chimney, fences, and architectural ornamentation.

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING (MEP) COMPONENTS such as


pumps, chillers, fans, air handling units, motor control centers, distribution panels,
transformers, and distribution systems including piping, ductwork and conduit.

FURNITURE, FIXTURES & EQUIPMENT (FF&E), AND CONTENTS such as shelving


and book cases, industrial storage racks, retail merchandise, books, medical records,
computers and desktop equipment, wall and ceiling mounted TVs and monitors, file
cabinets, kitchen, machine shop or other specialty equipment, industrial chemicals or
hazardous materials, museum artifacts, and collectibles.
The list of nonstructural components is nearly endless and constantly evolving, as new
technologies alter our built environment. Figure 2.1.2-1 displays a typical building with
nonstructural components discussed in this document, along with typical structural
components. Clicking the structural components only button strips away the layer of
nonstructural components to emphasize the ubiquity of architectural, MEP, and FF&E
components in the built environment.
Note that most structural components are typically concealed from view by nonstructural
materials, such as architectural finishes. For example, in steel construction, fireproofing is
typically applied directly to steel members and then covered with finish materials such as
gypsum board. In wood construction, there is usually no way to visually distinguish between a
non-load-bearing partition and a structural or shear wall. Steel diagonal braces are often
hidden inside walls. Similarly, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing components are also
typically concealed by architectural components.

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Figure 2.1.2-1

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A three-dimensional view of a portion of a building. This figure shows both


structural and nonstructural components.

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Figure 2.1.2-2

A three-dimensional view of a portion of a building showing structural


components only.

2.1.3 RELATIVE COSTS


In general, the structural components of a commercial building account for approximately 1525% of the original construction cost, while the nonstructural (mechanical, electrical, plumbing,
and architectural) components account for the remaining 75-85% of the cost. Contents
belonging to the building occupants, such as movable partitions, furniture, and office or
medical equipment, represent a significant additional value at risk. When these costs are
compared, it becomes clear that the largest capital investment in most commercial buildings is

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in the nonstructural systems and contents. This is illustrated in Figure 2.1.3-1 below for three
common types of commercial construction (Whittaker and Soong, 2003).

Figure 2.1.3-1

Typical investments in building construction.

2.2 CAUSES OF STRUCTURAL DAMAGE


Earthquake ground shaking causes damage to nonstructural components in four principal ways:

Inertial or shaking effects cause sliding, rocking or overturning (Section 2.2.1).

Building deformations damage interconnected nonstructural components (Section


2.2.2).

Separation or pounding between separate structures damage nonstructural components


crossing between them (Section 2.2.3).

Interaction between adjacent nonstructural components (Section 2.2.4) cause damage.

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2.2.1 INERTIAL FORCES


When a building shakes during an earthquake, the base of the building typically moves in
unison with the ground. The entire building and its contents
above the base experience inertial forces that push them
back and forth in a direction opposite to the base excitation.
In general, the earthquake inertial forces are greater if the
mass of the building is greater, if the acceleration or severity
of the shaking is greater, or if the location is higher than the
base, where excitations are amplified. Thus, the earthquake
forces experienced above the base of a building can be
many times larger than those experienced at the base.
When unrestrained or marginally restrained items are shaken
during an earthquake, inertial forces may cause them to
slide, swing, rock, strike other objects, or overturn (see
Figure 2.2.1-1). File cabinets, emergency generators,
suspended items, free-standing bookshelves, office
equipment, and items stored on shelves or racks can all be

Analogy: Passenger in a
Moving Vehicle
As a passenger in a moving
vehicle, you experience inertial
forces whenever the vehicle is
rapidly accelerating or
decelerating. If the vehicle is
accelerating, you may feel
yourself pushed backward
against the seat, since the
inertial force on your body acts
in the direction opposite to
that of the acceleration. If the
vehicle is decelerating or
braking, the inertia forces may

damaged as they move and contact other items, fall,

cause you to be thrown

overturn or become disconnected from attached

forward in your seat.

components. The shaking can also cause damage to


internal components of equipment without any visible damage or movement from its original
location.

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Figure 2.2.1-1

Sliding and overturning due to inertial forces.

2.2.2 BUILDING DEFORMATIONS


During an earthquake, structural members of buildings can deform, bend or stretch and
compress in response to earthquake forces. For example, the top of a tall office tower may lean
over a few feet in each direction during an earthquake. The horizontal deformation over the
height of each story, known as the story drift, might range from a quarter of an inch to several
inches between adjacent floors, depending on the size of the earthquake and the characteristics
of the particular building structure and type of structural system. The concept of story drift is
shown in Figure 2.2.2-1.

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Structural - Nonstructural Interaction:


Problem with Short Columns
There have been many notable
examples in past earthquakes where
rigid nonstructural components have
been the cause of structural damage
or collapse. These cases have
generally involved rigid, strong
architectural components, such as
masonry infill or concrete spandrels

Figure 2.2.2-1

Nonstructural damage due to building


deformation.

When the building deforms, the columns or walls deform


and become slightly out of square and thus, any windows
or partitions rigidly attached to the structure must also
deform or displace the same amount. Brittle materials like

that inhibit the movement or


deformation of the structural framing
and cause premature failure of column
or beam elements. When a structural
column is restrained by nonstructural
components, it is often referred to as a
short column or captive column.
This is a serious concern for the

glass, plaster partitions, and masonry infill or veneer

design of structural systems.

cannot tolerate any significant deformation and will crack

Designers of nonstructural

when the space between stops or molding closes and the


building structure pushes directly on the brittle elements.
Once cracked, the inertial forces in the out-of-plane
direction can cause portions of these architectural
components to become dislodged and to fall far from
their original location, possibly injuring passers-by
underneath them.

components must be mindful to


isolate their systems from the
deformations of the adjacent structural
components or to make sure that the
structural components have been
designed to accommodate the
interaction.

2.2.3 BUILDING SEPARATIONS


Another source of nonstructural damage involves pounding or movement across separation or
expansion joints between adjacent structures or structurally independent portions of a building.
A seismic joint is the separation or gap between two different building structures, often two
wings of the same facility, which allows the structures to move independently of one another as
shown in Figure 2.2.3-1.

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In order to provide functional continuity between adjacent structures or between structurally


independent portions of a building, utilities must often extend across these building joints, and
architectural finishes must be detailed to terminate on either side. The separation joint may be
only an inch or two wide in older construction or a foot or more in some newer buildings,
depending on the expected horizontal movement, or seismic drift between buildings. Flashing,
piping, conduit, fire sprinkler lines, heating,
ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) ducts,
partitions, and flooring all have to be detailed to
accommodate the seismic movement expected at

Base-Isolated Buildings

these locations when the two structures move closer

A special type of seismic joint occurs

together or further apart. Damage to items crossing

at the ground level of base-isolated

seismic separation or expansion joints is a common

buildings, which are separated from

type of earthquake damage. If the size of the gap is

the ground by seismic shock

insufficient, pounding between adjacent structures


may result, which can damage structural components
but more often causes damage to nonstructural
components, such as parapets, veneer, or cornices on
the faades of older buildings.

absorbers or isolators, in order to


reduce the transfer of earthquake
accelerations to the building. The
seismic joint typically occurs between
the foundation below the isolator and
the building above. These joints may
be as much as several feet wide;
special detailing is required for all the
architectural finishes and building
utilities that cross the joint.

Figure 2.2.3-1

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Nonstructural damage due to separation and pounding.

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2.2.4 NONSTRUCTURAL INTERACTION


An additional source of nonstructural damage is the interaction between adjacent nonstructural
systems which move differently from one another. Many nonstructural components may share
the same space in a ceiling plenum or pipe chase; these items may have different shapes, sizes,
and dynamic characteristics, as well as different bracing requirements.
Some examples of damaging nonstructural interactions include:

Sprinkler distribution lines interact with the ceiling causing the sprinkler heads to break
and leak water into the room below.

Adjacent pipes of differing shapes or sizes are unbraced and collide with one another or
adjacent objects..

Suspended mechanical equipment swings and impacts a window, louver, or partition.

Ceiling components or equipment can fall, slide, or overturn blocking emergency exits.

2.3 EXTENT OF NONSTRUCTURAL DAMAGE


There are many factors affecting the performance of nonstructural components during an
earthquake and the extent to which they will sustain damage. The degree of damage caused by
the four principal effects previously described depends upon considerations such as the
components dynamic characteristics, their location in the building, and their proximity to other
structural or nonstructural components. Other factors include the type of ground motion, the
structural system of the building, the location and placement of the loads, the type of
anchorage or bracing, if any, the strength of the structural supports used for anchorage,
potential interaction with other nonstructural components, and the potential for secondary
damage.
A survey of 25 damaged commercial buildings following the 1971 San Fernando Earthquake
revealed the following breakdown of property losses: structural damage, 3%; electrical and
mechanical, 7%; exterior finishes, 34%; and interior finishes, 56%. A similar survey of 50
damaged high-rise buildings, which were far enough away from the earthquake fault rupture to
experience only mild shaking, showed that whereas none had major structural damage, 43 of
the buildings suffered damage to drywall or plaster partitions, 18 suffered damaged elevators,
15 had broken windows, and 8 incurred damage to their air-conditioning systems (Steinbrugge
and Schader, 1973).

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ATC-69 Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage, State-of-the-Art and Practice

Report (ATC, 2008) summarizes the current state of knowledge and practice regarding the
seismic performance of
nonstructural components of
buildings. This study confirmed
the lack of systematic and
comprehensive post-earthquake

Engineering Considerations: Extent of Damage

(e.g., high or low frequency motion, proximity to fault)

documentation of nonstructural
performance and recommended

Characteristics of the structural system supporting the


nonstructural elements (e.g., the structure may be tall

development of a standardized

and flexible, short and stiff, or short and flexible)

framework for the collection of


future nonstructural earthquake

Unique characteristics of the ground shaking at the site

damage data.

Location of the nonstructural item within the building


(e.g., items may be at the basement, at mid-height or
roof level; items may cross seismic joints or may be
located in close proximity to deforming structural
elements)

Distribution and placement of loads (e.g., heavy loads


situated near the bottom of shelving units and lighter
items above, or the reverse; countertop lab equipment
close or far from the edges of counters)

Anchorage or restraint conditions (e.g., items may be


unanchored, marginally anchored, or well anchored)

Condition of structural elements used for anchorage


(e.g., location and strength of studs in a wall used to
anchor tall cabinets or shelving, location of reinforcing
bars in concrete used to anchor heavy items, condition
of mortar in old masonry walls)

Potential interaction with structural elements or other


nonstructural elements (e.g., rigid granite veneer
covering a flexible steel column or a well-anchored
ceiling grid with unbraced sprinkler lines).

Potential for secondary damage caused by release of


fluids, gases, toxins, asbestos, and other hazardous
substances (e.g., damage to asbestos insulation
requires evacuation, a gas leak results in a fire)

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2.4 IMPORTANCE OF NONSTRUCTURAL DAMAGE


Historically, earthquake engineers have focused on the performance of structural systems and
ways to mitigate structural damage. As the earthquake engineering community moves toward
more comprehensive earthquake standards and expectations of improved seismic performance,
and as the public demands a higher level of earthquake protection, it is important to
understand the significance of nonstructural damage.
The failures of nonstructural components during an earthquake may result in injuries or
fatalities, cause costly property damage to buildings and their contents; and force the closure
of residential, medical and manufacturing facilities, businesses, and government offices until
appropriate repairs are completed. As stated previously, the largest investment in most
buildings is in the nonstructural components and contents; the failures of these elements may
be both dangerous and costly. The potential consequences of earthquake damage to
nonstructural components are typically divided into three types of risk:

Life Safety (LS)

Could anyone be hurt by this component in an earthquake?

Property Loss (PL)

Could a large property loss result?

Functional Loss (FL)

Could the loss of this component cause an outage or interruption?

Damage to a particular nonstructural item may present differing degrees of risk in each of these
three categories. In addition, damage to the item may result in direct injury or loss, or the
injury or loss may be a secondary effect or a consequence of the failure of the item.
The focus of this guide is on nonstructural hazards;
nevertheless, existing structures may also have structural
hazards that pose risks to life safety, property, and
functionality. While it may make sense to implement simple
and inexpensive nonstructural protection measures even in a
building with structural hazards, the relative structural and
nonstructural risks should be considered, so that limited
resources can be used in the most effective manner. It
would give little comfort to know that the pipes and ceilings
were all well anchored in an unreinforced masonry structure
that could collapse during an earthquake.

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The three risk categories


are also sometimes referred
to as:
the 3Ds: Deaths, Dollars,
and Downtime;
the 3Cs: Casualties, Cost,
and Continuity;
or merely Safety, Property,
and Function.

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2.4.1 LIFE SAFETY (LS)


The first type of risk is that people could be injured or killed by damaged or falling
nonstructural components. Heavy exterior cladding dislodged during earthquakes has killed
passersby (Tally, 1988; Adham and Brent, 1985). Even seemingly harmless items can cause
death if they fall on a victim. If a 25-pound light fixture not properly fastened to the ceiling
breaks loose during an earthquake and falls on someone's head, the potential for injury is
great. Life safety can also be compromised if the damaged nonstructural components block
safe exits in a building. Damage to life safety systems such as fire protection piping can also
pose a safety concern should a fire start following an earthquake. Examples of potentially
hazardous nonstructural damage that have occurred during past earthquakes include broken
glass, overturned tall, heavy cabinets and shelves, falling ceilings and overhead light fixtures,
ruptured gas lines and other piping containing hazardous materials, damaged friable asbestos
materials, falling pieces of decorative brickwork and precast concrete panels, dislodged
contents stored overhead, and collapsed masonry parapets, infill walls, chimneys, and fences.
The following anecdotes from past earthquakes will help to illustrate the point. Damage photos
are shown in Figures 2.4.1-1 thru 2.4.1-5. Additional damage photos are provided in Chapter
6.

More than 170 campuses in the Los Angeles Unified School District suffered
nonstructural damage during the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. At Reseda
High School, the ceiling in a classroom collapsed and covered the desks with debris. The
acoustic ceiling panels fell in relatively large pieces, 3 feet or 4 feet square,
accompanied by pieces of the metal ceiling runners and full-length sections of
fluorescent light fixtures. Because the earthquake occurred during hours when the
building was unoccupied, none of the students were injured (Los Angeles Times, 1994).

A survey of elevator damage following the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake revealed 98
instances in which counterweights came out of the guide rails and six instances where
the counterweight impacted the elevator cab, including one case in which the
counterweight came through the roof of the cab. No injuries were reported (Ding,
1990). An elevator survey following the Northridge Earthquake indicated 688 instances
in which counterweights came out of the guide rails, in addition to reports of other
types of elevator damage. An occurrence of a counterweight becoming dislodged and
impacting the elevator cab was captured on film during the 2010 Chile Earthquake.

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One hospital patient on a life-support system died during the 1994 Northridge
Earthquake because of failure of the hospital's electrical supply (Reitherman, 1994).

During the 1993 Guam Earthquake, the fire-rated nonstructural masonry partitions in
the exit corridors of one resort hotel were extensively cracked, causing many of the
metal fire doors in the corridors to jam. Hotel guests had to break through the gypsum
wallboard partitions between rooms in order to get out of the building, a process that
took as long as several hours. It was fortunate that the earthquake did not cause a fire
in the building and no serious injuries were reported.

Damage to industrial storage racks commonly used in big box stores has been
reported in most recent earthquakes. Damage has ranged from dislodged contents to
partial collapse of racking systems. Collapsed racking systems have been documented
in both the 1994 Northridge Earthquake and the 2010 Christchurch New Zealand
Earthquake. To date, related deaths and casualties have been avoided due to limited
occupancy at the time of earthquake shaking.

Figure 2.4.1-1

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Failure of office partitions, ceilings, and light fixtures in the 1994 Northridge
Earthquake (FEMA 74, 1994).

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Figure 2.4.1-2

Shards of broken untempered glass that fell several stories from a multistory
building in the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. Failures of this type can be very
hazardous, especially if glazing is located above exit ways (FEMA 74, 1994).

Figure 2.4.1-3

Failure of suspended ceilings and light fixtures in a furniture store (FEMA 74,
1994).

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Figure 2.4.1-4

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Failure of heavy stucco soffit at building entrance in the 1994 Northridge


Earthquake (FEMA 74, 1994).

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Figure 2.4.1-5

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Damage to overloaded racks during the 1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge


Earthquake (FEMA 460, 2005).

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2.4.2 PROPERTY LOSS (PL)


As discussed previously, nonstructural components, such as mechanical and electrical
equipment and distribution systems and architectural components, account for 75-85% of the
original construction costs of a typical commercial building. Contents belonging to the building
occupants, such as movable partitions, furniture, and office or medical equipment, represent a
significant additional value at risk. For example, a high tech fabricating facility may have
contents that are worth many times the value of the building and built-in components of the
building. Immediate property losses attributable to contents alone are often estimated to be
one third of the total earthquake losses (FEMA, 1981).
Property losses may be the result of direct damage to a nonstructural item or of the
consequences produced by its damage. If water pipes or fire sprinkler lines break, then the
overall property losses will include the cost to repair the piping (a primary or direct loss), plus
the cost to repair water damage to the facility (a secondary or indirect loss). If the gas supply
line for a water heater ruptures and causes a fire, then clearly the property loss will be much
greater than the cost of a new pipe fitting. Many offices and small businesses suffer losses as a
result of nonstructural earthquake damage but may not keep track of these losses unless they
have earthquake insurance that will help to cover the cleanup and repair costs.

Figure 2.4.2-1

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Complete loss of suspended ceilings and light fixtures in the 1994 Northridge
Earthquake (FEMA 74, 1994).

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Figure 2.4.2-2

Damage to inventory on industrial storage racks in the 1994 Northridge


Earthquake (FEMA 74, 1994).

The nonstructural property losses can be much larger if they occur at library and museum
facilities whose function is to store and maintain valuable contents. For example, as a result of
the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, two libraries in San Francisco each suffered over a million
dollars in damage to building contents; the money was spent primarily on reconstructing the
library stacks, rebinding damaged books, and sorting and reshelving books. At one of these
facilities, $100,000 was spent rebinding a relatively small number of rare books alone (Wong,
1993; Dobb, 1993).

2.4.3 FUNCTIONAL LOSS (FL)


In addition to life safety and property loss considerations, there is the additional possibility that
nonstructural damage will make it difficult or impossible to carry out the functions that were
normally accomplished in a facility. After life safety threats have been addressed, the potential
for postearthquake downtime or reduced productivity is often the most important risk. For
example, if a business loses the use of its computers, filing system, or other instruments of
service as a result of earthquake damage, then the dollar loss of replacing the damaged items
may be relatively small, but the loss in revenue associated with downtime during recovery can
be tremendous. In light of the global economy, loss of function can also translate to longer
term loss of market share for some businesses as consumers find alternate suppliers for
needed goods or services.

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Many external factors may affect postearthquake operations, including power and water
outages, damage to transportation systems, availability of materials and contractors to repair
damage, civil disorder, police lines, and curfews. These effects are generally outside the
control of building owners and tenants and beyond the scope of this discussion.
The following are examples of nonstructural damage that resulted in interruptions to
postearthquake emergency operations or to businesses:

During the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, nonstructural damage caused temporary


closure, evacuation, or patient transfer at ten essential hospital facilities. These
hospitals generally had little or no structural damage but were rendered temporarily
inoperable, primarily because of water damage. At the majority of these facilities, water
leaks occurred when fire sprinkler, chilled-water, or other pipelines broke. In some
cases, personnel were unavailable or unable to shut off the water, and water was flowing
for many hours. At one facility, water up to 2 feet deep was reported at some locations
in the building as a result of damage to the domestic water supply tank on the roof. At
another facility, the emergency generator was disabled when its cooling water line broke
where it crossed a separation joint. Other damage at these facilities included broken
glass, dangling light fixtures, elevator counterweight damage, and lack of emergency
power due to failures in the distribution or control systems. Two of these facilities,
shown in the following figures, Los Angeles County Olive View Medical Center and Holy
Cross Medical Center, both in Sylmar, California, that had suffered severe structural
damage or collapse during the 1971 San Fernando Earthquake had been demolished and
entirely rebuilt by the time of the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (Reitherman, 1994).

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Figure 2.4.3-1

Broken sprinkler pipe at Olive View Hospital in Sylmar, California as a result of


the 1994 Northridge, Earthquake. Pipe ruptured at the elbow joint due to
differential motion of the pipe and ceiling (FEMA 74, 1994).

Figure 2.4.3-2

HVAC damage at Holy Cross Medical Center in Sylmar in the 1994 Northridge
Earthquake. Damage to signage and louvers was caused when suspended fans
in the mechanical penthouse swung and impacted the louver panels. HVAC
service outage caused the temporary evacuation of patients (FEMA 74, 1994).

Of 32 commercial data processing facilities surveyed following the 1989 Loma Prieta
Earthquake, at least 13 were temporarily out of operation for periods ranging from 4 to
56 hours. The primary cause of outage was loss of outside power. Reported damage
included overturning of equipment at two facilities, damage to access floors at four
facilities, movement of large pieces of computer equipment over distances ranging from

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a few inches to 4 feet at 26 facilities, and dislodged ceiling panels at 13 facilities.


Twenty of these facilities reported having an earthquake preparedness program in place
at the time of the earthquake, three reported having no program, and information was
unavailable for nine facilities (Ding, 1990).

The 1971 San Fernando Earthquake caused extensive damage to elevators in the Los
Angeles area, even in some structures where no other damage was reported. An
elevator survey indicated 674 instances in which counterweights came out of the guide
rails, in addition to reports of other types of elevator damage. These elevators were
inoperable until they could be inspected and repaired. Many thousands of businesses
were temporarily affected by these elevator outages. The State of California instituted
seismic elevator code provisions in 1975 with the intent of allowing for safe elevator
shutdown during and after an earthquake (not to make the elevators so earthquakeresistant that they can be relied upon for exiting buildings immediately after an
earthquake). While these provisions appear to have helped reduce elevator damage,
there were still many instances of counterweight damage in the San Francisco area
following the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, and 688 cases in the Northridge Earthquake
in 1994 (Ding, 1990; Reitherman, 1994). . Since the State of California seismic elevator
code provisions have not been adopted nationally, elevator damage including the
potential for life-threatening conditions remains a concern.

In some cases, cleanup costs or the value of lost employee labor are not the key measures of
the postearthquake impact of an earthquake. For example, data processing facilities or
financial institutions must remain operational on a minute-by-minute basis in order to
maintain essential services and to monitor transactions at distant locations. In such cases,
spilled files or damage to communications and computer equipment may represent less
tangible but more significant outage costs. Hospitals and fire and police stations are facilities
with essential functions that must remain operational after an earthquake.

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2.5

COMMON TYPES OF NONSTRUCTURAL EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE

Many types of nonstructural components can be damaged in earthquakes, but the items that
are most vulnerable and most likely to result in injuries, significant property losses, and
interruption will be described here in terms of the risk posed to life safety, property, and
functionality.

2.5.1 LIFE SAFETY


Heavy exterior cladding
Cladding is an architectural element used to provide the
exterior skin for buildings. Often constructed of heavy
precast concrete panels, these panels typically have four
support points, two at the top of the panel connecting it
to the beam above, and two at its base connected to the
level below. Unless specifically designed to
accommodate the anticipated inter-story drift and outof-plane seismic forces, these supports can fail. A
female student was killed in the 1987 Whittier Narrows
Earthquake when a 5,000-pound precast panel fell 25

Threshold for Damage to Unreinforced


Masonry:
Masonry damage has long been used
to estimate earthquake ground motion
intensity in the absence of
instrumental recordings. The Modified
Mercalli Intensity (MMI) scale identifies
levels I to XII to characterize the

feet off of the exterior of a parking garage at California

seismic intensity. MMI Intensity VI and

State University, Los Angeles. The student was

VII both include descriptions of

attempting to exit from the ground floor parking level


when she was struck by the falling panel (Taly, 1988).
Heavy interior walls

cracked masonry that can be used to


estimate the level of ground shaking
(Richter, 1957).
Recent efforts to correlate the MMI

Nonstructural walls in older buildings are often built of


heavy, unreinforced masonry materials such as brick,
concrete block, or hollow clay tile. These materials are
advantageous for fire and sound proofing and thermal
insulation, but are brittle since they do not have a grid of
horizontal and vertical steel reinforcing bars embedded
in them. Falling masonry in hallways and stairwells is a

scale with recorded peak ground


accelerations (PGAs) suggest that the
threshold for masonry damage, MMI
Intensity VI, is associated with low
levels of seismic excitation with PGAs
in the range 0.10g to 0.15g (CISN,
2009).

particular hazard for occupants attempting to exit


buildings during an earthquake.

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Unbraced masonry parapets or other heavy building appendages


Unreinforced masonry parapets are a common feature of vintage commercial construction in
many parts of the country. Parapets are the short walls around the perimeter of a roof,
constructed to help prevent fire from jumping from one roof to the next, to provide guardrail
protection for people on the roof, to hide roof-mounted equipment, or to provide an
architectural effect of greater height. While some communities have enforced ordinances that
require unreinforced masonry parapets to be braced or anchored, many jurisdictions have no
such mandatory provisions. As these parapets often fail at the roofline and fall outwards onto
the sidewalk, they represent a particular hazard for pedestrians and occupants attempting to
exit damaged buildings. Two children were killed on their way to school due to falling
unreinforced stone masonry in Challis, Idaho during the 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake
(Adham and Brent, 1985). Unreinforced masonry parapets have also fallen inward and
penetrated through the roof of buildings.
Unreinforced masonry chimneys
Residential chimneys are typically built of brittle unreinforced brick masonry that may be
damaged even in relatively small earthquakes. This is also true of many commercial chimneys.
Broken chimneys can fall through the roof and pose a safety risk to building occupants. The
1992 Landers Earthquake caused one related fatality where a child was sleeping next to a
fireplace. A similar fatality occurred in the 2000 Napa earthquake where a child sleeping next
to a fireplace was killed during a slumber party. Chimneys can also fall against the side of the
building, onto an adjacent building or onto a public sidewalk, posing a hazard to neighbors or
passersby. Use of a cracked flue chimney can cause an indirect hazard when carbon monoxide
enters a home or leads to ignition of a fire.
Suspended lighting
Suspended overhead lighting is prone to damage in earthquakes, especially if the lights are
supported solely by unbraced suspended ceilings, or if they interact with unbraced piping or
other suspended components. There were several instances where suspended lighting fixtures
in Los Angeles school district classrooms fell during the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. No
casualties occurred since school was not in session at the time of the earthquake.
Large, heavy ceilings
Heavy suspended ceilings and soffits can be damaged during earthquakes, sometimes causing
heavy and dangerous material to fall and injure people below. Figure 2.4.1-2 shows a failed

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stucco soffit above a building entrance damaged in the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. During
the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, the proscenium arch ceiling at the Geary Theatre in San
Francisco fell and covered the first six rows of seats in the auditorium; the theater was not in
use at the time and no one was injured (Ding, 1990).
Tall, slender, and heavy furniture such as bookcases and file cabinets
Tall slender shelving, bookcases, or file cabinets frequently overturn during earthquakes if they
are unanchored or poorly anchored. These items are particularly hazardous if they are located
adjacent to a desk or bed or located where they can jam doors or block corridors and exits.
Recent shaking table tests conducted in Japan predict injuries to occupants represented by
mannequins crushed by tall unanchored pieces of furniture.
Heavy unanchored or poorly anchored contents, such as televisions, computer monitors,
countertop laboratory equipment, and microwaves
Heavy contents situated above the floor level include a wide range of items that could become
falling hazards in an earthquake. Many rooms have overhead wall- or ceiling-mounted
televisions and monitors, offices have desktop computer monitors, or microwaves may be
perched high on counters or shelves. Any of these items could cause injury if they fell and hit
someone; damage to fallen items can add to property loss and downtime. During the 1989
Loma Prieta Earthquake, an overhead monitor fell at the San Francisco International Airport,
hitting a passenger on the shoulder.
Glazing
Damage to storefront windows in older commercial buildings is common during earthquakes,
often causing hazardous conditions on sidewalks in commercial areas. Glazing failures were
relatively common in high-rise buildings in Mexico City in the 1985 Earthquake. U.S.
earthquakes have not yet caused numerous high-rise glazing failures, though it remains a
possibility.
Fire protection piping
Damage to suspended fire protection piping and other system components can render the
system inoperable following an earthquake. The resultant loss of fire life safety protection can
pose a serious risk to the life safety of building occupants.

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Hazardous materials release


There have been a number of examples of hazardous materials release resulting from
earthquake damage to piping, stored chemicals, commercial, medical, or educational laboratory
facilities. Breakage of containers of chemicals can cause them to mix and lead to hazardous
reactions. Exposure of asbestos materials due to earthquake activity has also resulted in the
postearthquake evacuation of facilities that otherwise had little structural damage.
Gas water heaters
Residential and small commercial water heaters have ignited fires following earthquakes, in
instances where the gas supply line was damaged. As water heaters are typically tall and
slender, the gas supply line can break if the water heater tips over.

2.5.2 PROPERTY LOSS


Suspended piping for water or waste
Failures of suspended piping have lead to costly property loss in past earthquakes. While such
failures are not often associated with life threatening injuries, they often result in costly
property loss: both the cost to replace the damaged system and the cost to repair damage
caused by the release of both clean and contaminated or hazardous fluids. Secondary damage
due to fluid release is often a large component of nonstructural property losses.
Suspended fire protection piping
Failures of suspended fire protection piping have resulted in both direct and indirect property
loss following earthquakes. Some of these systems have failed or fallen and had to be replaced.
More costly are the failures of sprinkler piping, connections, or sprinkler heads. These have
resulted in the release of great volumes of water in plenum or occupied spaces. Flooded
plenums have resulted in collapsed ceilings which cause the consequent loss of property and
disruption of operations. In extreme cases, entire floors or buildings were abandoned as a
result of the water damage. Flooding in occupied spaces has resulted in water damage to
furniture, files, computer equipment, and interior finishes. As fire sprinkler lines are
widespread in occupied spaces, this type of failure has been one of the most costly types of
nonstructural damage.

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Unanchored and poorly anchored equipment, particularly roof-mounted equipment and


unrestrained vibration-isolated equipment
Roof-mounted HVAC equipment is often vulnerable to earthquake damage, in part because the
seismic accelerations are typically larger at the roof level than they are at the lower levels of the
building. Such equipment is often mounted on vibration-isolation springs to prevent the
transmission of the equipment vibrations to the building and building occupants. While these
springs allow the equipment to move vertically a small amount in order to isolate its rapid
vibratory motion from the building, this equipment is especially vulnerable to the much larger
motions caused by an earthquake, unless it is also designed with seismic restraints. Damage to
roof-mounted equipment, as well as other suspended or floor-mounted equipment, can disable
the infrastructure of a building.
Partitions
Non-load-bearing gypsum board partitions can be detailed to reduce the impact of seismic
distortions of structural systems, with a connection detail at the top of the partition that allows
the interface with the floor or roof above to accommodate sliding. However, this often is not
detailed properly, resulting in extensive cracking and tearing at joints and points of attachment.
Heavy partitions constructed of concrete masonry units, brick, or hollow clay tile are also often
damaged in earthquakes and are costly to repair. Even when partition damage is minor to
moderate, it may still necessitate complete interior patching and painting and may cause
business interruptions in the affected interior spaces. Pacific Gas & Electric Company, which
operates throughout much of Northern California, reported close to $50 million in area-wide
property damage following the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, much of which was from damage
to gypsum board partitions, glazing, and air conditioning units. While this nonstructural
damage represented relatively minor losses for each building, it added up to large aggregate
losses for the firm (Ding, 1990).
Ceilings
Suspended ceiling systems have failed in many earthquakes resulting in major repair or
replacement costs for the ceilings and interconnected lighting or fire sprinkler lines as well as
interruption in the use of the occupied spaces.

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Hazardous Materials Release


Release of some hazardous materials can create a point of ignition for a fire. An entire three
story university chemistry building burned down to the steel frame as a result of a hazardous
materials release in the 2010 Chile Earthquake (see Section 6.5.4.1).

2.5.3 FUNCTIONAL LOSS


Emergency generators for critical facilities and related components such as day tanks, batteries,
and mufflers
Continued operations of critical facilities following an earthquake depend on the integrity not
only of the emergency generator itself but also of many related subcomponents such as
batteries, battery racks, day tanks, exhaust and sometimes water-cooling connections,
electrical connections to control panels, and mufflers. All of these items must be adequately
restrained or anchored in order for the emergency systems to remain operational.
Suspended piping for water or waste
As noted above, damage to these systems results not only in primary damage to the piping and
connected systems but also can result in costly outages resulting from the release of fluids into
occupied spaces. Also, many facilities cannot operate without water and sanitary sewage
service. As an additional concern, process piping may require extensive inspection prior to
equipment restart, whether it appears damaged or not, resulting in additional time for
functional loss.
Suspended fire protection piping
Failures of suspended fire protection piping have resulted in costly business interruption as well
as disabling hospitals in past earthquakes. The small bore lines and sprinkler heads often are
built in a grid with ceiling and lighting systems; incompatible motions of these systems have
sometimes resulted in damage to the sprinkler heads and subsequent overhead water release.
Hazardous materials release
Breakage of containers of chemicals can cause them to mix and lead to hazardous reactions.
Also, due to disruption of building materials, asbestos release has occurred during
earthquakes. Any of these types of releases can cause building closures, evacuation, and costly
delays until specially trained HAZMAT crews can be brought in to identify and clean the spills.

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Failure of equipment needed for functionality, such as computer data centers, controls, servers,
hubs, routers, switches, and communication systems
Computer networks form the backbone of many operations. Earthquake damage can result in
extended downtime.
Equipment needed for functionality, including HVAC systems
Many facilities cannot maintain operations without HVAC equipment because temperature
control and air filtration systems are required in many hospitals, laboratories, and high tech
manufacturing facilities.
Equipment needed for functionality, such as elevators and conveyors
Many facilities cannot resume normal operations without the use of passenger and freight
elevators or material conveyors. Hospitals need elevators to move gurneys and portable
equipment from floor to floor. Occupants of multistory buildings depend upon the use of
elevators to move work materials, supplies, and equipment.

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3. SURVEY AND ASSESSMENT


PROCEDURES FOR EXISTING
BUILDINGS
The first step toward reducing the nonstructural hazards in an existing building is to perform a
survey to assess the extent and magnitude of the potential risks. This chapter includes survey
guidelines for nonstructural components and describes the inventory form, the checklist, and
the risk ratings that are included in the appendices. In order to make informed decisions
regarding nonstructural seismic risks, owners and managers will need to address the following
questions:

What types of nonstructural components are present in a particular facility?

Are these items adequately braced or anchored?

How will a specific nonstructural item perform in an earthquake, and what are the
consequences of failure of that item in terms of life safety, property loss, and functional
loss?

If the decision is made to upgrade a facility, which problems should be addressed first?

The focus of this guide is on reducing nonstructural seismic hazards, particularly in those areas
where the seismic shaking intensity is expected to be moderate or high and where significant
structural hazards do not exist or will be addressed independently. A simplified map of
probable shaking intensities is presented in Figure 3.2.1-1. If the expected shaking for the
facility in question is minimal, then the survey procedures and seismic protection measures
described in this guide might be undertaken on a voluntary basis but may not be necessary,
and in most cases they would not be required for new construction.

3.1 SURVEY OF NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS


The nonstructural components listed in the tables and checklists provided in the appendices are
at least initially within the scope of the construction of a building and its building permit. After
occupancy of the building, these are items that are most commonly found in commercial,

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multiple-unit residential, or public buildings. A complex facility such as a hospital, research


laboratory, or industrial plant will contain many additional types of specialized equipment that
are not explicitly addressed in this guide.
The goal of a facility survey is to identify nonstructural components that may be vulnerable to
earthquake damage. As noted earlier, it may be advisable to seek the help of a professional
with expertise in this area. During the survey, the following three basic questions should be
kept in mind as each nonstructural item is considered:

Could anyone get hurt by this item in an earthquake? (Life Safety)

Could a large property loss result? (Property Loss)

Would interruptions and outages be a serious problem? (Functional Loss)

For some components, the answers to these three questions may not be immediately obvious,
since failure of an item may result in both direct damage and indirect damage. It is important
not only to view each item as a discrete object that could tip or fall and hurt someone directly,
but also to consider the consequences of failure. Several examples will serve to illustrate the
point:

If a fire sprinkler line breaks, this may cause minor damage to the sprinkler itself but
result in major damage to architectural finishes and contents of the building. Even if the
building does not sustain any other damage, the occupants may not be able to use the
facility until the fire safety system is repaired. The potential for direct and indirect
property losses in this case are much greater than the repair cost for the sprinkler
system.

The battery rack used to start an emergency generator is generally located in a locked
mechanical room and is unlikely to hurt anyone, even if the rack and batteries fall on the
floor. In this case, even though the direct life safety threat is probably low, if the fallen
batteries cannot start the emergency generator, building occupants may be injured
attempting to evacuate the building in the dark, or the lives of hospital patients on lifesupport systems may be jeopardized. Thus the indirect losses are larger than the direct
losses.

Gas-fired residential water heaters have rarely injured anyone as they fall, but they have
frequently caused postearthquake fires due to ruptured gas lines.

A word of caution is in order regarding the field survey. While it may be relatively
straightforward to assess whether or not an item is positively restrained to resist earthquake
forces, the effectiveness of the restraint must also be judged. In the case of bookshelves in an

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office area, there may be hardware anchoring the shelving to the wall, but unless the hardware
is secured to a solid wall or directly to a stud in a partition wall that is also braced, the
anchorage may be ineffective in a strong earthquake. The illustrated examples in Chapter 6
show many photos of unanchored, poorly anchored, and well anchored nonstructural
components and provide seismic mitigation details for many common situations. As shown in
the flowchart in Chapter 1, the reader is advised to complete Chapters 4 and 5 (as applicable)
and to review the illustrations and details in Chapter 6 before performing a facility survey and
reviewing the questions in the checklist. If the checklist asks whether or not something is
securely anchored, then the existing situation should be compared to the seismic mitigation
details shown in Chapter 6 for that or a similar item. Also, the installation notes in Section 6.6
provide general guidance on recommended hardware and procedures.

3.1.1 SURVEY FORMS


The field survey may be performed by using the forms and checklists in Appendices C, D, and E.
Appendix C, the Nonstructural Inventory Form,
shown in Figure 3.1.1-1 contains a blank
nonstructural inventory form that can be used to

Nonstructural Survey Methods for

record field observations. At the start of the survey,

Engineers

this form should be filled in, in order to identify the

The survey method provided here was

facility. This inventory form provides a place to


record field observations made while walking

developed for use by non-engineers.


Nonstructural survey methods for use

through the facility and reviewing the questions in

by engineers are available both in

the checklist in Appendix D. When an item in the

ASCE 31/SEI 31-03 Seismic Evaluation

checklist is noncompliant, it should be entered as a


line item in the inventory form. The form also
contains space to add risk ratings from Appendix E
according to the facilitys seismic shaking intensity;
this could be done during the field survey or could
be added to the form later. The space provided for
notes may be used to identify the type of problem
observed, such as "unanchored" or "bolts
undersized.

of Existing Buildings (ASCE, 2003) and


in Chapter 11 of ASCE/SEI 41-06
Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing
Buildings (ASCE, 2006).
The evaluation methods described in
these ASCE documents are more
quantitative than those presented here
and often require that engineering
calculations be performed to
determine the adequacy of the existing

During the initial survey, it may be helpful to create a

conditions.

list containing a large number of items which may be

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shortened later, perhaps by dropping low-priority items. At the initial stage, it is better to be
conservative and to overestimate vulnerabilities than to be too optimistic. In this version,
Appendix C is provided as a sample of the inventory form prepared by the U.S. Bureau of
Reclamation. The electronic file containing the sorting algorithm can be downloaded from the
Bureaus website at http://www.usbr.gov/ssle/seismicsafety/onlineorders.html.

Figure 3.1.1-1

Sample nonstructural inventory form (from Appendix C).

Appendix D, Checklist of Nonstructural Earthquake Hazards, shown in Figure 3.1.1-2 is a


checklist with questions designed to help identify vulnerable nonstructural items and potential
hazards associated with each item. The checklist should be carried during the field survey to
help identify vulnerable items. The questions on the checklist are all stated in such a way that a
"Noncompliantce (NC)" answer is indicative of a potential problem. Each nonstructural
component with a potential problem should be listed as a line item on the nonstructural
inventory form of Appendix C showing the location and quantity of the item with any relevant
comments. If an example is available for this item in Chapter 6, it may be helpful to note the
detail type and example number for future reference.

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Figure 3.1.1-2

Sample checklist questions from Appendix D.

Appendix E, Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings, summarizes estimated seismic risk ratings
stated as Low, Medium, and High for many common components based on their exposure to
Low, Moderate or High levels of shaking intensity map in Figure 3.2.1-1. The risk ratings are
based on the risk to Life Safety, Property Loss and Functional Loss for unanchored or unbraced
items located at or near the base of a low-rise building of ordinary occupancy. The risk ratings
are further explained in Section 3.2.2 and in the introduction to Appendix E. A sample of the
risk ratings in Appendix E is shown below.

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Figure 3.1.1-3

Sample risk ratings from Appendix E.

3.2 ESTIMATING SEISMIC RISK


There are two aspects of the estimated seismic risk for a given item:

What is the seismic shaking intensity that can be expected at the site?

For a given level of shaking, what is the seismic risk rating of a given nonstructural item in
terms of life safety, property loss, and functional loss?

3.2.1 ESTIMATING SEISMIC SHAKING INTENSITY


Estimating site specific seismic hazards can be a difficult technical problem, requiring many
factors to be taken into account. For the purposes of this nonstructural survey, the shaking
intensity is based solely on regional seismicity. For a particular geographic location in the
United States, the shaking intensity may be estimated by using the map in Figure 3.2.1-1 that
shows the areas that are likely to experience minimal, low, moderate, or high levels of ground
shaking during future probable maximum considered earthquake events. The ground shaking
has been estimated for a stiff soil site. The information in Figure 3.2.1-1 may be summarized
as follows:

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Figure 3.2.1-1

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High level of shaking: Most of California and


Nevada; significant portions of Alaska,
Washington, Oregon, Montana, Wyoming,
Idaho, and Utah; the areas near New Madrid,

Estimating the earthquake forces acting on

Missouri and Charleston, South Carolina;

a particular item in a particular building

small pocket areas in Arizona, New Mexico,

can be a difficult technical problem. In

upper New York, and upper Maine; the islands


of Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and Guam (not shown).

Moderate level of shaking: Areas adjacent to


the areas of high shaking plus pocket areas in
New England, New Mexico, Arizona, West
Texas, Colorado, and Oklahoma.

Engineering Design Forces

Low level of shaking: A portion of the western


States, a significant portion of the central
region of the continental United States east of

order to perform engineering calculations,


an engineer may have to consider the
following factors:

active fault

Minimal level of shaking: Remaining portions


of mid-western, southern continental United
States.

soil conditions at the site (other than


stiff soil)

the flexibility of the building structure

the location of the item in the building

the flexibility of the floor framing or


walls in the immediate vicinity of the

the Rockies and most of New England.

the proximity of the building site to an

item

the flexibility and strength of the item


and its attachments

the weight and configuration of the


item

Shaking intensity estimates based on the probable

details between the item and the

shaking intensity map in Figure 3.2.1-1 should be


adequate for evaluating components situated at or

the characteristics of any connection


structure

near the ground in simple, nonessential facilities. For

the expected relative displacement


between two connection points in

other situations, it may be advisable to choose the

adjacent stories or across a seismic

next higher shaking intensity or to seek the advice of

gap

the function of the item

minimal shaking, upgrade of nonstructural

the function of the facility

components generally would not be warranted unless

Refer to IBC 2006 and ASCE/SEI 7-10 for

professional consultants. Note that in areas with

an owner is particularly risk averse or special


circumstances exist; the current code would not
require many of the protective measures

current seismic design requirements for


nonstructural components and ASCE/SEI
41-06 for existing construction.

recommended herein, even for new construction.

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One reason why the use of professional consultants is recommended for complex facilities is
that the generalized shaking intensity map does not take many engineering factors into
consideration (see sidebar). Clearly, the complexity and detail of engineering calculations
should commensurate with the complexity and importance of the facility and the item in
question. It should be noted that current design codes and standards such as the IBC 2006

International Building Code (ICC, 2006), ASCE/SEI 7-10 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings
and Other Structures (ASCE, 2009), and ASCE/SEI 41-06 Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing
Buildings (ASCE, 2006), reference detailed digitized seismic maps of the United States prepared
by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the 2003 NEHRP Recommended Provisions (BSSC,
2004). These maps consider locations and seismic activity of all known seismic sources and
faults which may affect a given site, and the standards provide procedures for adjusting the
mapped ground motions for site soil conditions. For designs requiring compliance with
building code or national standard requirements, the maps referenced by the code or standard
in effect at the time must be used to establish minimum criteria.
In addition, it may be appropriate to consider more than one earthquake scenario for a
particular facility, since earthquakes of different magnitudes may occur at different average
time intervals. For some facilities, it may be useful to evaluate more probable frequent events,
such as those that are likely to occur every 100 years. While new construction projects have to
anticipate the most severe shaking, others who are doing voluntary retrofits may find it more
economical to plan for a smaller, more frequent event.

3.2.2 ESTIMATING SEISMIC RISK RATINGS


The risk ratings provided in Appendix E are based on a review of damage to nonstructural
components in past earthquakes and on the judgment of the authors and their advisory panel.
Estimates of future earthquake damage to either the structural or nonstructural components of
a building are only thatestimatesand should be used with discretion. The approximations
provided in this guide are adequate for the purpose of making an initial determination of the
seismic risk of the nonstructural components of a simple facility. For a facility that is more
complex, or for one where the potential risk is high, more detailed analyses should be
performed by an in-house engineer or a professional consultant. In this document, the seismic
risks for life safety, property loss, and functional loss have been rated simply as high, medium,
or low for different levels of shaking intensity. Note that these ratings refer to primary losses
caused by damage to the item in question; potential consequences or secondary losses are not
considered. Appendix E contains more detailed notes concerning the definitions and
assumptions used in assigning risk ratings. Stated briefly:

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Life Safety risk is the risk of direct injury by the item.

Property Loss risk is the risk of incurring a cost to repair or replace the item as a result
of damage incurred.

Functional Loss risk is the risk that the item will not function as a result of the damage
incurred.

The estimated risk ratings shown in Appendix E assume that the item is unbraced and
unanchored and are intended for buildings with ordinary occupancies, not for essential
facilities. The primary purpose of this information is to assist in assigning priority ratings,
described below, and to help in identifying the most critical hazards.

3.2.3 ASSIGNING PRIORITY RATINGS


Prioritization may be based on budget constraints, risk considerations (i.e., those elements that
pose the greatest risks to safety, property or function are retrofitted first), availability of
unoccupied space, or to achieve the highest cost to benefit ratio.
A simplified priority rating system might be used to indicate which items are more vulnerable to
earthquake damage and to indicate those items whose failure is most likely to have serious
consequences. All components could be assigned a high, medium, or low priority, or each item
or type of item could be ranked in order from highest to lowest. The highest priority might be
assigned to those components for which all three risk ratings are high. If loss of function is not
a serious concern, then the highest priority might be assigned to items for which the life safety
risk is high and the upgrade cost is lowest, since these hazards could be reduced most costeffectively. The assignment of priorities may vary widely for different types of facilities, and
this document merely provides some guidelines that can be used to establish a ranking system.
In assigning the rating priorities, the requirements for new construction should be considered.
If it is not required for new construction, then it does not make much sense to do a seismic
retrofit of that item in an existing facility.

3.2.4 APPLICATION OF NONSTRUCTURAL GUIDELINES


When estimating seismic risk and assigning priority ratings, it should be noted that current
building codes and seismic design standards for new construction do not require seismic
design of anchorage and bracing for nonstructural components in every part of the United
States.

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In areas denoted as experiencing minimal levels of seismic shaking intensity in Figure


3.2.1-1, no seismic anchorage or bracing of nonstructural components is required.

For most buildings in areas denoted as experiencing low levels of seismic shaking
intensity, only parapets are required to be braced. For essential facilities, all
architectural components are required to be anchored and braced.

In areas denoted as experiencing moderate levels of seismic shaking, all architectural


components are required to anchored and braced. However, in most buildings,
electrical and mechanical components and systems do not require anchorage and
bracing. For essential facilities, mechanical and electrical components are required to
be braced.

In general, in areas denoted as experiencing high levels of seismic shaking intensity, all
architectural, mechanical, and electrical components are required to be anchored and
braced in all buildings.

In addition, current seismic codes and standards also exempt mechanical and electrical
components from bracing or anchoring, regardless of seismic area, in nonessential facilities, if
they weigh less than 400 pounds and are mounted at a height 4 feet or less above the floor or,
if elevated, weigh less than 20 pounds. Distributed systems in nonessential facilities, such as
piping or HVAC ducting, are also exempt from bracing or anchoring if they weigh less than 5
pounds per lineal foot and are provided with flexible connections.
Current seismic codes and standards do not provide much guidance on when seismic
anchorage and bracing are required for contents except for cabinets and computer access
floors which are treated as architectural components. The reason why they are typically not
treated in standards for new construction is that furniture, fixture, equipment and contents are
usually installed after the building has been approved for occupancy by the building official;
thus, the building official no longer has any control over the installation after occupancy
approval has been given.

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4. NONSTRUCTURAL RISK

REDUCTION FOR EXISTING


BUILDINGS

Nonstructural risk reduction programs may vary depending on whether the nonstructural
components in question are in an existing building, a historic facility, an essential facility, a
facility containing hazardous materials, or are planned for a new building. The current chapter
addresses issues related to existing buildings; Chapter 5 addresses issues related to new
construction. Portions of these chapters are written in parallel, yet they are unique to each
chapter. If portions apply to either situation, they appear only once. For instance, the material
on implementation strategies appears only in Chapter 4; the material on current code
requirements and code enforcement appears only in Chapter 5.
There is considerable overlap between the new and existing building categories. For instance,
if an existing building undergoes a major alteration and changes to a higher use category, then
it would be required to comply with current codes in many jurisdictions and thus, the project
requirements would closely resemble those for new construction. Conversely, a new building
becomes an existing building as soon as the occupancy permit is issued. Thus, tenant
improvements and the installation of furniture, fixtures, equipment, and contents for the first
occupants of a leased portion of a new building often take place after the original design team
is finished and the major architectural, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing components are
installed; for this reason, many of the problems involved in coordinating the anchorage of the
tenants components with preexisting components are the same as for a project in an older
existing building.
Historic buildings, essential buildings such as police and fire stations, or facilities that handle
hazardous materials have special requirements, which are typically more complex than those
for ordinary occupancies. While some issues related to these types of facilities are mentioned
here, the treatment of nonstructural components in these facilities is beyond the scope of this
guide. The list of references and additional sources of information may help to address these
issues for specialized facilities.

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4.1 PROGRAM OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE


Several recent earthquakes in the United States have provided evidence suggesting that
nonstructural damage may account for more than 50% of total damage in future domestic
earthquakes. As advances are made in the structural design of buildings, and we experience
fewer structural failures and fewer collapses as a result, the significance of nonstructural
damage becomes more apparent. In addition, postearthquake operations are of increasing
concern not only to essential facilities such as police and fire stations and hospitals, but also to
manufacturing facilities, banks, mobile phone providers, and many other businesses concerned
with loss of revenue or loss of market share that would result from a lengthy outage following
an earthquake. Organizations and owners who want to reduce their seismic exposure will need
to address the nonstructural hazards in their facilities.
Seismic improvements to existing buildings might be mandated by a governmental body or
might be motivated by a desire to provide for postearthquake operations, to reduce future
losses or liability, to reduce insurance premiums, or to increase the resale value of the property.
In most cases, seismic improvements to existing facilities are undertaken on a voluntary basis
and, as a result, organizations and owners have latitude in setting the objectives and defining
the scope of a nonstructural risk reduction program for existing buildings.

4.1.1 VOLUNTARY VS. MANDATORY RISK REDUCTION


In general, a nonstructural risk reduction program for existing buildings would be considered a
voluntary upgrade; that is, a program that is voluntarily undertaken by an owner to reduce the
potential liability and losses in the event of an earthquake. Although current codes have
requirements for bracing and anchorage of nonstructural items, most jurisdictions do not
currently require nonstructural hazards to be addressed retroactively in existing facilities.
There are some notable exceptions, in cases where a jurisdiction may require mandatory
retrofitting of existing nonstructural components. A few of these are listed below:

Many jurisdictions in California have ordinances requiring that unreinforced masonry


parapets, particularly those adjacent to a public right-of-way, be braced or anchored to
prevent collapse in an earthquake.

Some major cities including Chicago, New York, Boston, and Detroit have faade
ordinances that mandate periodic inspection of building faades; while this is not
intended as a seismic requirement, it has the benefit that the architectural cladding,
veneer, ornamentation, and anchors are inspected and maintained on a regular basis.

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Seismic safety legislation (SB 1953) was passed in California in 1994, following the
Northridge Earthquake. That earthquake resulted in the suspension of some or all
services at 23 hospitals and in $3 billion in hospital-related damages. This legislation
requires California hospitals to comply with specific nonstructural hazard mitigation
deadlines, including: (1) major nonstructural items including emergency power supply,
bulk medical gas systems, communication systems, fire alarm systems and exit lighting
are to be braced by 2002; (2) most nonstructural items within critical care areas are to
be braced by 2008; and (3) most nonstructural components within the hospital are to be
braced by 2030. This is an unfunded mandate; the burden of financing these
improvements rests with the health care providers.

Major alterations, additions, or changes of use may trigger code requirements to bring
existing construction, including the nonstructural items, into compliance with the
current code. For instance, conversion of a warehouse to a school building would
trigger requirements for current code compliance in many jurisdictions; check for local
requirements and exemptions.

The rules that apply for voluntary upgrades to existing facilities are typically different than
those that apply to new construction or to mandatory upgrades. While it may be desirable to
design the nonstructural anchorage details for existing equipment in existing buildings using
the current code, it is not typically required for voluntary upgrades. In order to describe the
spectrum of risk reduction objectives, it is useful to introduce some performance-based design
concepts.

4.1.2 PERFORMANCE-BASED DESIGN CONCEPTS


The use of performance-based design concepts requires a discussion between building design
professionals and their clients about performance expectations and seismic risk tolerance.
Performance-based design provides terminology to characterize seismic risk and seismic
performance and provides a framework for making comparisons between varying levels of
seismic hazard, structural and nonstructural performance, postearthquake functionality,
acceptable and unacceptable damage, and total earthquake losses over the expected life of the
facility. Design professionals, organizational risk managers, building owners, business owners,
and tenants all need to have an understanding of the tradeoffs between risk and reward; an
understanding that seismic design and investment choices have a relationship to expected
future performance and potential future losses. The parties all need to understand that they
make choices, both passive and active, based on their understanding of the issues and their

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seismic risk tolerance. One may choose to live with


known seismic risks or choose to initiate programs to
reduce some or all of the known hazards; either way, a
choice must to be made.

Analogy: Financial Risk


Tolerance
One of the first things most

Performance-based design concepts have been in

financial advisors do with new

development for several decades; this process is

clients is to present them with

ongoing. These concepts are gradually finding their


way into the building codes used for new construction,
such as IBC 2006 International Building Code (ICC,

2006) and ASCE/SEI 7-10 Minimum Design Loads for


Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE, 2010), and into
the building standards used for the evaluation and
retrofitting of existing structures, ASCE/SEI 31-03

an investment questionnaire to
gauge how they feel about
risking their money; that is, to
assess what is referred to as
their investment risk
tolerance." The investment
advisor cannot make
reasonable recommendations

Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings (ASCE, 2003)

on how to allocate the clients

and ASCE/SEI 41-06 Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing

assets without knowing

Buildings (ASCE, 2006), respectively. Previous editions


of U.S. building codes were based on the philosophy
that structures should not collapse in a major
earthquake but might suffer severe structural and
nonstructural damage; this was a minimum life safety
standard and is roughly comparable to the Basic Safety
Objective that is now described in ASCE/SEI 41-06.

something about their


tolerance for financial risk. Is
the investor conservative,
moderate, or aggressive?
Given the tradeoffs between
risk and reward, do they have
a low, medium, or high
tolerance for financial risk?

Although engineers were aware that a code design


was only meeting minimum standards, it is not clear
that building owners and occupants had a similar understanding. What is significant about
performance-based design concepts is that they are used to describe a range of objectives and
that they make the choice of performance objectives an explicit part of the design process; the
design professional and the client need to discuss and agree on those performance objectives.
While it is not relevant to describe the engineering design process of ASCE/SEI 41-06 in detail
here, it is relevant to describe the decision making process used to determine the scope and
desired performance objectives for a voluntary upgrade. Note that in addition to the Basic
Safety Objective, the standard provides guidance on choosing objectives for voluntary upgrades
that are both more ambitious, Enhanced, and less ambitious, Limited, than the Basic Safety
Objective. The choice of objective will determine which hazards are addressed, what

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performance is likely following a major earthquake, and how much structural and nonstructural
damage the facility is likely to sustain.
Several key questions as posed in ASCE/SEI 41-06 are listed below. The array of performance
options described in ASCE/SEI 41-06 is shown in Table 4.1.2-1:

What are the retrofitting objectives?

What earthquake scenario(s) are most relevant for this facility?

What kind of postearthquake functionality is required for this facility?

What target structural performance level is required for this facility?

What target nonstructural performance level is required for the facility?

What target building performance level is required for the facility, and how does that
relate to the target levels of structural and nonstructural performance and to the
expected postearthquake damage state for the facility?

What combination of choices meet the ASCE/SEI 41-06 Basic Safety Objectives?
Enhanced Objectives? Limited Objectives?

Table 4.1.2-1

Target Building Performance Levels (after ASCE/SEI 41-06)

Target Building
Performance
Level
Operational Level

Expected Postearthquake
Damage State
Backup utility services maintain

function; very little structural or


nonstructural damage

Immediate

Occupancy

The building remains safe to


occupy; any structural or

nonstructural repairs are minor

Intermediate

Target
Nonstructural
Performance Level

Immediate

Operational

Immediate

Immediate

Occupancy

Occupancy

Occupancy

Damage Control

Level

Life Safety

Target Structural
Performance
Level

Structure remains stable and has


significant reserve capacity;

Life Safety

Life Safety

Limited Safety

Hazards Reduced

Collapse

Not Considered

hazardous nonstructural damage


is controlled
Intermediate
Level

Collapse

Prevention

The building remains standing,

but only barely; the building may


have severe structural and

Prevention

nonstructural damage

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According to ASCE/SEI 41-06, the


Basic Safety Objective is achieved by
the following combination:

Design for Life Safety Building

Performance for Basic Safety


Earthquake 1 (earthquake that
occurs every 500 years), AND

Design for Collapse Prevention

Building Performance for Basic


Safety Earthquake 2 (earthquake
that occurs every 2500 years).

Limited and Enhanced Rehabilitation Objectives


per ASCE/SEI 41-06
Besides the stated requirements for the Basic
Safety Objective, all other combinations of
performance levels and seismic hazard levels are
characterized as either Enhanced or Limited
objectives. In comparison with the Basic Safety
Objective, a higher performance level correlates
with less damage, lower losses, and increased
functionality, whereas a lower performance level

All other combinations of

correlates with more damage, higher losses, and

performance levels and seismic

reduced functionality. The following are

hazard levels are characterized as


either Limited or Enhanced

examples of Limited Rehabilitation Objectives:

objectives (for more on this, see

Address only serious nonstructural falling


hazards considering a small, frequent

sidebar at right).

seismic event, i.e., according to ASCE/SEI


41-06 terminology, target for a Hazards

As seen in Table 4.1.2-1, an effort to

Reduced nonstructural performance level,

preserve postearthquake operations


at either the Immediate Occupancy

considering the 50%/50 year event.

level or the Operational levels

Address all nonstructural life safety


hazards without consideration of
structural hazards, i.e., according to

require that both structural and

ASCE/SEI 41-06 terminology, target for a

nonstructural hazards be addressed.

Life Safety nonstructural performance

Indeed, the higher Operational

level for any chosen earthquake scenario.

standard for nonstructural


components is what differentiates

In contrast, the following is an example for an

these two enhanced levels of

Enhanced Rehabilitation Objective:

building performance. Per ASCE/SEI


41-06, the differences in design
between the different target levels of
building performance are higher or

Provide reduced damage and increased


functionality, i.e., according to ASCE/SEI
41-06 terminology, design for Immediate

Occupancy Building Performance for any

lower seismic design forces and

earthquake hazard level. Note that to

explicit design for more or fewer

achieve this performance level, both

nonstructural components.
Engineering analysis methods, such

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may be required.

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as nonlinear analysis or the push-over method, are available and can be used to check whether
or not the design meets the target performance objectives. There are many other questions
that may help refine the project objectives and scope of work, such as:

What kind of losses can the business or organization tolerate after an earthquake?

How much downtime can the organization tolerate before employees, clients, or
customers go elsewhere?

Does the organization have earthquake insurance? If so, how much of the losses are
covered? What are the deductibles? What is the cost-benefit ratio of doing upgrades
versus providing coverage and suffering a loss?

Is this a historic building, essential facility, or facility with specialized or unique


considerations?

What nonstructural components are under your direct control? Architectural?


Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP)? Furniture, fixtures, equipment (FF&E)?
Contents? Or all of these?

Will the project include upgrades to only MEP and architectural components, or will
FF&E and contents be included as well?

What are the most hazardous nonstructural components?

For leased facilities, which elements are responsibilities of the owner and which are
responsibilities of the occupants?

If the owner has undertaken any seismic upgrades, is there a report available describing
the project objectives or design level? Were nonstructural items addressed?

Are there any incentives a lessee can offer a building owner to improve the safety of
leased space?

Do you need to consider relocation to another space that provides an increased level of
seismic safety?

The point of including this discussion is not to discourage the reader by presenting the design
process as a complex system, tempting the reader to conclude that it would be much easier to
do nothing. The point of the discussion is to emphasize that choices need to be made in
deciding how to manage seismic risk. Resources are always limited, and seismic risks must be
balanced against many other types of risk. Whatever seismic hazard reduction objectives are
selected, they should be chosen with an understanding of the risks and rewards. A decision to
mitigate known seismic hazards, particularly dangerous life safety hazards, would generally be
considered both reasonable and prudent, even if it were not mandated by law. A decision to
upgrade a complex facility to Immediate Occupancy or Operational performance level is a major
and complex undertaking, since facility operations may depend on the continued function of

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hundreds or thousands of individual nonstructural components. Such an upgrade should not


be undertaken without an understanding of the costs and benefits of such a program.

4.1.3 LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS


A common concern voiced by building owners who are considering seismic improvement
projects for their building or its nonstructural contents and components is the question of legal
liability. A persistent belief is that one should not do anything, because if a life safety issue is
uncovered and is made known to the owner, then the owner may be liable for any injuries or
deaths that arise due to a severe earthquake damaging their building. This ignorance is bliss
approach is not supported by legal precedents.
The legal issues involved are not black and white and may depend on the type of the facility,
the sophistication of the owner, and the number of occupants at risk. There are two ways of
looking at these issues:

One view is that the standard of care of any owner is to act reasonably and to exercise
ordinary care in managing the property. This care includes inspecting and maintaining
owned buildings in a safe condition. Safety is usually measured against the building
standard in effect at the time when the building was constructed, not the current code
or any current evaluation standard for existing buildings. Therefore, if owners choose
to evaluate their building using a more modern standard and uncover issues in doing
so, it is then at their discretion on how, when, and if to act on these data in a voluntary
manner.

Another view is that if an owner is aware of a dangerous condition on their property,


they have an affirmative duty to warn those affected or to mitigate the hazard.

If an owner does undertake a project or program to study and possibly to improve the seismic
performance of a building or a buildings nonstructural components, then the following is
recommended to provide transparency:

Ensure that any inspection is conducted by competent, qualified, and experienced

parties

Use widely accepted inspection, design, and construction standards such as those from

FEMA, ASCE or other national or internationally recognized standard organizations

Develop clear and complete documentation of decisions and actions


Establish processes to ensure that all work is performed properly

Implement any remedial actions through experienced contractors

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Proceed without creating any dangerous conditions and without making the building
performance worse than it was before

Proceed in a reasonable and responsible manner

The position of the authors is that an owner is much better off being proactive and doing
something to investigate or improve the performance of a building and its nonstructural
components and contents than doing nothing. Ultimately, however, an owners decision to
undertake such a remediation project is his or hers alone, and many considerations, such as
public relations, risk tolerance, affordability, and market conditions will undoubtedly be
factored into the decision.
It is recommended that an owner concerned with these issues seek appropriate legal counsel
with expertise in construction law and seismic mitigation issues, to assist in their decision
making process.

4.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


The selection of design solutions must be consistent with the scope and objectives selected for
the project. Some design solutions can be implemented without consideration of the building
code and without engineering expertise. Other design solutions rely on building codes and
standards, such as ASCE/SEI 7-10, ASCE/SEI 31-03, and ASCE/SEI 41-06, that all contain
elements of the performance-based design methods discussed above. If engineering
consultants are engaged to provide design solutions, the selection of seismic force levels,
design coefficients, and design methods depends upon the performance objectives selected.
Specific design solutions for nonstructural items fall into three broad categories:
NON-ENGINEERED (NE): These are typically simple, generic details or common sense
measures that can be implemented by a handy worker or maintenance personnel using
standard items from any hardware store. Many of these solutions apply to contents that
are not directly covered by building code provisions. As an example, Chapter 6 contains
a detail showing the general configuration for anchoring a bookcase to a stud wall (see
Figure 6.5.2.1-4) and identifies the parts needed but does not explicitly indicate the
size of the angle bracket or screws needed; this is left to the handy worker based on the
size and weight of the particular bookcase and the type and spacing of studs. Some of
these types of solutions have failed in past earthquakes, usually due to undersized bolts
and hardware or because bolts have failed to engage a structural member. As a result,

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non-engineered solutions are generally not appropriate for hospitals or other facilities
that have chosen operational functionality as a performance level objective.
PRESCRIPTIVE (PR): Prescriptive design details are available in the public domain that
have been engineered to meet or exceed code requirements for a set of common
conditions and can be used directly in many situations. One prescriptive detail included
in Chapter 6 is the anchorage detail for a residential or small commercial water heater
(see Figure 6.4.2.4-6). This detail is applicable for the anchorage of a water heater, up
to 100 gallons, attached to a wood stud wall. The detail calls out the required hardware
and the size and spacing of fasteners.
While there are only a limited number of these details currently available, we anticipate
that more such details will be developed as engineers, architects, and specialty
contractors become more familiar with the new code requirements for nonstructural
components. Some of the prescriptive details have been developed by or for the Office
of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), the entity in California
responsible for overseeing hospital design.
ENGINEERING REQUIRED (ER): These are nonstructural anchorage details specifically
developed by a design professional on a case-by-case basis for a specific set of
conditions. First, the owner and design professional need to agree on the desired level
of protection for the anticipated level of shaking, only then can the design professional
develop details consistent with the objectives. Design methods and design coefficients
are selected based on the performance objectives as discussed above. An anchorage
detail designed for a lateral force of 1.0 g will generally be more robust and more costly
than one designed for a lateral force of 0.1g. Higher design forces and more complex
engineering methods may be required to meet higher performance objectives.
As part of the design process, it may be important to consider a number of issues:

Interaction of nonstructural components. Many nonstructural systems are


interconnected or interdependent; items in close proximity can impact one another and
tall or overhead items can fall and damage items below. Lights, ceilings, diffusers,
ducts, piping, sprinkler heads, and variable air volume boxes may all share the plenum
space above the ceiling and it may be challenging to find ways to keep them separated
and to provide independent support for all of them.

Interaction of nonstructural and structural components. Nonstructural components may


be damaged by the deformations of structural components. Items that cross seismic

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separations between buildings, connect at adjacent floor levels, or are located in base
isolated structures have special design considerations based on the expected
deformations of the structural system.

Strength of structural components. Since nonstructural components typically anchor to


structural slabs, walls, and framing, it is important that the capacity of these
components be checked for adequacy when tall and heavy items are being anchored to
them.

Location. Design forces are typically higher for items located in mid- and high-rise
buildings and on roofs. The location of the item in the building may influence the
design.

Primary vs. secondary effects of failure. If failure of an item may result in the release of
water or hazardous materials such as toxins, chemicals, or asbestos, it may warrant
additional attention to address these damaging secondary effects.

System performance. Fire protection systems, emergency power generation systems,


and computer and communication networks are systems that depend on the
functionality of multiple components; the failure of any part might compromise the
functionality of the system. All related components must be checked if the system is
required for functionality.

Emergency egress. Items located over exits, in stairways, and along exit corridors may
warrant special attention in order to ensure the safe exit of building occupants.

4.3 PROJECT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES


There are a number of options to consider in implementing a program to reduce the
vulnerability of nonstructural components. As described above, one of the critical first steps is
to define the project objectives with a clear understanding of what these basic, enhanced, or
limited objectives will mean in terms of the expected performance of the facility and amount of
structural and nonstructural damage that is expected to occur for a given level of shaking.

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It is important to understand at the outset the


level of commitment that is required from the
organization in order to achieve the desired

Additional References for Architects and

objectives. In order to achieve the Hazards

Engineers

Reduced nonstructural performance level, the


bracing or anchoring of several obvious
nonstructural falling hazards at a small
commercial location may be accomplished by a
skilled laborer over several weekends without
any employee involvement. On the other hand,
achieving the enhanced objectives which would
allow for Immediate Occupancy or Operational
performance levels requires a major
commitment from the top down in an
organization. Achieving a level of readiness

FEMA has published a series of guides


addressing the incremental seismic
rehabilitation of various types of
facilities, including the related
nonstructural components, as follows:
FEMA 395

Schools (FEMA, 2003)

FEMA 396

Hospitals (FEMA, 2003)

FEMA 397

Offices (FEMA, 2003)

FEMA 398

Multifamily Apartment
Buildings (FEMA, 2004)

that will allow a facility to remain fully


operational will likely require both structural
and nonstructural upgrades and a commitment
of capital, both initial and ongoing; time for
employee training; downtime for
implementation; incorporation with purchasing,

FEMA 399

Retail Buildings (FEMA,


2004)

FEMA 400

Hotel and Motel


Buildings (FEMA, 2004)

operations, maintenance, facilities, and clear


assignment of responsibilities for implementation and ongoing program maintenance.
It is also important that someone at the planning stage takes a broad view of what is proposed.
A facility survey will identify the items and areas of the facility that will be affected. As the
objective is to improve seismic safety, it is important to also take note of existing seismic
protections and see that these components are not compromised. It may be necessary to
evaluate the strength of existing partition walls and floor or roof framing to see that these
components have sufficient capacity to support the nonstructural items to be anchored. In
some cases, structural components may need strengthening in order to support the loads from
the nonstructural components.
Once the project objectives are defined, there are a range of different strategies that can be
used for implementation. Installation of protective measures can be done immediately, in
phases, as part of routine maintenance or scheduled remodeling. A comparison of preliminary

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cost estimates and schedules for several different implementation strategies consistent with the
project objectives may help in deciding which implementation strategy will work best.

4.3.1 INTEGRATION WITH MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS


One of the easier means of gradually implementing earthquake protection in an existing
building is to train maintenance personnel to identify and to properly mitigate nonstructural
hazards that they may discover as they survey the building for other purposes or to mitigate
problems identified by an outside consultant engineer. The disadvantages of this approach are
that protection is increased only gradually and the potential cost savings from doing several
related projects at the same time may be lost.
Once nonstructural bracing and anchorage are installed, maintenance personnel should be
trained to inspect and monitor the installations and be responsible for the upkeep of the
protective measures where appropriate. For facilities with specialized equipment, this
maintenance function must be performed by someone familiar with the equipment to ensure
that the protective measures are installed and maintained without compromising the equipment
functionality.

4.3.2 INTEGRATION WITH REMODELING


If there are other reasons for remodeling, there may be an opportunity to increase the
protection of several nonstructural components at the same time, especially ceilings, partitions,
windows, piping, and other built-in features. If an architect, interior designer, or contractor is
handling the remodeling, the possibility of incorporating additional earthquake protection into
the space should be discussed, and a structural engineer's expertise should be employed where
indicated. Newly installed components will need to comply with current code requirements.
Depending on the scope, the remodel may also trigger requirements to bring some existing
components of the facility into compliance with current code; check the requirements for
additions and alterations with the local jurisdiction.
A word of caution: In some cases, remodeling efforts have reduced rather than increased the
level of earthquake protection through the accidental modification of components that
originally received some seismic protection as a result of the input of a structural engineer or
architect. It is important not to compromise existing seismic protections; it is also important
not to overload partition walls, floor or roof framing, or an existing ceiling grid by using them
to brace or anchor items that are too heavy. In some instances, the remodeling scope may

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need to be extended to include ceilings, partitions, or structural components so that the


strength of these components can be upgraded to support additional loading.

4.3.3 PHASED OR INCREMENTAL UPGRADING


In some cases, it may be possible to upgrade different areas within a building at different times
or to select one or more types of nonstructural components throughout a building and upgrade
them at the same time. Some projects can be completed in a weekend, making it possible to
upgrade equipment or other items without interrupting the normal work flow. Companies with
annual shutdown periods may find it wise to upgrade the highest-priority items during each
annual shutdown. Work that interrupts the use of a space, such as setting up ladders or
scaffolding to work on the ceiling or ceiling-located items, could be restricted to limited areas
in a facility at a given time, minimizing the overall disruption.
An all-at-once implementation process, similar to that used in new construction, can be used in
existing facilities either when the extent of the work required is small or when the work is
extensive but the resulting disruption is tolerable. A favorable time for this approach is when a
building is temporarily vacant, such as during planned renovations.

4.3.4 INTEGRATION WITH PURCHASING


A guideline with a list of nonstructural items could be created to indicate special purchasing
considerations. For example, file cabinets should have strong latches and wall or floor
attachments, bookcases should have bracing and floor or wall attachments, and server racks
should come with seismic detailing. Increasingly, vendors are marketing items with "seismicresistant" details such as predrilled holes for anchorage. There are also many vendors that
supply hardware and kits for seismic anchorage of equipment and furniture; these items should
be stockpiled or ordered routinely along with each new equipment purchase. The effective use
of these guidelines requires coordination between the purchasing and facilities or operations
functions.
Integration with purchasing may be used in conjunction with any of the other strategies. If
used alone, it will improve the safety of newly purchased items, but will not enhance the safety
of existing items or address architectural items such as parapets, partitions, or ceilings. Over
time, the safety of the facility will gradually improve as new items are purchased and existing
items are replaced.

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4.4 RESPONSIBILITY AND PROGRAM MANAGEMENT


4.4.1 RESPONSIBILITY
Successful implementation of a nonstructural risk reduction program may involve many steps,
including integration of the risk reduction program with the overall mission or business plan
and balancing the seismic risks with other risks that businesses and organizations face.
Program tasks may include planning, budgeting, scheduling, allocation of in-house resources
and personnel, selection of outside consultants and contractors, contract negotiation and
administration, coordination of numerous trades, managing outages or disruption, facility
surveys, installation, inspection, oversight, purchasing, evaluation, and ongoing maintenance of
the seismic protection measures. Assigning clear responsibility for each task is important to
the success of any risk reduction program. Figure 4.4.1-1 shows an example of a responsibility
matrix that could be readily adapted by listing the nonstructural components for a particular
project. This example format can be used to track who is responsible for design, design
review, installation, and observation. If special inspection is required, this could also be added
to the table. Appendix B contains templates for use in assigning responsibility for design,
construction and inspection of nonstructural installations governed by ASCE/SEI 7-10. The
responsibility matrices are intended to be used in conjunction with the construction
specification in Appendix A.
One of the initial tasks is to assess the capabilities of in-house resources and the need for
outside consultants. The answer depends on the nature of the physical conditions in the facility
and the characteristics of the organization.

In-house implementation can be adequate where the potential hazard is small or the inhouse familiarity with engineering and construction is greater than average.

Specialized consultants with experience in the evaluation and reduction of nonstructural


risks may be required for essential facilities or larger and more complex facilities where
the potential hazards or potential losses are high.

Facilities with moderate risk may fall in between these two examples and use a
combination of expert advice and in-house implementation. For example, after an
initial survey is conducted and a report is prepared by an expert, the remainder of the
implementation might be handled in-house without further assistance.

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Job Aid:
Nonstructural Component Seismic Resistance Responsibility Matrix
Who is Responsible for:
Type of Nonstructural
Component or System
Access Floor (raised)
Ceilings

Design

Design Review

Installation

Observation

Suspended T-bar
Gypsum Board (hung)

Electrical Equipment
Busduct / Cable Trays
Power Generator
Light fixtures
Main Service Panel
Transformers

Elevator

Cable guides

Escalator
Exterior Cladding:
EIFS
GFRC
Metal Panels
Precast Concrete

Exterior Window Walls


Fire Sprinkler System
Fluid Tanks
Mechanical Equipment
Air Handlers
Boilers
Chillers
Cooling Tower
Condensers
Ductwork / VAV box
Fans
Furnaces
Piping Systems
Pumps

Interior Partitions
Other Equipment
Stairs
Storage Racks
Veneer
Brick
Stone

Water Heater
Figure 4.4.1-1

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One of the larger nonstructural earthquake hazard evaluation and upgrade programs is that of
the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) for its hospitals. The typical procedure followed by
the VA is to hire consultant experts to assess the seismic risk at the site, to review the facility
and list specific nonstructural items that are vulnerable to future earthquakes, and to provide
estimated upgrade costs and group the items by priority. Once the consultants have
established the program outline, the VA maintenance staff at each hospital is given many of the
implementation tasks. As mentioned in the introduction, there are limits to the self-help
diagnosis and prescription approach; especially if larger buildings or more serious safety
hazards, property risks, or critical functional requirements are involved, the use of consultants
may be advisable.
Consultants and design professionals could be used to assist with any or all of the tasks from
program planning through implementation. Outside consultants that could facilitate planning,
design, and implementation may include the following:

Risk managers

Earthquake engineers

Structural engineers

Civil engineers

Architects

Mechanical engineers

Electrical engineers

Interior designers

Specialty contractors

Special inspectors

Vendors of specialty hardware and seismic protection devices

Many architects and engineers are qualified to design bracing or anchorage for simple
nonstructural items. However, the design of anchorage and bracing for specialized equipment
or for the systems needed to maintain operations in a hospital or manufacturing facility
requires specialized experience with seismic design for nonstructural components. While there
currently is not a recognized professional designation for someone with this type of experience,
there may be one in the future. The job requires familiarity with MEP equipment and piping,
architectural components, issues such as fire protection, and requirements of the Americans
with Disabilities Act, computer networks, industrial storage racks, and all the other categories
of nonstructural components and contents. When selecting outside consultants, check that

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they have experience with nonstructural seismic design, preferably specific experience with the
type of equipment or facility in question.

4.4.2 SUSTAINING PROTECTION


On an organizational level, sustaining protection generally requires a serious commitment from
management and may include development of seismic planning guidelines for the organization,
development of purchasing guidelines, ongoing personnel training, periodic facility audits, and
incorporation into annual staff reviews. It is sometimes more problematic to maintain the
human aspects than hardware aspects of nonstructural protection. Over time, interior
fastenings and restraints may be removed as people move equipment or other items and fail to
reinstall the protective devices. Chains used to restrain gas cylinders or elastic shock cords on
bookshelves are effective only when they are in use. This is also true of tethers on office
copiers, countertop lab equipment, or vending machines. Some nonstructural protection
devices, such as anchorage hardware for exterior objects, may deteriorate with time if not
protected from rust. New items may be purchased and installed without seismic protection in
the absence of purchasing guidelines. As noted above, remodeling projects can sometimes
result in the elimination of protective features if there are no seismic guidelines.
Training is required to ensure that gas cylinders, storage rack contents, lab and office
equipment, and chemicals are properly stored. Maintenance personnel may periodically survey
the building to find out whether or not earthquake protection measures are still effectively
protecting mechanical equipment such as emergency generators, water heaters, and specialized
equipment. Additionally, supervisors can be made responsible for an annual review of their
work spaces. If there is a separate facility or physical plant office in an organization, it may be
a logical place for the responsibility for sustaining protection to reside. Organizations with
safety departments have successfully assigned the role of overseeing nonstructural earthquake
protection to this functional area.
An earthquake risk reduction program should conform to the nature of the organization. In the
case of the University of California, Santa Barbara, the implementation and maintenance of a
campus wide program to address nonstructural earthquake hazards was initiated by a one page
policy memo from the chancellor. Each department head was made responsible for
implementation of the policy, and the campus Office of Environmental Health and Safety was
given the job of advising departments on implementation, making surveys, and evaluating the
program's overall effectiveness (Huttenbach, 1980; Steinmetz, 1979).

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4.4.3 PROGRAM EVALUATION


To assess whether the nonstructural risk reduction program was worth the cost, the strong
points and deficiencies of the program need to be established. There are two program
evaluation techniques to employ in accomplishing this task. The first is to ask:

How well has the program met its stated objectives?

Have the costs been within the budget?

Have the tasks been completed on schedule?

Is the scope of the effort as broad as was originally intended, or have some items
been neglected that were targeted for upgrades?

Have employee training exercises or other features of the plan all been
implemented?

How well have the measures been implemented?

Have the upgrade details been correctly installed?

Is the training taken seriously?

Do we need to modify (either enhance or reduce) our objectives going forward?

The second evaluation technique is to ask:

If the earthquake happened today, how much would the losses be reduced by due to
the nonstructural protection program?

Have the costs been worth the benefits?

4.5 COST BENCHMARKS EXAMPLES


4.5.1 EXAMPLE 1 MANUFACTURING FACILITY
The nonstructural components throughout a 500,000 square foot manufacturing facility located
in the heart of the New Madrid Seismic Zone were upgraded for improved seismic performance.
The facility was originally built in the late 1970s with several periodic expansions constructed
into the early 1990s. The project included anchorage and bracing of existing nonstructural
components in both manufacturing and office space.
Following a structural evaluation confirming life safety structural performance, a facility-wide
nonstructural earthquake risk assessment was conducted and concluded that many of the
nonstructural components failed to satisfy the life safety performance objective defined in
ASCE/SEI 41-06. A subsequent engineering design phase was performed to design bracing and

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anchorage for nonstructural components not meeting the performance objective. The
strengthening measures included bracing for all natural gas piping and equipment, fire
protection piping systems, and emergency power systems as well as items whose damage could
pose a threat to the life safety or the egress of building occupants. This included restraints for
overhead office lights, bracing of tall unreinforced masonry walls and equipment suspended
overhead, and anchorage of floor mounted equipment whose overturning or sliding could block
the emergency exit routes for the facility.
The design began in 2006 with an 8 month construction schedule completed in mid-2008. The
facility was fully operational throughout construction. Regular communication between the
owner, design team, and contractor were cited as key to the project success. Scheduling
requirements such as night shifts and work sequencing were incorporated into the design
documents and the construction schedule to give the entire construction team a clear
understanding of the challenges of working in a 24/7 manufacturing facility.
The approximate cost breakdown for the project in 2007 dollars is summarized in Table 4.5.11.
Table 4.5.1-1

Approximate Cost Breakdown for Manufacturing Facility Upgrade Project


Project Cost

Consultant Fees (Design & Construction)

$200,000

Construction Costs

$700,000

Inspection and Testing

$25,000

Total

$925,000

Average Cost

$2/square foot

4.5.2 EXAMPLE 2 SCHOOL DISTRICT


A pilot project was undertaken to determine the magnitude of costs associated with
implementation of nonstructural damage mitigation measures in a California school district.
The pilot project addressed contents and equipment, overhead components and hazardous
materials. Nonstructural hazards were surveyed and prioritized in three groups. The highest
priority category included those items judged to pose the greatest safety risk. Among the
components included were tall bookshelves and filing cabinets, suspended lighting, heavy

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ceiling systems, and hazardous materials. Roughly half of the items at risk were judged to be in
the highest priority category.
A total of seventeen schools were included in the pilot program. The current cost to address the
highest priority items ranged from roughly $20,000 per school (primarily to address tall
cabinets and files) to $400,000 per school in 2008 dollars (requiring work on suspended
components as well as floor- and wall-mounted items).

4.5.3 EXAMPLE 3 CALIFORNIA HOSPITAL


Seismic upgrading of nonstructural components was undertaken as a stand-alone project in
response to SB 1953 regulations, which require California Hospitals to comply with specified
nonstructural hazard reduction milestones by December 31, 2008 (see discussion in Section
4.1.1).
The subject hospital is a 228-bed acute care hospital of roughly 230,000 gross square feet,
built in the 1970s. The project included anchoring and bracing nonstructural components in
designated areas throughout the hospital including central and sterile supply, clinical laboratory
service spaces, pharmacy, radiology, intensive care units, coronary care units, angiography
laboratories, cardiac catheterization laboratories, delivery rooms, emergency rooms, operating
rooms, and recovery rooms. Also included in the scope was the anchorage and bracing of
mechanical and electrical equipment serving the designated areas.
Floor-mounted equipment, wall-mounted items weighing over 20 pounds, suspended
equipment, piping, and ceilings were included among the items addressed in the project.
Seismic anchorage was designed for compliance with 2001 California Building Code
requirements.
The primary project challenge was to maintain uninterrupted hospital services 24/7 while
accomplishing the mandated work. This required planning efforts by hospital administrators,
doctors, nurses, the design team consisting of architects, structural, mechanical, and electrical
engineers, contractors and subcontractors. Planning commenced in mid-2003; construction
was completed at the end of 2007. The work was successfully completed by working in small
areas at a time, often at nights for short durations. In order to complete the work in the
intensive care unit, an available wing of the hospital was completely remodeled as swing
space to enable patients to be relocated from the intensive care unit to the remodeled wing,
thereby providing the contractor unrestricted access to complete nonstructural upgrading in the
intensive care unit. Work throughout the hospital was complicated by the presence of asbestos

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in the fireproofing at the underside of the floors. Hazardous material abatement preceded all
work.
The cost breakdown for the project in 2007 dollars is summarized in Table 4.5.3-1.
Table 4.5.3-1

Cost Breakdown for California Hospital Upgrade Project


Base Project

Swing Space

Total

Consultant fees

$2,600,000

$795,000

$3,395,000

Construction

$8,844,000

$5,190,000

$14,034,000

$986,000

$140,000

$1,126,000

$0

$760,000

$760,000

$2,014,000

$810,000

$2,824,000

$14,444,000

$7,695,000

$22,139,000

HAZMAT abatement
User equipment
Permits, inspection, testing
Total

Most of the project cost was attributable to the logistics of making improvements while
maintaining uninterrupted hospital operations. The total construction cost of roughly $100 per
square foot demonstrates that the most cost effective nonstructural mitigation is undertaken
when space is unoccupied such as during planned renovations.

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5. NONSTRUCTURAL RISK
REDUCTION FOR NEW BUILDINGS
Nonstructural risk reduction programs may vary depending on whether the nonstructural
components in question are in an existing building, an historic facility, an essential facility, a
facility containing hazardous materials, or are planned for a new building. The current chapter
addresses issues related to new buildings; Chapter 4 addresses issues related to existing
construction. Portions of these chapters are written in parallel, yet they are unique to each
chapter. If portions apply to either situation, they appear only once. For instance, the material
on implementation strategies appears only in Chapter 4; the material on current code
requirements and code enforcement appears only in Chapter 5.
There is considerable overlap between the new and existing building categories. For instance, if
an existing building undergoes a major alteration and changes to a higher use category, then it
would be required to comply with current codes in many jurisdictions and thus, the project
requirements would closely resemble those for new construction. Conversely, a new building
becomes an existing building as soon as the occupancy permit is issued. Thus, tenant
improvements and the installation of furniture, fixtures, equipment and contents for the first
occupants of a leased portion of a new building often take place after the original design team
is finished and the major architectural, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing components are
installed; for this reason, many of the problems involved in coordinating the anchorage of the
tenants components with preexisting components are the same as for a project in an older
existing building.
Historic buildings, essential buildings such as police and fire stations, or facilities that handle
hazardous materials have special requirements, which are typically more complex than those
for ordinary occupancies. While some issues related to these types of facilities are mentioned
here, the treatment of nonstructural components in these facilities is beyond the scope of this
guide. The list of references and additional sources of information may help address these
issues for specialized facilities.

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5.1 PROGRAM OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE


For new construction, it is possible to anchor,
brace, or restrain all of the critical nonstructural
items at the same time according to a chosen set
of performance objectives and in conformance
with current building code requirements. It is
generally more efficient and less costly to install

Additional Questions for an Architect


or Engineer to Consider

facility?

What are the magnitudes and


frequency of earthquakes the

anchorage details during construction and at the

building is likely to experience

time of initial occupancy than to upgrade them


after the fact.

What is the design life of the

during its life?

Has a structural system been


chosen that will provide the level

The planning stage for new construction is the

of structural and nonstructural

ideal time to consider the desired seismic

protection required? Is the

performance of a facility. It is an opportunity to

structural system very stiff? Very

coordinate the structural and nonstructural

flexible? Are the inter-story drifts


large? Does the structural design

aspects of the design, for instance by selecting a

include base isolation or energy

structural system that provides a greater level of

dissipation devices such as

seismic safety and that will provide for a higher


level of both structural and nonstructural
performance. It is also critical to communicate

structural dampers?

What types of nonstructural


components are proposed? Would

concepts of seismic performance, risk, and

damage to or failure of the

related options to a building owner, in order to

proposed components be a life

establish project specific design and

safety hazard or result in heavy

construction strategies.

property loss, or compromise

The following questions might help define the

of upgrading to more seismically

building function? What is the cost

project objectives, including the nonstructural

resistant components and

risk reduction objectives:

detailing?

What type of organization or business will

Does the design team have any


control over future FF&E and

occupy the facility?

contents? If not, who will have

What type of functionality is needed during

control? Can the design team

and after a minor, major, or severe


earthquake?

coordinate the design and


installation of these components
with design representatives for the
initial building occupants?

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How much structural and nonstructural damage can be tolerated after a minor, major, or
severe earthquake?

Do the design professionals have experience with bracing and anchorage of the types of
nonstructural components proposed for the facility, particularly if the facility will need to be
operational following an earthquake?

For an important project, is there a third party peer reviewer for the seismic design,
including the design for the nonstructural components?

What is the value of proposed architectural finishes? MEP systems? Furniture, fixtures &
equipment (FF&E) and contents? What would be the financial impact of damage to or failure
of each of these items?

How much of the potential earthquake losses will be covered by insurance?

It is worth repeating that the nonstructural components and contents typically represent the
major portion of the capital investment for new construction; per Figure 2.1.3-1, this is 82% for
office buildings, 87% for hotels, and 92% for hospitals (Whittaker and Soong, 2003).
Incorporating seismic damage control measures into the design for new construction makes
good business sense, particularly for buildings that have a high probability of experiencing
damaging earthquakes several times during their life span. For new construction of essential
buildings in high seismic areas, damage control measures are now required, in order to
increase the likelihood that these facilities will remain functional following a major earthquake.

5.1.1 VOLUNTARY VS MANDATORY RISK REDUCTION


Although code provisions historically have been written with the primary intent to provide a
minimum level of life safety and to avoid legislating property damage control measures, code
provisions now mandate an increasing level of damage control for certain types of essential and
high occupancy facilities. Facilities where higher standards are currently mandated include
hospitals, aviation control towers, designated emergency shelters, police and fire stations,
power generating stations, water storage or pumping facilities, facilities that handle hazardous
materials, and a number of others (Occupancy Category IV in ASCE/SEI 7-10 Minimum Design

Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE, 2009)). Except in areas with the lowest
seismicity, the structural and nonstructural design of these facilities must now meet more
stringent design requirements than for standard construction.
For standard construction, a code design is intended to provide a minimum level of life safety,
now considering both structural and nonstructural components, but it does not provide for
significant damage control. In order to achieve enhanced performance (e.g., Operational,

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Immediate Occupancy, or a higher level of structural and nonstructural damage control), the
design objectives must be targeted higher than the
life safety level implicit in the minimum code
provisions. Although new construction must meet
the minimum life safety standards, owners
concerned with building functionality or future

Voluntary Adoption of Enhanced


Performance Criteria

earthquake losses may choose to implement a

At their discretion, owners may adopt

higher standard and to incorporate damage control

more stringent seismic design

measures into the design for new construction on

standards than those in the prevailing

a voluntary basis.

5.1.2 PERFORMANCE-BASED DESIGN

code.

Beginning in the late 1970s, some


owners of high tech research and

CONCEPTS

manufacturing facilities in
California started to use higher

The use of performance-based design concepts

standards for the seismic design

requires a discussion between building design

of critical buildings and

professionals and their clients about performance

nonstructural components on a

expectations and seismic risk tolerance.

voluntary basis.

Performance-based design provides terminology


to characterize seismic risk and seismic
performance and provides a framework for making
comparisons between varying levels of seismic
hazard, structural and nonstructural performance,
postearthquake functionality, acceptable and

In the mid-2000s, several


thermoelectric power plants in
Chile were designed using a
special seismic performance
criteria stipulated by the owners
that require that any damage to
the plants from a major

unacceptable damage, and total earthquake losses

earthquake be limited to that

over the expected life of the facility. Design

which could be inspected and

professionals, organizational risk managers,

repaired within 14 days time;

building owners, business owners, and tenants all


need to develop an understanding of the tradeoffs
between risk and reward; that is, an understanding
that seismic design and investment choices have a
relationship to expected future performance and
potential future losses. The parties all need to
understand that they make choices, both passive
and active, based on their understanding of the

further, the criteria require that


these plants remain operational
during moderate seismic events.
In these examples, the owners
developed special seismic design
criteria to meet the needs of their
organizations, primarily motivated by
a desire to limit costly postearthquake
outages.

issues and their seismic risk tolerance. One may

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choose to live with known seismic risks or choose to initiate programs to reduce some or all of
the known hazards; either way, a choice must be made.
Performance-based design concepts have been in development for several decades; this
development is ongoing. These concepts are gradually finding their way into the building
codes used for new construction, such as IBC 2009 International Building Code (ICC, 2009) and
ASCE/SEI 7-10). These codes now specify higher seismic design forces and more
comprehensive requirements for nonstructural components in certain types of facilities in an
effort to reduce the earthquake damage and improve the performance of these facilities.
Nevertheless, the code does not address damage control or postearthquake operations for
standard occupancies. If an owner wants to specify higher performance standards than those
embodied in the code, it is important that those performance expectations be identified early in
the planning process.
Borrowing some terminology used in ASCE/SEI 41-06 Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing

Buildings (ASCE, 2006) for the rehabilitation of existing construction and previously described
in Chapter 4, target building performance levels may be described as basic or enhanced.
Limited performance objectives, those that provide less than the minimum life safety standard,
while permissible for existing construction, are not allowed for new construction.

A basic level of safety is achieved by following the code requirements for standard
occupancies. This type of design should not be expected to provide significant damage
control for structural or nonstructural components or to provide for continued
operations or immediate occupancy after an earthquake.

An enhanced performance level is achieved by following both structural and


nonstructural code requirements for essential facilities. Enhanced performance could be
achieved for nonessential facilities by using some or all of these additional
requirements.

Enhanced performance might also be provided by developing project-specific seismic


design criteria to meet the needs of a particular organization (see sidebar on previous
page). These criteria should be developed and implemented by design professionals
with specific experience with performance-based design. Engineering analysis
methods, such as those using nonlinear or push-over techniques, are available that can
be used to check whether or not the design meets the target performance objectives.

It is important that the design objectives be clear from the outset, so that the owner and design
professionals are in agreement on what they are trying to achieve. Design and construction
contracts must all include language describing the responsibilities of the designers,
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contractors, subcontractors, specialty subcontractors, vendors, and inspectors to provide


systems and details that will meet the project objectives; this is particularly important if these
are enhanced performance objectives that are higher than for a code design. Budgets and
schedules will all have to take into account the resources and time required to achieve the
project goals.

5.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


The selection of design solutions must be consistent with the scope and objectives selected for
the project. For all items covered by the code provisions, design solutions must comply with
the applicable building codes and standards, such as ASCE/SEI 7-10. For the engineering
consultants engaged to provide design solutions, the selection of seismic force levels, design
coefficients, and design methods depends upon the Seismic Design Category. The design team
and owner need to be clear about the performance objectives and the level of seismic
protection that will be targeted. There may be items that are not explicitly covered by the code,
for which some design solutions can be implemented by the owner or the initial tenants without
consideration of the building code and without engineering expertise.
Specific design solutions for nonstructural items fall into three broad categories. These were
described in Chapter 4 and are repeated here because the application is somewhat different for
new construction.
NON-ENGINEERED (NE): These are typically simple, generic details or common sense
measures that can be implemented by a skilled laborer or by maintenance personnel
using standard items from a hardware store. Although these solutions are not
appropriate for essential facilities, they may be useful for the restraint of items not
directly covered by code provisions, such as furniture and contents that lie below the
code threshold but that may still fall and injure occupants. Some of these solutions
might be implemented by the owner and the original design team; others by the initial
tenants.
PRESCRIPTIVE (PR): Prescriptive details are available in the public domain and have been
engineered to meet or exceed code requirements for a set of common conditions; they
can be used directly in many situations. While there are only a limited number of these
details currently available, we anticipate that more such details will be developed as
engineers, architects, and specialty contractors become more familiar with the new
ASCE/SEI 7-10 requirements for nonstructural components. Some of the prescriptive
details have been developed for hospitals, schools and residences in California, and
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have been successfully implemented for many years. Examples are provided in Chapter
6.
ENGINEERING REQUIRED (ER): These are nonstructural anchorage details specifically
developed by a design professional on a case-by-case basis for a specific set of
conditions. Design methods and design coefficients are selected based on the
Importance Factor and Seismic Design Category, per IBC 2009 and ASCE/SEI 7-10, as
discussed in Section 5.3.1 below. Higher design forces and more complex engineering
methods may be required to meet performance objectives higher than those embodied
in the building code provisions.

5.3 BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS


5.3.1 2009 EDITION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE (IBC 2009)
The current code requirements for nonstructural components are contained in ASCE/SEI 7-10
Section 13 which is adopted by reference in IBC 2009. In recent years, engineers, researchers,
and code committees have paid increasing attention to the issues of nonstructural performance.
As a result, ASCE/SEI 7-10 now includes a 15-page chapter devoted to nonstructural
components and contains design requirements for both force- and displacement-controlled
nonstructural components. In contrast, the 1994 UBC Uniform Building Code (ICBO, 1994)
covered the nonstructural requirements in less than two pages, where the focus of the
requirements was primarily on position retention of the components. The requirements are
now more detailed and include explicit provisions for more items that apply to facilities that
require postearthquake functionality.
The most stringent design provisions are driven by the Component Importance Factor, Ip. Any
component with an Ip of 1.5 is considered a Designated Seismic System for which special
provisions apply. This includes systems required to function for life safety purposes after an
earthquake including sprinkler systems and egress stairways; components used to convey,
support or contain toxic, highly toxic, or explosive substances or hazardous materials; or
components needed for continued operation of essential facilities.
Additional distinctions in the design provisions are based on the Seismic Design Category,
which ranges from A through F and depends on the Occupancy Category (I, II, III, or IV) and the
ground motion parameters (SDS and SD1) generally as follows:

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Seismic Design Category A: All


Occupancy Categories in areas with
minimal seismicity; these facilities are
exempt from the nonstructural
Seismic Design Category B: Occupancy
Categories I, II, and III in areas with low
seismicity

Components (ASCE/SEI 7-10)


The seismic forces used to design

requirements.

Seismic Design Forces for Nonstructural

Seismic Design Category C: Occupancy


Categories IV in areas with low seismicity

supports and anchorage for


nonstructural items are based on a
percentage of the weight of the item and
the following additional factors:

acceleration at the ground level,

and Occupancy Categories I, II and III in


areas with moderate seismicity

Seismic Design Category D: Occupancy

based on soil type and seismic zone

components and attachments) to 2.5

seismicity and All Occupancy Categories

(for flexible components and

in areas with high seismicity

Seismic Design Category E: Occupancy

attachments)

(1+2(z/h)) An amplification factor

Category I, II or III in areas of very high

based on the ratio of the height of

seismicity and near an active fault

the point of attachment in the

Seismic Design Category F: Occupancy

building (z) to the overall height (h);


it ranges from 1 at the base to 3 at

Category IV in areas of very high


seismicity and near an active fault

ap A component amplification factor


that varies from 1.0 (for rigid

Categories IV in areas with moderate

SDS A factor for the seismic

Seismic Design Category F (essential

the roof

Ip

A component importance factor

equal to 1.0 for typical components,

facility in area with very high seismicity)

or 1.5 for some components required

has the most stringent nonstructural

for life safety, essential operations,

requirements;

or that contain hazardous materials

The seismic design forces are based on a variety

Rp A component modification factor


that varies from 1 to 12 and has the

of factors including the weight of the item, the

effect of reducing the design forces

ground acceleration and soil type, the flexibility

for more deformable or ductile

of the component and its attachments, the

components (highest values assigned

location in the building, and an importance

to piping with welded joints; lowest

factor. In general, design forces are higher for

to brittle elements such as URM

flexible components and flexible attachments;


higher for items anchored higher in the building;
higher for items that contain hazardous

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materials, that are needed for life safety functions, or that


are needed for continued operations of an essential
facility; and lower for items with high deformability or high
ductility.

Exemptions for Nonstructural


Components

Minimum and maximum limits on design forces are

The following items are specifically

specified in the code. For a given acceleration and

exempt from the ASCE/SEI 7-10

importance factor, the range from minimum design forces

seismic design requirements for

(0.3SDSIpWp) to maximum design forces (1.6SDSIpWp) is a

nonstructural components:

factor slightly greater than 5. Thus, a flexible item

1.

anchored at the roof of a building might be designed for


up to 5 times more force than a rigid item anchored at the

Most furniture and temporary


or movable equipment.

2.

Most components in Seismic

base of the same building.

Design Categories B and C

For items affected by differential movement and building

areas of moderate seismicity).

distortion, the code requires that the design consider the

(i.e., normal occupancies in


3.

Mechanical and electrical

relative lateral displacements both within and between

components in Seismic Design

structures. This would affect the design of such

Categories D, E and F, where

components as pipe risers and precast panels, which are


connected to adjacent floors, and piping, cable trays,
ductwork, or architectural finishes crossing seismic joints.
The code includes provisions for architectural, mechanical,
and electrical components, supports, and attachments.

all of the following apply:


a.

Ip is equal to 1;

b.

The component is
positively attached to the
structure;

c.

Tables of design coefficients ap and Rp are provided for


dozens of architectural, mechanical, and electrical
components. Where design of nonstructural components
or their supports and attachments is required by code,
such design must be shown in construction documents

Flexible connections are


provided between the
components and
associated ductwork,
piping and conduit are
provided, and either
i. The component weighs

prepared by a registered design professional. It is not

400 lb or less and has a

sufficient to provide a note saying All ceilings to be

center of mass located 4

braced; the bracing details must be included on the plans


and covered in the project specifications.

feet or less above the


adjacent floor level; or
ii. the components weighs
20 pounds or less or, in
the case of a distributed
systems, weigh 5
pounds per foot or less.

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Earlier provisions related to nonstructural


components in the 2000 and 2003 IBC were
concerned primarily with position retention, i.e.,

Alternative Methods

preventing components from becoming dislodged or

The code formulas used to compute the

overturned during an earthquake. ASCE/SEI 7-10


contains additional provisions related to

design forces on nonstructural components


in buildings contain a number of simplifying

postearthquake functionality that are applicable to

assumptions regarding damping, response

components with hazardous contents and to

amplification, possible resonance between

equipment that is required to remain operational


following an earthquake. For such designated
seismic systems, where Ip is 1.5, certification based
on approved shake table testing or experience data
must be submitted to the authority having
jurisdiction.

the equipment and the structure, and the


distribution of forces over the height of the
structure. For some facilities, more
sophisticated analyses may be warranted.
The Tri-Service Manual Seismic Design
Guidelines for Essential Buildings (TM 5810-10-1) describes an approximate floor

The code contains a number of significant


exemptions (see sidebar above) and does not
contain requirements for many components, such as
furniture (except permanent floor-supported storage

response spectrum method that considers


two earthquake levels and takes the multimode response of the building into
account. Beyond that, an analytical model
of the building can be used to generate

cabinets, shelving or book stacks over 6 ft tall), and

floor response spectra at critical equipment

movable fixtures, equipment and contents that are

locations, and these spectra can be used to

supplied by tenants and building occupants. For


areas with moderate or high seismicity, the risks

determine the design forces for the


nonstructural components and equipment.

associated with many of these components can be


reduced by following the suggestions contained in
Chapter 6.

5.3.2 ENFORCEMENT OF CODE REQUIREMENTS


The effectiveness of model code requirements governing seismic design of nonstructural
components depends on technically sound code provisions, proper application by designers,
and code enforcement. Proper enforcement requires both comprehensive plan review and
thorough construction inspection.

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PLAN REVIEW
A comprehensive plan review includes determination of which items require seismic design; and
an examination of the details for compliance with code requirements. Determining which items
require seismic bracing involves a review of the construction drawings and specifications for
each discipline (e.g., architectural, electrical, mechanical, plumbing, and other specialties). Few
jurisdictions, if any, have resources devoted to such a comprehensive review of construction
documents, and few jurisdictions have reviewers qualified to comprehensively evaluate
compliance with all nonstructural code requirements.
An additional challenge in plan review arises from the many items that are commonly excluded
from construction drawings, but are identified in the project specifications to be procured from
the contractor on a design-build basis. Unless these items are carefully tracked and
submitted for review, building department plan review can be nonexistent. Few jurisdictions
have mechanisms in place to track and support ongoing review of nonstructural seismic bracing
designs developed during construction. The responsibility matrices included in Appendix B are
intended to aid project managers in the assignment and tracking of responsibility for
nonstructural seismic protection. Used in conjunction with the specification section provided in
Appendix A, the responsibility matrices can be used to facilitate compliance with nonstructural
performance objectives.

CONSTRUCTION INSPECTION
Enforcement of nonstructural seismic requirements is often lacking in the construction
inspection process. Since details associated with seismic restraint of nonstructural components
are not often fully shown on approved drawings, inspectors are left without the tools necessary
to evaluate the adequacy of as-built installations. Historically, building inspectors have not
been systematically trained to inspect the seismic restraint of nonstructural components, and
few inspectors have sufficient experience to field review seismic restraints of nonstructural
components that are not covered by a well known standard.
Many design professionals have the necessary training and experience to evaluate the adequacy
of nonstructural seismic restraints; however, field observation of nonstructural component
installations is often not included in their scope of work. As a result, it is not uncommon for
nonstructural components to be installed without inspection.
IBC 2009 contains requirements for special inspection of designated seismic systems. For most
buildings, a written statement of special inspection must be prepared by a registered design

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professional. In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories C, D, E or F, the statement of


special inspection must include seismic requirements for selected HVAC components, piping
systems and electrical equipment. These code requirements are expected to increase the
construction oversight of nonstructural installations and ultimately, to improve the seismic
performance of nonstructural components.

5.3.3 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTENTS


Building contents, such as furniture, kitchen and laundry equipment, movable partitions, and
storage shelving are typically considered separate from the building and are usually the
responsibility of the building occupant, not the owner or the original design team. Many such
items are specifically exempted from seismic provisions in model building codes (e.g.,
furniture, floor-mounted equipment weighing less than 400 pounds, and suspended items
weighing less than 20 pounds). Regulated by the code or not, contents can pose an additional
risk to safety and continuity of operations after an earthquake. The seismic protection of
contents is dependent upon an understanding of potential seismic risk, followed by action to
mitigate that risk on the part of business owners, homeowners, and tenants. The content
examples included in Chapter 6 provide guidance for the bracing and anchorage of many
common furniture and content items and can be adapted for other similar items. Building code
provisions, guidance documents, or other resources listed in the references can be effectively
applied to the design and installation of seismic protection measures for building contents.

5.3.4 OTHER STANDARDS AND PROTOCOLS


Many of the challenges related to design, plan review, and construction inspection are resolved
when installation in accordance with nationally accepted standards becomes a construction
standard of practice. For example, 2009 IBC accepts seismic restraint of fire protection systems
designed in accordance with the National Fire Protection Associations NFPA 13 Standard for the

Installation of Sprinkler Systems (2007). As a result, verification of NPFA 13 compliance is a


common occurrence in the field. Similar examples exist for other major nonstructural
components: Installation of suspended ceilings in accordance with ASTM C635, ASTM C636,
and the Standard Practice for Installation of Ceiling Suspension Systems for Acoustical Tile and

Lay-in Panels in Areas Subject to Earthquake Ground Motions (ASTM E580/E 580M-09a) is
included in the IBC by reference.; Selected additional industry standards are listed in Appendix
B of the ATC-69 State-of-the-Art and Practice Report (ATC, 2008).

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Qualification testing is an acceptable alternative to the analytical requirements of the code. IBC
2009 accepts seismic qualification based on nationally recognized testing procedures, such as
the, ICC-ES AC 156 Acceptance Criteria for Seismic Qualification by Shake-Table Testing of

Nonstructural Components and Systems by the International Code Council Evaluation Service.
Standard 171-2008 Method of Test of Seismic Restraint Devices for HVAC&R Equipment
(ANSI/ASHRAE, 2008) provides additional test methods used in the HVAC industry. Selected
additional testing protocols, such as FEMA 461 report, Interim Testing Protocols for

Determining the Seismic Performance Characteristics of Structural and Nonstructural


Components, are listed in Appendix B of the ATC-69 State-of-the-Art and Practice Report and
repeated here in Appendix F.

5.3.5 VALIDATION AND REFINEMENT OF CODE REQUIREMENTS


Seismic design requirements for structural systems have evolved over time as a result of
documented earthquake performance and laboratory testing. Seismic design requirements for
nonstructural components have also evolved over time; however, comprehensive evaluation of
these requirements, either by testing or through postearthquake observations, has been
limited. Future earthquakes might be able to provide the information necessary to validate or
refine current design requirements, but comprehensive and systematic postearthquake
documentation of nonstructural performance is needed. Obstacles to gathering such
perishable data will need to be overcome before a quantitative review of nonstructural seismic
design requirements can become possible.

5.4 RESPONSIBILITY AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT


Who is responsible for ensuring that nonstructural components are protected from earthquake
damage and that design solutions are consistent with the chosen performance objectives? Who
is responsible for the design of which types of components? Who provides oversight for the
design of the many, potentially interconnected nonstructural items? Who resolves conflicts in
cases where different design solutions in different disciplines are incompatible? Who provides
oversight for the installation, and inspection for all of the nonstructural items?
Architects, mechanical, electrical and civil or structural engineers, interior designers, landscape
architects, construction managers, contractors, specialty subcontractors, equipment
manufacturers, vendors, inspectors, testing agencies, plan reviewers, developers, owners,
tenants all these parties may be involved. Coordination of this effort is not a trivial task; the
issue of nonstructural seismic risk reduction must be part of the initial planning, so that

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decisions regarding the structural system, the


architectural finishes, the MEP systems, the
landscaping immediately adjacent to the
building, and the equipment purchases are all
made in accordance with a unified plan that is
consistent with the performance goals and the
project objectives. It may be advisable to assign

Potential Issues for Specialized Facilities


The following are additional considerations
for highly specialized or essential facilities:

specialized equipment that would take

a dedicated design professional to the oversight

a long lead time to replace, is there a

of the design and installation of the

way to incorporate a secondary or

nonstructural items.

backup system into the design that


would reduce potential outages if the

Questions such as the following must be

equipment were damaged? Would

addressed from the beginning:

higher design forces or base-isolation


reduce the equipment damage? Is there

Would a base isolated building provide the

a need to provide budget and space to

best protection for the costly equipment in


this facility and allow for continued
operations?

stock spare parts or spare equipment?

does the design incorporate elements


that would be needed in the event of a

the performance objectives for the

catastrophe with lengthy infrastructure

nonstructural items? Can this structural

outages? The hospital that fared the

system be adapted for the architectural

best following Hurricane Katrina in New

design? Can the architectural design be

Orleans had the following elements in


place prior to the hurricane: reserve

adapted to a more appropriate structural

tanks with water to flush toilets, diesel

design?

fuel to run the emergency generators,

If the structural system is flexible, will the


architect specify flexible finishes and avoid
the use of adhered veneers, marble panels,
stucco soffits or other items likely to be
damaged by inter-story drift?

For facilities that must remain


operational following an earthquake,

Would a stiff structural system or a flexible


structural system be more compatible with

For facilities that depend on unique or

and gasoline for company vehicles.

The following questions should also be


considered: Would space be needed to
provide temporary accommodations for
employees? Would a forklift, a

If the architect specifies exterior adhered

backhoe, or other construction supplies

veneer, can the landscape architect provide

and equipment for emergency repairs,

a wide planting strip around the building


perimeter to protect against falling hazards?
Will the architect be willing to specify

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backup communications equipment


such as ham radios, emergency food
supplies, and a designated place for
sanitary and waste disposal be needed?

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something other than the adhered veneer above exits?

For facilities that need to provide certification for specified MEP equipment, is certified
equipment already available that is appropriate for the facility, or will money need to be
budgeted for detailed analysis or shake table testing?

At what point in the design process will information be available from the structural
engineer regarding the behavior of the structural frame, such as inter-story drifts and other
information required for the nonstructural design?

Since lateral forces are higher on the roof, what MEP items are required to be located at the
roof level and what items can be relocated lower in the building?

Are there architectural finishes available that would facilitate the inspection of earthquake
damage? Can hatches, openings, or removable panels be provided that would make it
easier to inspect structural framing, precast panel connections, piping, or ducts after an
earthquake and thus, get occupants back into the building sooner?

5.4.1 EXAMPLE: RESPONSIBILITY MATRIX


New construction projects typically involve the coordination of numerous parties with
overlapping responsibilities and competing or conflicting interests; adding a comprehensive
program to brace and anchor nonstructural components and contents makes a new
construction project even more complex. Assigning clear responsibility for each nonstructural
component and tracking the design, peer review, plan review, installation, observation, and
special inspection is very important.
Figure 4.4.1-1 shows an example of a responsibility matrix that could be readily adapted by
listing the nonstructural components for a particular project. This sample format can be used
to track who is responsible for design, design review, installation, and observation. If peer
review or special inspection is required, these could be added to the table. More
comprehensive responsibility matrices, developed for each Seismic Design Category and
compliance with ASCE/SEI 7-10, are provided in Appendix B. These matrices are intended to
serve as templates for use by project managers in assigning and tracking design, construction
and inspection responsibilities. They can be used in conjunction with the specification provided
in Appendix A and are intended to serve as a roadmap for implementation. Successful use of
these tools starts with development of a comprehensive project-specific list of nonstructural
components to be addressed.

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5.4.2 EXAMPLE: SEISMIC CODE BLOCK, SAINT LOUIS COUNTY, MISSOURI


When the 2003 International Building Code (ICC, 2003) was adopted in Saint Louis County,
Missouri, enforcement of the seismic requirements for nonstructural components was
complicated by varying interpretations by design professionals, code compliance plan
reviewers, contractors and building inspectors. In response, the County established rules and
regulations intended to provide a common set of standards for compliance with the Building
Code. A cornerstone of the rules and regulations that were adopted is the requirement for a
Seismic Code Block on the mechanical, electrical, and plumbing drawings (Figures 5.4.2-1 and
5.4.2-2). The seismic code block requires that the engineer(s) responsible for the design of the
mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems identify the location of the details for anchorage
and sway bracing of equipment and system components on the plans, or indicate that they will
be furnished by subsequent submission, which will be reviewed by the engineer responsible for
the design. Saint Louis County requires accountability for the design and documentation of
nonstructural bracing requirements. Installation and building inspection is facilitated by the
availability of project-specific bracing details. Use of the Seismic Code Block on all projects
could significantly enhance the enforcement of code requirements for seismic bracing of
nonstructural components and systems. The Saint Louis County model is expected to serve as
a model for other jurisdictions throughout the country.

Figure 5.4.2-1 Seismic Code Block worksheet.

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Figure 5.4.2-2 Seismic Code Block worksheet.


The code block above, adopted in 2006, only addresses MEP components that are explicitly
covered on the construction documents. Nevertheless, it provides a model for keeping track of
these items. The project architect or design professional responsible for the general oversight
of the nonstructural protective measures could expand this table to cover the various
architectural, FF&E, and content items that are within the control of the original design team
and use this as a tool for tracking the design and plan review for these items. Revised May
2010, the St. Louis County Rules and Regulations include requirements for architectural and
MEP components and provide a standardized form to be used to track construction inspections
(see http://www.co.st-louis.mo.us/pubworks/documents/NTIseismicRegs.pdf). This document
includes examples of forms filled out as intended, with each equipment item provided a
separate line item in the code block. As with any tool, the seismic code block is only effective if
the design team provides a complete list of the relevant items covered by the code provisions.

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6. SEISMIC PROTECTION OF
NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
6.1 PROTECTIVE MEASURES
Reducing nonstructural hazards requires a combination of common sense measures and
additional protective measures that involve the installation of seismic anchorage and bracing.
The protective measures recommended in this Chapter will go a long way toward reducing the
earthquake hazards from nonstructural components.

6.1.1 COMMON SENSE MEASURES


A facility survey may identify components that represent a high or moderate risk in their
present location but that could readily be relocated or rearranged, in order to reduce the
potential risk. The answers to the following questions may help identify common sense
measures available to reduce many of these risks:

Which areas of the building have a higher occupant load and hence a potentially higher
life safety risk?

Are there heavy, unstable items currently located near a desk or bed, which could be
moved?

Are the exits and exit pathways clear, or are there items that could block doors,
corridors, or stairways if they were to fall?

What is the probability that someone will be injured by falling objects?

Can items no longer serving a useful function be removed?

Are all hazardous materials stored properly?

Which items can be relocated to prevent possible injury and do not need to be anchored,
in order to prevent damage or loss?

If something slides or falls, in what direction is it likely to move?

Is a suspended item currently hanging where it may impact a window, wall, or another
item?

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While the answer to these questions may not always be obvious, some simple steps may go a
long way toward reducing the related nonstructural risks. The primary investment here is the
time required to relocate furniture, reshelf items, or rearrange hazardous chemicals. For
instance:

Tall or heavy objects can be relocated, so that they cannot block an exit or fall onto a
desk or bed.

Shelved items might be rearranged so that heavier items are near the bottom and
lighter ones are near the top.

Falling hazards, such as curios, potted plants, and flower vases can be relocated, so
that they will not fall on a bed or desk.

Hanging objects can be relocated to a place where they will not impact one another or a
window.

Incompatible chemicals can be separated, in order to prevent mixing if the containers


should break.

Excess supplies or inventory can be stored in their original shipping containers until
ready for use, in order to reduce the possibility of breakage.

Rarely used files or materials can be moved to an offsite storage facility or be disposed
of.

Important electronic files should all be backed up to an offsite facility in a different


geographic area, which would not be affected by the same earthquake.

6.1.2 NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENT PROTECTION MEASURES


There are many techniques available to reduce potential nonstructural earthquake damage.
Possible upgrade schemes might include one or more of the following seismic protection
measures:

Using anchor bolts to provide rigid anchorage to a structural floor or wall

Bracing the item to a structural floor or wall

Providing a tether or safety cable to limit the range of movement if the item falls or
swings

Installing bracing or anchors for architectural appendages such as chimneys, parapets,


canopies, marquees, or signs; anchoring masonry veneer and cornices

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Providing stops, bumpers or snubbers


to limit the range of movement if the

item is on vibration isolators or can

Requirements for Postearthquake

slide or swing

Operations

Providing flexible connections for piping


and conduit where they cross seismic
joints or connect to rigidly mounted
equipment

Facilities to be upgraded to Immediate

Occupancy or Operational
performance level during a major
earthquake may require extensive

Attaching contents to a shelf, desktop,

modifications and implementation of

or countertop

an ongoing risk reduction program. In

Providing base isolation or seismic


shock absorbers for individual pieces of
vital equipment

order to achieve these enhanced


objectives, any or all of the following
elements may be needed in order to
provide an appropriate level of

Some of these methods are designed to protect

nonstructural protection:

the functional integrity of a particular item;

some are designed merely to reduce the

from design professionals

consequences of failure. It is important to

experienced with nonstructural

understand the applicability and limitations of


the various upgrade schemes and to select an

seismic protection

upgrade details that are consistent with the


program objectives: measures required for
immediate occupancy or continued operations
are typically more complex than those required

Higher design forces than those


required by code for the basic

appropriate scheme for a particular item in a


specific context. It is also important to select

Specialized engineering expertise

safety objective

Experienced specialty contractors

Special construction inspection

Load-rated hardware and specialty


seismic restraint items

solely to reduce falling hazards. Measures used

Equipment that is certified by the


vendor to remain operational

to restrain new items may differ from those

either by analysis, shake table

used to restrain existing items, particularly if

testing, or experience data

the restraint for the existing items is intended

contents that are certified to

to meet only limited objectives and to reduce

maintain containment either by

falling hazards. Critical and expensive items,

analysis, shake table testing, or

library and museum collections, hospitals,


essential facilities, laboratories, and industrial
clean rooms may all require special attention.

Components with hazardous

experience data

Equipment or piping with special


design details such as dampers or
base isolation

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Some structural upgrades may also be required in order to meet the operational objectives such
as larger seismic gaps to prevent pounding between adjacent structures, or stiffer structural
systems such as shear walls to avoid excessive distortion of the structural framing. Structural
measures to reduce seismic hazards are addressed in ASCE 31-03 and ASCE 41-06 but are
beyond the scope this document.

6.2 NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENT EXAMPLES


The tables in this chapter and the checklists and risk ratings in the appendices all have similar
numbering; illustrated examples are provided for many, but not all, of the components listed.
The components addressed herein have been grouped under three major headings:

Architectural Components

Mechanical, Electrical & Plumbing (MEP) Components

Furniture, Fixtures & Equipment (FF&E) and Contents

Each of these three major categories includes a number of subcategories. The checklists and
risk ratings in Appendices D and E address all of the subcategories; examples are also provided
here for each of the components listed. This document has been prepared as a web-based
document with the idea that additional examples may be added in the future.
The nonstructural component examples typically consist of the following elements:

Typical Causes of Damage: A brief description relevant to the particular item.


o

Damage Examples: The photographs presented here cover a variety of situations


and have been taken over a 39-year period. Photographs from the 1971 San
Fernando Earthquake generally show damage to components that were not
restrained, while some of the more recent photographs depict damage to
components that appeared to be braced or anchored but whose bracing and
anchoring details were apparently inadequate to resist the severity of the
shaking. Photos from the 2010 Haiti, Chile, Eureka, California, Baja California,
and Christchurch, New Zealand Earthquakes have been included, illustrating the
ongoing problems with nonstructural performance.

Seismic Mitigation Considerations: A description of issues relevant to the mitigation of


the particular item.
o

Mitigation Examples: The photographs presented here show braced and


anchored components. Most are examples of properly anchored components;
some show improper installations with an explanation of the problem(s).

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Mitigation Details: Usually one or more suggested details that can be used to
reduce the seismic vulnerability of the item. These details are not engineering
drawings; in general, they have been drawn with shading to represent the
appearance of the properly anchored item. The protection measures or seismic
anchorage details are classified as Non-Engineered (NE), Prescriptive (PR), or
Engineering Required (ER); these terms are described below.

6.2.1 TYPICAL MITIGATION DETAILS


NON-ENGINEERED (NE) DETAILS
These are simple, generic seismic protection details that do not require engineering design to
determine the requirements. Some examples of types of nonstructural protection that can be
designed and implemented without an engineer include:

Restraints for tenant-supplied movable equipment and furniture

Restraints for cabinet doors and drawers

Restraints for shelved items

For these types of elements, generic restraint details are usually sufficient to provide adequate
protection. The earthquake forces on these elements are generally small compared to the
strength of the restraint methods that are usually recommended. Together with the installation
guidelines at the end of this chapter, enough information is provided to enable someone
without specialized expertise in the field to install the restraint shown using common tools and
readily available materials. Many vendors now sell off-the-shelf seismic restraints that can be
used for these Non-Engineered details; check the internet for available hardware.
There are limitations to the use of non-engineered seismic protection measures: this method
should only be used for elements that are relatively lightweight. Non-engineered restraints
should not be used for elements that are considered critical, such as emergency power systems,
large inventories of hazardous materials, or in hospitals, where immediate postearthquake
operations are desired.
PRESCRIPTIVE (PR) DETAILS
These mitigation solutions rely on standard restraint details that have been previously
developed and can be implemented without the need for an engineer. Together with the
installation guidelines at the end of the chapter, enough information is provided to enable a
contractor or skilled individual to install the restraints shown.

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Examples of elements that can be mitigated by prescriptive methods include:

Water heaters, up to 100 gallons capacity

Suspended acoustic ceilings, up to 4 pounds per square foot in weight

While the underlying design of the prescriptive details has been reviewed by experienced
engineers, some judgment is required on the part of the user to ensure that their use is
appropriate for the situation. For instance, the ceiling bracing detail shown may not be
appropriate for ceilings weighing more than 4 pounds per square foot; the user will need to
verify the weight of the ceiling in question.
ENGINEERING REQUIRED (ER) DETAILS
Bracing, anchorage, or restraint details for these components require design by an engineer or
design professional experienced in the seismic design of nonstructural elements. The details
provided in this document are schematic details showing common solutions for the
components in question. These figures do not contain sufficient information for installation;
they are provided primarily as an illustration of the required scope of work and the necessary
elements for proper seismic restraint. Information regarding the size and spacing of bolts, type
and size of steel shapes, appropriate configuration, required restraint capacity, and capacity of
the structural elements to which they are attached needs to be determined by an engineer, or in
some cases, by a specialty contractor.
The designation Engineering Required has been used for components for which the nonengineered approach is most likely to be ineffective. The recommendation of this guide is that
design professionals be retained to evaluate the vulnerability of these components and to
design appropriate anchorage or restraint details, particularly when safety is an issue. As
stated earlier, this recommendation may apply to all components of specialized facilities such
as hospitals and emergency operations or communications centers, where interruption or loss
of function is unacceptable. Recent experience has shown many instances in which fire
sprinkler and other water lines, HVAC equipment, emergency generators, water tanks, ceilings,
parapets, glazing, and such were damaged when subjected to severe shaking and failed to
perform as expected. The lesson learned from this experience is that the protection of many
items, particularly MEP equipment and architectural components in facilities that are expected
to remain functional during and after a major earthquake, is a complex undertaking that should
be addressed by engineers and architects with specific expertise in this area. As a result, most
MEP systems and architectural components have been given the designation Engineering

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Required. Several of the items listed under FF&E and contents have also been given this
designation.
The following table lists the subcategories and the component examples included in the
following sections:
Table 6.2.1-1 List of Nonstructural Components
Subcategory

Example

Component Type

SECTION 6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.1

Exterior Wall Components

Detail

6.3.1.1

Adhered veneer

ER

6.3.1.2

Anchored veneer

ER

6.3.1.3

Prefabricated panels

6.3.1.4

Glazed exterior wall system

ER

6.3.1.5

Glass Blocks

ER

6.3.2

ER

Interior Partitions
6.3.2.1

Heavy

ER

6.3.2.2

Light

ER

6.3.2.3

Glazed

ER

6.3.3

Interior Veneers
6.3.3.1

6.3.4

Stone and Tile

ER

Ceilings
6.3.4.1

Suspended acoustic lay-in tile ceiling systems

PR

6.3.4.2

Ceilings applied directly to structure

NE

6.3.4.3

Suspended heavy ceilings

PR

6.3.5

Parapets and Appendages


6.3.5.1

6.3.6

Unreinforced masonry parapets

ER

Canopies, Marquees, Signs


6.3.6.1

6.3.7

Canopies, marquees, signs

ER

Chimneys and Stacks


6.3.7.1

6.3.8

Unreinforced masonry chimney

ER

Stairways
6.3.8.1

6.3.9

Stairways

ER

Freestanding Walls and Fences


6.3.9.1

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Type of

Freestanding masonry wall or fence

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Subcategory

Example

Component Type

SECTION 6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, & PLUMBING (MEP)

6.4.1

Mechanical Equipment

Detail

COMPONENTS
6.4.1.1

Boilers, furnaces, pumps, and chillers (HVAC wet

ER

6.4.1.2

General manufacturing and process machinery

ER

6.4.1.3

HVAC equipment with vibration isolation

ER

6.4.1.4

HVAC equipment without vibration isolation

ER

6.4.1.5

HVAC equipment suspended in-line with ductwork

ER

6.4.1.6

Suspended equipment

ER

6.4.2

Storage Tanks and Water Heaters


6.4.2.1

Structurally supported tanks and vessels

ER

6.4.2.2

Flat bottom tanks and vessels

ER

6.4.2.3

Compressed gas cylinders

NE

6.4.2.4

Water heaters

PR

6.4.3

Pressure Piping
6.4.3.1

Suspended pressure piping

ER

6.4.3.2

In-line valves and pumps

ER

6.4.3.3

Flexible connections, expansion joints, and seismic

ER

6.4.3.4

Pipe risers

ER

6.4.3.5

Floor-mounted supports

ER

6.4.3.6

Roof-mounted supports

ER

6.4.3.7

Wall-mounted supports

ER

6.4.3.8

Penetrations

ER

6.4.4

Fire Protection Piping


6.4.4.1

6.4.5

Suspended fire protection piping

ER

Fluid Piping, not Fire Protection


6.4.5.1

Hazardous materials piping

ER

6.4.5.2

Nonhazardous materials piping

ER

6.4.6

Ductwork
6.4.6.1

Suspended ductwork

6.4.6.2

Air diffusers

6.4.7

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Type of

ER
NE, ER

Electrical and Communications Equipment


6.4.7.1

Control panels, motor control centers, and

ER

6.4.7.2

Emergency generator

ER

6.4.7.3

Transformers

ER

6.4.7.4

Batteries and battery rack

ER

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Subcategory

Example

Component Type

6.4.7.5

Photovoltaic (PV) power systems

ER

6.4.7.6

Communications Antennae

ER

6.4.8
6.4.8.1

Electrical raceways, conduit, and cable trays

ER

6.4.8.2

Electrical distribution panels

ER

Light Fixtures
6.4.9.1

Recessed lighting

PR

6.4.9.2

Surface-mounted lighting

PR

6.4.9.3

Pendant light fixtures

NE

6.4.9.4

Heavy light fixtures

NE

6.4.10

Elevators and Escalators


6.4.10.1

Hydraulic elevator

ER

6.4.10.2

Traction elevator

ER

6.4.10.3

Escalators

ER

6.4.11

Conveyors
6.4.11.1

Conveyors

SECTION 6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, & EQUIPMENT (FF&E)

6.5.1

Storage racks

ER

COMPONENTS
6.5.1.1

Light duty shelving

6.5.1.2

Industrial storage racks

6.5.2

NE, ER
ER

Bookcases, Shelving
6.5.2.1

Bookshelves

NE

6.5.2.2

Library and other shelving

ER

6.5.3

Computer and Communication Equipment


6.5.3.1

Computer access floors and equipment

ER

6.5.3.2

Computer and communication racks

NE

6.5.3.3

Desktop computers and accessories

NE

6.5.3.4

Televisions and video monitors, wall-mounted

NE

6.5.4

Hazardous materials storage


6.5.4.1

6.5.5

FEMA E-74

Detail

Electrical and Communications Distribution

6.4.9

6.5.6

Type of

Hazardous materials storage

NE

Miscellaneous FF&E
6.5.5.1

File cabinets

NE

6.5.5.2

Demountable partitions

NE

6.5.5.3

Miscellaneous furniture and fixtures

NE

Miscellaneous Contents

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-9

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Subcategory

FEMA E-74

Example

Component Type

6.5.6.1

Shelf-mounted items

NE

6.5.6.2

Desktop, countertop items

NE

6.5.6.3

Fragile artwork

NE

6.5.6.4

Fire extinguisher and cabinet

NE

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Type of
Detail

Page 6-10

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.1

EXTERIOR WALL COMPONENTS

6.3.1.1

ADHERED VENEER

Adhered veneers are typically thin materials such as tile, masonry, stone, terra cotta, ceramic
tile or stucco that are attached to a backing substrate using an adhesive. These may pose a
significant falling hazard.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Adhered veneers are generally deformation sensitive and may crack or become
dislodged due to deformation of the backing substrate. Adhered veneers placed directly
over shear walls or structural elements that are designed to undergo large deformations
may be particularly vulnerable.

Poorly adhered veneer may come loose due to direct acceleration. This may be a
particular problem where the adhesive bond has deteriorated due to water intrusion or
degradation of the backing substrate.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-11

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.1.1-1

FEMA E-74

Failure of adhered masonry veneer at the Atascadero City Hall in the 2003
magnitude-6.5 San Simeon Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Mike Mahoney,
FEMA).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-12

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.1-2

FEMA E-74

Close-up of failed adhered veneer. (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP


Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-13

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.1-3

FEMA E-74

Cracked and spalled adhered veneer reveals incipient structural damage to


concrete piers in Via del Mar following the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile
Earthquake. In this case, the areas of structural and nonstructural damage
coincide; the adhered veneer remained intact over portions of the shear wall
that did not deform significantly (Photo courtesy of Santiago Pujol, Purdue
University).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-14

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.1-4

Failed adhered veneer fallen from parapet in Santiago following the 2010
magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake. (Photos courtesy of Antonio Iruretagoyena,
Rubn Boroscheck & Associates)

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Repair any cracked or loose veneer; repair any damage or deterioration of the backing
substrate.

Remove adhered veneer above exits or pedestrian walkways, especially larger units if
they are mounted above 10 feet.

Design a structural canopy to resist the weight and impact of falling veneer; particularly
above exits or walkways.

Restrict pedestrian access below the veneer by providing a barrier or wide landscaping
strip.

Provide positive connections to attach the veneer to the structure; see Figure 6.3.1.2-5,
in the Anchored Veneer example or Figure 6.3.3.1-3 in the Interior Veneer example.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-15

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.3.1.1-5

FEMA E-74

Landscaping strip restricts pedestrian access adjacent to adhered veneer faade.


Larger units used within lower 6 feet; smaller units used above (Photo courtesy
of Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-16

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

MITIGATION DETAILS

Figure 6.3.1.1-6

FEMA E-74

Adhered veneer (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-17

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.1 EXTERIOR WALL COMPONENTS


6.3.1.2

ANCHORED VENEER

Anchored veneers are typically masonry, stone or stone slab units that are attached to the
structure by mechanical means. These units and their connections must be designed to
accommodate the anticipated seismic drift; otherwise they may pose a significant falling
hazard.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Anchored veneers and their connections may be damaged by inertial forces and by
building distortion; units located at corners and around openings are particularly
vulnerable.

Rigid connections may distort or fracture if they do not have sufficient flexibility to
accommodate the seismic drift; veneer units may crack, spall, or become completely
dislodged and fall.

Deterioration or corrosion of the mechanical connections is a significant concern;


corroded connections may fail prematurely. Maintaining watertightness at joints is
important for the longevity of the anchors.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-18

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.1.2-1

FEMA E-74

Fallen sandstone veneer as a result of a magnitude-4.4 earthquake in northern


California. Post-earthquake investigation revealed missing dovetail anchors,
missing pencil rods, and weak stone-to-mortar bond (Photo courtesy of Simpson
Gumpertz and Heger).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-19

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.2-2

Fallen sandstone veneer as a result of a magnitude-4.4 earthquake (Photo


courtesy of Simpson Gumpertz and Heger).

Figure 6.3.1.2-3

Rubble from failed anchored veneer as a result of the 1994 Northridge


Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Robert Reitherman).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-20

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

ASCE/SEI 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE, 2010),
contains a number of prescriptive requirements and limitations on the use of anchored
veneer. These include height limits, drift limits, deflection limits, limits on the use of
combustible structural supports such as wood, limits on basic wind speed, cavity size
limits, mortar bed minimum thickness limits, and minimum tie spacing limits. Check
the applicable code requirements when considering seismic mitigation options.

Existing veneer anchors should be checked periodically and corroded anchors should be
replaced. Tie spacing should be compared with current code requirements to evaluate
whether the anchorage is sufficient. Additional anchors may reduce the falling hazards.

There are many vendors who supply veneer anchors; these are typically metal wires or
clips with a positive attachment to the structural backing that are embedded in the
veneer mortar bed. The seismic version of these anchors requires an additional
horizontal wire placed in the mortar bed and attached to the anchor. Some examples of
these seismic veneer anchors are shown, others can be found online.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-21

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.3.1.2-4

FEMA E-74

Installation of stone veneer showing anchorage to steel dovetail clips which are
fastened to steel studs bolted to the grouted reinforced masonry wall behind
(Photo courtesy of Simpson Gumpertz and Heger).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-22

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

MITIGATION DETAILS

Figure 6.3.1.2-5

FEMA E-74

Anchored veneer (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-23

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.1 EXTERIOR WALL COMPONENTS


6.3.1.3

PREFABRICATED PANELS

This category covers any type of prefabricated exterior panel that is attached to the perimeter
structural framing. These may be lightweight metal panels or precast concrete panels that may
have adhered or anchored veneer.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Both lightweight and heavier panels may be damaged by deformations of the building
frame; heavier panels may also be damaged by direct acceleration.

Unless the panel connections are specially detailed to allow the panel to move
independently of the building, both the connections and the panel may be damaged.
Panels may be racked, damage adjacent panels, connections may fracture, and panels
may become dislodged or displaced.

Deterioration or corrosion of the mechanical connections is a significant concern;


corroded connections may fail prematurely. Maintaining watertight joints is important
for the longevity of the anchors.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-24

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.1.3-1

FEMA E-74

Failure of precast panel at parking garage that resulted in fatality in the 1987
magnitude-5.9 Whittier, California earthquake (Photo courtesy of Degenkolb
Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-25

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.3-2

FEMA E-74

Precast panel failure at the top floor of a hospital in the1994 magnitude-6.7


Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of OSHPD).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-26

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.3-3

FEMA E-74

Precast panel damage at a building corner in the 1994 Northridge Earthquake


(Photo courtesy of OSHPD).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-27

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.3-4

FEMA E-74

Interior view of precast panel showing response of three sets of push-pull


connections in the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of OSHPD).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-28

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.3-5

FEMA E-74

Close-up photo of two fractured connection bolts in a prefabricated panel in the


1994 Northridge Earthquake; corrosion of the rods may have contributed to the
failure. (Photo courtesy of OSHPD).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-29

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.3-6

Residential building with precast concrete corridor and balcony railing panels.
Some panels were damaged and subsequently many were removed to prevent
falling. Location in Rancaqua, Chile 154 miles northeast of the epicenter;
estimated PGA of 0.3g during the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake (Photo
courtesy of Antonio Iruretagoyena, Rubn Boroschek & Associates).

Figure 6.3.1.3-7

Numerous precast panels removed to prevent falling; detail from residential


building in Rancagua, Chile above. These panels had a bearing seat at the
center and supported on steel dowels at either end (Photo courtesy of Eduardo
Fierro, BFP Engineers).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-30

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Precast panel connections and panel joints require specialized design based on the
expected inter-story drift of the structural system supporting them or 0.5 inch,
whichever is greater. The connections must be detailed with sufficient ductility and
rotation capacity to prevent failure. Typically, the panels are seated on two bearing
connections at either the top or bottom floor and then have push-pull connections at
the adjacent floor which resist out-of-plane loading but move laterally in the plane of
the panel. In this way, the panels move with the floor where the bearing connections are
located and the drift is accommodated by the rod at the push-pull connection.

Architectural Design for Earthquake, A Guide to Nonstructural Elements, (Charleson,


2007) has a detailed discussion of issues related to exterior cladding. Sliding
connections with slotted or oversized holes are commonly used in New Zealand as an
alternative to push-pull connections.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-31

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

MITIGATION DETAILS

Figure 6.3.1.3-8

FEMA E-74

Precast spandrel panel in San Francisco parking garage supported by bearing


connections near top of panel (left) and slotted connections at bottom of panel
(right); panels have four connections each. The remnants of a previous
nonductile connection detail are visible in the photo at left (Photo courtesy of
Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-32

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.3-9

FEMA E-74

Prefabricated panels (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-33

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.1 EXTERIOR WALL COMPONENTS


6.3.1.4

GLAZING

Glazing includes glass curtain walls on multistory buildings, large storefront windows, as well
as small, operable wood framed windows. Glass may be annealed, heat-strengthened,
tempered, laminated or in sealed, insulating glass units. Glazing can be installed using either
wet or dry glazing methods. Any of these may pose a significant falling hazard if not designed
to accommodate seismic forces and displacements.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Glazing assemblies are sensitive to both accelerations and deformations and are subject
to both in-plane and out-of-plane failures. Glazing is particularly vulnerable in flexible
structures with large inter-story drifts; large storefront windows are also vulnerable.
Glass can fall in shards, shatter into small pieces, or broken panes may be held in place
by film.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-34

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.1.4-1

FEMA E-74

Shard of broken untempered glass that fell several stories from a multistory
building in the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Wiss, Jenney,
Elstner Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-35

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.4-2

FEMA E-74

Scenes in Ferndale, California following the 2010 magnitude-6.5 Eureka


Earthquake. 50% of the glazing on Main Street was cracked (Photos courtesy of
Bret Lizundia, Rutherford & Chekene).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-36

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.4-3

FEMA E-74

Glazing damage was observed in many residential and commercial buildings


and hospitals throughout central Chile following the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile
Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Miranda, Stanford University).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-37

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.4-4

FEMA E-74

Glazing damage, due in part to pounding with the structure at right during the
2010 Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Antonio Iruretagoyena, Rubn
Boroscheck & Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-38

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.4-5

FEMA E-74

Overhead glazing damage from the 2010 Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of
Eduardo Miranda, Stanford University).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-39

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.4-6

FEMA E-74

Broken glass and bent window mullions in flexible building which experienced
large inter-story drift in the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (FEMA 310, 1998).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-40

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

The design of glazing assemblies depends on the calculated inter-story drift for the
building. Glazing generally performs better with stiffer structural systems that have
lower inter-story drift or where larger edge clearances are provided at the mullions. The
building code ASCE/SEI 7-10 and rehabilitation standard ASCE/SEI 41-06 Seismic

Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings, (ASCE, 2006) include minimum requirements for


fallout, the relative displacement that causes the glass to fall from the glazing assembly,
as a multiple of the design displacement and the importance factor.

The term safety glass refers to tempered or laminated glazing and is required by code in
a number of applications such as glazing in or adjacent to exits, within 10 of a walking
surface, etc. ANSI A97.1 Safety Glazing Materials Used in Buildings (ANSI, 2004) is the
standard that defines different kinds of safety glass. Use of tempered glass will greatly
reduce the seismic hazard because tempered glass breaks into small dull fragments
instead of large hazardous shards. Tempered glass is required within 10 above a
walking surface under some circumstances; check applicable code requirements.
Laminated glass will typically remain in place when broken and will prevent people or
objects from falling through the opening. Wired glass with a grid of steel wire
embedded in the pane is an option for some situations where fire and impact rating are
not also required. Storefront windows are often vulnerable as the windows occupy a
large structurally unsupported area at the ground floor, often resulting in soft story or
torsion problems. Use of laminated glass for storefront windows reduces the seismic
risk and also increases protection from burglary and vandalism.

Plastic films that help hold glass fragments together even if the pane breaks are
available. These films may reduce the seismic risk particularly where glazing is directly
over an exit way, within 10 of an exit way, or along interior corridors. Such films may
be a cost effective way to retrofit an existing pane of glass and are often installed for
other reasons, such as security or reducing solar heat gain. Extending the film over the
edge of the surrounding frame is advisable not only to hold broken fragments in place
but also to prevent the entire pane from falling out.

Avoid placing beds, desks, chairs or couches that are typically occupied many hours a
day near large plate glass windows.

Liberal use of landscaping strips or areas with restricted pedestrian access may help to
reduce the seismic risk beneath large glass panes or tall curtain walls.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-41

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

MITIGATION DETAILS

Figure 6.3.1.4-7

FEMA E-74

Glazed exterior wall system (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-42

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.1

EXTERIOR WALL COMPONENTS

6.3.1.5

GLASS BLOCK

Glass block, or glass unit masonry, is used to construct a variety of nonbearing walls or used as
nonbearing infill in window openings. If not properly detailed to accommodate movement,
glass block units may break and pose a falling hazard.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Glass block panel assemblies are subject to both in-plane and out-of-plane failures. If
the glass block panels are not reinforced and isolated from the movement of the
structural surround or structural supports, the panel consisting of brittle glass blocks
may be damaged. Older glass block panels may be installed with rigid mortar along all
four sides and in the mortar joints. Damage to these rigid installations, or installations
without the capacity to accommodate seismic deformations, may result in glass block
breakage, falling glass block units, or possibly failure of the whole panel.

If glass block panels are rigidly attached at the sill with mortar, but allowed to slip along
the top and sides, and installed with panel reinforcing in alternate mortar joints, there
may be damage to the panel anchors, angles, or channels surrounding the panel. The
fire-rating or weatherproofing may also be compromised and should be inspected if
there are signs of movement.

A survey of glass block installations after the 1994 Northridge Earthquake found that
glass block panels installed per the UBC provisions since the late 1970s had performed
well (Hart, 1994).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-43

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.1.5-1

FEMA E-74

Damage to glass block in building with reinforced concrete frame and concrete
masonry infill in the magnitude-7 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Photo courtesy of
Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers). Note some blocks failed at rigid mortar joints
and stayed in the frame, others fell out of the frame, and others broke in place.
This building also suffered structural damage.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-44

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.5-2

FEMA E-74

Damage to glass block with rigid mortar on all sides and in all joints in the 2010
Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers). About
25% of the glass block units are cracked or broken but entire panel will need to
be removed and replaced.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-45

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.3.1.5-3

Damaged glass block panel from the Los Angeles Hospital in the 2010 Chile
Earthquake; relatively new hospital building that had to be evacuated for repairs
(Photo courtesy of Bill Holmes, Rutherford & Chekene). Blocks were installed
with steel reinforcing bars in the top and bottom horizontal joints.

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

The design of glass block panels must meet code requirements for unit masonry
construction in ACI 530-08, Building Code Requirements and Specification for masonry

Structures and Related Commentaries (ACI, 2008), except as modified by Section 14.4 of
ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures (ASCE, 2010), as
well as code requirements in Chapter 13 for nonstructural walls, but they are not subject
to the provisions that apply to standard glazing assemblies. The glass block panel
should be isolated for seismic, wind and thermal movement from the nonstructural
surround, and the nonstructural surrounding wall should be isolated from the seismic
inter-story drift of the structure.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-46

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

ASCE/SEI 7-10 contains prescriptive requirements such as limiting panel size (144 sf for
standard units in exterior panels; 250 sf for interior panels), maximum panel
dimensions between structural supports (25 ft in width or 20 ft in height), and lateral
support (along top and sides at not more than 16 in on centers). There are additional
code limitations on material properties of the glass unit masonry, sealant, and mortar;
and properties, spacing, and details of anchorage hardware; and spacing and details of
expansion joints. There also are deflection limits on the structural walls or framing that
surrounds the panels at the head (lintel) and jambs. Seismic design forces on the
nonbearing wall assembly are determined from ASCE/SEI 7-10 as for other
nonstructural walls.

For seismic resistance, the panels must be supported for both in-plane and out-ofplane loads but should be isolated from the movement of the surrounding structure.
Glass block units are inherently brittle and must be supported in a manner that does not
allow structural loads from the building to be transmitted to the glass blocks. This
typically involves providing a rigid mortar attachment to the sill at the bottom of the
panel and providing slip joints along the top and sides. In addition, horizontal
reinforcing is placed in alternate mortar joints. Typical glass block panel details are
shown in Figure 6.3.1.5-6. Slip joints at the top and sides may be accomplished with
steel angles, steel channels, or panel anchors (see three alternate head details in Figure
6.3.1.5-7). Jamb details are similar.

Note that the fire-rated head detail A in Figure 6.3.1.5-7 is very similar to Figure
6.3.2.1-6 used for full-height heavy partitions. This type of detail with steel angles
provides the most robust seismic restraint where large displacements are expected.

Special care must be taken to detail glass block panels on intersecting planes such as
corners or reentrant corners. Simultaneous motion in two directions makes these joints
particularly vulnerable to damage.

Glass block vendors often have proprietary hardware, standard specifications, and
standard downloadable details available to assist designers. Manufacturers standard
slip joint details are typically designed to accommodate thermal expansion and wind
forces and may not have not been explicitly designed for seismic deformations. Thus,
these details should be used with caution if large inter-story drifts are expected.

It may be prudent to avoid using glass block near exits and to restrict pedestrian access
below or adjacent to a large expanse of glass block by providing a barrier or wide
landscaping strip.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-47

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.3.1.5-4

FEMA E-74

Use of glass block panels for select exterior and interior walls at the North
Hollywood Police Station in California, utilizing standard details provided by
Pittsburgh Corning Glass (Photo courtesy of Pittsburgh Corning Corporation).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Figure 6.3.1.5-5

FEMA E-74

Glass block panels divided into numerous subpanels at the Chula Vista Police
Headquarters, California (Photo courtesy of Pittsburgh Corning Corporation). In
addition, the nonbearing glass block panel partition wall is isolated from seismic
movement of the building structure.

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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.3.1.5-6

FEMA E-74

Typical glass block panel details (shown here with steel angles or channels to
provide lateral restraint (ER).

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Figure 6.3.1.5-7

FEMA E-74

Alternate head details for glass block panels (jamb details similar) (ER).

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6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.2

INTERIOR PARTITIONS

6.3.2.1

INTERIOR PARTITION WALLS, HEAVY

Heavy partitions may be full or partial height and may be constructed of reinforced or
unreinforced masonry. Older office buildings were often built with hollow clay tile partitions
throughout much of the interior. These elements are found as infill along column lines or
located away from the structural framing or walls. Although "nonstructural" in their intended
function, masonry partitions often become "structural" in the sense that they affect the overall
response of the building to earthquakes and thus require the expertise of a structural engineer
to properly assess. Unless rigid partitions are located in a stiff building with very small interstory drifts, they should be isolated from the structural system or be explicitly included in the
lateral force design of the building.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Heavy partitions are both acceleration and deformation sensitive and may fail either inplane or out-of-plane if not properly detailed. Partial height partitions may fail unless
they are laterally braced to the structure above or engineered to cantilever from below.
Full height partitions may fail unless they are isolated from the building deformations
and provided with out-of-plane restraint.

Masonry may crack and spall, walls may collapse creating falling hazards and blocking
corridors and exits with debris. Masonry debris may be particularly hazardous in
stairwells and elevator shafts.

Where partitions are used as lateral support for piping, electrical cabinets, storage
shelves, or other nonstructural items, the failure of the partition wall may result in
damage to these other components.

Where partitions are built tight against structural columns, there is a potential for the masonry
wall to unintentionally create a captive column thereby changing the intended earthquake
response of the building. A structural engineer is needed to evaluate the implications of such
conditions.

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.2.1-1

Damage along the top of a reinforced concrete masonry unit partition built flush
with soffit of metal deck at an industrial facility in the 2001 magnitude-8.4 Peru
Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

Figure 6.3.2.1-2

Damage to reinforced concrete masonry partition used to support fire


protection cabinet and piping in the 2001 Peru Earthquake; loose stucco and
masonry were removed prior to photo (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP
Engineers).

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Figure 6.3.2.1-3

FEMA E-74

Damage to structural column (captive column) due to restraint caused by


partial height masonry wall in the 2001 Peru Earthquake (Photo courtesy of
Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

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Figure 6.3.2.1-4

FEMA E-74

View of stairway in the Banco Central Building, Managua, Nicaragua after the
1972 magnitude 6.2 Managua Earthquake. Most of the stairs were covered with
debris that resulted from the failure of the hollow tile partitions surrounding the
stairs (Photo courtesy of PEER Godden Collection, No. J94).

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Figure 6.3.2.1-5

FEMA E-74

Damage to unreinforced brick partitions in patient rooms, and other mostly


nonstructural damage, resulted in the evacuation of the Felix Bulnes Hospital in
Santiago in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of
Gilberto Mosqueda, University of Buffalo, SUNY).

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Figure 6.3.2.1-6

An infill masonry wall collapsed onto the distilled water equipment spilling two
150 gallon containers; water leaked past the perimeter edge of the floor slab
into the operating room suite below resulting in the closure of 3 of 6 the
operating rooms. Replacement gypsum board partition seen in photo. Hospital
built in 2005 in Los Angeles, Chile. Damage from the 2010 Chile Earthquake
(Photo courtesy of Bill Holmes, Rutherford & Chekene).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Heavy full height partitions need out-of-plane restraint with an in-plane slip joint. This
can be provided with steel angles on either side attached to the structural slab above as
shown. Steel angles may be continuous or intermittent; check code requirements. Note
that special details may be required to meet fireproofing, sound proofing,
weatherproofing or insulation requirements.

Care must be used in detailing slip joints for a series of interconnected perpendicular
walls since the out-of-plane restraints for one wall will prevent in-plane slip along the
perpendicular wall; vertical isolation joints may be required. Similarly, special details are
required where the soffit of the structure above has an irregular profile that would
prevent slip such as the metal deck in Figure 6.3.2.1-1, or a sloping profile such as a
ramp.

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If the partition will be used to provide lateral restraint for other nonstructural items,
check that the wall and the lateral restraints at the top are adequate to resist the
additional loading.

Heavy partial height partitions are often used in exterior walls with glazing above or
used as guardrails along exterior corridors. In buildings with structural frames, these
walls should be self supporting and isolated from the structural framing at both ends.
Failure to provide appropriate seismic isolation for these partial height walls has
resulted in thousands of structural captive column failures in past earthquakes.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.3.2.1-7

FEMA E-74

Detail of isolation joint to prevent creation of captive column condition


(Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

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Figure 6.3.2.1-8

FEMA E-74

Full-height concrete masonry unit walls detailed with steel clip angles (3 angles
visible in photo). Configuration shown includes perpendicular walls, sloping
ramp above, and column with column capital. Although wall detailed with
sealant joints along edges of column and column capital, it is not clear that the
concrete frame can move independently of these CMU walls (Photo courtesy of
Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers).

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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.3.2.1-9

FEMA E-74

Full height heavy partition (ER).

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Figure 6.3.2.1-10

FEMA E-74

Partial height heavy partition (ER).

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6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.2

INTERIOR PARTITIONS

6.3.2.2

INTERIOR PARTITION WALLS, LIGHT

Light partitions may be full height (extending from floor-to-floor) or partial height (extending
to the ceiling but not to the structural framing above) and are typically built using wood or
metal studs with gypsum board or lath and plaster finish.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Light partitions may be damaged as a result of in-plane or out-of-plane loading if not


properly detailed. Full height partitions in flexible structures may fail unless they are
isolated from the building deformations. Typical damage consists of cracked or spalled
finishes, deformed partition faming, and failed connections. Partial height partitions
may damage ceiling framing to which they are attached or can fall out-of-plane unless
they are laterally braced to the structure above.

Partition failures may create failing hazards, block corridors, and endanger occupants
attempting to exit from damaged buildings.

Where partitions are used as lateral support for electrical panels, storage shelves, or
other nonstructural items, the failure of the partition wall may result in damage to these
other components. Unless the partitions are properly designed, heavy items anchored
to a light wall could also precipitate failure of the partition wall.

Metal stud partitions are often detailed on drawings with a slip track to allow relative
movement between the vertical studs and gypsum sheathing (attached to the lower
floor) and the top track (attached to the slab above). Although these detail drawings
typically state that full height gypboard should not be screwed to the top track, it is
quite common to find them screwed together in the field rendering them the same as
rigidly attached partitions. Gypsum board partitions (8 ft tall) that are rigidly attached
to two adjacent floors typically are damaged with approximately 0.5 inch of interstory
drift.

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.2.2-1

FEMA E-74

Failure of inadequately braced partial height metal stud partitions in the 1994
Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates).

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Figure 6.3.2.2-2

Damage to wood stud wall spanning floor-to-floor in the 1994 Northridge


Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

For multistory and other engineered buildings, non-load bearing partitions should be
isolated from the structural system in order to minimize costly partition damage. For
these situations, full height partitions need out-of-plane restraint with an in-plane slip
joint to isolate them from the building deformations. This is typically provided through
special metal stud framing details. Note that special details may be required to meet
fireproofing, sound proofing, weatherproofing, or insulation requirements. Additionally,
care must be taken in detailing a series of interconnected perpendicular walls since the
out-of-plane restraints along one wall may prevent slip on the perpendicular wall.

In smaller buildings, it may be prudent to anchor all full height walls to the structural
diaphragm above; in this way the partitions, if sheathed from floor-to-floor, provide
additional lateral resistance for the building. Partial height partitions must be laterally
braced to the structure above; braces may be required at 6 to 8 foot intervals; check
code requirements.

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If partition walls will be used to provide lateral restraint for other nonstructural items,
check that the walls and the lateral restraints at the top are adequate to resist the
additional loading.

New or improved restraint systems for steel stud partitions are under development; one
such scheme was tested at Stanford University in July 2010 that allows for over 1.5 of
displacement in any horizontal direction. Check the internet for additional restraint
options.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.3.2.2-3

FEMA E-74

Bracing of partial height stud partition (Photo courtesy of Degenkolb Engineers).

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Figure 6.3.2.2-4

FEMA E-74

Two-story nonstructural component simulator at the University of Buffalo,


SUNY shown at left. Preparation for dynamic testing of stud partitions for the
NEES Nonstructural Project shown at right. Tests such as these improve
understanding of the seismic behavior of nonstructural components (Photos
courtesy of University of Buffalo, SUNY).

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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.3.2.2-5

FEMA E-74

Full height nonbearing stud wall (ER).

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Figure 6.3.2.2-6

FEMA E-74

Partial height nonbearing stud wall (ER).

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6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.2

INTERIOR PARTITIONS

6.3.2.3

GLAZED PARTITIONS

Glazed partitions are often used in office corridors or around conference rooms to provide
enhanced interior lighting. Glazing may be found in light, heavy, or demountable partitions;
glazed partitions may be either full height or partial height. Glazing assemblies may be
vulnerable to earthquake damage; glazed partitions must have lateral support but should be
isolated from the movement of the surrounding structure.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Glazing assemblies may be damaged as a result of either in-plane or out-of-plane


loading unless properly detailed. Failure of glazed partitions may create falling hazards,
block corridors, and endanger occupants attempting to exit from damaged buildings.
Glazing is particularly vulnerable in assemblies where there is insufficient clearance in
the glazing pockets or insufficient isolation from the structure to accommodate interstory drifts.

Full height glazed partitions in flexible structures may fail unless they are isolated from
the building deformations. In addition to broken glass, the mullions, gaskets, or setting
block may be damaged.

Damage may also include cracked or spalled finishes

surrounding the glazing, deformed partition framing, and failed connections.

Partial

height glazed partitions may damage ceiling framing to which they are attached or can
fall out-of-plane unless they are laterally braced to the structure above.

Particularly

hazardous is glazing used at the top portion of partial height partitions where it can fall
from increased height; such glazing is often used to allow light transmission but reduce
sound transmission.

Glazed partitions may be damaged by impact from unanchored furniture or contents or


suspended items without appropriate sway bracing.

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.2.3-1

FEMA E-74

Glass shards fallen from the top of partial height office partitions in the
reception area during the magnitude-8.8 2010 Chile Earthquake (Photo
courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn Boroschek & Associates).

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Figure 6.3.2.3-2

FEMA E-74

Damage to glazed doors at the Concepcin airport in the 2010 Chile


Earthquake. In the top photo the glazing in the sliding glass door shattered; in
the lower photo the glass is intact but the door frames are misaligned (Photos
courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn Boroschek & Associates).

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Figure 6.3.2.3-3

Failed wood framed glazing assembly in the 2010 Chile earthquake (Photo
courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers). The wood framing was held in
place by metal or rebar brackets embedded in the masonry wall. The adobe
wall on the left of the door collapsed and the brackets on the right side pulled
out of the brick masonry wall (lower right). The glazing assembly at the rear
entrance of the chapel was anchored overhead to the wood balcony framing
and was undamaged.

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

The design of glazed partitions depends on the calculated inter-story drift for the
building.

Glazing generally performs better with stiffer structural systems that have

lower inter-story drift or where larger edge clearances are provided at the mullions. The
building code ASCE/SEI 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures
(ASCE, 2010), and rehabilitation standard ASCE/SEI 41-06 Seismic Rehabilitation of

Existing Buildings, (ASCE, 2007) include minimum requirements for fallout, the relative
displacement that causes glass to fall from the glazing assembly, as a multiple of the
design displacement and the importance factor.

For specific requirements and

exemptions, check local code provisions.

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Architectural Design for Earthquake (Charleson, 2007) provides discussion and graphics
pertaining to seismic detailing for glazing and glazed partitions.

In addition, the

American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA) has published guidelines for


testing glazing assemblies and determining fallout. These guidelines may be obtained
at www.aamanet.org.

Glazing may be found in heavy, light, or demountable partitions; glazed partitions may
be either full height or partial height. Anchorage details for heavy partitions are shown
in Section 6.3.2.1, light partition details are shown in Section 6.3.2.2, and demountable
partition details are shown in Section 6.5.5.2. The nonstructural surround must be selfsupporting and not deliver loads to the glazing assembly from above or either side;
thus, wall elements above the glazed portion may need to be suspended from above or
have an adequate lintel so the weight does not bear on the glazing or mullions. A deep
leg slip track could be installed either at the top of the mullion or at the structure above,
depending on the structural framing configuration. Note that because glazed partitions
must meet the seismic drift limits for glass components, glazed partitions may require
additional or different bracing than a similar partition without glazing. Also note that
where the partition is properly detailed to be isolated from the seismic inter-story drift
of the surrounding structure, the glass-to-frame clearance required around each pane
of glazing is reduced. Special care should be given when detailing glass on intersecting
planes such as corners and reentrant corners as these locations are particularly
vulnerable to damage.

Safety glazing, such as laminated or tempered glass, may be required in areas adjacent
to stairways or subject to human impact; check the applicable code for specific
requirements. Use of safety glass will reduce the hazard in the event that some of the
glazing breaks in an earthquake.

All glass assemblies have become common for enclosing lobby areas or atria in large
commercial buildings.

These typically are suspended from specially designed steel

framing and may include details such as glass fins and steel connecting hardware.
These assemblies are typically left free to slip at the bottom and must be specially
detailed at edges and corners to avoid impact with adjacent panes.

Glazed partitions should not be used to provide lateral support to other nonstructural
components such as book shelves, electrical panels, file cabinets, unless adequate
lateral resistance can be shown. In addition, such items should not be located where
they can tip, fall, or swing and break the partition glazing.

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The use of glazed partitions should be avoided in emergency exit corridors or stairways;
limiting the height and area of partition glazing or using multiple smaller panes of glass
may be less hazardous than larger and taller panes.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.3.2.3-4

FEMA E-74

Glazed partition supported at base with slip track at top; partition above glazing
suspended and braced from above. Glazing subdivided into relatively small
panels with ample clearance at mullions (Photo courtesy of Cynthia Perry, BFP
Engineers).

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Figure 6.3.2.3-5

FEMA E-74

Specialized glazing details for glass dome using specialty hardware, such as large
sealant joints required to accommodate thermal movement and seismic
deformations at the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California
(Photos courtesy of Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers).

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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.3.2.3-6

FEMA E-74

Details for full-height glazed partition (ER).

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6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.3

INTERIOR VENEERS

6.3.3.1

STONE, TILE AND MASONRY VENEER

Interior veneer may be either adhered or anchored; both types are addressed here.

Veneer

made of thin materials such as ceramic tile, masonry, corian or similar solid surface, and stone
can be attached to a backing substrate with adhesive. Heavy veneers such as masonry, stone,
or stone slab units weighing more than 20 psf must be anchored to the structure by mechanical
means. To avoid becoming a falling hazard, veneers and their connections must be designed to
accommodate the anticipated seismic drift.

Alternatively, they must be attached to interior

partitions which are isolated from the anticipated seismic drift of the structure.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Adhered veneers are deformation sensitive and may crack or become dislodged due to
deformation of the backing substrate. Veneer adhered directly to structural elements
may be particularly vulnerable, for example, veneer adhered to a concrete or masonry
shear wall may be damaged when the wall deforms. Poorly adhered veneer may come
loose due to direct acceleration. Where veneer, such as tile, is used to provide a water
barrier, such as in kitchens, restrooms, or showers, the adhesive and backing substrate
may be damaged due to water intrusion if the mortar joints are cracked or deteriorated.
In this case, whole sections of tile might come loose.

Anchored veneers and their connections may be damaged by inertial forces and by
building distortion, especially when located at corners and openings. Rigid connections
may distort or fracture if they do not have sufficient flexibility to accommodate the
seismic drift.

In addition, veneer units may crack, spall, or become completely

dislodged and fall.

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.3.1-1

FEMA E-74

Damage to adhered tile veneer in residential bathroom and kitchen in the 2010
magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Antonio Iruretagoyena,
Ruben Boroschek & Associates). Tile is adhered to CMU infill partitions.

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Figure 6.3.3.1-2

Damage to adhered tile veneer in locker room and kitchen at industrial facility
in the 2001 Peru Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).
Tile was adhered to CMU partitions which were built integral with the concrete
frame. While only a limited number of tiles were broken, equipment had to be
disconnected and many tiles removed to repair cracks in the wall and facilitate
the repair of the veneer.

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Where interior veneer is attached to nonstructural walls or partitions, these partitions


must be designed with adequate in-plane and out-of-plane support but detailed to

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accommodate the anticipated inter-story drift of the structural frame. Sections 6.3.1.1
and 6.3.1.2 provide additional information about adhered and anchored exterior
veneers; the details used for interior veneers are similar, although interior and exterior
finishes are typically installed by different trades.

ASCE/SEI 7-10 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures (ASCE, 2010)
contains a number of prescriptive requirements and limitations on the use of veneer.
These include height limits, drift limits, deflection limits, limits on the use of
combustible structural supports such as wood, mortar bed minimum thickness limits,
and minimum tie spacing limits.

Check the applicable code requirements when

considering seismic mitigation options.

Care must be taken in detailing corners, openings, edges and joints between structural
elements and nonstructural substrates, such as a corner where a concrete masonry infill
wall with veneer abuts a concrete column.

While joints between individual tiles or

stones may be grouted, movement joints may require a flexible sealant and bond
breaker.

Check manufacturers recommendations for detailing under these special

conditions.

Adhered veneer placed directly on concrete or masonry shear walls is likely to be


damaged during a design level earthquake since the shear wall is designed to deform to
resist seismic loading. Cracking or spalling of adhered veneer on a shear wall is a sign
that the shear wall has been damaged and may also be in need of repair.

There are many vendors who supply veneer adhesion or anchoring systems.

Some

seismic veneer anchor examples for exterior veneers are shown in Section 6.3.1.2, and
others can be found online.

Figure 6.3.3.1-3 shows two examples of anchoring

schemes for thin stone slabs as typically installed by specialty contractors. Both the
supporting structure and the anchorage assembly must be designed to accommodate
the anticipated inter-story drift.

Existing veneer anchors should be checked periodically and corroded anchors should be
replaced. Tie spacing should be compared with current code requirements to evaluate
whether the anchorage is sufficient. Additional anchors may be installed to reduce the
falling hazards.

Adhered veneer used to provide a water barrier must also be

periodically inspected and maintained; if not repaired, water intrusion may cause
corrosion or deterioration of the backing substrate or structural supports.

It may be prudent to remove interior veneer in exit corridors or above exits, especially if
larger units are mounted above 10 feet.

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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.3.3.1-3

FEMA E-74

Detail for anchored interior veneer (ER).

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6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.4

CEILINGS

6.3.4.1

SUSPENDED ACOUSTIC LAY-IN TILE CEILING SYSTEMS

Suspended acoustic ceiling systems are used widely in many types of buildings. These ceiling
systems often include lay-in lighting and openings for air diffusers and sprinklers heads.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Differential movement of the ceiling relative to structural elements such as columns or


walls or nonstructural elements such as partitions, sprinklers heads, or fixed lighting
may damage the ceiling.

Acoustical tiles may be dislodged and fall out of the ceiling grid; lights, diffusers, and
sprinkler heads may swing and damage the ceiling; runners and cross runners in the
grid may separate and fall. Ceiling systems are especially vulnerable at the perimeter or
at penetrations, such as a column, pipe chase, or fixed lighting.

Where lights, diffusers and other services within the ceiling do not have independent
safety wires, these items can fall and create a hazard for occupants.

Conflicts between ceilings and sprinkler heads are a common occurrence causing
damage to both the ceiling and sprinkler heads as well as water damage due to sprinkler
leaks.

Ceiling failures may result in building evacuations and loss of functionality until the
ceiling and utilities are repaired. In a hospital setting or clean lab, the failure of the
ceiling system may introduce dust and debris, including asbestos, into the room below
compromising its functionality. In the case of asbestos contamination, this may involve
costly removal before functionality can be restored.

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.4.1-1

FEMA E-74

Failure of suspended ceiling system including lights, air diffusers, and insulation
in control room of an industrial plant in the 2001 magnitude-8.4 Peru
Earthquake (Photo courtesy of BFP Engineers).

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Figure 6.3.4.1-2

FEMA E-74

Failure of suspended ceiling system including lights and air diffusers in the 1994
Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates).

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Figure 6.3.4.1-3

FEMA E-74

Generalized failure of ceiling grid, tiles, lights, and diffusers at the Los Angeles
Hospital in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Bill
Holmes, Rutherford & Chekene).

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Figure 6.3.4.1-4

Fallen ceiling tiles at Talca Hospital in the 2010 Chile Earthquake, in spite of the
use of clips as shown in detail at right. Most ceilings observed in Chile did not
have seismic detailing (Photos courtesy of Bill Holmes, Rutherford & Chekene).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Standard practice for the seismic design of suspended acoustic lay-in tile ceilings is
described in ASTM E580, Standard Practice for Installation of Ceiling Suspension

Systems for Acoustical Tile and Lay-in Panels in Areas Subject to Earthquake Ground
Motions (ASCE, 2010), which is referenced in ASCE 7-10 Section 13.5.6. This standard
supersedes several previous CISCA standards.

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For ceilings in Seismic Design Category C, the objective of these standards is to provide
an unrestrained ceiling that will accommodate the movement of the structure during a
seismic event. This is achieved by specifying the strength of grid connectors, frequency
of hangers, perimeter closure angles, edge clearances, etc. For ceilings in Seismic
Design Category D, E & F, the objective of these standards is to provide a restrained
ceiling with connection to the perimeter wall and with rigid or non-rigid bracing
assemblies. This is achieved by specifying the strength of grid elements, grid
connections, frequency of hangers and lateral bracing assemblies, 2 minimum
perimeter closure angles, minimum edge clearances, etc. For Seismic Design Category
D, E & F, lateral bracing assemblies are required for all ceiling areas greater than 1000
sq. ft. There are several exemptions as follows:
o

Seismic detailing is not required for suspended ceilings less than or equal to 144
sq. feet that are surrounded by walls or soffits that are laterally braced to the
structure (this exemption applies to heavy or light suspended ceiling systems).

For ceilings in Seismic Design Category C weighing less than 2.5 psf, special
seismic perimeter closure details are required to provide an unrestrained ceiling;
bracing assemblies are not required.

Ceilings weighing above 2.5 psf in Seismic Design Category C and ceilings in
Seismic Design Categories D, E & F are detailed to provide a restrained ceiling;
nevertheless, they do not require bracing assemblies unless they are larger than
1000 sq. ft.

For Seismic Design Category D, E & F, these details typically include requirements for
perimeter closure that provides fixity along two adjacent sides and allows of slip on
the opposite sides as well as periodic bracing assemblies in ceilings larger than 1000
sq. ft. ASTM E580 includes requirements for the strength of connections between grid
elements, minimum size (2) for the closure angle, requirements for seismic separation
joints for ceilings larger than 2500 sq. ft., requirements for the support of lighting and
mechanical services, etc. Check with ASTM E580 for applicable spacing, exemptions,
and other requirements.

Where lights and diffusers and supported by the ceiling grid, either an intermediate duty
or heavy duty grid must be used and supplementary framing and hanger wires may be
required to provide direct support for such items. For instance, ASTM E580 requires
heavy duty main runners with a load carrying capacity of 16 lb/ft for Seismic Design
Category D, E and F. If cross runners with a load carrying capacity less than 16 lbs/ft are
specified, and the corner of any light fixture is supported on two adjacent sides by these
intermediate duty cross runners, then a supplementary hanger wire must be attached to

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the grid within 3 of each such corner. ASTM E580 includes several figures showing
examples where these supplementary wires are required. These supplementary hanger
wires are not required where heavy duty cross runners are specified; for instance, DSA IR
25-5 Metal Suspension Systems for Lay-in Panel Ceilings (California Department of
General Services, 2009c), requires all lights to be supported by heavy duty runners. In
order to minimize their potential falling hazard, lights, diffusers and similar items are
required to have independent safety wires attached directly to the structure. The
number and configuration of these safety wires varies depending on the size and weight
of the items. See Examples 6.4.6.2 and 6.4.9 for additional requirements for ail diffusers
and lights, respectively.

Seismic bracing assemblies for suspended ceilings typically include a vertical


compression strut and diagonally splayed wire braces as shown in Figure 6.3.4.1-8.
Rigid bracing assemblies, such as those shown to brace overhead piping in Section 6.4.3
may also be used.

ASTM E580 includes other requirements for clear openings for sprinkler heads, seismic
separation joints, ceiling penetrations, and consideration of consequential damage and
seismic interaction effects.

The Division of the State Architect sets forth ceiling standards for California schools in
DSA IR 25-5. This reference is a useful tool for designing in areas of potentially severe
seismic shaking. In California, schools require ceiling bracing assemblies at a spacing
of not more than 12 feet in each direction; essential services buildings require bracing
assemblies at a spacing of not more than 8 ft. by 12 ft. on center. DSA requirements
differ slightly from those in ASTM E580; check the applicable jurisdiction for specific
requirements.

Ceiling details in Figures 6.3.4.1-6, 7, 8 and 9 are for Seismic Design Category D, E and
F where the total ceiling weight does not exceed 4 psf or Seismic Design Category C
where the total ceiling weight is between 2.5-4 psf. These are adapted from CA DSA IR
25-5 and ASTM E580. These figures are shown with heavy duty main runners and cross
runners as required by DSA IR 25-5; see discussion in text regarding the requirement in
ASTM E580 for supplementary hanger wires at light fixtures supported by intermediate
duty cross runners. Check the applicable jurisdiction; in some cases, ceilings heavier
than 4 psf, or those with a plenum larger than a certain threshold, may require
engineering. See sources for additional information, updates, or for connection details
and special conditions not shown.

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There are shake table tests of ceilings which show that systems perform better when the
tile almost nearly fills the available space and has ample overlap on the runners. These
systems also have fewer tiles drop in tests than systems with smaller tiles.

ASCE 7-10 Section 13.5.6.3 includes a discussion of integral construction where the
grid, panels, lights, piping, and other overhead services are shop assembled in modules
and bracing is provided for the whole assembly. These are included as an alternative to
the details shown here. Check the internet for proprietary systems or systems preapproved for use in your jurisdiction.

Safety wires are required for lights and mechanical services in suspended acoustic tile
ceilings to prevent them from falling. Refer to Sections 6.4.9 and 6.4.6.2 for additional
information. As noted above, supplementary hanger wires for the ceiling grid may also
be required. The weight of supported items should never exceed the carrying capacity
of the ceiling grid. Special details are required for heavy lighting or heavy mechanical
items; these should be supported directly from the structure above and not depend on
the ceiling grid for vertical or lateral support. For such fixed items, perimeter closure
details may be required for the ceiling to prevent impact with the ceiling system.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.3.4.1-5

FEMA E-74

Compression struts and diagonal splayed wires are used to limit the movement
of suspended acoustic tile ceilings. Per ASTM E580, this type of bracing
assembly is required for ceiling areas larger than 1000 sq. ft. in Seismic Design
Category D,E & F. (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).
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Figure 6.3.4.1-6

Shake table testing of a proprietary suspended acoustic lay-in tile ceiling at


MCEER (Photo courtesy of University of Buffalo, SUNY). Additional testing of
these systems will help improve our understanding of their failure modes and
help inform the design of more resilient systems.

Mitigation Details
Ceiling details in Figures 6.3.4.1-7, 8, 9 and 10 are for Seismic Design Category D, E and F
where the total ceiling weight does not exceed 4 psf or Seismic Design Category C where the
total ceiling weight is between 2.5-4 psf. These are adapted from DSA IR 25-5 and ASTM E580.
These figures are shown with heavy duty main runners and heavy duty cross runners as
required by DSA IR 25-5; see discussion in text regarding the requirement in ASTM E580 for
supplementary hanger wires at light fixtures supported by intermediate duty cross runners.
Check the applicable jurisdiction; in some cases, ceilings heavier than 4psf, or those with a
plenum larger than a certain threshold, may require engineering. See sources for additional
information, updates, or for connection details and special conditions not shown.

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Figure 6.3.4.1-7

FEMA E-74

Suspension system for acoustic lay-in panel ceilings edge conditions (PR).

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Per DSA IR 25-5, ceiling areas less than 144 sq. ft, or fire rated ceilings less than 96 sq. ft., surrounded by walls braced

to the structure above do not require lateral bracing assemblies when they are attached to two adjacent walls. (ASTM
E580 does not require lateral bracing assemblies for ceilings less than 1000 sq. ft.; see text.)

Figure 6.3.4.1-8

FEMA E-74

Suspension system for acoustic lay-in panel ceilings lateral bracing assembly
(PR).

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Figure 6.3.4.1-9

FEMA E-74

Suspension system for acoustic lay-in panel ceiling general layout (PR).

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Figure 6.3.4.1-10

FEMA E-74

Suspension system for lay acoustic lay-in panel ceiling overhead attachment
details (PR).

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6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.4

CEILINGS

6.3.4.2

CEILINGS APPLIED DIRECTLY TO STRUCTURE

Ceiling finishes such as gypsum board, interior lath and plaster, or exterior stucco soffits may
be applied directly to structural elements such as wood ceiling joists, beam soffits, or the
underside of structural slabs. These overhead finish materials may pose a falling hazard if the
finish materials and any backing substrate are not anchored to the structure with positive
attachments.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Vintage lath and plaster ceilings may fall if the wood or metal lath is not adequately
secured to the structure above or if the plaster has separated from the lath. Even well
secured ceilings may exhibit x-cracking in buildings with flexible diaphragms or
cracking around the edges where the ceiling and walls meet or at locations with seismic
joints that have not been properly detailed.

These ceilings may be particularly

vulnerable if they have deteriorated due to roof or plumbing leaks.

Stucco soffits on exterior surfaces, such as the underside of balconies or canopies, may
fall if the wood or metal lath or finish materials are not adequately secured to the
structure above or if the attachments have corroded or the components have
deteriorated due to long term exposure or leakage from the roofing or decking above.
Stucco soffits on cantilevered balconies or canopies may be particularly vulnerable as
they often experience higher vertical accelerations than other structures.

Large expanses of ceiling attached directly beneath flexible diaphragms may be


damaged unless the ceiling is properly detailed with two adjacent sides attached and the
opposite sides free and is subdivided into smaller areas (<2500 sq ft) with seismic
expansion strips. Damage may occur around the perimeter, at changes in elevation, or
at corners, columns, or other obstructions.

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.4.2-1

FEMA E-74

Damage to metal lath and plaster ceiling applied to the underside of the
concrete slab in 10-story residential building in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile
Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers). The damage
occurred due to pounding at the interface between two wings of the structure.

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Figure 6.3.4.2-2

FEMA E-74

Damage to stucco soffit of historic church in the 2010 Chile Earthquake (Photo
courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers). Stucco applied directly to the
underside of the slab above without furring; portion at left has fallen, portion at
right delaminated.

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Figure 6.3.4.2-3

FEMA E-74

Damage to soffit paneling and wood framing at hotel in the 2010 Chile
Earthquake; panels and wood framing show signs of prior water damage and
deterioration. Note also damage to storefront glazing and glass doors (Photos
courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn Boroschek & Associates).

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Figure 6.3.4.2-4

FEMA E-74

Damage to theater ceiling where foam panels and grid came down over
orchestra seating and in upper balcony at the Municipal Theater Valparaiso in
the 2010 Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).
A circular section of metal lath and plaster collapsed completely. It appears the
metal lath may have only been attached around the perimeter to wood furring
added in the plane of the steel framing; circular area of wired glass is in a plane
above the level of the wood furring. Black panels are lightweight foam
supported by a grid attached directly to the wood furring.

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Figure 6.3.4.2-5

FEMA E-74

Extensive failure of ceiling in the main terminal of the Santiago airport in the
2010 Chile Earthquake. Metal panels with lights and diffusers hung from furring
on short metal tabs; these remained in place but detail at lower left shows they
also sustained some damage. Furring channels still in place throughout ceiling
but majority of lightweight ceiling panels and much of the cross furring came
down as shown at lower right photo of exterior soffit with same system (Photos
courtesy of Antonio Iruretagoyena, Rubn Boroschek & Associates).

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SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Provide positive connections from the gypsum board, plaster or stucco finish materials
to the furring and from the furring to the structure above. Protect these connections
from water damage or corrosion.

Check local codes for specific requirements or

exemptions; in many cases these ceilings do not require special seismic detailing as
long as the installation meets current industry standards.

It may be prudent to reduce the standard connector spacing on stucco soffits or finishes
mounted beneath cantilevered balconies or canopies which may experience large
vertical accelerations during an earthquake. Note that finishes with exterior exposure
such as soffits also need to be designed for wind.

Gypsum board ceilings are frequently used to meet requirements for fire-rating or
sound proofing or both. Rated systems may include combinations of metal decking,
wood subflooring, wood or metal joists, insulation, resilient furring strips, and one or
several layers of gypsum board. While rated systems are typically proprietary, care must
be taken to insure that appropriate fasteners are used for each successive layer and that
they are installed with adequate penetration into the joists or furring strips. These
multi-layer systems get increasingly heavy and also have increased in-plane stiffness.
In some instances, care must be taken with the perimeter details to provide seismic
expansion joints and to allow relative movement with the walls but maintain the firerating. Availability of certified systems with seismic detailing wherever sound or fire
proofing is required should be checked and these systems must be installed exactly as
specified and as tested otherwise the certification is not valid.

Vintage lath and plaster ceilings still exist in many older structures. These ceilings
should be in good condition with the lath securely fastened to the structure and the
plaster secured to the lath. The most reliable way to upgrade these ceilings would be to
remove and replace with a code compliant ceiling system. Where it is important to
match other vintage finishes, screw attached metal lath with a new plaster finish can be
used. As an alternative to replacement, screwing 1x2 wood strips at 16 in centers into
the joists from below may serve as a safety net (See Figure 6.3.4.2-9). Some ornate
theatre ceilings have been encapsulated from below with netting to reduce the falling
hazard; such netting and all its attachments must be designed to contain any falling
debris.

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Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.3.4.2-6

FEMA E-74

Mitigation examples with 1-1/2 hat channels at 16 on centers screwed in


place with #12 self drilling screws and furring strips ready to receive gypsum
board (Photo courtesy of Excalibur Steel). No special seismic details are
required for this type of ceiling where the gypsum board is well secured directly
to furring strips.

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Figure 6.3.4.2-7

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View of typical wood lath and plaster ceiling from the 1920s from above (Photo
courtesy of Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers). The wood lath is well nailed to the
underside of the ceiling joists. This type of ceiling typically remains intact
during an earthquake but may require crack repair and painting. Where the
plaster has delaminated from the lath due to age or water leakage, wood strips
could be installed from below as in Figure 6.3.4.2-8.

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MITIGATION DETAILS

Figure 6.3.4.2-8

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Gypsum board ceiling applied directly to structure (NE).

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Figure 6.3.4.2-9

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Retrofit detail for existing lath and plaster (NE).

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6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.4

CEILINGS

6.3.4.3

SUSPENDED HEAVY CEILINGS

This category covers several different types of overhead ceilings suspended from above
including dropped furred gypsum board ceilings and suspended lath and plaster ceilings.
Suspended ceilings with wood or metal panels would also fit into this category. These systems
typically have finish material attached to a two-way furring grid which is suspended from
above. In order to reduce damage and prevent falling hazards the finish material must be well
secured to the furring grid. Damage can be reduced if the ceiling is attached to the walls along
two adjacent sides but separated from the walls along the opposite two sides and the furring
grid is laterally braced to the structure above.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Suspended heavy ceilings may be damaged both by direct acceleration and by


deformation. Direct acceleration may cause connectors to become loose or deform, and
differential movement of the ceiling relative to structural elements such as columns or
walls or nonstructural elements such as partitions, lights, diffusers, or sprinklers may
also damage the ceiling.

As these systems are heavier than acoustic tile ceilings, the consequences of failure may
be more hazardous for occupants since both the finish material and the furring grid may
fall. Ceiling failures are often costly because the space underneath may be unusable
while the ceiling is repaired or replaced.

Ceiling finishes may crack unless adequately isolated from the motion of the
surrounding structural and nonstructural elements. Crack repair in gypsum board and
plaster ceilings is a common expense following earthquakes.

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.4.3-1

FEMA E-74

Damage to ornate wire lath and plaster ceiling in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile
Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers). Wire lath is
attached to arches or to wood furring suspended from the roof framing.

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Figure 6.3.4.3-2

FEMA E-74

Damage to suspended metal panel ceiling system and fire sprinklers at


Concepcin airport, primarily at far end and around column obstructions in the
2010 Chile Earthquake (Photos courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn
Boroschek & Associates). The metal panel was strong enough to fail the
sprinkler head shown at lower left.

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Figure 6.3.4.3-3a

FEMA E-74

Complete collapse of a large suspended gypsum board ceiling over a swimming


facility in Japan (Photo courtesy of Shojiro Motoyui, Tokyo Institute of
Technology). This type of failure has been replicated on the E-defense shake
table and occurs when the U-shaped clip holding the cross furring (M-bar) to
the main runners (channel) opens into a V-shape and drops the furring grid. This
type of failure is not common in the U.S.

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Figure 6.3.4.3-3b

FEMA E-74

Schematic view of Japanese drywall ceiling grid. These ceilings are also typically
installed with lateral bracing and 200mm edge clearance. Clip shown at lower
right opens when the M-bar slides back and forth relative to the main runner,
particularly those located near a diagonal brace. This type of clip is not
common in the U.S (Source: Dynamic characteristics of Japanese style of
ceiling, Motoyui, S., Satoh, Y., and Kawanishi, T. Proceedings 7CUEE & 5ICEE,
March 2010).

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Figure 6.3.4.3-4

Collapse of exterior soffit at Jefferson Elementary School in Calexico in the 2010


Baja California Earthquake; approximately 1200 sq ft of soffit collapsed at this
school built in the 1960s (Photo courtesy of Baja Earthquake Reconnaissance
Team, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI), published in the EERI
July 2010 Newsletter).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Section 13.5.6 of ASCE/SEI 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other

Structures (ASCE, 2010), contains requirements for special seismic perimeter details and
lateral bracing assemblies for suspended ceilings but includes several significant
exemptions from these requirements as follows.
o

Seismic detailing is not required for suspended ceilings less than or equal to 144
square feet that are surrounded by walls or soffits that are laterally braced to the
structure (this exemption applies to heavy or light suspended ceiling systems).

Seismic detailing is not required for suspended ceilings constructed of screw- or


nail-attached gypsum board on one level (constructed in a single plane) that are
surrounded by and connected to walls or soffits that are laterally braced to the
structure above. Note that this exemption does not apply to plaster ceilings or

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to gypsum board ceilings on multiple levels (constructed in more than one


ceiling plane elevation).

Special seismic detailing may be required for other heavy ceilings such as plaster, wood
or metal panels, or for gypsum board ceilings at multiple levels. For these cases, the
details are configured similar to those used for acoustic ceilings with more frequent
bracing to account for the increased weight.

Seismic bracing for suspended heavy

ceilings typically includes a vertical compression strut and diagonally splayed wire
braces as shown in Figure 6.3.4.3-8.

Rigid bracing (strut or cold-formed steel) is

sometimes used in lieu of splayed wire bracing and compression posts.

Special

perimeter details typically include 2 wide perimeter closure angles, fixed attachments
on two adjacent walls and clearance of at least from the two opposite walls as shown
in Figure 6.3.4.3-6.

Details shown in Figures 6.3.4.3-6, 6.3.4.3-7, and 6.3.4.3-8 are based on requirements
for schools in California. The Division of the State Architect sets forth ceiling standards
for California schools in DSA-IR 25-3 Drywall Ceiling Suspension, Conventional

Construction One Layer (California Department of General Services, 2005b).

This

standard refers to DSA-IR 25-5 Metal Suspension Systems for Lay-in Panel Ceilings
(California Department of General Services, 2009c) for specific details regarding the
bracing assembly. These references are useful tools for designing in areas of potentially
severe seismic shaking or in jurisdictions where bracing is required.

In California,

ceiling bracing assemblies at a spacing of not more than 12 feet in each direction are
required in schools and bracing assemblies at a spacing of not more than 8 ft by 12 ft
on center, as shown in Figure 6.3.4.3-6, are required in essential services buildings.

This section provides prescriptive details for suspended gypsum board ceilings where
the grid is composed of channel sections for the main runners with hat channels wired
below as the cross furring.

Check with manufacturers for alternative proprietary

systems that use T-bars for both the main and cross runners.

Vintage lath and plaster ceilings are typically hung with wood hangers and runners
without consideration of seismic design forces. Diagonal 45 degree splay bracing wires
can be added at select wood hanger locations (for instance, 4 ft by 6 ft) to brace these
ceilings. Some jurisdictions, such as the Salt Lake City School District, require that
vintage lath and plaster ceilings be removed and replaced with compliant ceiling
systems. Where historic preservation considerations require and the local codes permit,
replacement plaster ceilings may be constructed with screw-attached metal lath and
dedicated bracing. As a lower cost alternative to replacement in wood framed
construction, the seismic risk posed by a plaster ceiling can be reduced by screwing 1x2

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wood strips at 16 centers into wood joists from below (oriented perpendicular to the
joists) to serve as a safety net. Some ornate theatre ceilings have been effectively
encapsulated from below with netting to reduce the falling hazard; such netting and all
its attachments must be designed to contain any falling debris.

Ceiling anchorage needs to be coordinated with the anchorage for lighting, air diffusers,
and sprinkler lines.

All recessed or drop-in light fixtures and diffusers must be

supported directly by main runners or by supplemental framing with positive attachment


to main runners. In order to minimize their potential falling hazard, lights, diffusers and
similar items are required to be independently supported by the structure, typically with
a minimum of two wires, as discussed in Sections 6.4.6.2 and 6.4.9.3.

In some

locations and occupancies, penetrations for sprinkler heads in ceilings braced with
splayed wire bracing are required to have a 2 inch oversized opening to allow for free
movement of 1 inch in all horizontal directions. Check local code requirements.

Mechanical connectors between the component parts of the ceiling assembly must be
chosen carefully to avoid failures. Catastrophic failures of ceiling systems in Japan have
been replicated during shake table testing because the U-shaped mechanical clip used
to hang the cross furring from the main runner can open during an earthquake,
dropping the cross furring and drywall as shown in Figures 6.3.4.3-3.

FEMA E-74

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Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.3.4.3-5

FEMA E-74

Details of suspended and braced gypsum board ceiling in California hospital.


Rigid bracing is provided at 6 ft by 8 ft on centers. Note cross furring saddle
tied to black channel (main runner) from below; supplementary framing for
lights runs parallel to cross furring and saddle tied to main runner from above
(Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

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Mitigation Details
Per ASCE 7-10, suspended ceilings constructed of screw- or nail-attached gypsum board on one level that
are surrounded by and connected to walls or soffits that are laterally braced to the structure above are
exempt from any special seismic design requirements.
The exemption above does not apply to suspended plaster ceilings, other heavy ceilings or to gypsum
board ceilings at more than one level or that are not adequately supported by surrounding walls; these
may require bracing assemblies and special edge details such as those shown here. Check applicable
code requirements. Details in Figures 6.3.4.3-6, 7, and 8 are adapted from California DSA IR 25-3 (revised
7-21-05) that provides prescriptive details for a single layer of suspended gypsum board; check with DSA
for additional details and the latest requirements (http://www.dsa.dgs.ca.gov/Pubs/IRManual.htm). These
details are shown with standard steel shapes; proprietary T-bar systems are also available.

Figure 6.3.4.3-6

FEMA E-74

Diagrammatic view of suspended heavy ceiling grid and lateral bracing (PR).

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Figure 6.3.4.3-7

FEMA E-74

Perimeter details for suspended gypsum board ceiling (PR).

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Figure 6.3.4.3-8

FEMA E-74

Details for lateral bracing assembly for suspended gypsum board ceiling (PR).

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6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.5

PARAPETS AND APPENDAGES

6.3.5.1

UNREINFORCED MASONRY PARAPETS

Unreinforced masonry (URM) parapets, cornices and appendages pose a significant falling
hazard and have caused numerous injuries and required costly repairs in past earthquakes.
While the function of parapets is nonstructural, i.e., to prevent fire spread, create a safety
railing or conceal roof-mounted equipment, they are a structural concern that requires
engineering expertise to address.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Heavy unbraced parapets typically fail out-of-plane at the roofline and may take part of
the building wall with it as they fall. Even small pieces of masonry falling several stories
may cause serious bodily injury.

Appendages may crack or spall; connections may be damaged. Pounding between


adjacent buildings often results in damage to brittle masonry parapets, cornices, and
appendages.

Failed parapets may fall either inwards or outward. When parapets collapse inward they
can damage the roof and have the potential to fall through light roof construction
posing a safety hazard to occupants below. If they collapse outward they can fall to the
street or onto the roof of an adjacent property.

FEMA E-74

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.5.1-1

URM parapet fell and smashed two cars in the 1992 magnitude-7.2 Petrolia
Earthquake. A parapet at same location in Ferndale, California failed in 1906
and killed two cows (NGDC, 2009).

Figure 6.3.5.1-2

Unreinforced masonry parapet failures along Beach Street, Watsonville in the


1989 magnitude-6.9 Loma Prieta Earthquake (NGDC, 2009).

FEMA E-74

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Figure 6.3.5.1-3

FEMA E-74

Damage to roof framing caused by failure of overhanging brick masonry during


the 1962 magnitude-5.8 Cache Valley, Utah earthquake (Photo courtesy of
PEER Steinbrugge Collection, No. S828).

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SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Some jurisdictions have parapet ordinances requiring seismic bracing for URM parapets
along a public right of way; check the local jurisdiction for requirements.

Parapet and roof conditions may vary widely. An engineered design accounting for
specific as-built construction details is needed to provide reliable earthquake
performance. Flashing and weatherproofing must be provided for any roof-mounted
connections.

Connection details for terra cotta cornices and appendages are similar to those for
anchored veneer. See Section 6.3.1.2 and check the internet for various types of
masonry, stone and veneer anchors.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.3.5.1-4

FEMA E-74

Bracing of URM parapet (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

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Figure 6.3.5.1-5

Bracing of unreinforced masonry parapet (Photo courtesy of Degenkolb


Engineers).

Figure 6.3.5.1-6

Close-up of parapet bracing (Photo courtesy of Degenkolb Engineers).

FEMA E-74

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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.3.5.1-7

FEMA E-74

Unreinforced masonry parapet (ER).

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6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.6

CANOPIES, MARQUEES, AND SIGNS

6.3.6.1

CANOPIES, MARQUEES, AND SIGNS

Cantilevered appendages of any type may pose a significant falling hazard when located above
an entrance or along a sidewalk or street.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unbraced cantilevered items may bounce or swing; connection hardware may be


undersized or corroded; items may collapse and fall.

Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.6.1-1

FEMA E-74

Failure of commercial sign in the 1979 Imperial Valley, California earthquake


(Photo courtesy of Robert Reitherman).

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Figure 6.3.6.1-2

FEMA E-74

Reinforced concrete appendage dangling from connection on one side; impact


damaged the curtain wall and created a serious hazard above the entrance of
the Corte de Apelaciones de Talca in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake
(Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

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SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Anchorage detail shown is for a cantilevered canopy, sign, or marquee that is oriented
horizontally; the vertical braces protect the item from vertical accelerations and prevent
bouncing.

Seismic protection of building appendages requires a reliable connection from the


appendage to structural framing members. Heavy canopies, marquees, or signs may
require installation of supplemental framing to deliver seismic demands to primary
structural framing elements.

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.3.6.1-3

FEMA E-74

Canopy, marquee, or sign support (ER).

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6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.7

CHIMNEYS AND STACKS

6.3.7.1

UNREINFORCED MASONRY CHIMNEY

Unreinforced masonry (URM) chimneys are extremely vulnerable to earthquake damage; their
behavior has long been used as an indicator of seismic intensity as in the Modified Mercalli
Intensity (MMI) scale.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unreinforced masonry chimneys may crack, spall, separate from the structure, or
collapse. They may fall through the roof structure and injure occupants or fall to the
ground.

Chimneys may suffer damage even at relatively low levels of ground shaking.

Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.7.1-1

FEMA E-74

Chimney collapsed and fell through the roof; approximately 2,600 chimneys
were destroyed in the 1992 Big Bear City, California earthquake (NGDC, 2009).

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Figure 6.3.7.1-2

Residential metal flue in wood frame chimney that failed in the 2003
magnitude-6.5 San Simeon earthquake. The house fell off its cripple wall,
pushing over the chimney (Photo courtesy of Michael Mahoney).

Figure 6.3.7.1-3

Chimney collapse (Photo courtesy of Earthquake Engineering Research


Institute).

FEMA E-74

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SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

The most reliable mitigation measure is to remove a URM chimney and replace it with a
metal flue inside a framed enclosure or to remove the chimney and firebox entirely.

If the chimney is not being used, reducing its height to not more than 1 to 2 feet above
the roofline will limit the potential for damage.

Chimney and roof configurations vary widely. If a URM chimney is to be braced in place,
an engineered design is needed to account for specific as-built construction details.

To protect against a chimney falling in toward the roof and posing a safety hazard
below, the roof can be locally strengthened with plywood.

Large historically important chimneys need special consideration; these could be


reinforced using a center core technology to improve their performance; this method
involves core drilling the masonry and filling the cores with reinforcing and grout.

Fire code requirements and local ordinances must be considered when considering
strategies for reducing the risk of unreinforced masonry chimneys.

The City of Seattle developed guidelines for Alteration and Repair of Unreinforced

Masonry Chimneys following the 2001 Nisqually Earthquake; these can be found
at http://www.seattle.gov/dclu/codes/dr/DR2004-5.pdf and include details for straps
at the roof and floor lines, bracing above the roofline, and partial replacement above the
roofline. Similarly, the Los Angeles Department of Building and Safety developed
prescriptive measures for Reconstruction and Replacement of Earthquake Damaged

Masonry Chimneys, available at


http://ladbs.org/LADBSWeb/LADBS_Forms/InformationBulletins/IB-P-BC2008070EQDamagedChimney.pdf.

FEMA E-74

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Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.3.7.1-4

Braced chimney (FEMA, 2004).

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.3.7.1-5

FEMA E-74

Unreinforced masonry chimney bracing (ER).

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6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.8

STAIRWAYS

6.3.8.1

STAIRWAYS

This includes stairs between floors, which may be independent of the structure, or integral with
it. Stairs are needed for exiting following an earthquake and hence protecting them from
damage and keeping them clear should be a high priority. Protecting a stair from damage is a
structural concern that requires engineering expertise to address.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Stairs are primarily damaged by interstory drift, i.e., differential movement of the
adjacent floors, which forces a stairway to try to act like a diagonal brace. Stair damage
is more likely to occur in flexible buildings with larger inter-story drift and less likely to
occur in stiffer buildings.

The walls surrounding a stairway may be damaged during an earthquake causing debris
to fall into the stairwell and rendering the stairs unusable. Brittle materials such as
brick, hollow clay tile, or glass are particularly vulnerable and may create falling and
debris hazards in stair enclosures.

FEMA E-74

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.8.1-1

FEMA E-74

Damaged stairway in the 1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge, California


earthquake (Photo courtesy of Wiss, Jenney, Elstner Associates).

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Figure 6.3.8.1-2

FEMA E-74

Stair damaged beyond repair in the 2001 magnitude-8.4 Peru Earthquake;


concrete demolished prior to photo (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP
Engineers).

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Figure 6.3.8.1-3

FEMA E-74

View of stairway in the Banco Central Building, Managua, Nicaragua after the
1972 magnitude-6.2 Managua Earthquake. Most of the stairs were covered with
debris that resulted from the failure of the hollow tile partitions surrounding the
stairs. This photograph highlights the need to not only prevent direct damage to
stairway framing and connections, but also to protect against damage to
surrounding walls (Photo courtesy of PEER Godden Collection, No. J94).

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Figure 6.3.8.1-4

FEMA E-74

Concrete stair dangling from landing above in the 2010 magnitude-7 Haiti
Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

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Figure 6.3.8.1-5

FEMA E-74

Stairs damaged up the full height of this apartment building in Via del Mar in
the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Santiago Pujol,
Purdue University). The stairs were rigidly attached at adjacent floors and
behaved like diagonal braces although they were neither designed nor detailed
to function as structural braces.

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SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE, 2010),
Section 13.1.3.1 now requires that egress stairways required to function for life-safety
purposes after an earthquake be assigned a component importance factor, Ip, of 1.5 and
be treated as designed seismic systems. This may include egress stairways that are not
part of the building structure. Structural calculations, special details and additional
inspection may be required.

In order to prevent stairs from behaving like diagonal struts between adjacent floors,
the stairs should be detailed with a fixed connection at one floor and a sliding
connection at the other that allows movement parallel to the direction of the stair.

Sliding gang plank connections or connections with slotted holes can be used to
isolate the stair from one of the attached floors and prevent damage due to inter-story
drift. The connection must be designed to accommodate the anticipated drift.

If stair enclosures are built using brittle materials such as unreinforced masonry, hollow
clay tile, glass block, or skylights, it is recommended that they be encapsulated or
replaced to prevent falling hazards and debris in the stairwell. Provide bracing and
anchorage for pipes, lighting, emergency lighting or ducts to prevent falling hazards
and debris in the stairwell. Maintaining safe exits is a critical element of earthquake
safety.

FEMA E-74

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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.3.8.1-6

FEMA E-74

Stairway with landing (ER).

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Figure 6.3.8.1-7

FEMA E-74

Stairway with landing with single run between floors (ER).

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6.3

ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS

6.3.9

FREESTANDING WALLS OR FENCES

6.3.9.1

FREESTANDING MASONRY WALL OR FENCE

This category covers freestanding (cantilevered) walls and fences built of either reinforced or
unreinforced masonry. Freestanding fences of 6 feet or less are often not covered by code
provisions; nevertheless, unreinforced or poorly reinforced masonry walls or fences or those
with inadequate foundations are vulnerable to earthquake damage.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unreinforced masonry elements perform poorly in earthquakes; unreinforced or underreinforced masonry walls and fences frequently fail out-of-plane and may collapse
completely. Walls with inadequate foundations may also fail out-of-plane and tip over.

Falling masonry walls and fences may injure people and property and block pedestrian
walkways, driveways, loading docks, streets and access for emergency vehicles during
an emergency.

When these fences serve as a security perimeter, their failure may result in a security
breach following an earthquake resulting in additional property damage due to
trespassing or looting.

The 1994 Northridge Earthquake damaged many miles of poorly constructed concrete
masonry unit (CMU) fences and caused collapse of walls with inadequate or absent
reinforcing and foundations in Northridge and Sylmar, California, covering sidewalks
with debris, as shown in Figure 6.3.9.1-1. After the 2010 Haiti Earthquake, the debris
were apparent from aerial photos of the affected areas.

FEMA E-74

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.3.9.1-1

FEMA E-74

Collapse of freestanding CMU walls covering much of the sidewalk in the 1994
magnitude-6.7 Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Robert Reitherman).
The rubble reveals that the wall was unreinforced.

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Figure 6.3.9.1-2

FEMA E-74

Freestanding masonry fences with inadequate reinforcement collapsed covering


both sides of this street in Port-au-Prince in the 2010 magnitude-7 Haiti
Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Yves Montoban). Many miles of such fencing
collapsed in the 2010 Haiti Earthquake.

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Figure 6.3.9.1-3

FEMA E-74

Damage to reinforced masonry boundary fence at industrial facility in Southern


Peru; out-of-plane movement at construction joint in wall without sufficient
reinforcing for the level of shaking experienced at this location in the
2001magnitude-8.4 Peru Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP
Engineers). Additional boundary steel or reinforced concrete boundary columns
located either side of construction joints would improve the performance of this
type of fence.

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Figure 6.3.9.1-4

Photo at top shows complete collapse of poorly detailed confined masonry


fence in foreground; partial collapse of poorly detailed confined masonry fence
in distance at left; no damage to well detailed confined masonry fence in
distance at right in the 2010 Haiti Earthquake. Close-up view of well-detailed
confined masonry fence in bottom photo with concrete columns and bond
beam at top (Photos courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers). Fences in
foreground and at right formed the security perimeter at an electric power plant
in Port-au-Prince.

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Freestanding walls or fences built of concrete masonry units (CMU), brick or stone need
to be engineered and constructed to cantilever from the base with appropriate

FEMA E-74

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foundations, adequate reinforcing, good quality mortar, and good workmanship.


Seismic loading at the base of tall cantilever walls can be substantial in a major
earthquake. Such walls could be constructed using standard seismic detailing for
reinforced masonry such as the details shown in Figure 6.3.9.1-6 and 7. Engineered
reinforced concrete walls would clearly be another, although more costly, alternative.

The State of California has published several guidelines that relate to the construction of
such fences; see DSA IR 21-1 Masonry Wall Non Structural, DSA IR 21-2 Concrete

Masonry High Lift Grouting Method, DSA IR 21-3 Clay Brick Masonry High Lift Grouting
Method, and DSA IR 21-4 Masonry: Concrete Masonry Unit Standards (California
Department of General Services, 2007a, 2009b, 1999, and 2007b). DSA IR 21-1
describes minimum requirements for a garden wall or screen wall to be used at
California schools or essential facilities. Other jurisdictions may have standard details
for highway sound walls or short retaining walls that could be adapted for use. Some
jurisdictions or homeowner associations may also have zoning restrictions or similar
that limit the height, setbacks, or materials used for fencing; check the local jurisdiction.
The details shown in Figure 6.3.9.1-5 were adapted from details provided online by the
City of San Diego, California for reinforced CMU fences up to 6 feet in height.

While design and construction of unreinforced masonry walls or fences typically do not
come under the purview of the building code, there are many hazardous masonry walls
or fences in existence. These could be demolished and replaced with a reinforced
masonry fence, wood fence, or cyclone fence. As an alternative, the performance of
unreinforced masonry walls with adequate foundations could be substantially improved
by using retrofit details for confined masonry. Even though the use of confined
masonry is rare in the U.S., it is common in other parts of the world. This system
utilizes reinforced concrete boundary members on all four sides of each unreinforced
masonry wall panel with a panel size limited to roughly 3 meters in length. The
Confined Masonry Network (http://www.confinedmasonry.org/) provides information
and details on this subject.

The International Building Code exempts fences from a building permit if the fence is
not over 6 feet in height. The code also states that work must still comply with building
code requirements even when a permit is not required.

Fence heights may also be regulated by the zoning laws of the city. For specific
information about the zoning regulations for your fence on your lot, contact the
development services and zoning departments for requirements.

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MITIGATION DETAILS
1.

ALL MATERIAL AND WORKMANSHIP SHALL CONFORM TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE AUTHORITY HAVING
JURISDICTION.

2.

CONCRETE SHALL ATTAIN A COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF 2,500PSI MINIMUM AT 28 DAYS.

3.

CONCRETE BLOCK UNITS SHALL BE MEDIUM OR NORMAL WEIGHT UNITS CONFORMING TO ASTM C90
(LATEST REVISION).

4.

MORTAR SHALL BE TYPE S CONFORMING TO ASTM C270 WITH A COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF 1,800PSI
MINIMUM AT 28 DAYS.

5.

GROUT SHALL CONFORM TO ASTM C476 AND BE COMPOSED OF THE FOLLOWING RATIO BY VOLUME: 1 PART
PORTLAND CEMENT, 3-PARTS SAND, 2-PARTS PEA GRAVEL, AND SUFFICIENT WATER FOR POURING WITHOUT
SEGREGATION OF GROUT CONSTITUENTS (MIN. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF 2,000PSI AT 28 DAYS).

6.

ALL REINFORCING STEEL SHALL COMPLY WITH ASTM A615, GRADE 60. VERTICAL STEEL SHALL BE CENTERED
IN THE CONCRETE BLOCK CELL IN WHICH IT IS LOCATED, U.O.N.

7.

WALL JOINT REINFORCING STEEL SHALL BE DUR-O-WAL WIRE CONFORMING TO ASTM A82 AND ASTM A641
STANDARD, MILL GALVANIZED MINIMUM LAP SPLICE OF JOINT REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE 12 INCHES.

8.

CELLS CONTAINING REINFORCING STEEL SHALL BE SOLID GROUTED.

9.

ALL HORIZONTAL WALL REINFORCING BARS SHALL BE PLACED IN BOND BEAM UNITS. ALL JOINT
REINFORCING SHALL BE PLACED IN THE MORTARED BED JOINT.

10. ALL GROUT SHALL BE CONSOLIDATED BY VIBRATING IMMEDIATELY. RECONSOLIDATE GROUT AFTER INITIAL
WATER LOSS BUT BEFORE PLASTICITY IS LOST TO INSURE ADEQUATE CONSOLIDATION.
11. CONCRETE BLOCK UNITS ARE TO BE STAGGERED (COMMON BOND) AND ARE TO HAVE THE VERTICAL
CONTINUITY OF THE CELLS UNOBSTRUCTED.
12. ALL FOOTINGS MUST EXTEND INTO FIRM UNDISTURBED NATURAL SOIL OR SOIL WHICH HAS BEEN
COMPACTED TO AT LEAST 90 PERCENT MAXIMUM DENSITY.
13. THESE WALLS SHALL NOT BE CONSTRUCTED ON EXPANSIVE SOIL (EXPANSION INDEX GREATER THAN 20),
LIQUEFIABLE SOILS OR OTHER QUESTIONABLE SOILS, UNLESS THE SOIL HAS BEEN SPECIALLY PREPARED IN
ACCORDANCE WITH RECOMMENDATIONS OF A CIVIL OR GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEER.
14. PROVIDE VERTICAL CONTROL JOINTS AT 25-0 ON CENTER MAXIMUM.
15. FENCE WALL DESIGN INCLUDES OF PLASTER (OR VENEER) ON EACH SID OF THE WALL. NO FINISHES
WITH A TOTAL WEIGHT GREATER THAN 13PSF (SUMMATION OF BOTH SIDES OF WALL) ARE ALLOWED.

Figure 6.3.9.1-5

FEMA E-74

6ft maximum height concrete masonry unit (CMU) wall (PR) [1 of 2].

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Figure 6.3.9.1-5

FEMA E-74

6ft maximum height concrete masonry unit (CMU) wall (PR) [2 of 2].

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.1

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

6.4.1.1

BOILERS, FURNACES, PUMPS, AND CHILLERS

This category includes equipment such as boilers, furnaces, humidifiers, pumps, chillers and
similar that are anchored to a concrete floor or housekeeping pad. These items are either
rigidly anchored or have vibration isolation. Current codes require anchorage for all equipment
weighing over 400 pounds, equipment weighing over 100 pounds that are subject to
overturning, and items weighing over 20 pounds that are mounted over 4 feet above the floor.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

The primary concern is that equipment may slide, tilt or overturn. Heavy equipment
may be anchored to an unanchored or poorly reinforced housekeeping pad and the pad
may shift or break.

Movement of equipment may cause loss of connections to fuel and exhaust lines, relief
valves, electrical lines, piping, or ductwork. Fluids such as fuel or refrigerant may leak.

Function and operability of equipment may be compromised; this is especially critical for
hospitals and other essential facilities that must maintain post-earthquake operations.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-149

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.1.1-1

FEMA E-74

Failed chiller mounts due to insufficient uplift resistance in the 1994 magnitude6.7 Northridge Earthquake ((Photo courtesy of Wiss, Jenney, Elstner Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-150

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.1-2

Pumps with rigid anchorage to housekeeping pad in the 2010 magnitude-8.8


Chile Earthquake; housekeeping pad not anchored to base slab and slid
horizontally several inches (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

The details shown depict rigid anchorage of mechanical equipment to a concrete slab or
housekeeping pad. Verify that the slab and/or housekeeping pad are adequate to resist
the imposed loads. Rigidly mounted equipment should have flexible connections for the
fuel lines and piping.

For equipment with vibration isolation, restraints ("snubbers") are required; see Section
6.4.1.3 for equipment with vibration isolation. These snubbers should not be rigidly
connected to the equipment, but instead allow for a small amount of ordinary vibration
movement while preventing large seismic movements.

HVAC equipment or other items required for use in a hospital or essential facility would
be classified as designated seismic systems and may require engineering calculations,
equipment certification and special inspections. Check with the jurisdiction for specific
requirements.

To see additional examples for specific equipment and different anchorage conditions,
refer to FEMA 412 Installing Seismic Restraints for Mechanical Equipment (2002) and
FEMA 414 Incremental Seismic Restraints for Duct and Pipe (2004).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-151

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.1.1-3

FEMA E-74

Added lateral capacity provided for skid-mounted equipment added following


the 2001 Peru Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-152

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.1-4

FEMA E-74

Bolted connection to steel skid with added shear lugs (Photo courtesy of
Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-153

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.1-5

FEMA E-74

Alternate detail for skid mounted equipment (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro,
BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-154

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.1.1-6

FEMA E-74

Floor-mounted equipment - integral base (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-155

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.1-7

FEMA E-74

Floor-mounted equipment - added angles (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-156

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.1

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

6.4.1.2

GENERAL MANUFACTURING AND PROCESS MACHINERY

This category covers a wide range of equipment of various shapes and sizes. It includes
isolated pieces of equipment as well as manufacturing lines that consist of numerous
components requiring precise alignment. Mechanical components may be constructed of
deformable materials and attachments or rigid components and attachments; they may be
floor-, wall-, or roof-mounted.
Current codes require anchorage for all equipment weighing over 400 pounds, equipment
weighing over 100 pounds that are subject to overturning, and items weighing over 20 pounds
that are mounted more than 4 feet above the floor.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unanchored or poorly restrained equipment can slide, tilt, overturn, or fall. Poorly
reinforced housekeeping pads may slide or fail.

Components may be damaged by shaking or pounding, or may be crushed by other


fallen components. Failure of large nonstructural components may result in damage to
structural elements due to impact or falling.

Items crossing seismic joints, attached to adjacent floors, penetrating structural


elements, or connections between flexible and rigid components may be particularly
vulnerable.

Machinery may cease to function due to misalignment or internal damage.

Contents, fluids, or hazardous materials may slosh, mix, or spill.

Connections of fuel lines, electrical lines, optical cable, piping, or ductwork may be
damaged; runs of piping, ducts, or cable may be damaged.

Loss of function of manufacturing equipment can cause significant business interruption


losses.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-157

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.1.2-1

FEMA E-74

Damage to conveyors and equipment at a cement plant in the 2010 magnitude7 Haiti Earthquake (Photos courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-158

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.2-2

FEMA E-74

Damage to silos, conveyors and equipment at a grain operation in the 2010


magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake (Photos courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP
Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-159

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

In addition to requirements in ASCE/SEI 7-10 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and

Other Structures (ASCE, 2010), anchorage design for equipment may be governed by
specialty codes and standards such as ASME, ASHRAE, IEEE, API.

See Sections 6.4.1.1 and 6.4.1.3 for sample details for floor-mounted equipment and
see FEMA 412 Installing Seismic Restraints for Mechanical Equipment (2002), FEMA 413

Installing Seismic Restraints for Electrical Equipment (2004) and FEMA 414 Installing
Seismic Restraints for Duct and Pipe (2004) for example details for MEP equipment,
piping and ductwork. Many of the attachment details in these documents could be
adapted for use with other types of equipment.

Some equipment has been shake table tested and is rated for seismic loading by their
vendors; inquire about seismic load ratings and seismic anchorage details when any new
equipment is purchased.

For vulnerable items that require a long lead time to replace, it may be prudent to stock
replacement parts or equipment in order to reduce an outage following an earthquake.

Special attention is required for control rooms and emergency generators to ensure that
a facility may be shut down safely after an earthquake.

Flexible connections should be provided for fuel lines and piping where they connect to
rigidly mounted equipment.

Design of seismic bracing and anchorage for complex manufacturing systems is a


significant engineering challenge and should be handled by design professionals with
specific expertise in this area. Nonstructural bracing should be checked regularly to
ensure that the anchorage has not been compromised. It may be prudent to have a
standing agreement with a design professional familiar with the facility to perform
postearthquake inspections in order to facilitate speedy repairs and reduce the outage
time.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-160

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.1

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

6.4.1.3

HVAC EQUIPMENT WITH VIBRATION ISOLATION

This includes HVAC equipment, typically of sheet metal construction, that is floor- mounted
with vibration isolators to prevent the transmission of mechanical vibrations into the building.
Current codes require anchorage for all equipment weighing over 400 pounds, equipment
weighing over 100 pounds that are subject to overturning, and items weighing over 20 pounds
that are mounted more than 4 feet above the floor.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Vibration isolated equipment is particularly vulnerable to earthquake damage unless


some type of snubbers, bumpers, or vendor-supplied restraints are used. Open and
housed springs do not have adequate capacity to resist shear and uplift.

Items can slide, tilt, overturn, or fall.

Internal components may be damaged by shaking.

Connections of fuel lines, electrical lines or ductwork may be damaged; machinery may
cease to function due to misalignment, failure of the isolators, or internal damage.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-161

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.1.3-1

FEMA E-74

Failure of compressor mounted on vibration isolators in the 1994 Northridge


Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Wiss, Jenney, Elstner Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-162

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.3-2

FEMA E-74

Failure of pump mounted on three vibration isolators and damage at wall


penetration (Photo courtesy of Mason Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-163

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.3-3

FEMA E-74

Failure of an entire support assembly including vibration isolators (Photo


courtesy of Mason Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-164

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.3-4

Rooftop equipment on isolators collapsed onto skid (Photo courtesy of Mason


Industries).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Two methods are used for anchoring floor-mounted equipment on vibration isolators:
1. Open springs used in conjunction with snubbers or bumpers.
2. Restrained springs with rated capacity to resist the anticipated seismic shear and
uplift.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-165

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Rated housed springs with vertical travel limits should be used for seismic restraint
applications.

Flexible connections must be provided for fuel lines and piping.

Refer to FEMA 412 Installing Seismic Restraints for Mechanical Equipment (2002) and
FEMA 414 Installing Seismic Restraints for Duct and Pipe (2004) for additional
information and details.

HVAC equipment or other items required for use in a hospital or essential facility would
be classified as designated seismic systems and may require engineering calculations,
equipment certification and special inspections. Check with the jurisdiction for specific
requirements.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.1.3-5

FEMA E-74

Restrained springs used to support heavy equipment (Photo courtesy of Mason


Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-166

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.3-6

FEMA E-74

Open springs and snubbers used to support equipment (Photo courtesy of


Mason Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-167

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.3-7

FEMA E-74

Seismic shake table testing of an air-handler unit and vibration isolation restraint
system as part of the MCEER-ASHRAE project (Photos courtesy of Andr
Filiatrault, MCEER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-168

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.1.3-8

FEMA E-74

HVAC equipment with vibration isolation (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-169

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.1

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

6.4.1.4

HVAC EQUIPMENT WITHOUT VIBRATION ISOLATION

This includes dry-side HVAC equipment, typically of sheet metal construction, that is rigidly
mounted to the floor, wall or roof. Current codes require anchorage for all equipment weighing
over 400 pounds, equipment weighing over 100 pounds that are subject to overturning, and
items weighing over 20 pounds that are mounted more than 4 feet above the floor.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unanchored or inadequately anchored items can slide, tilt, overturn, or fall.

Connections of fuel lines, electrical lines or ductwork may be damaged; machinery may
cease to function due to misalignment.

Damage Examples

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-170

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.4-1

Poorly anchored compressor jumped off the undersized anchor bolts in the
2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP
Engineers).

Figure 6.4.1.4-2

Unanchored rooftop units thrown off their supports during an earthquake


(Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-171

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.4-3

Numerous poorly anchored rooftop units toppled in the 2010 Chile Earthquake
(Photos courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn Boroschek & Associates).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

See Section 6.4.1.1 for rigid floor mount details and Section 6.4.1.3 for vibration
isolation floor mount details.

Special consideration is needed for rooftop units. Such units are typically mounted on
curbs or platforms to facilitate waterproofing and flashing. Curbs may be custom-built
on site or premanufactured. Detailing for seismic restraints must include a connection
between the equipment and the curb and the curb and the roof framing. In addition, the
curb itself must be sufficiently strong to deliver earthquake forces from the unit to the
roof.

See FEMA 412 Installing Seismic Restraints for Mechanical Equipment (2002) and FEMA
414 Installing Seismic Restraints for Duct and Pipe (2004) for details for wall-mounts,

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-172

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

roof-mount with flashing details, ducts and piping, and additional information
regarding hardware and installation.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-173

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.1.4-4

FEMA E-74

Rooftop HVAC equipment (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-174

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.1

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

6.4.1.5

HVAC EQUIPMENT SUSPENDED IN-LINE WITH DUCTWORK

This in-line HVAC equipment typically includes suspended items of sheet metal construction
such as fans, coils, VAV boxes, and blowers. The connection details for suspended equipment
may also include vibration isolators. Current codes require bracing for all items weighing over
20 pounds that are mounted more than 4 feet above the floor.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Poorly supported items can fall.

Items can swing and impact structural, architectural or other mechanical items. Internal
components may be damaged by shaking or impact.

Connections of fuel lines, water piping, electrical conduit or ductwork may be damaged.
Equipment may cease to function due to misalignment or internal damage.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-175

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.1.5-1

FEMA E-74

Damage to suspended HVAC, signs, and louvers was caused when suspended
fans in the mechanical penthouse swung and impacted the louver panels. Holy
Cross Medical Center in Sylmar, as a result of the 1994 magnitude-6.7
Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Robert Reitherman).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-176

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.5-2

FEMA E-74

Sheet metal duct separated from suspended fan unit (Photo courtesy of Wiss,
Jenney, Elstner Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-177

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.5-3

FEMA E-74

Suspended HVAC equipment came down at the Santiago airport terminal in the
2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Gokhan Pekcan).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-178

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Items should be braced to structural elements with sufficient capacity to resist the
imposed loads. Do not brace to other equipment, ducts, or piping. Flexible
connections should be provided for fuel lines and piping. Equipment may be suspended
either with or without vibration isolation.

Refer to FEMA 412 Installing Seismic Restraints for Mechanical Equipment (2002) and
FEMA 414 Installing Seismic Restraints for Duct and Pipe (2004) for additional
information and details.

Several engineered seismic bracing systems are available for suspended equipment and
can be customized for most applications. Other options may be found on the internet.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.1.5-4

FEMA E-74

Suspended equipment with cable braces (Photo courtesy of Mason Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-179

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.1.5-5

FEMA E-74

HVAC equipment suspended in-line with ductwork (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-180

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.5-6

FEMA E-74

Cable and rigid brace attachments to structure (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-181

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.1.5-7

FEMA E-74

Hanger attachment details (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-182

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.1

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

6.4.1.6

SUSPENDED EQUIPMENT

This category covers any type of suspended equipment items other than HVAC equipment
suspended in-line with ductwork, such as unit gas heaters. Current codes require anchorage
for items weighing over 20 pounds that are mounted more than 4 feet above the floor.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Poorly supported suspended items may lose support and fall.

Suspended items can swing and impact building elements or other equipment.

Internal components may be damaged by shaking or impact.

Connections of fuel lines or other connected piping may be damaged.

Equipment may cease to function due to misalignment or internal damage.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-183

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.1.6-1

FEMA E-74

Gas space heater fell from ceiling above in the 1971 magnitude-6.6 San
Fernando Earthquake (Photo courtesy of C. Wilton, Scientific Service, Inc.).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-184

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Detail shown provides rigid attachment for small suspended equipment weighing less
than 150 pounds. Two or more double angle assemblies could be used for larger items.
If the equipment is suspended with rigid, unbraced hangers, the details shown may be
adapted to provide diagonal bracing.

Provide flexible connections for fuel lines.

Refer to Section 6.4.1.5 for details for suspended HVAC items; these details can be
adapted for multiple suspended items. See also FEMA 412 Installing Seismic Restraints

for Mechanical Equipment (2002) and FEMA 414 Installing Seismic Restraints for Duct
and Pipe (2004) for additional information and details.

Several engineered seismic bracing systems are available for suspended equipment and
can be customized for most applications, more options may be found on the internet.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-185

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.1.6-2

FEMA E-74

Suspended equipment (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-186

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.2

STORAGE TANKS AND WATER HEATERS

6.4.2.1

STRUCTURALLY SUPPORTED TANKS AND VESSELS

This category covers any type of tank or vessel supported on legs or a structural frame and may
be either vertical or horizontal. Tanks may be made of steel, stainless steel, polyethylene,
polypropylene, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP), or concrete.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

If the tank is not anchored to the structural supports or the structural supports are not
properly braced and anchored, the tanks may slide or fall. Poorly anchored tanks may
damage the supports or damage the tank wall.

Connections of supply lines or fuel lines may be damaged; contents may slosh or spill.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-187

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.2.1-1

FEMA E-74

Tank shifted off support curb, Granada Hills Hospital in the 1994 magnitude6.7 Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of OSHPD).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-188

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.1-2

FEMA E-74

A vertical tank at hospital overturned due to inadequate anchorage in the 1994


Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of OSHPD).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-189

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.1-3

FEMA E-74

Horizontal tank strapped to structural support frame on hospital roof; one strap
failed and tank slid six inches in the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (Photo
courtesy of OSHPD).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-190

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.1-4

FEMA E-74

Wineries suffered extensive damage in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile


Earthquake with many barrels of wine spilled. This winery had damage to
anchored tanks; tank anchorage failed, legs buckled, welds tore, anchor bolts
pulled up, etc. The tank legs all have leveling bolts at the bottom, creating a
weak zone between the bottom of the leg and the anchor plate. Similar
unanchored tanks in this facility shifted position but were undamaged (Photos
courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).
6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-191

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Tanks must have adequate vertical and horizontal support. Provide anchorage and
bracing for tank legs or support structure; provide positive attachment from tank to
support structure. Provide concrete pad large enough to prevent tank from overturning.

Provide flexible connections for fuel lines and piping.

The details shown are for rigid connections; see also FEMA 412 Installing Seismic

Restraints for Mechanical Equipment (2002) for attachment details.

For some installations where tanks have a low aspect ratio (i.e., the tank is relatively
wide compared to the height) and are unlikely to overturn, it may be preferable to allow
the tank to slide rather than providing rigid anchorage. As shown in the photos in
Figure 6.4.2.1-4 taken at a winery, many stainless steel tanks on legs with base
anchorage were damaged while nearby unanchored tanks shifted slightly but were
undamaged. Flexible connections designed to accommodate sliding would be required
for tanks left free at the base.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-192

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.2.1-5

FEMA E-74

Braces added to four sides of tank support structure (Photo courtesy of Eduardo
Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-193

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.1-6

FEMA E-74

Gusset plates and cross bracing added at base of vertical tank on four legs
following the 2001 magnitude-8.4 Peru Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo
Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-194

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.2.1-7

FEMA E-74

Vertical tank on legs (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-195

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.2

STORAGE TANKS AND WATER HEATERS

6.4.2.2

FLAT BOTTOM TANKS AND VESSELS

This category covers any type of flat bottom tank or vessel resting on a concrete pad at the
base. These tanks may be made of steel, stainless steel, polyethylene, polypropylene,
fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP), or concrete.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unanchored tanks may slide or overturn; poorly anchored tanks may damage the hold
down, damage the tank wall, and potentially slide or overturn.

Connections of supply lines or fuel lines may be damaged; contents may slosh or spill.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.2.2-1

FEMA E-74

Damage to ductile connection at base of a 5000 cubic meter diesel fuel tank in
the 2001 magnitude-8.4 Peru Earthquake. All eight connections were
damaged; damage included bolt elongation, deformation of tank wall, and
cracked concrete pad (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-197

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.2-2

Tank with elephants foot buckle at the base in the 1964 magnitude-9.2
Anchorage, Alaska earthquake (Photo courtesy of PEER, Steinbrugge Collection,
No. S2508)

Figure 6.4.2.2-3

Tank with elephants foot and elephant knee in Port-au-Prince in the 2010
magnitude-7 Haiti Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP
Engineers).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.2-4

FEMA E-74

Anchored tank damaged at base when anchorage failed; tank slid and ruptured
attached piping in 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of
Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-199

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Provide adequate connections around the base of the tank. Do not weld to tanks with
flammable contents.

Provide flexible connections for fuel lines and piping.


The detail shown is for a rigid connection; larger tanks require ductile details such as
those shown in Figure 6.4.2.2-1.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.2.2-5

FEMA E-74

Flexible connections prevented piping damage in 2001 Peru Earthquake (Photo


courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-200

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.2-6

FEMA E-74

Anchors at base of fiberglass reinforced plastic tank (Photo courtesy of Jeffrey


Soulages, Intel).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-201

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.2-7

FEMA E-74

Examples of rigid base anchorage for small circular tanks (Photos courtesy of
Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-202

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.2.2-8

FEMA E-74

Flat bottom tank (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.2

STORAGE TANKS AND WATER HEATERS

6.4.2.3

COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS

This category includes single or multiple gas cylinders. These may be attached to piping,
anchored to carts for mobility, or stored for future use.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unanchored tanks may slide, overturn, and roll; connected piping may be damaged.

Contents may be flammable or hazardous; leaking cylinders may be dangerous.

Tank installations equipped with chains or straps are still susceptible to damage unless
the chains or straps are properly secured around the tanks.

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.2.3-1

FEMA E-74

Unanchored tanks inside fenced enclosure in the 1994 magnitude-6.7


Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of OSHPD).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-204

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Wall restraint detail shown at top of Figure 6.4.2.3-8 is a non-engineered detail for tank
storage; this detail does not provide sufficient restraint for tanks attached to piping.

Engineered details with additional restraints are required for tanks attached to piping;
see corral detail at bottom of Figure 6.4.2.3-7 or scheme shown in Figures 6.4.2.3-2
and 6.4.2.3-3.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.2.3-2

FEMA E-74

Gas cylinder anchorage with attached gas lines undamaged in the 2001
magnitude-8.4 Peru Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP
Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-205

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.3-3

FEMA E-74

Detail of undamaged gas cylinder installation (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro,


BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-206

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.3-4

FEMA E-74

Wall-mounted cylinder restraints upgraded with stiffener plates following the


2001 Peru Earthquake(Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-207

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.3-5

FEMA E-74

Steel tube supports for mobile gas cylinder carts (Photo courtesy of Eduardo
Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-208

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.3-6

FEMA E-74

Detail of steel tube supports and chains (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP
Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-209

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.3-7

FEMA E-74

Detail of enclosures for airgas tanks in a hospital; chains attached with quick
release hooks (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-210

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.2.3-8

FEMA E-74

Compressed gas cylinders (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.2

STORAGE TANKS AND WATER HEATERS

6.4.2.4

WATER HEATERS

This category includes residential or small commercial water heaters. Most water heaters rest
on the floor although smaller units may be wall- or shelf-mounted. Tankless water heaters are
often wall-mounted.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unanchored or poorly anchored tanks may slide or overturn.

Even if the restraint is strong enough to prevent complete overturning, if it is not rigid
enough, the connections to gas and water lines may be damaged by tank movement and
lead to fire or to water leakage

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-212

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Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.2.4-1

FEMA E-74

Unanchored water heaters overturned (Photo courtesy of Mason Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-213

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.4-2

Continuing water damage at the Talca Hospital in the 2010 magnitude-8.8


Chile Earthquake; water leaking from tank at right. This building was closed
due to nonstructural damage, dominated by water damage (Photos courtesy of
Bill Holmes, Rutherford & Chekene).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Details shown are for tanks resting on the floor adjacent to a structural wall. Where the
water heater is not located adjacent to a wall, it may be necessary to construct a frame
around the tank or adjacent to the tank to provide anchorage.

Flexible connections should be provided for the gas and water lines.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-214

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Provide noncombustible spacers between the tank and wall for older units; newer units
often have insulation inside the housing as part of the assembly and do not require the
additional spacers.

Larger tanks may be floor-mounted as shown for flat bottom tanks in Section 6.4.2.2 or
as pictured in Figure 6.4.2.4-5

See also Guidelines for Earthquake Bracing of Residential Water Heaters (California
Department of General Services, 2005c) online
at www.documents.dgs.ca.gov/dsa/pubs/waterheaterbracing_11_30_05.pdf for additional
information.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.2.4-3

FEMA E-74

Water heater corner installation using thin conduit (EMT) braces (Photo courtesy
of California Department of General Services).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-215

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.4-4

FEMA E-74

Corner installation using a commercially available strap; note flex copper tubing
for water hook up (Photo courtesy of Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-216

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.4-5

FEMA E-74

Base-mounted water heater located in a school; equipment supplied with metal


base for mounting (Photo courtesy of EQE for the Salt Lake City School District).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-217

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.2.4-6

FEMA E-74

Water heater (PR).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-218

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.2.4-7

FEMA E-74

Water heater - corner installation (PR).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.3

PRESSURE PIPING

6.4.3.1

SUSPENDED PRESSURE PIPING

There are many types of piping systems which convey a wide variety of fluids and gases in and
around buildings. In this section, pressure piping refers to all piping (except fire suppression
piping) that carries fluids which, in their vapor stage, exhibit a pressure of 15 psi, gauge, or
higher. See Sections 6.4.4 and 6.4.5 for other piping categories. This example addresses
seismic restraint details for suspended piping; see Sections 6.4.3.2 through 6.4.3.8 for other
types of piping system restraints as shown in Figure 6.4.3.1-10.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Improperly supported pipes can become dislodged and fall.

Pipes are particularly vulnerable to damage at joints, bends, penetrations through walls
or structural members, and connections to equipment.

Unbraced piping can sway and impact adjacent items.

Piping may be damaged as a result of differential movement between points of


attachment.

Fluids may leak from damaged joints or broken pipe; property losses and business
outages are often attributed to fluid leaks from piping.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-220

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Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.3.1-1

FEMA E-74

Pipe joint failure in the 1971 magnitude-6.6 San Fernando Earthquake (Photo
courtesy of John F. Meehan).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-221

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.1-2

FEMA E-74

Leakage caused by pipe damage at joint in the 1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge


Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Degenkolb Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-222

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.1-3

FEMA E-74

Pipe brace failed at connection in 1994 Northridge Earthquake; insulation


removed prior to photo (Photo courtesy of Mason Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-223

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Details shown are for overhead attachments for suspended piping. Seismic detailing for
pipes requires both transverse and longitudinal braces; while these are shown here as
separate details, both types of bracing are required. The spacing of pipe bracing is
dependent on the level of seismicity, location in a building, size of the pipe, type of
pipe, and strength of connections to the structure.

Pressure piping systems, including their supports, may be designed either using the
provisions of ASME B31 Process Piping (ASME, 2008) or ASCE/SEI 7-10, Minimum Design

Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE, 2010). See Section 6.4.4 for issues
related to fire protection piping systems.

ASCE/SEI 7-10 contains a number of exemptions for suspended piping where the
hangers are less than 12 inches long or high-deformability piping is used and the pipe
diameter is small (anywhere from 1- to 3-inch diameter depending on the building
location and occupancy). If piping is unbraced, provisions must be made to
accommodate anticipated movement (such as by providing flexible connections, as
shown in Section 6.4.3.3)

Many vendors supply specialized hardware used for the seismic anchorage or sway
bracing of piping systems. These vendors offer a wide variety of products and services
including design, installation and inspection manuals, load tables, load rated hardware,
spring loaded hangers, couplers and fittings, pipe dampers, preassembled seismic
bracing kits, AUTOCAD details, calculation packages, and technical support.

Longitudinal pipe bracing requires the use of a pipe clamp, riser clamp, welded lug or
device that provides positive attachment to the pipe and will not slip along the length of
the pipe. Longitudinal pipe supports should not rely on friction connections such as Ubolts as these do not provide reliable longitudinal restraint during an earthquake and
are likely to slip. Some vendors have items with names such as seismic pipe clamp or
longitudinal restraint device that are intended for use with longitudinal restraints.

Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) and Building Information Models (BIM) involve the
development of 3D computer models depicting all the structural and many nonstructural
components of buildings. Increasing use of these 3D models that incorporate all the
MEP systems will facilitate the design and coordination of these components with the
structural system and other nonstructural components. An example of a BIM model with
piping and pipe supports is shown in Figure 6.4.3.1-9.

Piping systems are typically combinations of horizontal and vertical runs of pipe; vertical
runs are often called risers. Pipes may be suspended overhead as shown in this

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

example or floor-mounted, roof-mounted, or wall-mounted. Flexible connections are


often required at fixed equipment or where piping crosses an expansion joint or seismic
separation. Pipe runs also typically include penetrations through floor slabs, roof slabs,
and walls or structural framing. Details for many restraint conditions can be found in
FEMA 414 Installing Seismic Restraints for Duct and Pipe (2004). Some of these
conditions are shown in Sections 6.4.3.2 through 6.4.3.8 (See Figure 6.4.3.1-11).

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.3.1-4

FEMA E-74

Single clevis hanger support with transverse cable bracing at the restraining bolt
(Photo courtesy of Mason Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-225

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.1-5

Pipe clamp supports with transverse and longitudinal angle braces; note pipe
clamp for longitudinal brace in direct contact with pipe (Photo courtesy of
Mason Industries).

Figure 6.4.3.1-6

All-directional cable bracing of suspended piping (Photo courtesy of ISAT).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-226

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.1-7

Transverse bracing with J-hanger and strut at the restraining bolt. Note that
longitudinal brace shown is ineffective because the J-hanger can slip along the
length of the pipe; a pipe clamp or equivalent is required for a longitudinal
brace (Photo courtesy of Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers).

Figure 6.4.3.1-8

Viscous damper used as restraint on large insulated pipe (Photo courtesy of


Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-227

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.1-9

FEMA E-74

Example of BIM Model (left) compared to installed piping (right) (Photo and
image courtesy of ISAT).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-228

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.3.1-10

FEMA E-74

Schematic of seismic restraint conditions for piping (ER)

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.1-11

FEMA E-74

Rigid bracing - single pipe transverse (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.1-12

FEMA E-74

Cable bracing - single pipe transverse (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-231

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.1-13

Rigid bracing - single pipe alternate transverse (ER).

Figure 6.4.3.1-14

Rigid bracing - single pipe longitudinal (ER).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-232

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.1-15

Rigid bracing - Trapeze supported piping (ER).

Figure 6.4.3.1-16

Cable bracing - Trapeze supported piping (ER).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.3

PRESSURE PIPING

6.4.3.2

IN-LINE VALVES AND PUMPS

This category covers equipment that is in-line with pressure piping. These items may be valves
or pumps and may be suspended, floor-mounted, roof-mounted, or wall-mounted. They may
be mounted with or without vibration isolation.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Poorly restrained in-line valves or equipment may fall. Pumps may be damaged if not
properly restrained; these items may slide or fall. Movement of the in-line equipment
may result in damage to the attached piping at the connection or at adjacent pipe joints.
Equipment or piping damage may result in leaks.

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Details shown are for overhead restraints for items in-line with suspended piping.
Generally, seismic restraint in the form of typical pipe bracing is provided on each side
of the connected item.

Details for other conditions such as equipment in-line with floor- or wall-mounted
piping can be found in FEMA 414 Installing Seismic Restraints for Duct and Pipe (2004).
Section 6.4.1.5 also includes general details for suspended equipment.

Many vendors supply specialized hardware for seismic anchorage of piping including
load rated anchorage assemblies, spring loaded hangers, and pipe dampers.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-234

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.3.2-1

FEMA E-74

Inline pump mounted on independent concrete inertia pad with vibration


isolation and seismic snubbers (Photo courtesy of Mason Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-235

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.3.2-2

FEMA E-74

In-line valves and pumps (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-236

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.2-3

FEMA E-74

In-line valves and pumps (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-237

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.2-4

FEMA E-74

In-line valves and pumps (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-238

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.3

PRESSURE PIPING

6.4.3.3

FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS, EXPANSION JOINTS, AND SEISMIC


SEPARATIONS

This category covers the flexible piping connections required to accommodate differential
movement at seismic separations between buildings or between floors, at the interface between
piping and equipment, or to accommodate thermal expansion.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Differential movement between adjacent buildings or adjacent wings of buildings can


cause damage to interconnected piping if relative movement has not been specifically
accounted for. Differential movement between the fixed and base isolated portions of
buildings can damage piping crossing the isolation plane. Failure to accommodate
seismic displacements can rupture piping.

Differential movement between anchored or restrained equipment and attached piping


can cause damage to the equipment, the piping, or both.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-239

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.3.3-1

FEMA E-74

Failure at rigid connection to equipment on isolators without lateral restraint in


the 1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Mason
Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-240

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Flexible couplings are needed to accommodate relative displacement in a pipeline.


Locations that may require flexible couplings include connections between piping and
anchored equipment, wall or slab penetrations, seismic joints between buildings, and
seismic joints in base isolated buildings. Selection of a specific coupling detail will
depend on the magnitude of the anticipated relative displacements, the diameter of the
pipe, and the type of pipe and its location.

Several different types of flexible connections are shown; details for other conditions
including floor and roof penetrations can be found in FEMA 414 Installing Seismic

Restraints for Duct and Pipe (2004). Many vendors supply specialized hardware to
create articulated joints or flexible tubing for these applications.

Connections must provide sufficient flexibility to accommodate the expected differential


movement in all directions.

It is generally good seismic resistant design practice to provide a flexible connection


between piping and equipment.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-241

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.3.3-2

FEMA E-74

Examples of flexible couplings that performed well in the 2010 magnitude-7


Haiti Earthquake; the building suffered relatively minor damage (Photo
courtesy of Tom Sawyer, Engineering News Record).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-242

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.3-3

FEMA E-74

Flexible connection at pipe attachment to rigidly mounted tank (Photo courtesy


of Wiss, Janney, Elstner, Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-243

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.3-4

FEMA E-74

Flexible pipe connections at rooftop expansion joint (Photo courtesy of


Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-244

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.3-5

FEMA E-74

Flexible pipe connections at building separation (Photo courtesy of Mason


Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-245

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.3.3-6

FEMA E-74

Flexible connections and expansion joints (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.3

PRESSURE PIPING

6.4.3.4

PIPE RISERS

This category covers pipe risers for pressure piping, that is, vertical runs of pressurized piping
such as those used in multistory buildings. Risers are typically supported by a combination of
wall-mounted supports and additional floor-mounted or roof-mounted supports at the
locations of penetrations.

Due to their length, thermal movement may be an important

consideration and seismic restraints must be designed to accommodate the anticipated interstory drift and the thermal movement.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Pipe risers must be designed to accommodate inter-story drift between adjacent floors,
that is, differential movement between the points of support located on different floors
of the building. If the pipe supports are not designed to accommodate this movement
during an earthquake, the supports may fail or the pipes or pipe joints may fail and leak.
Improperly supported pipes can become dislodged and fall; unbraced risers can sway
and impact adjacent items.

Pipes are vulnerable at penetrations, thus floor and roof penetrations must be
sufficiently oversized to prevent impact.

Unrestrained movement of pipes at

penetrations may damage the piping and pipe restraints but may also damage flooring,
ceilings, partitions, insulation, fire-proofing or other architectural finishes.

For

insulated risers, the piping insulation may also be damaged if the pipe chafes at the
restraint. If risers are mounted to lightweight partitions, the partitions may be damaged
unless they have been designed and braced to resist the piping loads.

Because risers often involve very long pipe runs, the thermal movement may be
significant. Unless seismic restraints are designed to accommodate thermal movement,
the piping, pipe joints or rigid seismic restraints could be damaged under operating
conditions and fail to perform properly in an earthquake.

Pipe risers in multistory buildings are typically located in utility shafts or pipe chases;
thus, they usually do not pose a significant falling hazard to occupants but riser damage
could cause significant leakage resulting in property losses and business outage.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-247

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.3.4-1

Movement of unbraced risers damaged ceiling finishes and insulation in the


1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Mason
Industries).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

See the general discussion of pipe bracing in Section 6.4.3.1.

Standard steel pipe expands or contracts at a rate of 0.8 inch per 100 feet per 100
degrees Fahrenheit; supports and bracing for tall risers or piping subject to large
temperature variations must be explicitly designed to accommodate thermal movement.
Riser details for chilled water piping may need to accommodate additional insulation.
Riser calculations should be performed assuming the full weight of water is at the
bottom of the pipe riser.

Pipe risers require vertical support (longitudinal restraints) as well as lateral bracing.
Risers are typically supported and braced by a combination of wall-mounted restraints
and floor- or roof-mounted supports or guides at the locations of penetrations. They

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-248

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

may also be supported by hangers located on horizontal branch lines within 24 inches
of the centerline of the riser. Suspended support details are sometimes used at the top
of the riser. The pipes may be rigidly mounted, for instance at the base of the riser, or
mounted with elastomeric pads, sliding guides or vibration isolation. Specially designed
riser clamps are often used to provide vertical support for pipe risers. Isolated piping
should be supported independently from rigidly braced piping; rigid pipe attachments to
lightweight walls may cause vibration problems under operating conditions.

All vertical risers should have lateral restraints at the top and bottom of the riser and at
each intermediate floor at a maximum spacing of 30 foot intervals. When installed as a
riser, nonductile piping, such as no-hub cast iron piping, should include joint stabilizers
where the joints are unsupported between floors.

Pipe penetrations through structural elements such as beams, walls, and slabs must be
coordinated with a structural engineer. Pipe penetrations through nonstructural walls,
architectural finishes or roof membranes must be coordinated with an architect. Riser
penetrations may require thermal insulation, fire proofing, sound proofing or weather
proofing and unless properly detailed, these architectural and safety features may be
compromised during an earthquake.

See Section 6.4.3.8 for additional information

about detailing pipe penetrations.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-249

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.3.4-2

FEMA E-74

Riser supports provide lateral restraint with vertical sliding guides that allow
thermal movement; restraint hardware consisting of tube sections is welded to
either side of pipe (Photo courtesy of Mason Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-250

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.4-3

FEMA E-74

Different schemes for riser supports at floor penetrations with vibration


isolation: first one with restraint hardware welded to pipe, second with two sets
of riser clamps, and third with riser clamp inside the insulation (Photos courtesy
of Mason Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-251

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.4-4

FEMA E-74

Insulated boiler pipe risers with welded lugs (small pipe sections) which travel
vertically in guides providing lateral seismic restraint (Photo courtesy of Eduardo
Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-252

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.3.4-5

FEMA E-74

Wall-mounted pipe riser restraint/support (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-253

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.4-6

FEMA E-74

Riser restraint/support at floor penetrations variations with pipe clamp,


vibration isolation, and sliding guides (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-254

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.4-7

FEMA E-74

Riser restraint/support at roof penetration variations with U-bolt or pipe clamp


(ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-255

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.4-8

FEMA E-74

Roof penetration with vibration isolation (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-256

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.3

PRESSURE PIPING

6.4.3.5

FLOOR-MOUNTED SUPPORTS

This category covers floor-mounted supports for pressure piping.

Floor-mounted supports

may be used to support either horizontal or vertical pipe runs with or without vibration
isolation, either indoors or outdoors. Floor-mounted supports typically involve steel shapes
anchored to structural framing or a structural concrete slab. These supports may have one
cantilevered support member, one propped cantilever member, or be built up of multiple
elements to form a trapeze or braced frame.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Failure of pipe supports may result in damage to the support in question, damage to
adjacent supports which are overloaded due to the initial failure, damage to the piping
or pipe joints, damage to insulation, leakage of the contents, and outage of the system
that the pipes support. Joints may fail if the layout of the seismic restraints is poor or
where the restraints are inadequate for the anticipated forces and displacements. Piping
damage may occur at building separations, seismic joints, or penetrations if the piping
has not been detailed to account for the differential movement.

Several failure mechanisms exist for floor-mounted supports: failure at base if


anchorage is undersized, yielding of cantilever elements causing excessive deflection,
and buckling of braced elements if braces are undersized.

Unrestrained piping supported directly on the floor is vulnerable to damage due to


excessive movement.

Section 6.4.3.8 provides more information about potential

damage at pipe penetrations.

Low lying piping, regardless of the mounting details, is vulnerable to damage due to
items falling from above. Pipes may be knocked loose or crushed if heavy items fall on
them.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-257

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.3.5-1

FEMA E-74

Pipe and support assembly seem intact but photo shows evidence of
longitudinal movement of the pipe in the U-bolts (Photo courtesy of BFP
Engineers). A rubber pad was installed between the U-bolt and pipe in order to
increase the friction coefficient, but was not sufficient to provide longitudinal
restraint.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-258

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.5-2

Damage to piping, stud wall and finishes due to movement of poorly restrained
floor-mounted piping in the 1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge Earthquake (Photo
courtesy of Mason Industries).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Horizontal and vertical pipe runs need vertical, lateral, and longitudinal restraints.
Floor-mounted supports can be used to provide restraint for any combination of these
loads, can be designed for many different configurations, may be used with or without
vibration isolation, and may be used either indoors or outdoors.

Longitudinal restraints require positive support to the pipe with a pipe clamp or welded
lug; U-bolts do not provide sufficient longitudinal restraint, as observed in Figure
6.4.3.5-1. For insulated piping, longitudinal restraint hardware may need to be located
beneath the insulation in order to prevent longitudinal slip.

In an existing concrete slab, care must be taken to locate rebar or post-tensioned


tendons prior to drilling holes for anchor bolts. If the base plate for the pipe support is
near the edge of a concrete curb or slab, care must be taken to provide sufficient edge
distance and embedment for the anchor bolts.

Some types of anchors are not

recommended for use with vibratory loads. FEMA 414, Installing Seismic Restraints for

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-259

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Duct and Pipe (2004) provides additional precautions regarding the installation of
anchor bolts and general guidance on pipe restraints.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.3.5-3

FEMA E-74

Floor-mounted supports for insulated pipe with vibration isolation (Photo


courtesy of Mason Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-260

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.5-4

FEMA E-74

Floor/ground-mounted supports for industrial piping in Chile; piping


undamaged in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake. Pipe supports
include concrete pedestal, base plate, and built-up welded support stand.
(Photos courtesy of Antonio Iruretagoyena, Rubn Boroschek & Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-261

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.5-5

FEMA E-74

Floor-mounted supports for industrial piping in Chile; piping undamaged in the


2010 Chile Earthquake. The Chilean Industrial Code (Norma Chilena 2369)
requires that shear forces be resisted by shear keys as shown; lower photo is
detail of piping at upper right (Photos courtesy of Antonio Iruretagoyena, Rubn
Boroschek & Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-262

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.3.5-6

FEMA E-74

Floor-mounted single vertical pipe support (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-263

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.5-7

FEMA E-74

Floor-mounted pipe stand (strut frame) (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-264

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.5-8

FEMA E-74

Floor-mounted pipe stand (steel shapes) (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-265

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.3

PRESSURE PIPING

6.4.3.6

ROOF-MOUNTED SUPPORTS

This category covers roof-mounted supports for pressure piping. Roof-mounted supports may
be used to support either horizontal or vertical pipe runs. Roof-mounted supports consist of
wood blocking or steel shapes anchored to structural framing or a structural concrete slab and
may be mounted with or without vibration isolation. These supports may be flush with the roof
surface, have one cantilevered support member, one propped cantilever member, or be built up
of multiple elements to form a trapeze or braced frame.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Failure of pipe supports may result in damage to the support in question, damage to
adjacent supports which are overloaded due to the initial failure, damage to the piping,
damage to insulation or roofing, leakage of the contents, and outage of the system that
the pipes support. Joints may fail if the layout of the seismic restraints is poor or where
the restraints are inadequate for the anticipated forces and displacements.

Piping

damage may occur at locations where piping runs across roof separations or seismic
joints if the piping has not been detailed to account for the differential movement.

Seismic accelerations are often highest at the roof level and thus roof-mounted items
are particularly vulnerable to failure unless properly designed.

Several failure

mechanisms exist for roof-mounted supports: failure at base if anchorage is


undersized, yielding of cantilever elements causing excessive deflection, and buckling of
braced elements if braces are undersized.

Unrestrained piping supported directly on the roof is vulnerable to damage due to


excessive movement. Unanchored wood sleepers may overturn or slide.

Damage to roof-mounted items may also result in damage to the roofing membrane
causing subsequent water damage.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-266

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.3.6-1

FEMA E-74

Damaged supports and piping on roof-mounted HVAC unit in the 1994


magnitude-6.7 Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Mason Industries).
Both the roof-mounted wood sleepers and strut supports failed.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-267

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.6-2

FEMA E-74

Unrestrained wood sleepers on roof-mounted piping slid a foot in either


direction in 2010 magnitude-6.5 Eureka Earthquake (Photos courtesy of
Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-268

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.6-3

Unrestrained roof-mounted piping broke at the connection to the equipment in


the 2010 Eureka Earthquake. Piping mounted on wood sleepers should typically
be restrained to the roof, not free to slide (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps,
Estructure).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Pipe runs need vertical, lateral and longitudinal restraints. Roof-mounted supports can
be used to provide restraint for any combination of these loads, can be designed for
many different configurations, and may be used with or without vibration isolation.
Longitudinal restraints require positive support to the pipe with a pipe clamp or welded
lug; U-bolts do not provide effective longitudinal restraint.

Seismic accelerations are often highest at the roof level; roof-mounted supports may
need to be more robust than those located elsewhere in a building. They additionally
need to be protected from corrosion and deterioration or they will be ineffective during
an earthquake.

In an existing concrete roof slab, care must be taken to locate rebar or post-tensioned
tendons prior to drilling holes for anchor bolts. If the base plate for the pipe support is
near the edge of a concrete curb or slab, care must be taken to provide sufficient edge
distance and embedment for the anchor bolts. Some types of anchors are not

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-269

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

recommended for use with vibratory loads. FEMA 414, Installing Seismic Restraints for

Duct and Pipe (2004) provides additional precautions regarding the installation of
anchor bolts.

Weatherproofing is an important consideration for roof-mounted supports; any


penetration of the roof membrane must be adequately sealed to prevent roof leakage.
Refer to Section 6.4.3.8 for additional discussion of pipe penetrations.

Seismic restraint hardware for any exterior exposure should be specified using materials
or coatings to reduce corrosion and may require periodic painting or replacement to
maintain the effectiveness of the restraint. Items exposed to salt air, or deicing
compounds such as in a parking structure, may be especially at risk.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.3.6-4

FEMA E-74

Roof-mounted supports with vibration isolation (Photo courtesy of Mason


Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-270

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.3.6-5

FEMA E-74

Roof-mounted single vertical pipe support (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-271

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.6-6

FEMA E-74

Roof-mounted pipe stand (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-272

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.3

PRESSURE PIPING

6.4.3.7

WALL-MOUNTED SUPPORTS

This category covers wall-mounted supports for pressure piping. Wall-mounted supports may
be used to support either horizontal or vertical pipe runs, may be used with or without vibration
isolation, and may be used either indoors or outdoors.

Wall-mounted supports may be

mounted flush or be built up out of assemblies of steel shapes anchored to structural framing
or a structural wall.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Failure of pipe supports may result in damage to the support in question, damage to
adjacent supports which are overloaded due to the initial failure, damage to the piping
or pipe joints, damage to insulation, leakage of the contents, and outage of the system
that the pipes support.

Joints may fail if the layout of the seismic restraints is poor or where the restraints are
inadequate for the anticipated forces and displacements. Piping damage may occur at
building separations or seismic joints if the piping has not been detailed to account for
the differential movement. Wall-mounted piping often passes thru penetrations; piping
may be vulnerable unless the penetrations are properly detailed.

Several failure mechanisms exist for wall-mounted supports: failure at wall plate if
anchorage is undersized, yielding of cantilever elements causing excessive deflection,
and buckling of braced elements if braces are undersized.

Piping attached to

nonstructural walls or walls of insufficient strength may also result in damage to the
wall or partition and the architectural finishes or fire-proofing.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-273

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.3.7-1

FEMA E-74

Wall-mounted supports for horizontal and vertical pipe runs with exterior
exposure. Photo shows minor damage at wall penetration of green pipe and
minor movement at some U-bolts, but restraints generally performed well
(Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers). Note that lateral restraint
near an elbow can be used to provide longitudinal restraint for a perpendicular
pipe run.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-274

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.7-2

Pipe supports attached to wall of damaged silo (Photo courtesy of Eduardo


Fierro, BFP Engineers). In spite of structural damage to silo, cast-in-place pipe
supports were still intact and the piping did not fall.

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Horizontal and vertical pipe runs need vertical, lateral and longitudinal restraints. Wallmounted supports can be used to provide restraint for any combination of these loads,
can be designed for many different configurations, may be used with or without
vibration isolation, and may be used either indoors or outdoors. Pipes may be mounted
flush to the wall or offset; make sure to check that the wall or partition is capable of
carrying the piping loads and will not develop vibration problems.

Longitudinal restraints require positive support to the pipe with a pipe clamp or welded
lug; U-bolts do not provide sufficient longitudinal restraint.

For insulated piping,

longitudinal restraint hardware may need to be located beneath the insulation in order
to prevent longitudinal slip.

In an existing concrete or masonry wall, care must be taken to locate rebar prior to
drilling holes for anchor bolts so the rebar is not cut. Anchorage for isolated piping
should be independent of anchorage for rigidly mounted pipe. In addition, some types
of anchors are not recommended for use with vibratory loads. FEMA 414, Installing

Seismic Restraints for Duct and Pipe (2004), provides additional precautions regarding
the installation of anchor bolts and general guidance on pipe restraints.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-275

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.3.7-3

FEMA E-74

Wall-mounted pipe restraint examples using standard strut shapes and


connectors (Photo courtesy of Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers). Bottom view still
under construction; pipes temporarily attached with plastic ties.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-276

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.3.7-4

FEMA E-74

Surface-mount to structural wall (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-277

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.7-5

FEMA E-74

Wall-mount with steel shape or struts welded to concrete wall (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-278

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.7-6

FEMA E-74

Wall-mount using strut channels to metal stud wall (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-279

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.7-7

FEMA E-74

Wall-mount to stud wall with pre-manufactured brackets (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-280

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.3

PRESSURE PIPING

6.4.3.8

PENETRATIONS

This section addresses locations where pressure piping passes through floor, roof, or wall
penetrations in either architectural or structural components. Penetrations usually fall into one
of three categories: 1) the penetration is sufficiently oversized to prevent impact between the
pipe and surrounding wall or slab; 2) a seismic restraint is located at or near the penetration so
the pipe and surrounding wall or slab are constrained to move together; or 3) the penetration is
not properly detailed and becomes an unintended restraint in the piping run which may result
in damage to the piping, wall, slab, or finishes.

Structural and nonstructural elements may

require strengthening around penetrations or may need special detailing to provide fireproofing, sound-proofing, and weather-proofing or improve the appearance of architectural
finishes.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Pipe movement at penetrations often results in damage to architectural finishes, fireproofing, and insulation. Failure of joints at or near penetrations may result in leakage
causing further damage to these components.

Where pipes pass through unreinforced masonry walls, the opening may create a point
of weakness resulting in crack propagation from the opening. Lightweight partitions or
ceilings are also frequently damaged by movement of unrestrained piping.

Pipe

movement at penetrations may also result in damage to electrical lines in the wall or
ceiling space.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-281

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.3.8-1

FEMA E-74

Damage to ceilings, gypsum board partitions, fire-proofing, and insulation in the


1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Mason
Industries). Note that the blue piping has joints located in the wall space which
leaked, resulting in additional damage.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-282

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.8-2

FEMA E-74

Exterior stucco damage at wall penetration for fire protection piping in the 2001
magnitude-8.4 Peru Earthquake (Photos courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, : BFP
Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-283

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.3.8-3

FEMA E-74

Wall penetrations for piping and ducts contributed to damage to unreinforced


masonry walls at an industrial facility in the 2010 magnitude-7 Haiti Earthquake
(Photos courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers). The piping and ducts were
not damaged but the walls cracked and will need to be repaired.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-284

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

As described above, there are two different approaches for avoiding damage at pipe
penetrations.

Either the penetration should be designed to be oversized to avoid

contact between the pipe and the wall or slab, or the pipe should be restrained at or
near the penetration so the pipe and wall or slab are constrained to move together.

Penetrations should be oversized wherever possible to allow for differential movement


of pipe supports and the structural elements they are attached to on either side of the
wall, floor, or roof slab.

Alternatively, lateral restraints for the piping should be

provided close to the penetration to prevent impact between the pipe and the opening.
Where piping crosses from one building to another, flexible connections may also be
required near the penetration.

Pipes often fail or leak at joints; pipe joints should be not be located within penetrations
where they will leak into a wall cavity or are inaccessible for inspection and repair.

Penetrations through structural walls, slabs, or framing must be coordinated with a


structural

engineer;

structural

walls,

slabs,

or

framing

elements

may

require

strengthening around penetrations. For large openings such as a pipe chase, this may
involve extra trim steel around the opening or additional framing members beneath a
slab. Penetrations in a structural steel girder may require welded reinforcement plates
around the opening. For locating penetrations in existing concrete or masonry walls or
concrete slabs, care must be taken to locate rebar or post-tensioned tendons prior to
drilling holes for pipe penetrations so these elements are not cut.

Penetrations through nonstructural walls should be coordinated with an architect to


ensure that fire-proofing, sound-proofing, weather-proofing, insulation requirements
and finishes on either side of the opening are not compromised. Roof penetrations have
particular issues related to weather-proofing and corrosion protection; care must be
taken to avoid leakage at roof penetrations.

Where penetrations pass through weak

materials such as unreinforced masonry or lightweight partitions, these elements may


require strengthening.

Detailing at penetrations often involves several layers of material and finishes each of
which require attention; penetrations through structural elements may involve both the
engineer and the architect. For instance, a penetration through a masonry wall with
interior plaster and exterior stucco will require detailing for all three of these materials.
The damage shown in Figure 6.4.3.8-2 occurred because although the masonry
penetration was oversized and filled with packing, the exterior stucco was placed flush
with the pipe resulting in stucco damage during the earthquake.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-285

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Pipe risers that pass through floor and roof penetrations must be detailed so the seismic
restraints can also accommodate longitudinal thermal movement of the pipe.

If

allowance for thermal movement is not included in the design, the seismic restraints
may be damaged under operating conditions and fail to perform properly in an
earthquake.

Penetrations in exit corridors needed for emergency egress may warrant special care;
similarly, penetrations in boiler rooms or locations with fuel lines or hazardous
materials may also warrant special detailing to maintain the fire-proofing of the space in
the event of a post-earthquake fire.

FEMA 414, Installing Seismic Restraints for Duct and Pipe (2004), provides additional
precautions regarding the installation of anchor bolts and general guidance on pipe
restraints.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.3.8-4

FEMA E-74

Wall penetrations with lateral restraints at trapeze in foreground, flexible


couplings with independent vertical supports, and sealant at each wall
penetration (Photo courtesy of Mason Industries).

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Figure 6.4.3.8-5

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Floor penetration with oversized opening and vertical and lateral restraints
immediately above floor (Photo courtesy of Mason Industries).

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Figure 6.4.3.8-6

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Series of pipe penetrations through a full-height CMU partition wall. Note pipe
suspended from floor above; partition anchored to floor below and detailed
with steel clip angles intended to provide lateral restraint for the wall but allow
relative slip between the wall and slab above. The hangers will move with the
floor above and the pipe at penetration will move with the wall. Lateral
restraints are located immediately above floor (Photo courtesy Cynthia Perry,
BFP Engineers).

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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.3.8-7

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Wall penetration (ER).

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Figure 6.4.3.8-8

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Floor or roof penetration (ER).

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6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.4

FIRE PROTECTION PIPING

6.4.4.1

SUSPENDED FIRE PROTECTION PIPING

This category covers fire protection sprinkler systems and piping. These systems and piping
are subject to the requirements in NFPA 13, Standard Installation of Sprinkler Systems (NFPA,
2007a). In some seismic zones (Design Categories C, D, E, and F), additional requirements in
ASCE/SEI 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures (ASCE, 2010), may
apply.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Fire protection piping systems are sensitive to both acceleration and deformation.
Vulnerable locations include joints, bends, connections to rigidly mounted equipment
and risers subjected to significant relative movement between floors.

Sprinkler heads are often damaged due to conflict with ceiling systems; this conflict may
also result in impact damage to the ceiling or subsequent water damage.

Fluids may leak from damaged joints or broken pipe; property losses and business
outages are often attributed to fluid leaks from fire suppression piping. Facilities may
need to be evacuated if the fire suppression system is compromised.

Damage to any part of the fire protection system may compromise its functionality; in
addition to the piping, the pumps, holding tanks, control panels, control sensors, smoke
detection equipment, fire doors, etc. must all be operational. If a fire breaks out
following an earthquake and the fire suppression system is not functional, significant
property losses may result.

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.4.1-1

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Sprinkler pipe ruptured at the elbow joint due to differential motion within the
ceiling plenum. Water leakage from broken fire sprinklers and water lines
contributed to the decision to close this hospital for several days following the
1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Robert
Reitherman).

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Figure 6.4.4.1-2

Wall-mounted pipe restraint failed due to inadequate connection to structural


framing in the 2001 magnitude-8.4 Peru Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo
Fierro, BFP Engineers).

Figure 6.4.4.1-3

Damage to suspended fire protection piping from the 1994 Northridge


Earthquake. Failed vibration isolators at left; failed C-clamps without beam
clamp restraining straps shown at right (Photos courtesy of Mason Industries).

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Figure 6.4.4.1-4

Collapse of water tank at left and broken piping disabled the fire protection
system at this power plant in Port-au-Prince and led to the temporary plant
closure in the 2010 magnitude-7 Haiti Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo
Fierro, BFP Engineers).

Figure 6.4.4.1-5

Unanchored holding tank slid on concrete pad, breaking fire protection piping
and disabling the fire protection system in the 2010 Haiti Earthquake. In this
case, the piping was well anchored but the tank was unrestrained (Photo
courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

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Figure 6.4.4.1-6

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Damage to industrial fire protection piping located on jetty in 2001 Peru


Earthquake. Longitudinal slip at U-bolt shown at left; this U-bolt still intact but
other U-bolts broke and fell off the jetty. Failure of joint coupling and crushing
of pipe shown at right (Photo courtesy Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

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Figure 6.4.4.1-7
Conflicts between the sprinkler heads and several types of ceiling finishes
resulted in damage to the ceilings, sprinkler heads and subsequent water damage at the Concepcin
airport in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake (Photos courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn
Boroschek & Associates).

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SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings (ASCE, 2010), Section 13.1.3.1
specifies that systems required for life-safety purposes after an earthquake, such as fire
protection systems, be classified as designated seismic systems and designed using a
component importance factor, Ip, of 1.5. Designated seismic systems may require
engineering calculations, equipment certification, special inspection, etc. Check the
jurisdiction and applicable code for other requirements.

NFPA 13, Standard for Installation of Sprinkler Systems (NFPA, 2007a), provides specific
requirements for fire suppression systems and piping. Refer to 2006 IBC, International

Building Code (ICC, 2006), and ASCE/SEI 7-10 Section 13.6.8 for other seismic design
requirements. NFPA 13 contains prescriptive requirements for the layout of fire
protection piping, with minimum spacing for vertical, lateral, and longitudinal seismic
restraints. While NFPA 13 includes some exemptions for small diameter piping or
hangers less than 6 long, these exemptions are not recognized explicitly in the 2006
IBC and may not provide adequate protection in areas of high seismicity. Check with the
jurisdiction for applicable requirements and exemptions.

Fire suppression systems include many components, all of which must be properly
restrained or anchored for the system to function as intended. Pumps, holding tanks,
control panels, control sensors, piping and sprinkler heads must all be protected from
earthquake damage. In addition to seismic restraints for each component, it is
important to check for potential conflicts with other structural and nonstructural
elements and for falling hazards.

Seismic restraint details for pressure piping shown in Sections 6.4.3.1 through 6.4.3.8
can be adapted for use with fire protection piping. One significant difference is that
components, supports, and seismic restraint hardware for fire protection systems must
all be certified (UL listed, FM approved, etc.). This requirement also applies to seismic
restraint components for fire protection control panels, pumps, and holding tanks.

Some proprietary systems are available that reduce the vulnerability of sprinkler heads
in suspended ceiling grids. One such system provides flexible sprinkler drops so the
sprinkler head can move freely with the ceiling grid (see Figure 6.4.4.1-11); this
proprietary system has been shake table tested. Another system is an integrated
ceiling system where the ceiling grid, acoustical panels, lighting, ducts and air diffusers,
and sprinkler piping are all shop assembled in modules; this system alleviates the
problem of differential movement of the component parts. These types of solutions
may greatly reduce the seismic vulnerability of sprinkler heads. Check the internet for
these and other proprietary systems.

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Two details are included here that are unique to fire protection systems. Figure 6.4.4.111 provides one type of detail for a sprinkler drop and Figure 6.4.4.1-12 provides a
detail for an end of line restraint required for feeds or cross mains.

Several engineered seismic bracing systems are commercially available and can be
customized for most applications. Check the internet for these proprietary systems and
whether they are UL listed, OSHPD approved, FM approved, etc. as required.

For California schools and essential facilities, DSA Policy 10-01, Plan Submittal

Requirements: Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems (AFSS) (California Department of


General Services, 2010b), states that as of July 2010, deferred submittals for fire
protection systems will no longer be accepted. These systems must be submitted as a
complete package as part of the initial project submittal.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.4.1-8

FEMA E-74

There was no damage to the fire suppression equipment in this control room in
the 2001 Peru Earthquake because the pump and the control panel were well
anchored and the piping had flexible connections with adequate sized wall
penetration and no overhead falling hazards (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro,
BFP Engineers).

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Figure 6.4.4.1-9

Transverse and longitudinal restraints on fire protection distribution line (Photo


courtesy of Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers).

Figure 6.4.4.1-10

Flexible hose between sprinkler line and ceiling allowing the sprinkler head to
move with the suspended ceiling without causing damage to the sprinkler
system (Photo courtesy of Flexhead).

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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.4.1-11

Figure 6.4.4.1-12

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Flexible sprinkler drop (ER).

End of line restraint (ER).

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6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.5

FLUID PIPING, NOT FIRE PROTECTION

6.4.5.1

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PIPING

This category covers fluid piping, other than pressure piping or fire protection piping, that
transfers fluids under pressure, by gravity, or that are open to the atmosphere. Specifically, the

fluids in this category are hazardous and flammable liquids that would pose an immediate life

safety danger due to their inherent properties. Hazardous materials and flammable liquids that

would pose an immediate life safety danger if exposed are described in NFPA Standards such
as NFPA 49, Hazardous Chemicals Data, and NFPA 491, Hazardous Chemical Reactions, as
listed in the NFPA Fire Protection Guide to Hazardous Materials (NFPA, 2010).

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Hazardous fluid piping is sensitive to both acceleration and deformation. Vulnerable


locations include joints, bends, connections to rigidly mounted equipment and risers
subjected to significant relative movement between floors. These piping systems have
failure modes common to all piping systems, but the consequences of failure are more
severe.

Fluids may leak from damaged joints or broken pipe. Hazardous and flammable fluid
spills may result in fire, explosion, or evacuation to avoid personal exposure. The risk
for injury, property losses and business outages is high.

Damage to any part of the hazardous piping system may compromise its functionality
and connected equipment or systems may be disabled due to piping leaks or failures.
For example, many hazardous piping systems are designed with safety systems to
reduce the likelihood of leakage such as secondary containment with double walled
pipes, automatic shut-off or excess flow valves, leak detection systems, use of nonjointed piping and highly ductile pipe materials, etc. If not properly designed, installed
and maintained, any of these secondary or backup systems could also be damaged
resulting in hazardous material leaks or loss of functionality.

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.5.1-1

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Earthquake, liquefaction, and tsunami damage to oil supply lines at the port in
Talcahuano in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake. The pier in upper
photo collapsed over much of its length dragging the pipes down into the water;
this caused tension failures in some pipe joints and also resulted in structural
damage to the buildings (Photos courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

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Figure 6.4.5.1-2

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Basement level at power plant in Port-au-Prince flooded with oil and water in
the 2010 magnitude-7 Haiti Earthquake creating hazardous conditions for
inspection and clean-up (Photos courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

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Figure 6.4.5.1-3

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Elephant foot damage to inadequately anchored fuel tank in the 2010 Chile
Earthquake also resulted in damage to fuel lines. Close-up photo shows failed
pipe at welded joint (left) and pipe segment with attached valve (foreground)
tore out of the tank wall (Photos courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

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SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Fuel and natural gas lines are found in many common settings, but this category also
covers more hazardous types of piping found in industrial facilities, power plants or
hospitals. The national standard for pressure piping, ASME B31.3, Process Piping (ASME,
2008), defines hazardous fluid service as a fluid service in which the potential for
personnel exposure is judged to be significant and in which a single exposure to a very
small quantity of a toxic fluid, caused by leakage, can produce serious irreversible harm
to person on breathing or bodily contact, even when prompt restorative measures are
taken.

ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures (ASCE, 2010),
requires the use of a component importance factor, Ip, of 1.5 if the following conditions
apply:
o

13.1.3.1

The component conveys, supports or otherwise contains toxic,

highly toxic or explosive substances where the quantity of materials exceeds a


threshold quantity established by the authority having jurisdiction and is
sufficient to pose a threat to the public if released.
o

13.2.3.4

The component conveys, supports or otherwise contains

hazardous substances and is attached to a structure or portion thereof classified


by the authority having jurisdiction as a hazardous occupancy.

In addition, Section 13.2.2.2 states that special certification is required demonstrating


that any component containing hazardous materials with an Ip of 1.5 will maintain
containment under seismic loading. Thus any component covered by the above
descriptions is a designated seismic system and, unless it falls under the exemption
for mechanical and electrical components in Seismic Design Category B, requires
engineering, special certification, special inspection, etc.

The International Fire Code (IFC) contains provisions that deal with each type of hazardous
material such as corrosives, cryogenics, flammable and combustible liquids, highly toxic
materials, organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophorics, reactive materials, and water reactive
solids and liquids. Independent of any seismic concerns, there are many provisions that apply
to piping systems that convey these materials. There may be requirements, such as secondary
containment, backup safety systems, emergency shut-off, monitoring or leak detection. NFPA
704, Standard System for the Identification of Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response
(NFPA, 2007b) provides a classification and labeling system for hazardous materials as shown
in Figure 6.4.5.1-4. The four-part diamond symbol is coded by color and position for type of
hazard; the hazards associated with health, flammability and reactivity are further coded by
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degree of hazard. Use of appropriate hazard labeling for hazardous piping and associated
containers or tanks of hazardous materials, as well as buildings housing such materials, is
important so that fire fighters, emergency responders, and engineers performing
postearthquake inspections will be aware of the hazards present.

Requirements for seismic shut-off valves, excess flow switches, and excess flow valves
for natural gas lines may vary by jurisdiction. While some jurisdictions now require
seismic shut-off valves on some types or sizes of gas lines, many utilities do not
encourage their use for residential service due to the difficulty in resetting them all
following an earthquake. Some jurisdictions have tried to avoid this by requiring excess
flow valves instead; check the applicable jurisdiction for specific requirements in your
area.

Seismic restraint details for pressure piping shown in Sections 6.4.3.1 through 6.4.3.8
can be adapted for use with hazardous fluid piping. Nevertheless, additional care is
required in the design, installation, inspection, and maintenance of hazardous fluid
piping systems. They may require specialized piping analysis, more frequent supports,
ductile materials, continuous piping without joints, special welding procedures, special
inspections, special purpose pipe clamps to avoid scratching the pipe or to prevent
corrosion, special insulation and consideration of large thermal differentials. Hazardous
piping systems often require secondary containment such as double-walled piping. In
addition, they may require monitoring, leak detection systems, excess flow switches,
excess flow valves or seismic shut-off valves, use of protective sleeved connections, or
cushion clamps. There are thousands of possible hazardous chemical streams and
dozens of different pipe materials. Design of seismic restraints for these systems is a
highly specialized field and may require coordination between the mechanical engineer,
hazardous piping expert, and a seismic piping expert. There are currently few
references available that deal specifically with the seismic issues related to these
hazardous systems.

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Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.5.1-4 Example of NFPA 704 Fire Diamond used to label hazardous
substances. The four divisions in the diamond are typically color-coded, with
blue indicating level of health hazard, red indicating flammability, yellow
(chemical) reactivity, and white containing special codes for unique hazards.
Each of health, flammability and reactivity is rated on a scale from 0 (no hazard;
normal substance) to 4 (severe risk). This labeling scheme is used in the U.S.
but Canada, the European Union, Japan, etc. have different labeling schemes
that should be followed for facilities outside the U.S.

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Figure 6.4.5.1-5

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Two examples of double walled piping used for secondary containment of


hazardous fluids. Preassembled double walled pipe with centering devices or
spacers separating the inner and outer pipe is available commercially, but as
shown here, the outer pipe was installed and leak tested prior to pulling the
inner pipe through. Note the yellow color coded labels indicate reactive
materials; flow direction also marked prominently (Photos courtesy of Jeffrey
Soulages, Intel Corporation).

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Figure 6.4.5.1-6

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Clockwise from top: a) Sleeved pipe connections where seismic anchorage


consists of cushioned pipe clamp attached around outer sleeve and inner pipe
not restrained longitudinally. b) Airgas canisters chained and strapped to
supports, fitted with flexible hose, stainless steel piping (note blue label), and a
row of valves. c) Label on tank shows example of European ADR danger
labeling scheme. d) Excess flow valve for large gas tank (Photos courtesy of
Jeffrey Soulages, Intel Corporation).

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Figure 6.4.5.1-7

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Process nitrogen piping outside engineering building on the UC Berkeley


campus; strut clamp has rubber fittings to protect the stainless steel piping
(Photos courtesy of Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers).

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Figure 6.4.5.1-8

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Two examples of seismic shut-off valves in San Francisco Bay Area. Top photo
at Marine Mammal Center; lower photo at six unit apartment building in
Oakland (Photos courtesy of Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers).

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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.5.1-9

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Hazardous piping examples (ER).

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6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.5

FLUID PIPING, NOT FIRE PROTECTION

6.4.5.2

NONHAZARDOUS MATERIALS PIPING

This category covers fluid piping, other than pressure piping or fire protection piping, that
transfers fluids under pressure, by gravity, or that are open to the atmosphere. Pressure piping

covers piping where the internal pressure is in excess of 15 psf; this category covers piping

with pressures lower than 15 psf. The fluids in this category include drainage and ventilation

piping, hot, cold, and chilled water piping; and piping carrying other nonhazardous liquids.
These fluids, in case of line rupture, would cause property damage, but pose no immediate life
safety danger.

falling hazards.

Like any other piping, failure of the pipes or pipe supports could results in

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Nonhazardous fluid piping is sensitive to both acceleration and deformation. Vulnerable


locations include joints, bends, connections to rigidly mounted equipment and risers
subjected to significant relative movement between floors. These piping systems have
failure modes common to all piping systems.

Fluids may leak from damaged joints or broken pipe; water leakage has been a major
source of damage in past earthquakes.

Damage to any part of the piping system may compromise its functionality and
connected equipment or systems may be disabled due to piping leaks or failures.

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.5.2-1

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Broken copper hot water piping for at the San Carlos Hospital in the 2010 Chile
Earthquake. Piping failure caused by movement of inadequately braced boiler
shown at left (Photos courtesy of Gilberto Mosqueda, SUNY Buffalo).

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Figure 6.4.5.2-2

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Broken copper piping for hot water supply in residential building in the 2010
Chile Earthquake. Trapeze shown not laterally braced but hangers appear to be
less than 12 in length and may not have required lateral restraints per ASCE 710 (Photo courtesy of Gokhan Pekcan).

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Figure 6.4.5.2-3

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Photos displaying resilience of piping systems; this building suffered a partial


structural collapse along one side in the 2010 Chile Earthquake. The only
broken pipe (shown at lower right) was along the collapsed side; the other
piping had broken pipe supports in some locations but the joints remained
largely intact, even with these very large deformations (Photos courtesy of
Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

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SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Seismic restraint details for pressure piping shown in Sections 6.4.3.1 through 6.4.3.8
can be adapted for use with fluid piping. The same types of suspended, wall-, floor-, or
roof-mounted details also apply to these types of piping.

Insulation must be coordinated with pipe supports; the presence of insulation or a


protective sleeve between the pipe and the pipe strap or clamp may allow the pipe to
slip longitudinally.

Note that where a pipe carries water in a facility that uses magnesium, it should be
treated the same as hazardous material piping due to the potentially violent reaction
between some forms of magnesium and water.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.5.2-4

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Cable bracing used to restrain overhead copper piping (Photo courtesy of


Mason Industries).

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Figure 6.4.5.2-5

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Poor example of sanitary sewer pipe support installed in San Francisco Bay Area
in 2010; strut clamp has inadequate edge distance to end of strut and could slip
off the end (Photo courtesy of Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers).

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Figure 6.4.5.2-6

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Piping installation in garage of mixed commercial/residential building San


Francisco Bay Area completed in 2010. Note piping and trapeze supports do
not have lateral restraints as all hangers were kept under 12 in length; only the
sprinkler lines were laterally restrained. (Photo courtesy of Cynthia Perry, BFP
Engineers).

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6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.6

DUCTWORK

6.4.6.1

SUSPENDED DUCTWORK

This category covers suspended HVAC ducts; see Section 6.4.1.5 for suspended HVAC
equipment.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unbraced ducts may swing and impact other items. They may become damaged at
restraints or hard spots along the duct path such as at connections of braced in-line
equipment, at connections to floor-mounted equipment, or at wall or slab penetrations.
Inadequately supported ducts may come loose from the HVAC equipment or diffusers to
which they are connected and fall.

Ducts may be damaged by differential movement such as at building separations.

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.6.1-1

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Unbraced ducts separated at bend in the 1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge


Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Mason Industries).

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Figure 6.4.6.1-2

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Unbraced duct damaged by impact with piping in 1994 Northridge Earthquake


(Photo courtesy of Mason Industries).

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Figure 6.4.6.1-3

Collapsed unbraced ducts and hangers dangling from floor above in the 1994
Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Mason Industries).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Details shown here are for suspended ducts. Ducts may also be floor-, wall- or roofmounted, may cross building separations, or may be located in vertical chases. Refer to
FEMA 414 Installing Seismic Restraints for Duct and Pipe (2004) for attachment details,
for other conditions and general information about installation.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

2006 IBC International Building Code (ICC, 2006) and ASCE/SEI 7-10 Minimum Loads for

Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE, 2010) include several exemptions for suspended
ducts: seismic restraints are not required under certain circumstances such as if the
vertical hangers are less than 12 inches long or if the ducts have a cross-sectional area
less than 6 square feet, as long as flexible duct connections are provided at connections
to braced equipment. Refer to ASCE/SEI 7-10 Section 13.6.7 for more information.

Ductwork required for HVAC systems in hospitals or other essential facilities may be
classified as designated seismic systems with a component importance factor of 1.5.
Such designated seismic systems may require engineering calculations, equipment
certification, and additional inspections. Check ASCE 7-10 and the jurisdiction for
specific requirements.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.6.1-4

FEMA E-74

Rectangular duct supported by steel shapes with cable braces (Photo courtesy of
Mason Industries).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-324

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.6.1-5

FEMA E-74

Floor-mounted rectangular duct supported on braced support stand built up


from steel angles (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-325

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.6.1-6

FEMA E-74

Roof-mounted rectangular duct supported on braced support stand built up


from steel channels (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-326

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.6.1-7

FEMA E-74

Overview of ductwork restraints (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-327

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.6.1-8

FEMA E-74

Suspended ductwork (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-328

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.6

DUCTWORK

6.4.6.2

AIR DIFFUSERS

This category covers suspended air diffusers or mechanical registers, typically part of a
suspended ceiling system.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Air diffusers may be a falling hazard if they are not supported independent of the
ceiling. The diffuser may separate from the attached duct and fail to operate as
intended.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-329

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.6.2-1

FEMA E-74

Air diffusers fell to the floor; ducts hanging through ceiling grid as a result of the
1994 Northridge Earthquake (FEMA 74, 1994).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-330

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.6.2-2

HVAC diffuser attached to the structure with four vertical hangers; ceiling
system was damaged beyond repair in the 2001 Peru Earthquake but none of
the diffusers or lights fell. Ceiling was demolished prior to photo (Photo
courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Requirements for ceiling mounted services in suspended acoustic ceilings are covered in
ASTM E580, Standard Practice for Installation of Ceiling Suspension Systems for

Acoustical Tile and Lay-in Panels in Areas Subject to Earthquake Ground Motions (ASTM,
2010). Air diffusers and other ceiling-mounted services weighing less than 20 lb must
have positive attachment to the ceiling grid. In addition to positive attachment to the
grid, services weighing between 20 lb and 56 lb must have two 12 gauge safety wires
connected to the structure above or to the ceiling hanger wires to prevent them from
falling. Two diagonally opposite vertical safety wires can keep them from posing a risk
to occupants below. Services weighing above 56 lb must be supported directly from the
structure above by approved hangers; in some cases this can be accomplished with 4

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-331

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

taut 12 gauge wires, one located at each corner of the service. While ASTM E580 does
not require safety wires for items weighing less than 20 lb, use of at least one wire may
be good practice considering the number of diffusers that have come down in recent
earthquakes.

Only intermediate duty or heavy duty grid may be used to support suspended acoustic
ceilings with lights and mechanical services attached. For Seismic Design Category D, E
& F, only heavy duty grid may be used. See Section 6.3.4.1 for additional ceiling
requirements. For an existing unbraced ceiling, the addition of four diagonal wire
braces at each corner of diffusers will limit horizontal movement of the diffuser and
prevent impact with other suspended items. Diffuser restraints should be coordinated
with the lateral restraints for the ceiling grid and may require engineering expertise.

Do not brace diffusers to ducts, piping, or other nonstructural items.

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.6.2-3

FEMA E-74

Ceiling-mounted diffuser (NE, ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-332

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.7

ELECTRICAL AND COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT

6.4.7.1

CONTROL PANELS, MOTOR CONTROL CENTERS, AND SWITCHGEAR

This category includes tall, narrow floor-mounted electrical items in sheet metal cabinets such
as electrical control panels, motor control centers, switchgear, and substations.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Overturning or sliding due to lack of anchorage or inadequate anchorage.

Loss of function due to failure of internal components caused by inertial forces.

Damaged electrical equipment may cause electrical hazards and fire hazards.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-333

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Example

Figure 6.4.7.1-1

FEMA E-74

Overturned equipment in the 1985 magnitude-8 Mexico Earthquake (Photo


courtesy of Degenkolb Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-334

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.1-2

FEMA E-74

Unanchored electrical cabinets overturned in a paper products plant during the


1999 magnitude-7.4 Izmit, Turkey earthquake (Photo courtesy of NISEE Izmit
Collection, No. IZT-682, photograph by Halil Sezen).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-335

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.1-3

FEMA E-74

Damage to unanchored electrical cabinets at power plant in Port-au-Prince in


the 2010 magnitude-7 Haiti Earthquake (Photos courtesy of Eduardo Fierro,
BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-336

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Working around electrical equipment can be extremely hazardous. Read the Electrical
Danger Warning and Guidelines in Section 6.6.8 of this document before proceeding
with any work.

Many of these components can be supplied with shop welded brackets or predrilled
holes for base or wall anchorage. For any new equipment, request items that can be
supplied with seismic anchorage details.

See Section 6.4.1.1 for additional base anchorage details. Refer to FEMA 413 Installing

Seismic Restraints for Electrical Equipment (2004) for general information on seismic
anchorage of electrical equipment.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.7.1-4

FEMA E-74

Equipment cabinets retrofitted with unidirectional snubbers at base (Photo


courtesy of Mike Griffin).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-337

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.1-5

FEMA E-74

Installation that performed well in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake;


cabinets anchored at base. Some cabinets tied together side by side using
existing lifting hooks at top of cabinets (Photos courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales,
Ruben Boroschek & Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-338

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.1-6

FEMA E-74

Close up of snubbers (Photo courtesy of Mike Griffin).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-339

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.1-7

FEMA E-74

Postearthquake strengthening of anchorage for electrical cabinets from the 2001


magnitude-8.4 Peru Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP
Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-340

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.1-8

FEMA E-74

Detail of postearthquake strengthening from the 2001 Peru Earthquake (Photo


courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-341

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.1-9

FEMA E-74

Anchorage for electrical cabinets. Anchorage to wall at top of cabinets is also


present but not visible (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-342

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.1-10

FEMA E-74

Detail of cabinet base anchorage (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps,


Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-343

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.7.1-11

FEMA E-74

Electrical control panels, motor controls centers, or switchgear (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-344

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.1-12

FEMA E-74

Free-standing and wall-mounted electrical control panels, motor controls


centers, or switchgear (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-345

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.7

ELECTRICAL AND COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT

6.4.7.2

EMERGENCY GENERATORS

Emergency generators are essential for postearthquake operations for many types of facilities.
These range from small residential size generators to large systems required to maintain
hospital or other essential operations. Emergency generators are often mounted on vibration
isolators.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Emergency generators may slide, tilt, or overturn. Internal elements may be damaged
by inertial forces.

Unanchored or poorly reinforced housekeeping pads may fail, resulting in excessive


movement of the supported equipment.

Vibration isolators can fail causing excessive generator movement.

Failure of the emergency power generating system may be caused by the failure of any
of the component parts including generator, fuel tank, fuel line, batteries and battery
racks.

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Working around electrical equipment can be extremely hazardous. Read the Electrical
Danger Warning and Guidelines in Section 6.6.8 of this document before proceeding
with any work.

Many equipment items can be supplied with a structural steel base, shop welded
brackets, or predrilled holes for base anchorage. For any new equipment, request items
that can be supplied with seismic anchorage details.

For equipment mounted on a free-standing concrete pad, make sure pad is large
enough to resist seismic overturning of generator.

Check the anchorage for all the component parts of the emergency power generation
system; failure of any one of them could compromise the postearthquake performance
of the system. Provide flexible connections for the fuel line, exhaust ducting and any
other connected utility.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-346

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

See Section 6.4.1.1 for additional base anchorage details. Refer to FEMA 413 Installing

Seismic Restraints for Electrical Equipment (2004) for general information on seismic
anchorage of electrical equipment.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.7.2-1

FEMA E-74

Emergency generator is anchored to a concrete inertia base. The inertia base is


mounted on spring isolators and restrained by steel angle snubbers on all sides
(Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-347

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.2-2

FEMA E-74

Emergency generator with skid mount on housekeeping pad; shear lugs added
following the 2001 Peru Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP
Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-348

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.7.2-3

FEMA E-74

Emergency generator (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-349

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.7

ELECTRICAL AND COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT

6.4.7.3

TRANSFORMERS

Transformers may be dry-type or liquid filled; mounted on a floor, wall or roof; and installed
with or without vibration isolation.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Transformers may slide, tilt, overturn, or fall. Vibration isolation hardware may be
damaged.

Internal elements may be damaged by inertial forces.

Damaged electrical equipment may be cause electrical hazards and fire hazards.
Transformer damage may result in power outages and business interruption.

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.7.3-1

FEMA E-74

Rail mounted transformer slipped off rails at power plant in Port-au-Prince in


the 2010 magnitude-7 Haiti Earthquake; only one of six identical transformers
was damaged (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).
6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-350

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Working around electrical equipment can be extremely hazardous. Read the Electrical
Danger Warning and Guidelines in Section 6.6.8 of this document before proceeding
with any work.

This type of equipment can be supplied with a structural steel base, shop welded
brackets, or predrilled holes for base anchorage. For any new equipment, request items
that can be supplied with seismic anchorage details.

See Section 6.4.1.1 for additional base anchorage details. Refer to FEMA 413 Installing

Seismic Restraints for Electrical Equipment (2004) for additional mounting


configurations such as wall- and roof-mounting, or vibration isolation as well as general
information on the seismic anchorage of electrical equipment.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-351

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.7.3-2

FEMA E-74

Transformer (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-352

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.7

ELECTRICAL AND COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT

6.4.7.4

BATTERIES AND BATTERY RACKS

This category covers batteries and battery racks, often used as part of the emergency
generation system. These may be mounted on a concrete floor, raised floor, wall or roof.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

The racks may slide or overturn and batteries may slip or fall from the rack. Failure of
the batteries may compromise the emergency power generation system or other
functions that rely on backup battery power.

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.7.4-1

FEMA E-74

Earthquake Damage in the 1971 magnitude-6.6 San Fernando Earthquake


(Photo courtesy of John F. Meehan).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-353

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Seismic resistant battery racks are available from a number of vendors; these may be
directly bolted to the floor or wall. Check the internet for available products.

For existing battery racks, check that the batteries are secured to the rack and that the
rack is properly braced and anchored.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.7.4-2

FEMA E-74

Anchored battery racks (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-354

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.4-3

Batteries anchored with equipment skid (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP
Engineers).

Figure 6.4.7.4-4

Battery rack that performed well in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake
(Photo courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn Boroschek & Associates).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-355

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.7.4-5

FEMA E-74

Batteries and rack (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-356

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.7

ELECTRICAL AND COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT

6.4.7.5

PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) POWER SYSTEMS

This category covers photovoltaic (PV) power systems and solar car charging stations,
commonly mounted on roofs or on separate freestanding racks.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

As the installation of these fixtures on U.S. rooftops is relatively new, there are few
documented examples of earthquake damage to date. This is in part due to the fact
that since panels tend to be very light, the most severe design loading for roof-mounted
photovoltaic panels is typically wind.

Nevertheless, if these have not been properly

designed to meet seismic loading, the panels may become dislodged and fall from the
racks or fall off of pitched roofs or piping may be damaged, resulting in leakage. Wiring
may also become dislodged and disable the systems.

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Solar power is a rapidly changing field; these products and systems are evolving. Where
existing photovoltaic systems may weigh between 2.5 to 3.0 pounds per square foot
and consist of glass covered modules that are roof mounted on aluminum or galvanized
steel track, newer products include lighter panels without glass, solar roof tiles that
interlock with standard S-shaped clay or concrete roofing tiles, or peel and stick panels
which weigh under 2 pounds per square foot that may be applied directly to the roof
surface. Several of these newer systems are integrated with the roofing materials and
may not require special seismic consideration as long as the additional weight is
accounted for.

Ballasted photovoltaic systems are also available that do not require

anchorage or penetration of the roofing membrane. Check the internet for proprietary
systems.

Photovoltaic panels supported on framing systems are typically flush mounted or tilt
mounted. These systems typically have anodized aluminum or galvanized steel track
channels mounted to brackets or standoffs which are mounted to roof framing or
structural supports.

FEMA E-74

The panels or modules are then screwed directly to the track,

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-357

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

typically four per panel.

For installation on a wood framed roof, the system layout

works best when the track is mounted perpendicular to the rafters; blocking may be
required between the rafters where the track is mounted parallel to the rafters. Care
must be taken to see that the roof penetrations are well sealed so the photovoltaic
power system does not cause roof leaks. Friction fittings should not be used to resist
seismic loading; positive connections should be provided between all the component
parts.

Photovoltaic power systems may be installed on top of carports for charging electric
cars. Before mounting an expensive solar system on top, it must be ensured that the
carport or patio structures have been designed for seismic loading.

The State of California has published DSA IR 16-8 Solar Photovoltaic and Thermal

Systems Acceptance Requirements (California Department of General Services, 2010a) to


address requirements for California schools.

This document describes solar systems

supported on framing systems and foundations, ballast panel systems, and adhered
panel systems.

Installation guidelines are available on the internet for proprietary flush mount kits and
tilt up kits.

For example, UniRac, Inc. has installation manuals for two proprietary

systems called SolarMount and Clicksys (see http://unirac.com/mounting-solutions).


These installation manuals have wind and snow load tables with wind loading from
90 mph to 170 mph. Although there is no explicit mention of seismic provisions, the
detailing will be adequate if designed sufficiently for wind. A review of the tabulated
wind design loads shows these systems are engineered for 10 psf to over 100 psf uplift;
thus a well engineered wind design for a photovoltaic system typically weighing less
than 3 psf should not require additional seismic detailing.

Another company,

Professional Solar Products (http://www.prosolar.com/prosolar-new/pages/installationguides-subpage2.htm) has hardware with installation guides for tilt up kits designed for
30 psf or 100 mph winds.

Like any components exposed to the weather, components and connectors for
photovoltaic systems should be corrosion resistant materials such as stainless steel or
anodized aluminum.

Where roof penetrations are required, these should have

appropriate flashing and caulking to prevent leakage.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-358

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.7.5-1

FEMA E-74

60,000 photovoltaic cells are incorporated into the glass canopy surrounding
the Academy of Science, San Francisco, California (Photos courtesy of Cynthia
Perry, BFP Engineers). The photovoltaic system provides 10% of the electricity
needed for the facility. Panels must be securely attached to resist wind loads
but also because these cantilevered members may be subject to vertical as well
as horizontal seismic forces.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-359

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.5-2

FEMA E-74

Ground mounted photovoltaic system that also provides shade to injured


animals at the Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California (Photo courtesy
of Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers). Each solar panel is screwed to the strut at four
locations; two rows of struts are bolted to 6 steel tubes which are anchored at
the base with four bolts apiece.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-360

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.5-3

FEMA E-74

Residential photovoltaic system in Berkeley, California mounted over the


transition between two different roof slopes (Photos courtesy of Heber Santos).
Short standoff used on tar and gravel flat portion (upper left); aluminum flashing
and mounting bracket used on sloped portion with composition tile roofing
(upper right). The profile of one type of proprietary mounting track is seen at
lower left.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.5-4

FEMA E-74

Flush mount photovoltaic system on barrel shaped roof of gymnasium at HeadRoyce School, Oakland, California (Photo courtesy of Cynthia Perry, BFP
Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-362

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.7.5-5

FEMA E-74

Typical details for flush-mounted photovoltaic power modules (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-363

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.5-6

FEMA E-74

Typical tilt up details for anchored photovoltaic power modules (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-364

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.7

ELETRICAL AND COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT

6.4.7.6

COMMUNICATIONS ANTENNAE

This category covers communications antennae, often referred to as satellite dishes, which may
be mounted in a variety of ways. Circular antennae used for residential or small commercial
applications are typically supported by a single mast that may be mounted on a wall, roof,
chimney, eaves, balcony, or freestanding at the ground.

Non-penetrating roof mounts that

typically rely on ballast are also available.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

While TV antennae have been mounted on roofs for many decades, the appearance of
circular antennae on U.S. rooftops is relatively new, and to date, earthquake damage has
not been documented. This is in part due to the fact that since antennae tend to be very
light, the most severe design loading for circular antennae is typically wind.
Nevertheless, if antennae have not been mounted to meet seismic loading, they could
become dislodged and either the dish or the mast or both could fall.

Damage to the antennae could disable critical communications systems or television


access that may be needed following an earthquake.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-365

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.7.6-1

FEMA E-74

Most antenna are designed for wind and able to resist seismic loading. In spite
of the collapse of the first story of this residential building complex, the roofmounted antennae appear intact in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake
(Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-366

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.6-2

FEMA E-74

Antennae retrieved from roof of adjacent collapsed wing of the Hpital SaintFranois de Sales in the 2010 magnitude-7 Haiti Earthquake (not known if
antenna suffered earthquake damage; photo courtesy of Ayhan Irfanoglu,
Purdue University). Hospital communications depend on the functionality of
antennae such as this.

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Figure 6.4.7.6-3

Damage or movement of ballasted antennae was not observed on this rooftop


in the 2010 magnitude-6.5 Eureka Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Maryann
Phipps, Estructure).

Figure 6.4.7.6-4

The antenna with guy wires remained upright atop a collapsed building in the
2010 Haiti Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers). Even
though some of the guy wires went slack, the antenna did not fall into the
street.

FEMA E-74

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Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) issues regulations for Over-the-Air


Reception Devices to preempt restrictions on the size, mast height, or location of directto-home satellite dishes.

For instance, Title 47 (Section 1.200) of Code of Federal

Regulations which codifies the FCC regulations covers dishes less than 1 meter in
diameter with a mast height less than 12 feet above the roofline. In addition, tenant or
homeowner association agreements may have restrictions on the size or placement of
antennae; check for local code or association requirements.

The antenna mast may be mounted in a variety of ways, for example to wood or metal
stud walls, concrete or solid masonry walls (cells filled with concrete), hollow masonry
block walls, freestanding poles, or to roof rafters or a concrete roof slab. Schematic
details for installing the mast mounting bracket to a stud or concrete walls are shown in
Figure 6.4.7.6-5.

Some mounting kits available on the internet provide hardware for strapping the
antenna to a residential chimney. As unreinforced masonry chimneys are highly prone
to earthquake damage as described in Section 6.3.7.1, antenna should not be mounted
to unreinforced masonry chimneys. If the chimney is adequately reinforced, chimney
mount details may be used for lightweight antennae.

Hardware and kits for non-penetrating ballasted mounts are also available for purchase.
These kits often use standard sized concrete blocks for ballast.

Use of multiple

concrete blocks for ballast may be heavy enough to trigger the requirement for the
equipment to have engineered anchorage. While these ballasted systems can reasonably
be used in areas of low seismicity, they could potentially slide and damage roofing or
wiring in areas of high seismicity.

Large or tall antennae need to be properly engineered for both wind and seismic
loading. Tower antennae may be anchored with guy wires, or mounted to a specially
designed frame.

Positive attachments from the antenna to the supporting structure

should be provided and one should check with the manufacturer to see if the antenna
itself has been designed or tested for seismic loading since seismic forces at the roof
elevation are typically much higher than at ground level.

Communications equipment used for essential facilities may need to be shake table
tested and certified.

Shake tables operated by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering

Research Center (PEER) at UC Berkeley, MCEER at SUNY Buffalo, and others both perform
testing

FEMA E-74

of

telecommunications

network

equipment

in

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

accordance

with

NEBS

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Last Modified: January 2011

Requirements: Physical Protection (NEBS, 2006), protocol to certify that the internal parts
and electronic components can withstand seismic shaking.

As with any items mounted with exterior exposure, components and connectors should
be corrosion resistant and roof or wall penetrations should receive flashing and sealant
as appropriate.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.7.6-5

FEMA E-74

Antenna mast mounted to concrete wall surface at top floor of building (Photo
courtesy of (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure). Note that two wall
brackets are used to resist moments produced by wind or seismic forces. This
antenna is larger than most standard residential versions.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.6-6

FEMA E-74

Antenna mast mounted to wood stud wall using blocking to clear eves (Photo
courtesy of Cynthia Perry, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.7.6-7

FEMA E-74

Details for wall-mounted communications antenna (ER).

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.7.6-8

FEMA E-74

Details for roof/slab mounted communications antenna (ER).

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.8

ELECTRICAL AND COMMUNICATIONS DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT

6.4.8.1

ELECTRICAL RACEWAYS, CONDUIT, AND CABLE TRAYS

This category covers electrical raceways, conduit, cable trays, and bus ducts. These items may
be suspended from above or be floor-, chase-, wall- or roof-mounted.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Items may swing and impact structural or other nonstructural elements; they may fall
and create electrical hazards.

Vulnerable locations include seismic separations; wall, floor, or roof penetrations; and
attachments to rigidly mounted equipment.

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.8.1-1

FEMA E-74

Unbraced suspended piping and conduit (Photo courtesy of Wiss, Janney,


Elstner Associates).

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Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Working around electrical equipment can be extremely hazardous. Read the Electrical
Danger Warning and Guidelines in Section 6.6.8 of this document before proceeding
with any work.

Two trapeze anchorage details are shown. See Section 6.4.3.1 for additional pipe
anchorage details; the same type of bracing is typically used for electrical distribution
lines. Refer to FEMA 413 Installing Seismic Restraints for Electrical Equipment (2004) for
general information on seismic anchorage of electrical equipment and to FEMA 414

Installing Seismic Restraints for Duct and Pipe (2004) for many different anchorage
configurations for raceways, conduit and cable trays.

Several engineered seismic bracing systems are available and can be customized for
most applications. This is particularly useful for large scale projects or essential
applications.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.8.1-2

FEMA E-74

Rigid strut bracing provides restraint against earthquake forces perpendicular to


the piping. Similar bracing is required in the direction parallel to the conduit
(Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).
6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Figure 6.4.8.1-3

FEMA E-74

Rigid strut bracing for trapeze supporting electrical conduit; conduit attached to
trapeze with conduit clamp that provides lateral and longitudinal restraint
(Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

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Figure 6.4.8.1-4

Lateral and longitudinal rigid strut bracing for trapeze supporting electrical
raceways (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.8.1-5

FEMA E-74

Cable tray on braced trapeze (ER).

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.8

ELECTRICAL AND COMMUNICATIONS DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT

6.4.8.2

ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION PANELS

This category includes electrical distribution panels, either recessed or surface-mounted. Wallmounted electrical panels have generally performed well in past earthquakes, in part due to
their weight (typically less than 200 pounds), the ductility of the sheet metal cabinets, and the
strength of the interconnected conduit which can serve as unintended bracing.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Panels may become dislodged and fall.

Damage to distribution panels and the attached lines may create electrical hazards and
fire hazards.

FEMA E-74

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Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.8.2-1

Dislodged panel board due to failure of hollow concrete block partition wall in
the 1964 magnitude-9.2 Anchorage, Alaska earthquake (Photo courtesy of PEER
Steinbrugge Collection, No. S2144).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Working around electrical equipment can be extremely hazardous. Read the Electrical
Danger Warning and Guidelines in Section 6.6.8 of this document before proceeding
with any work.

This type of equipment can be supplied with shop welded brackets or predrilled holes
for wall anchorage. For any new equipment, request items that can be supplied with
seismic anchorage details.

See Section 6.4.7.1 for additional details. The wall mount detail shown is for a concrete
wall; refer to FEMA 413 Installing Seismic Restraints for Electrical Equipment (2004) for
additional information about anchoring to masonry or drywall and for general
information on seismic anchorage of electrical equipment.

FEMA E-74

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Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.8.2-2

FEMA E-74

Wall anchorage for electrical panel; standard strut anchored to wall studs and
panel anchored to strut (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.8.2-3

FEMA E-74

Free-standing electrical distribution panel (ER).

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.9

LIGHT FIXTURES

6.4.9.1

RECESSED LIGHT FIXTURES

This category covers recessed light fixtures that are part of a suspended ceiling grid. These
may be lay-in fixtures in a suspended acoustic tile ceiling or recessed fixtures in other types of
suspended ceilings such as gypsum board, plaster, or metal panels. Overhead light fixtures in
a finished ceiling have often been damaged in past earthquakes; the fixtures may become
dislodged from the ceiling or ceiling grid and fall unless they are tied to the grid and have
independent support to the structure above.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Recessed fixtures supported by a suspended ceiling without independent safety wires to


the structure above can become dislodged and fall. Fixtures with proper safety wires
may fall from the grid and dangle from the safety wire but will not threaten occupants.

Unless secured to a properly braced ceiling grid, relative movement between the light
fixture and the ceiling may damage the ceiling finishes, ceiling grid, wiring, or the light
fixture. Heavy fixtures that are hung independently but not laterally braced may swing
independent of the ceiling and damage the ceiling system.

Unsecured lenses and bulbs may fall independent of the fixture and cause damage
below.

Most observed damage to recessed light fixtures in the U.S. has involved fixtures in
suspended acoustic tile ceilings which do not have much inherent in-plane stiffness;
damage to fixtures in gypsum board ceilings has been less common.

FEMA E-74

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.9.1-1

FEMA E-74

Numerous fluorescent fixtures dangling from electrical conduit; installed without


safety wires in unbraced suspended acoustical ceiling and damaged in the 2010
magnitude-7 Haiti Earthquake. Loose bulbs, lenses, ceiling panels, diffusers and
ducts also on the floor (Photo courtesy of Ayhan Irfanoglu, Purdue University).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.9.1-2

FEMA E-74

Overhead lights with four vertical hangers to the structure. Unbraced acoustic
ceiling system was damaged beyond repair in the 2001 magnitude-8.4 Peru
Earthquake but none of the diffusers or lights fell because they had independent
supports. Ceiling was demolished prior to photo (Photo courtesy of Eduardo
Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.9.1-3

FEMA E-74

Light fixture without adequate independent support dangling along one edge
from ceiling grid, damaged in the 1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge Earthquake
(Photo courtesy of Degenkolb Engineers).

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Figure 6.4.9.1-4

FEMA E-74

Light fixture without independent support dangling from conduit as a result of


the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Degenkolb Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Requirements for recessed lighting fixtures may vary depending on requirements for the
type of ceiling in which they are located. Recessed light fixtures may be found in any
type of ceiling system. Requirements for suspended acoustic ceilings and suspended
gypsum board ceilings are discussed below.

For requirements for recessed fixtures in suspended acoustic tile ceilings, ASCE 7-10, ,

Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and other Structures (ASCE, 2010), references
ASTM E580, Standard Practice for Installation of Ceiling Suspension Systems for

Acoustical Tile and Lay-in Panels in Areas Subject to Earthquake Ground Motions (ASTM,
2010); Section 4.4 covers conditions for ceilings weighing less than 2.5 psf in Seismic
Design Category C and Section 5.3 covers ceilings weighing more than 2.5 psf in
Seismic Design Category C and ceilings in Seismic Design Categories D, E and F. Per
ASTM E580 Section 5.3 light fixture require the following:
o

lights must be positively attached to the ceiling grid with a minimum of two
attachment devices capable of resisting 100% of the fixture weight in any
direction. This is not required if the light has independent vertical and lateral
support.

where the load carrying capacity of the cross runners is less than 16 lb/ft,
supplementary hanger wires may be required for the ceiling grid. See discussion
regarding the requirement for supplementary framing and supplementary hanger
wires for the suspended ceiling grid under Section 6.3.4.1. Note also that
intermediate duty or heavy duty grid is required for ceilings carrying light
fixtures.

For fixtures weighing less than 10 lb, provide one #12 safety wire connected
from the fixture housing to the structure above; wire may be slack.

For fixtures weighing from 10 lb to 56 lb, provide two #12 safety wires at
diagonally opposite corners connected from the fixture housing (not the
detachable end plates) to the structure above; wires may be slack.

For fixtures weighing more than 56 lb, these must be supported directly from
the structure above by approved hangers. If the ceiling bracing can provide
lateral restraint for such fixtures, they should be positively attached to the
ceiling grid as noted above but supported with not less than four taut #12 wires.
This requirement is also often taken to apply to large 4x4 fixtures. Refer to
Section 6.4.9.4 for heavy fixtures requiring independent vertical and lateral
support.

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For acoustic tile ceilings, California schools require safety wires or independent vertical
support for each light fixture, positive attachment from the light fixtures to the ceiling
grid, and bracing for the ceiling grid that is adequate to resist the lateral loading from
the ceiling, lights, and diffusers. DSA IR 25-5 Metal Suspension Systems for Lay-in

Panel Ceilings (California Department of General Services, 2009c) provides details for
lights in suspended acoustic ceiling grids. The requirements in DSA IR 25-5 differ
slightly from ASTM E580: California schools require two safety wires on all fixtures
under 56 pounds; require all 4 ft x 4 ft fixtures have a slack #12 safety wire at each
corner, even if the fixture weight is less than 56 lb; and for fixtures weighing more than
56 lb, require they be independently supported by not less than four taut #12 wires, and
that these wires be capable of supporting four times the weight of the fixture.

Per ASCE 7-10, certain types of suspended ceilings with screw-attached gypsum board
built at one level do not require special seismic details; these ceilings also do not
require safety wires for light fixtures (see Section 6.3.4.3 for a discussion of exempt
ceilings). The weight of recessed light fixtures in suspended gypsum board ceilings
must be supported by main runners, supplementary framing supported by the main
runners, or directly by the structure above. Neither the ceiling finish material nor the
cross furring should be used to support light fixtures. The fixture should be positively
attached with screws or other approved connectors to the ceiling grid. Requirements for
California schools are in DSA IR 25-3 Drywall Ceiling Suspension Conventional

Construction-One Layer (California Department of General Services, 2005b). For


suspended gypsum ceilings built at multiple levels, or other types of heavy ceilings,
seismic detailing and safety wires for lighting may be required; check applicable code
provisions.

International Code Council Evaluation Service has published AC184, Acceptance Criteria

for Attachment Devices for Recessed Lighting Fixtures (Luminaries) in Suspended Ceiling
Systems (ICC-ES, 2006), with information on attachments of light fixtures to suspended
ceiling grids. The website located at http://www.agi-seismic.com/code/ac184.html#
provides footage of lighting fixture failures where the lights are attached only with tie
wires. A discussion of issues related to the code design provisions and the requirement
for positive attachments is also provided. In some instances, where approved seismic
fixture clamps (SFC) are used to anchor the lighting to a properly braced ceiling grid, the
independent tie wires are not required.

For existing construction where the ceiling grid is not adequately braced or not strong
enough to provide lateral restraint for the lighting, splay wire bracing at each corner of
the fixture can be used to provide horizontal restraint. Such bracing would also help

FEMA E-74

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prevent swinging lights from damaging the surrounding ceiling. At a minimum, such
fixtures should be retrofit with independent safety wires to prevent them from falling.

Lenses and bulbs may require independent restraints to keep them from falling from the
fixture.

For fire rated ceiling assemblies, only fixtures and attachments with an approved fire
rating may be used. Check with the manufacturer for approved systems. Some fixtures
may require lead shielding or a fire-rated enclosure; check local code provisions.

Do not attach lights to ducts, piping, or other nonstructural items in the ceiling plenum.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.9.1-5

FEMA E-74

Example of light fixture with only one safety wire attached; the Salt Lake City
schools require four wires for a fixture of this size and weight and also require
tighter turns on the wire (Photo courtesy of Salt Lake City School District).
Investigations in ceiling plenums often reveal missing wires.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.9.1-6

FEMA E-74

Schematic plan of recessed lights in suspended acoustic ceiling (PR).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.9.1-7

Recessed light fixture in suspended ceiling (fixture weight < 10 pounds) (PR).

Figure 6.4.9.1-8

Recessed light fixture in suspended ceiling (fixture weight 10 to 56 pounds)


(PR).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.9

LIGHT FIXTURES

6.4.9.2

SURFACE-MOUNTED LIGHTING

This category covers surface-mounted light fixtures that are overhead in a finished ceiling. The
term surface-mounted refers to a range of conditions; in some cases the fixture and housing
are entirely below the ceiling surface, in other cases part of the housing is recessed above the
bottom of the ceiling. Overhead fixtures may also be surface-mounted on a wall. Damage to
overhead lighting has occurred frequently in past earthquakes; the fixtures become dislodged
from the ceiling or ceiling grid and fall unless they are tied to the grid or have independent
support to the structure above.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Surface lighting that is not equipped with independent safety wires may fall to the floor.
Lighting with proper safety wires may fall from the ceiling and dangle from the safety
wires but will not pose a safety risk to occupants.

Unless secured to a properly braced ceiling grid, relative movement between the light
fixture and the ceiling may damage the ceiling finishes, ceiling grid, wiring, or the light
fixture.

Unsecured lenses and bulbs may become dislodged and fall to the floor even where the
fixture is restrained.

This may occur with both ceiling and wall mounted surface

lighting.

Most observed damage to light fixtures in the U.S. has involved fixtures in suspended
acoustic tile ceilings which do not have much inherent in-plane stiffness; damage to
fixtures mounted in or on gypsum board ceilings has been less common.

FEMA E-74

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Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.9.2-1

FEMA E-74

Numerous failures of ceilings and lights were observed at the Concepcin


airport in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake. Photo shows surfacemounted fixture on wall that remained in place but the lens fell and the bulbs
were dislodged (Photo courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn Boroschek &
Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.9.2-2

FEMA E-74

Overhead surface-mounted fixture anchored to underside of concrete slab


damaged in the 2010 Chile Earthquake. Back of fixture housing remained
anchored to the concrete slab above and the bulbs remained in place but the
lens and sides of housing fell indicating that internal connections in the fixture
were inadequate (Photos courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn Boroschek &
Associates).

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Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

As referenced in Section 13.5.6 of ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and

other Structures (ASCE, 2010), ASTM E580, Standard Practice for Installation of Ceiling
Suspension Systems for Acoustical Tile and Lay-in Panels in Areas Subject to Earthquake
Ground Motions (ASTM, 2010), requires that surface-mounted fixtures in a suspended
acoustic ceiling shall be attached to the ceiling suspension system with positive
clamping devices that completely surround the supporting members. Safety wires are
required between the clamping device and the adjacent ceiling hanger or to the
structure above. The weight of the fixture shall not exceed the design carrying capacity
of the supporting members. One, two, or four safety wires are required from the fixture
housing to the structure above. These requirements for safety wires are the same as for
recessed fixtures and are as follows:
o

For fixtures weighing 10 pounds or less, provide one slack safety wire

For fixtures weighing between 10-56 pounds, provide two slack safety wires at
diagonally opposite corners

For fixtures weighing more than 56 pounds, provide independent support to the
structure above. For many fixtures, this can be satisfied with 4 taut wires. Heavy
or specialty fixtures, such as operating room lights in a hospital, may require
engineered support and bracing details such as those shown in Section 6.4.9.4.

For suspended acoustic ceilings, ASTM E580 has other requirements related to the grid
itself. Intermediate or heavy duty ceiling grid is required where lights will be supported
and supplementary ceiling framing and supplementary hanger wires may be required
adjacent to fixtures. Lateral restraint for lighting is assumed to be provided by the
ceiling grid so the design of the grid must account for the overall weight of all the
attached lighting and mechanical registers. See Section 6.3.4 for additional information
regarding ceilings.

Per ASCE 7-10, certain types of suspended ceilings with screw-attached gypsum board
built at one level do not require special seismic details; these ceilings also do not
require safety wires for light fixtures (see Section 6.3.4.3). The weight of surfacemounted fixtures must be supported by main runners, supplementary framing
supported by the main runners, or directly by the structure above. Neither the ceiling
finish material nor the cross furring should be used to support light fixtures. The
fixture should be positively attached with screws or other approved connectors to the
ceiling grid. Requirements for California schools are in DSA IR 25-3 Drywall Ceiling

Suspension Conventional Construction-One Layer (California Department of General

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Services, 2005b) and read Surface-mounted fixtures shall be attached to a main runner
with a positive clamping device made of material with a minimum of 14 gage. Rotational
spring clamps do not comply. For suspended gypsum ceilings built at multiple levels,
or other types of heavy ceilings, seismic detailing and safety wires may be required;
check applicable code provisions.

International Code Council Evaluation Service has published Acceptance Criteria AC184
(ICC-ES, 2006) with information on attachments of light fixtures to suspended ceiling
grids. The website located at http://www.agi-seismic.com/code/ac184.html provides
footage of lighting fixture failures where the lights are attached only with tie wires. A
discussion of issues related to the code design provisions and the requirement for
positive attachments is also provided. In some instances, where approved seismic
fixture clamps are used to anchor the lighting to a properly braced ceiling grid,
independent tie wires are not required. Check for pre-approved details for such devices
in the applicable jurisdiction.

For surface-mounted fixtures in existing buildings where the ceiling grid is unbraced,
such fixtures should be retrofit with safety wires at a minimum to prevent them from
falling. Providing independent lateral bracing for the fixture may reduce the potential
for the light to damage an existing unbraced ceiling.

For fire rated ceiling assemblies, only fixtures and attachments with an approved fire
rating may be used. Check with the manufacturer for approved systems. Some fixtures
may require lead shielding or a fire-rated enclosure; check local code provisions.

Do not attach lights to ducts, piping, or other nonstructural items in the ceiling plenum.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.9.2-3

FEMA E-74

Independent vertical support for surface-mounted light fixture in suspended


gypsum board ceiling located in California hospital. Eye hook and slack wire
from fixture is tied to concrete slab above. The rigid bracing in the photos is
attached to the ceiling grid, not the light fixture (Photos courtesy of Maryann
Phipps, Estructure).

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Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Note: Surface-mounted fixtures shall be attached to ceiling suspension systems with screws or positive

clamping devices. Safety wires (1, 2 or 4) are required in suspended acoustic lay-in tile ceilings depending

on the size and weight of the fixture; safety wires may be required in other ceiling types as well. Weight of
fixture shall not exceed design carrying capacity of the supporting members; supplementary framing and

additional hanger wires may be required. Gypsum board ceiling shown in details; although some gypsum
ceilings may be exempt from the seismic detailing requirements and may not require the safety wires
shown.

Figure 6.4.9.2-4

FEMA E-74

Surface-mounted fixture below suspended ceiling grid (PR).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.9

LIGHT FIXTURES

6.4.9.3

PENDANT LIGHT FIXTURES

This section covers pendant light fixtures, chandeliers, ceiling fans, and other similar
suspended items.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Suspended items can swing and impact building elements or adjacent equipment,
resulting in damage to the fixture or damage to the surrounding items. Lenses, bulbs,
or decorations may come loose and fall and endanger occupants.

If the item is not sufficiently well supported, or if the item is connected only to ceiling
framing which is damaged in an earthquake, the entire fixture may become dislodged
and fall. Where a string of fixtures are attached end to end, the failure of one fixture
can overload the supports for the adjacent fixtures leading to progressive collapse.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-399

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.9.3-1

FEMA E-74

Failure of a strip of pendant light fixtures at Dawson Elementary School library


as a result of the 1983 magnitude-6.4 Coalinga Earthquake. Note that in this
case the support stems failed at the ceiling connection and the stem came down
with the lights (Gary McGavin, NGDC, 2009).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-400

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.9.3-2

FEMA E-74

Failure of pendant light fixtures at Northridge Junior High School as a result of


the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. In this example, the support stem failed at the
fixture connection and the stem is still attached at the ceiling (Photo courtesy of
Gary L. McGavin).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-401

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.9.3-3

FEMA E-74

Failure of pendant light fixture in the 2010 magnitude-7 Haiti Earthquake; stem
of fixture broke and conduit pulled loose (Photos courtesy of Eduardo Fierro,
BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-402

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

All light fixtures should have positive attachments to the structure to prevent falling
hazards. Per ASTM E580, Standard Practice for Installation of Ceiling Suspension

Systems for Acoustical Tile and Lay-in Panels in Areas Subject to Earthquake Ground
Motions (ASTM, 2010), pendant fixtures in suspended ceilings must be supported
directly from the structure above by no less than #9 gauge wire or an approved alternate
support. The ceiling suspension system shall not provide any direct support and rigid
conduit is not permitted for the attachment of fixtures.

For California schools, DSA IR 25-5, Metal Suspension System for Lay-in Panel Ceilings
(California Department of General Services, 2009c), requires the following: Support
pendant mounted light fixtures directly from the structure above with hanger wires or
cables passing through each pendant hanger and capable of supporting two (2) times
the weight of the fixture. A bracing assembly, (see Section 6.3.4.1), is required where
the pendant hanger penetrates the ceiling. Special details are required to attach the
pendant hanger to the bracing assembly to transmit horizontal force. If the pendant
mounted light fixture is directly and independently braced below the ceiling, i.e. aircraft
cables to walls, then brace assembly is not required above the ceiling. See DSA IR 16-9,

Pendant Mounted Light Fixtures (California Department of General Services, 2009a), for
additional requirements for pendant mounted fixtures.

For older installations, provide a safety chain or cable for the fixture and provide
restraints for lenses and bulbs that can readily fall from the fixture.

If the fixture can impact other items and cause failure of an essential component, or if
impact can create a falling hazard, then seismic restraints that limit the range of motion
of the fixture should be installed.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-403

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.9.3-4

FEMA E-74

Pendant light fixture (NE).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-404

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.9

LIGHT FIXTURES

6.4.9.4

HEAVY LIGHT FIXTURES

This category covers heavy or special purpose overhead light fixtures that require engineered
support details. This includes fixtures such as hospital operating room lights which also have
movable arms.

Damage to overhead lighting has occurred frequently in past earthquakes;

special purpose lighting has additional issues in that the fixture may have internal joints and
movable parts which may not have not been designed for seismic loading.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Heavy or special purpose lighting can fail at the attachment to the structure above if not
adequately designed and the fixture could fall and injure occupants. Overhead braces
may buckle and the fixture will be misaligned or fail to function as intended.

Fixtures with multiple parts or movable arms may fail at the connections or arm joints;
bulbs or lenses may fall.

Bracing for the light fixture and surrounding ceiling should be coordinated to allow for
relative movement.

If the ceiling surround has not been designed with appropriate

clearance around the fixture, the ceiling may be damaged at the interface with the light.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-405

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.9.4-1

Operating room lights undamaged although hospital evacuated due to collapse


of adjacent wing in the 2010 magnitude-7 Haiti Earthquake. Fixture anchored
to underside of concrete slab (Photo courtesy of Ayhan Irfanoglu, Purdue
University).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Per ASTM E580, Standard Practice for Installation of Ceiling Suspension Systems for

Acoustical Tile and Lay-in Panels in Areas Subject to Earthquake Ground Motions (ASTM,
2010), where the weight of a fixture in a suspended acoustic ceiling is greater than 56
pounds, the fixture must be supported directly from the structure above by approved
hangers.

Where the fixture is over 56 pounds but light enough so that the lateral

restraint for the fixture can be provided by the lateral bracing for the ceiling grid, these
fixtures must also be positively attached to the ceiling grid with a minimum of two
attachment devices capable of resisting 100% of the fixture weight in any direction. This
condition is covered in Sections 6.4.9.1 and 6.4.9.2.

Lights covered here are those heavier than can be safely supported by the suspended
ceiling grid and require independent engineered supports for both vertical and lateral

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-406

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

loads. In addition, special purpose lighting with movable parts may require more fixity
than provided by the ceiling grid and require independent support and bracing to
maintain position and satisfy operational tolerances.

Note that fixed lighting provides an obstruction for a suspended ceiling system. For
suspended acoustic ceilings in Seismic Design Category D, E & F, ASTM E580 requires
that the ceiling surrounding such a fixture must be detailed as if it were a perimeter
closure that must allow the required clearances by use of suitable closure details; this
typically would require a minimum clearance around the fixture.

When purchasing heavy light fixtures that have multiple part or movable arms, check
with the manufacturer for seismically qualified fixtures. Certified fixtures are required
for hospitals or essential facilities that must remain functional following an earthquake
per Section 13.2.2.1 of ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other

Structures (ASCE, 2010).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-407

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.9.4-2

FEMA E-74

Engineered support and bracing are required for heavy operating room lights.
The arms, joints, lenses and bulbs must be capable of resisting seismic forces.
Hospital fixtures require certification. Photo also shows surface mounted
fluorescent fixtures in a suspended gypsum board ceiling; each of these requires
independent safety wires to the structure above; see Section 6.4.9.2 (Photo
courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-408

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.9.4-3

FEMA E-74

Engineered support and bracing for operating room lights located in California
hospital. Steel plate has predrilled holes to receive fixture attachments (Photo
courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-409

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.9.4-4

FEMA E-74

Details for supporting heavy light fixture directly from structure (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-410

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.9.4-5

FEMA E-74

Details for supporting heavy light fixture directly from structure (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-411

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.10

ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS

6.4.10.1

HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS

Hydraulic elevators consist of relatively simple mechanical systems but failure of any of the
component parts could disable the functionality of the entire system.

These elevators are

typically limited in height since they require a cylinder beneath the elevator equal to the height
of the elevator cabs vertical travel.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

The primary components of the hydraulic elevator system are the elevator cab, cab
guides, doors and door mechanism, piston, cylinder, fluid reservoir, hydraulic fluid,
rotary pump, valve, solenoid switch, and electrical control panel. The system may be
tied to a seismic switch or a smoke detector which would facilitate safe shutdown in the
event of an earthquake or fire.

Any of these components could be damaged if not

properly restrained. Other possible failures are: misalignment of cab guides or cylinder,
deformed door frames impeding the operation of doors, failure of door rails, leakage of
hydraulic fluid, damaged pump.

According to survey responses collected by the Division of Occupational Safety and


Health Elevator, Tramway, and Ride unit, following the 1994 Northridge Earthquake 897
hydraulic elevators suffered damage such as leaks in underground feed lines, separated
pipes, and failed gaskets and fittings. In addition, numerous guide rails were bent and
several cars came out of rails. Tie downs on several oil tanks failed and hold-down
bolts sheared and pulled out.

In addition to property damage, passengers may become trapped in the cab following an
earthquake and may need to await extraction by qualified elevator technicians.

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

All components of the hydraulic system need to be restrained, anchored or detailed to


accommodate movement to prevent damage in an earthquake.

The system must be

designed to accommodate the anticipated inter-story drift over the height of the
elevator travel and the depth of the cylinder below. Components such as cab guides,

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-412

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

door frames, and cylinder supports must all be detailed to accommodate lateral
deformations. All mechanical and electrical equipment, sensors, piping, tanks, valves,
and guides need to be properly anchored or restrained.

All elevators should be inspected by qualified elevator technicians following an


earthquake. Elevators should have a seismic switch or safety features that allow for safe
shutdown in an earthquake.

Elevator safety is governed by the prescriptive requirements in ASME A17.1/CSA B44,

Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators (ASME, 2007a) a document that is continually
evolving to reflect new elevator technologies.

In addition, ASME A17.7/B44.7,

Performance Based Code for Elevator Safety (ASME, 2007b), is the next step in the
evolution of elevator safety codes in the United States and Canada.

Local or state

jurisdictions may have other elevator requirements.

The internet provides information regarding hydraulic elevators.

A few websites are

linked below:
o

The

website

http:science.howstuffworks.com/elevator1.htm

describes

the

workings of hydraulic elevators and provides links to other resources


o

Jobsite safety in the elevator industry is discussed on http://safety.elevatorworld.com/disaster.htm

The websites of the Elevator and Escalator Safety Foundation, http://eesf.org/,


and major elevator suppliers such as The Otis Elevator Company and Schindler
Elevators provide additional resources.

The National Elevator Industry, Inc. has other resources including a discussion of
the

performance

based

code

for

elevator

safety

(http://www.pbc-

elevators.com/).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-413

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.10.1-1

FEMA E-74

Schematic view of hydraulic elevator (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-414

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.10

ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS

6.4.10.2

TRACTION ELEVATORS

Traction elevators have made high rise construction possible. These systems are continually
evolving to achieve faster speeds, smoother and quieter operations. Currently there are geared
traction elevators, gearless traction elevators, and machine-roomless elevators that use flat
belts instead of steel cable. Traction elevators are complex mechanical systems that have many
moving parts and electronic components and failure of any of the components could disable the
functionality of the entire system. Maintaining limited functionality of some elevators following
an earthquake is critical for continued operations of essential facilities or the evacuation of
hospital patients.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

The primary components of the traction elevator system are the elevator cab,
counterweight, cab guide rails, counterweight guide rails, guide rail support brackets,
electric motor, electrical control panel, ropes, sheaves, safety braking mechanisms, door
mechanisms, and a shock absorber at the bottom of the shaft. The system may be tied
to a seismic switch or a smoke detector which would facilitate safe shutdown in the
event of an earthquake or fire.

Any of these components could be damaged if not

properly restrained. Other possible failures are: misalignment of cab guides, deformed
door frames impeding the operation of the doors, failure of door rails, misalignment of
the cab or counterweight, and damage to the mechanical or electrical equipment.
Failures of counterweights can result in falling hazards if the subweights can come loose
of the counterweight assembly.

According to survey responses collected by the Division of Occupational Safety and


Health Elevator, Tramway, and Ride unit, following the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the
following issues were observed:
o

Water damage-sprinkler pipes pulled apart flooding machine rooms and pits

causing water on top of cars, damage to door operators and door detectors, and

soaking car processors and car station. Several oil buffers had to be rebuilt.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-415

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Falling debris in hoistways, falling plaster, loose concrete blocks, broken glass
resulted in damaged door interlocks and misalignment of hatch switches and
bent fascias.

Building settlements bent elevator guide rails; structural damage, loose and bent

divider beams shifted guide rails and bending support brackets.


o

3,528 cabled elevators were removed from service by a seismic protective device.

710 devices did not operate as intended. Some devices were located in the

elevator pits which were flooded.


o
o

968 electric cabled elevators sustained earthquake damage.

2 minor injuries were reported, one of which was sustained by a fireman trying
to open hoistway doors.

o
o

39 elevators required rescue.

57 instances were reported where "unauthorized persons" reset earthquake


devices. Fortunately, only 5 elevators sustained additional damages.

688 counterweights came out of guide rails. 8-1b rails were inadequate even
with additional intermediate guide rail bracket retrofit.

Several counterweight

frames were twisted and bent with a few dislodged subweights.


counterweight roller guide shoe mountings disintegrated.

Some

Following the 2010 Chile Earthquake, it was reported that 50%-80% of hospital elevators
were damaged. In a number of locations, patients had to be carried down many flights
of stairs, often cluttered with fallen debris, in order to evacuate them to safety. The
most common damage was due to unrestrained movement of the counterweights,
resulting in damage to the guide rails.

Movement of unrestrained mechanical

equipment was another problem. One security camera at a military hospital in Santiago,
Chile captured a sequence through the open door of an empty elevator cab where the
counterweights derailed and then the subweights came crashing down on top of the
cab. (Source: Bill Holmes, March 2010).

In addition to property damage, passengers may become trapped in the cab following an
earthquake and may need to await extraction by qualified elevator technicians.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-416

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.10.2-1

FEMA E-74

Damage to traction elevator in Chilln in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile


Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Gilberto Mosqueda, SUNY Buffalo). The
unanchored sheaves and motor above the 6th floor slid nearly off the
housekeeping pad. The counterweight guide rails are bent due to impact with
the counterweights. The guide rail support brackets have horizontal slots, but
the bolt went through a welded tab (photo at lower right) and pulled out of the
wall.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.10.2-2

FEMA E-74

Derailed car roller assembly of the guide rail at the Santiago airport in the 2010
Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Gilberto Mosqueda, SUNY Buffalo). The
three rollers are supposed to travel along three sides of the stem of the T-shaped
steel guide rail.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-418

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.10.2-3

FEMA E-74

Glazing failures caused additional hazards at Santiago airport elevator in the


2010 Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Antonio Iruretagoyena, Rubn
Borsochek & Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-419

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.10.2-4

FEMA E-74

Unrestrained movement of the counterweights damaged the counterweight


assembly and bent the counterweight guide rails; over half the subweights
dropped onto the top of the cab and damaged the cab framing in the 2010
Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn Borsochek &
Associates).
6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-420

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.10.2-5

Anchor bolt failure of the elevator generator set due to inadequate edge
distance for the bolts at the Los Angeles Regional Public Hospital in the 2010
Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Bill Holmes, Rutherford & Chekene).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

All of the components of the traction system need to be restrained, anchored, or


detailed to resist lateral forces in all directions and accommodate seismic movement.
The system must be designed to accommodate the anticipated inter-story drift over the
height of the elevator travel.

Guide rails and door frames must all be detailed to

accommodate lateral deformations.

All of the mechanical and electrical equipment,

sensors, and guides need to be properly anchored or restrained.

All elevators should be inspected by qualified elevator technicians following an


earthquake. Elevators should have a seismic switch or safety features that allow for safe
shutdown in an earthquake.

Elevator safety is governed by the prescriptive requirements in ASME A17.1/CSA B44

Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators (2007a), a document that is continually evolving
FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-421

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

reflect new elevator technologies.

In addition, ASME A17.7/CSA B44.7, Performance

Based Code for Elevator Safety (ASME, 2007b), is the next step in the evolution of
elevator safety codes in the United States and Canada. Local or state jurisdictions may
have other elevator requirements.

As an example of state jurisdictions, the California Office of Statewide Health Planning


and Development (OSHPD) provides special requirements for elevators in California
hospitals, such as Title 24, Section 3007.

These include requirements for a seismic

switch connected to the essential electrical system, a visible or audible alarm, the ability
to function at a go slow speed of not more than 150 feet per minute until the elevator
can be inspected, and an additional sensor that will disable the elevator if the governor
tail sheave is dislodged. For these systems, the seismic anchorage, guards and switches
all need to be inspected annually.

The internet provides a resource of information regarding elevators. A few websites are
linked below:
o

The

website

http:science.howstuffworks.com/elevator1.htm

describes

the

workings of a traction elevator and provides links to other resources


o

Jobsite safety in the elevator industry is discussed on http://safety.elevatorworld.com/disaster.htm

The websites of the Elevator and Escalator Safety Foundation, http://eesf.org/,


and major elevator suppliers such as The Otis Elevator Company and Schindler
Elevators provide additional resources.

The National Elevator Industry, Inc. has other resources including a discussion of
the

performance

based

code

for

elevator

safety

(http://www.pbc-

elevators.com/).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-422

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.4.10.2-6

FEMA E-74

Small machine-roomless traction elevator with flat belts at the Academy of


Sciences, San Francisco, California (Photos courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP
Engineers). Clockwise: Overview of elevator at roof; view of guide rails and
sheaves; top of cab showing belts; view down shaft at belts, counterweight,
guide rails and guide rail brackets.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-423

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.10.2-7

FEMA E-74

Schematic view of geared traction elevator system (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-424

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.10

ELEVATORS AND ESCALATORS

6.4.10.3

ESCALATORS

Escalators typically span between two floors, and although most escalators run in a straight
line, spiral escalators are found in some locations. The failure of any of the component parts of
the escalator or escalator equipment could disable the functionality of the system.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

The primary components of an escalator system are the steps, chain, inner rail, chain

guide, drive gear, handrail, handrail drive, electric motor, and electrical control panel.

These components are often supported by a truss that spans between the floors. Any of

these components could be damaged if not properly detailed or restrained; failure of


any of the component parts could disable the system.

Escalators, like stairs, may form a strut or brace between adjacent floors unless they are

detailed so the system will accommodate inter-story drift. Damage could occur to the

skirt, landing plate or other components not detailed to accommodate either an


extension or shortening of the distance between the two landings.

According to survey responses collected by the Division of Occupational Safety and


Health Elevator, Tramway, and Ride unit, 65 escalators were damaged in the 1994
Northridge earthquake. It was reported that escalators came off upper supports, and

several truss support angles had their bolts sheared off where one truss actually
dropped.

Glass came out of its supports and shattered, handrails collapsed.

In

addition, numerous deckboards, skirts and newels were damaged.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-425

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.10.3-1

FEMA E-74

Extensive nonstructural damage resulted in the closure of Concepcin airport in


the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake; both the stair and escalator were
cordoned off to limit access to the upper level although there was no visible
damage to the escalator (Photo courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn
Boroschek & Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-426

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Each of the components of an escalator system need to be detailed to accommodate


movement, or restrained and anchored to prevent damage in an earthquake.

The

system must be designed to accommodate the anticipated inter-story drift between the
two connected floors. Where a truss is used to span between the two floors, the bearing
seats should allow movement at one or both ends.

Components such as the rail

supports, handrails, landing plates, and skirts must be detailed to accommodate lateral
deformations.

All of the mechanical and electrical equipment needs to be properly

anchored or restrained.

Escalators have traditionally been designed to run continuously, whether they are in use
or not. Some more energy efficient escalators operate on an intermittent basis and are
triggered by the presence of passengers but otherwise are in a standby idle mode.

All escalators should be inspected by qualified personnel following an earthquake.


Unlike elevators, escalators typically function as a usable stair when they are not
operating and could be used to facilitate evacuation following an earthquake.

Elevator and escalator safety is governed by the prescriptive requirements in ASME


A17.1, Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators (ASME, 2007a), a document that is
continually evolving to reflect new elevator and escalator technologies. Local or state
jurisdictions may have other elevator and escalator requirements.

The
as

internet

provides

information

regarding

escalators.

Websites

such

http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/escalator.htm

describe the workings of escalators and provide links to other resources

Some escalator models are offered with a seismic option; check for appropriate
equipment before purchasing a new escalator.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-427

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.10.3-2

FEMA E-74

Schematic view of escalator (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-428

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

MECHANICAL, ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING COMPONENTS

6.4.11

CONVEYORS

6.4.11.1

CONVEYORS

Material handling conveyors come in all shapes and sizes from the conveyor belt at the grocery
store checkout line, the clothing conveyor at the dry cleaners, assembly line conveyors in clean
rooms, airport baggage handling conveyors, to large industrial conveyors. They are used for
many purposes, such as shipping, packaging, assembling, and manufacturing. The conveyors
may be horizontal, inclined, hinged, straight, curved, spiral, screw, fixed or on wheels. Tall,
inclined, or overhead systems may be a falling hazard; systems critical to facility operations
may be important for post-earthquake functionality.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unanchored conveyors may slide and impact other items, tall or inclined conveyors may

overturn, overhead conveyors or components may become dislodged and fall.

Conveyors not designed for seismic forces may have damage to the component parts

and connectors. Unrestrained conveyor motors and related equipment may be damaged

and fall.

Properly anchored conveyors may remain in place but the contents may fall. For tall or
overhead conveyors, this could be a falling hazard resulting in injury and damage to
materials or merchandise.

The conveyor may shift and exceed the alignment tolerances and not be functional until
repaired or realigned.

FEMA E-74

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Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.4.11.1-1

FEMA E-74

Misalignment between rice storage hopper and conveyor following the 2010
magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn
Boroschek & Associates). Where various system components interface with a
conveyor, the seismic restraints for the various parts should be coordinated to
maintain alignment following an earthquake.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.11.1-2

FEMA E-74

Damage to industrial conveyor used to feed grain silos in the 2010 Chile
Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-431

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.4.11.1-3

FEMA E-74

Damage to industrial coal conveyor on jetty in southern Peru in the 2001


magnitude-8.4 Peru Earthquake (Photos courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP
Engineers). Conveyor was well anchored along entire length but detailing at the
seismic joint between the jetty and platform did not allow sufficient movement,
resulting in misalignment at end of conveyor and damage to the supports as
shown at lower left. Approximately 10% of the rollers fell; these were held in
place with friction fittings and did not have positive connections.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Conveyor systems and the associated motors, control systems, and control panels
should be restrained or anchored to prevent earthquake damage. If life safety is the
primary concern, tall or overhead components should be restrained to reduce falling
hazards. If the conveyor is critical to continued operations, or the conveyed materials
hazardous or particularly valuable, the system should be engineered to assure continued
operations and the safety of the materials. In this case, the anchorage or restraints for
interconnecting parts should be coordinated to maintain alignment tolerances following
an earthquake.

There are various conveyor mechanisms including belt driven, chain driven, gravity
rollers, chain driven rollers, and flex link conveyors. Conveyors may be supplied with
leveling feet which may not be sufficiently robust unless they have been designed for
seismic loading. Floor to floor conveyors must be detailed the same as for stairs or
escalators and be able to accommodate the anticipated inter-story drift. Where long
conveyors are variously suspended, wall-mounted, or floor-mounted, the layout of the
supports and restraints should consider the relative motion of the various attachment
points.

Special detailing is required where conveyors cross building separations or

seismic joints.

Some conveyors come supplied with predrilled base plates at each leg; these should be
anchored to the floor slab.

Existing conveyor platforms could be strengthened with

transverse or longitudinal bracing if they have not been designed for seismic loading;
clip angles could be used to anchor the legs to the floor. Check with the manufacturer
prior to modifying existing equipment as equipment warranties may be affected.

Where conveyed materials are hazardous or valuable, it may be prudent to devise


guiderails or side restraints of some type to prevent the materials from falling off the
conveyor in the event of an earthquake. Such restraints would have to be designed so
that they do not to interfere with normal operations.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-433

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.4.11.1-4

FEMA E-74

Anchorage details for small material handling conveyor (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.1

STORAGE RACKS

6.5.1.1

LIGHT DUTY SHELVING

This category includes light duty shelving units and sheet metal storage cabinets. These items
are typically tall and narrow and may be heavily loaded.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Shelving units may slide or overturn and the contents may become dislodged or fall.
Where there are rows of freestanding or poorly anchored shelves, the failure of a few
may result in progressive collapse of many. Broken bottles, spilled chemicals, mixed or
damaged inventory are often the result of the failure of storage or display units.

Mobile storage carts may roll, overturn, or impact other items. Stored contents may
become dislodged or fall.

Damage to contents or inventory that has fallen from shelving can be costly to repair or
replace and may result in substantial business interruption.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.1.1-1

FEMA E-74

Collapse of row of unanchored freestanding shelving units containing spare


parts at an electric power plant in Port-au-Prince in the 2010 magnitude-7 Haiti
Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.1.1-2

Unanchored storage shelving slid nine inches without falling but contents
scattered in the 2001 magnitude-8.4 Peru earthquake; unit lifted to original
position prior to photo (Photo courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Permanent floor-supported shelving or storage cabinets over 6 ft tall must be designed


as architectural components per ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings (ASCE,
2010). Bracing and anchorage for these units should be designed considering the
weight of the unit and weight of shelved contents.

For sheet metal cabinets or shelving, anchor units to floor, tie back-to-back units
together, strap rows of units together across the top, or anchor units to an adjacent
wall. Light duty steel storage racks may additionally require cross bracing.

See Section 6.5.6.1 for recommendations regarding edge restraints and arrangement of
shelf-mounted items. Do not locate cabinets or racks adjacent to doors or exits if their
failure would block the exit.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-437

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Any connections to stud walls must engage the structural studs. Stud walls and
partitions may not have adequate lateral capacity to support many shelving units;
engineering may be required. Where items are anchored to heavy partitions, the bracing
or anchorage of these partitions to the structure above must also be checked for
adequacy considering the seismic loads imposed by all anchored items.

The details shown are intended for light duty units; heavy duty units with large loads
may require engineering. See FEMA 460, Seismic Considerations for Steel Storage Racks

Located in Areas Accessible to the Public (2005), for additional information on the
performance of industrial storage racks. Some racks are available with enhanced
seismic performance; check other resources, such as the internet for additional options.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.5.1.1-3

FEMA E-74

Mobile carts restrained at base with clip angles anchored to the floor and
removable eyebolts attached from each cart to the angles (Photo courtesy of
Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-438

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.1.1-4

Alternate restraint at base of mobile shelving unit (Photo courtesy of Maryann


Phipps, Estructure).

Figure 6.5.1.1-5

Fixed base shelving units anchored with optional seismic base plate offered by
manufacturer (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.1.1-6

FEMA E-74

Mobile cart restrained at base with removable angles and eyebolts. Back-toback units are interconnected (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.1.1-7

FEMA E-74

Fixed base shelving units anchored directly to concrete slab through base plate
(Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-441

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.1.1-8

FEMA E-74

Mobile shelving unit restrained by connection to strut fastened to full height


metal studs (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-442

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.1.1-9

FEMA E-74

Light duty shelving (NE, ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.1

STORAGE RACKS

6.5.1.2

INDUSTRIAL STORAGE RACKS

This subcategory includes heavy duty steel pallet storage racks such as those found in public
warehouse stores. These racks are typically 42 to 44 inches deep, 8 feet wide and up to 14 to
18 feet tall, often configured with two rows back-to-back. They are composed of specially
designed steel elements that permit easy installation and reconfiguration consistent with
merchandising needs.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Industrial storage racks may slide or overturn, or failure of individual components can
cause collapse or partial collapse.

Stored contents may become dislodged and fall. Items falling from the upper shelves
can cause serious bodily harm. Damage to merchandise or inventory may be costly to
replace and reshelf and may result in significant business interruption.

In cases with heavy stored products and light structural framing, collapsed racks and
falling goods have caused damage to structural framing members and/or architectural
cladding.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.1.2-1

FEMA E-74

Damage to overloaded racks during the 1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge


Earthquake (FEMA 460, 2005).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.1.2-2

FEMA E-74

Spilled contents during the 1994 Northridge Earthquake (FEMA 460, 2005).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.1.2-3

FEMA E-74

Rack collapse during the 1994 Northridge Earthquake. Note the minimal
damage to shrink wrapped merchandise (FEMA 460, 2005).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.1.2-4

FEMA E-74

Failure of anchored racks in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake. The


racks are leaning precariously due to inadequate bracing in the longitudinal
direction and weak connections between the components. The welded fitting
at the end of the beam failed at the weld in many places. Note that most items
were shrink wrapped so merchandise did not scatter (Photos courtesy of
Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn Boroschek & Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Project specific design of industrial storage racks is required. Each design must account
for proprietary members and connectors that are used. Anchorage of the rack to the
floor must be engineered and verification of the adequacy of the slab to accommodate
forces generated by the rack is required. Storage racks may be classified as either
nonstructural elements of nonbuilding structures, depending upon their size and
support conditions. Check the applicable code to see which provisions apply.

Pallet racks should be installed by trained and experienced personnel working from
installation drawings provided by the rack designer. Reconfiguration from the asdesigned condition should be evaluated by the designer.

To prevent or minimize the falling hazard posed by stored overhead merchandise, a


dual approach is recommended: prevent merchandise from falling down from one shelf
to the next; and prevent pallets and individual merchandise from falling from the
shelves into the aisles. The use of wire decking or spaced framing on each shelf will
reduce the potential for fall-through of merchandise. Stretch-wrapping, shrinkwrapping, banding or use of integral pallet box units can reduce the potential falling
hazard posed by pallets. Restraining bars, chains or cables, netting and/or slip-resistant
containers can reduce the potential for loss of individual merchandise.

FEMA 460 Seismic Considerations for Steel Storage Racks Located in Areas Accessible to

the Public (2005) provides a comprehensive treatment of seismic resistant design


considerations for steel storage racks.

The Rack Manufacturers Institute (RMI) publishes industry-wide standards for


engineering design of steel storage racks.

Purchase storage racks designed for seismic resistance. Some industrial storage racks
are now available with proprietary schemes for improved seismic performance such as
base isolation, added damping, or shelves sloped toward the back of the rack.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-449

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.5.1.2-5

FEMA E-74

Typical pallet storage rack configuration and details (Photos courtesy of


Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-450

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.1.2-6

FEMA E-74

Photo showing netting used to keep storage on upper portions of steel storage
racks in a big box hardware store (Photo courtesy of Mike Mahoney, FEMA).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-451

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.1.2-7

FEMA E-74

Industrial storage rack (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.2

BOOKCASES, SHELVING

6.5.2.1

BOOKSHELVES

Tall wood or metal shelving units frequently tip or overturn in earthquakes unless they are
properly anchored.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Tall, narrow shelving may tip, slide, overturn or collapse and the contents may spill.
Overturned shelving may injure occupants and block doors or exits.

Books, files, medical records may fall and get scrambled or damaged. Clean-up and
reorganization of spilled items may take many hours or days and result in costly
business interruption.

Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.2.1-1

FEMA E-74

Failure of poorly anchored wood and metal book shelves at the Lawrence
Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, California (NGDC, 2009).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.2.1-2

FEMA E-74

Failure of poorly anchored shelving; toggle bolt pulled out of gypsum board wall
in the 1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Wiss,
Janney, Elstner Associates).
6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-454

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.2.1-3

Bookcase overturned onto desk in the 1971 magnitude-6.6 San Fernando


Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Degenkolb Engineers).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Permanent floor-supported shelving or storage cabinets over 6 ft tall must be designed


as architectural components per ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and

Other Structures (ASCE, 2010). Bracing and anchorage for these units should be
designed considering the weight of the unit and weight of shelved contents. The details
shown in Figure 6.5.2.1-4 and 6.5.2.1-5 are for shelving units up to 6 feet tall.

Bookcases and shelving should be anchored to an adjacent stud wall or concrete or


masonry wall. For freestanding units, see Section 6.5.1.1 for recommended details for
bracing units and tying back-to-back units together.

See Section 6.5.6.1 for recommendations regarding edge restraints and arrangement for
shelf-mounted items. Do not locate shelving adjacent to doors or exits if their failure
would block the exit.

Any connections to stud walls must engage the structural studs; do not rely on gypsum
or plaster to support shelving. Stud walls and partitions may not have adequate lateral
capacity to support many shelving units; engineering may be required. Where items are

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-455

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

anchored to heavy partitions, the bracing or anchorage of these partitions to the


structure above must also be checked for adequacy considering the seismic loads
imposed by all anchored items.

Bookcase or cabinet anchorage can be located either outside or inside the unit as long
as the attachment properly engages the structural studs. Where aesthetics are a
concern, it may be preferable to locate the screws or clip angles on the inside of the
unit. In a commercial setting where maintenance personnel or movers may need to
verify the anchorage or relocate the unit periodically, it may be preferable to provide
exterior anchorage that is readily visible.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-456

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.2.1-4

FEMA E-74

Bookshelves against wall (NE, ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.2.1-5

FEMA E-74

Anchorage of freestanding book cases arranged back to back (NE, ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.2

BOOKCASES, SHELVING

6.5.2.2

LIBRARY AND OTHER SHELVING

Library shelving typically consists of many rows of tall back-to-back shelving units that are
heavily loaded. There have been many costly failures of library shelving in earthquakes; this
includes failures of both unrestrained and poorly restrained shelving units.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unrestrained or poorly restrained library shelving can slide or overturn resulting in


damage to the contents, damage to the shelving units, and damage to partition walls or
other contents. Shelving failures may result in personal injuries. It may be costly and
time consuming to repair the shelving units and reshelf all of the books.

Unrestrained or poorly restrained library shelving has failed in a variety of ways. If the
base anchorage is inadequate, the bolts can fail and the units may slide or tip.

If

overhead transverse ties are provided between many shelving units, but no longitudinal
bracing or ties are provided, the units may collapse in their longitudinal direction. If
undersized transverse ties are provided, or they are attached at the extremes to walls or
partitions with insufficient capacity or with inadequate connectors, the units may all
topple in their transverse direction like dominos. If individual or back-toback shelving
units are braced to the structure above, these restraints may fail or buckle if they are
undersized.

Damage to rare books or irreplaceable museum collections can be devastating. These


materials may need to be rebound or restored at great expense to the institution.
Where water leakage from failed sprinkler piping is also an issue, these items may be
beyond restoration.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-459

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.2.2-1

Photo showing collapsed library shelving in the 2010 magnitude-7.1 Canterbury


New Zealand Earthquake (Photo courtesy of University of Canterbury).

Figure 6.5.2.2-4

Shelving units with longitudinal ties did not fall over but all of the contents
spilled to the floor in the 2010 Canterbury Earthquake. The use of lips or wires
would have prevented the damage.(Photo courtesy of University of Canterbury).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.2.2-3

FEMA E-74

Longitudinal failure of library shelving units (Photo courtesy of NISEE-PEER, U.C.


Berkeley). Transverse ties used to tie units together but this was not enough to
prevent longitudinal failure.

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.2.2-2

Failure of overhead transverse bracing for bookshelves were anchored to


gypsum board partition in the 1984 magnitude-6.2 Morgan Hill Earthquake
(Photo courtesy of Santa Clara County Office of Emergency Services). The
anchors were not attached to wall studs, only to gypsum board.

Figure 6.5.2.2-5

These shelving units remained in place but all of the contents spilled in the
2010 magnitude-6.5 Eureka, California Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Steve
Mahin, PEER).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Following damage to library collections in the 1994 Loma Prieta Earthquake, the
California Library Association developed a library shelving standard, ANSI/NISO Z39.73,

Single-Tier Steel Bracket Library Shelving (ANSI/NISO, 1994) for single-tier steel bracket
library shelving.

Large library collections may contain rare or valuable items that need to be preserved;
such library shelving should be engineered to prevent costly downtime and damage to
the collection.

For new library installations, it is important to procure heavy duty shelving that has
cross bracing or solid sides and backing that will prevent longitudinal collapse. In
addition, for units that will receive additional overhead bracing, the unit should be
strong enough to receive the attached ties and bracing. Light duty steel shelving or
weak wood shelving units may require strengthening. Steel shelving may require
additional cross bracing. Wood shelving units could be strengthened with the addition
of corner brackets or hardware to tie the top, back and sides more securely together.

Anchor the shelving units to the floor. Where shelving units are located against a
structural wall, anchor the top of the units to the structure. Tie freestanding back-toback units together to create a larger base. A one-way transverse grid or two-way grid
may be installed, either at the top of the units or above the ceiling surface, to tie many
units together. This grid in turn should be anchored to structural walls at the perimeter
of the grid or to the structural slab or framing above.

Any connections to stud walls must engage the structural studs. Stud walls and
partitions typically do not have adequate lateral capacity to support many shelving units
unless they have been engineered with heavy gauge studs and braced to resist the
imposed lateral loading from the shelving. Anchorage to structural concrete or masonry
walls is preferred.

The location of the library shelving will influence the design loading. Floor accelerations
typically increase as you go higher in a building and may also be higher at locations
such as poorly braced mezzanine floors.

See Section 6.5.6.1 for recommendations regarding edge restraints and the arrangement
of shelf-mounted items. Especially rare or valuable items may need to be stored in
well-anchored temperature controlled and water tight cabinets to protect them from
deterioration, dust, sprinkler damage, or from falling.

Do not locate shelving adjacent to doors or exits if their failure would block the exit.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.5.2.2-6

FEMA E-74

Examples of struts and hardware used to retrofit library shelving at the University
of California, Berkeley (Photos courtesy of Mary Comerio, Dept. of
Environmental Design, University of California Berkeley).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-464

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.2.2-7

FEMA E-74

Concealed overhead restraints for library and other shelving (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-465

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.2.2-8

FEMA E-74

Overhead restraints for library and other shelving (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.3

COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT

6.5.3.1

COMPUTER ACCESS FLOORS AND EQUIPMENT

Computer access floors are raised floor systems used in many facilities with heavy use of
computer equipment; these provide space to run the equipment cables under the flooring.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Access floors may collapse if not adequately braced and anchored.

Equipment located on access floors that are not anchored or tethered may slide and hit
a wall or other equipment and may suffer internal damage. Equipment castors can get
lodged in floor openings.

Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.3.1-1

FEMA E-74

Temporary bracing for access floor collapsed in the1994 magnitude-6.7


Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates).
6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-467

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.3.1-2
Damage to access floor with short anchored pedestals in the 2010 magnitude-6.7
Chile Earthquake; floor did not have lateral bracing. Note many tiles misaligned (Photos courtesy of
Antonio Iruretagoyena, Rubn Boroschek & Associates).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-468

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.3.1-3

FEMA E-74

Undamaged access floor with braced pedestals in the 2010 Chile Earthquake
(Photo courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn Boroschek & Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-469

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Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE, 2010),
requires that access floors be designed as architectural components; Section 13.5.7.2
identifies the requirements for special access floors. For areas of high seismicity, the
hazard to the flooring and associated equipment can be reduced by purchasing and
installing systems meeting the requirements for special access floors.

Access floor base pedestals should be anchored to the floor slab; taller pedestals may
also need diagonal bracing. In zones of low or moderate seismicity, or where the floor
height is less than 12 inches high, it may be feasible to adhere the pedestals to the floor
slab rather than anchoring them. Check the internet for vendors who supply access
floors with a seismic capacity rating.

Equipment placed on access floors should be tethered; heavy equipment should be


anchored to structural slab below. Anchorage may be accomplished through installation
of an independent frame beneath the equipment. Alternatively, the equipment may be
anchored to properly designed access floor framing, or supplemental bracing
components.

If unrestrained equipment on castors is present, cable openings through access floor


should have lips to prevent the wheels from getting stuck.

Proprietary base isolation systems are also available. The equipment is anchored to the
isolation base and the isolation base is anchored to the structural slab.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-470

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.5.3.1-4

FEMA E-74

Raised floor braced with strut (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-471

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.3.1-5

FEMA E-74

Data rack bolted through access floor to supplemental strut bracing below
(Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-472

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.3.1-6

FEMA E-74

Base of data cabinet with supplemental angles bolted to strut bracing below
floor (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-473

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.3.1-7

FEMA E-74

Close-up of supplemental angles connecting data cabinet to strut bracing below


floor (Photo courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-474

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.3.1-8

FEMA E-74

Strut framing added to brace data cabinet located on access floor. Bolts from
angles above are connected to strut framing below (Photo courtesy of Maryann
Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-475

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.3.1-9

FEMA E-74

Equipment mounted on access floor (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-476

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.3.1-10

Equipment mounted on access floor - independent base (ER).

Figure 6.5.3.1-11

Equipment mounted on access floor cable braced (ER).

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-477

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.3.1-12

FEMA E-74

Equipment mounted on access floor tiedown rods (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.3

COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT

6.5.3.2

COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION RACKS

Steel racks for servers or communications equipment may be open or closed, wall or floor
mounted or portable. To prevent damage and loss of communication links, racks should be
braced, anchored, or tethered with equipment firmly secured to the rack and cables arranged
with adequate slack.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unbraced, unanchored, or poorly anchored racks can slide, tip, overturn or collapse.
Equipment may slide, bang, or fall and suffer internal damage; cable connections may
pull loose and get scrambled.

Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.3.2-1

FEMA E-74

Damage to communication and computer racks (Photo courtesy of Degenkolb


Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-479

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.3.2-2

Damage to communication and computer racks (Photo courtesy of Degenkolb


Engineers).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Check suppliers for seismic rated cabinet racks or server racks that come with predrilled
holes and hardware for floor or wall anchorage. Where items are anchored to a partition
wall, make sure that the wall and wall anchorage or bracing to the structure above are
adequate to resist the imposed loads. Cables and wiring should be installed with
sufficient slack to allow for some seismic deformations.

See also Section 6.5.3.1 for equipment on access floors; see Section 6.4.7.1 for details
for anchorage of electrical cabinets. Also refer to FEMA 413, Installing Seismic Restraints

for Electrical Equipment (2005), for general guidelines for anchorage of electrical items.

Develop a backup and recovery plan for all electronic data including offsite backup to a
location not likely to be affected by the same earthquake.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-480

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.5.3.2-3

FEMA E-74

Base anchorage details for data cabinets; top photos shows internal
anchorage, bottom photo shows external anchorage (Photos courtesy of
Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-481

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.3.2-4

FEMA E-74

Data rack (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-482

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.3.2-5

FEMA E-74

Data cabinet (ER).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-483

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.3

COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT

6.5.3.3

DESKTOP COMPUTERS AND ACCESSORIES

Computers, printers, monitors, projectors, scanners and other electronic equipment are found
nearly everywhere, most of them resting on desks and tables without restraint.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Desktop items may slide, tip, collide with other items or fall. If one item falls, the cords
and cables may pull other items down resulting in additional damage.

Equipment may suffer internal damage and be rendered inoperable. Business


interruption losses may result.

Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.3.3-1

FEMA E-74

Computer monitor slid off desktop onto floor in the 2010 magnitude-6.5
Eureka, California Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Steve Mahin, PEER).
6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-484

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.3.3-2

Damage to control tower at the SeaTac Airport in the 2001 Nisqually


Earthquake (Photo courtesy of JCP Geologists).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Desktop equipment should be anchored or tethered to prevent earthquake damage, loss


of equipment and loss of electronic files. The supporting desk, table or cart should also
be anchored or tethered if movement could cause additional damage. Alternatively,
cables and cords should be installed with sufficient slack to allow for some movement.

Many proprietary safety fasteners are currently available to use to restrain desktop
items. See also Section 6.5.6.2 for tether details.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-485

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.3.3-3

FEMA E-74

Desktop computers and accessories (NE).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.3

COMPUTER AND COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT

6.5.3.4

TELEVISIONS AND VIDEO MONITORS, WALL-MOUNTED

Wall and ceiling mounted televisions, monitors and projectors are found in many places
including homes, classrooms, airports, and hospital rooms.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

These items may shake, bounce, impact adjacent items, or fall. Wall or ceiling-mounted
items can become dislodged and fall from the supporting bracket, the bracket could pull
out from the wall or ceiling, or the bracket can break and the television or monitor may
be damaged or broken.

These items are heavy and could cause serious bodily injury if they fall on someone.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-487

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Existing Condition

Figure 6.5.3.4-1

FEMA E-74

Wall-mounted monitor fell from the bracket in a hospital in the 2010


magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake; bracket still anchored to the wall (Photos
courtesy of Rodrigo Retamales, Rubn Boroschek & Associates)

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-488

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Proprietary video mounting brackets are available to support overhead or wall-mounted


televisions, monitors, and screen of all sizes. These come as rigid mount, tilt mount, or
motorized mount. Check the internet; some of these products indicate they are seismic
rated for safer installations.

Brackets will not provide seismic protection unless properly installed; follow the
manufacturers installation instructions. It is critical that the lag bolts, screws, or
expansion bolts used be installed directly into structural elements such as studs,
concrete or masonry wall, or ceiling joists that have adequate capacity to support the
additional loading. Do not anchor to gypsum board, plaster or a suspended ceiling grid.
See the installation notes in Section 6.6 of this document for more information on
anchorage details.

If the bracket can be adjusted into different positions, make sure it cannot swing and hit
a window or light; providing a safety cable or tether to restrict the range of motion may
reduce the risk of impact with other objects and the risk of falling.

Do not locate overhead items directly over a bed, couch, bench, or desk in a classroom
where people are likely to be.

For televisions or monitors resting on furniture or a home entertainment center, heavyduty safety fasteners or tethers should be used to prevent the television from falling and
the furniture should be anchored to the floor or wall.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-489

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.5.3.4-2

FEMA E-74

Wall-mounted television bracket anchored with sheet metal screws to wall studs
at four locations. Bracket must be rated for the weight of television or monitor
and that the unit must be securely attached to the bracket (Photo courtesy of
Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-490

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.3.4-3

FEMA E-74

Mounting plate above ceiling for overhead television bracket in a hospital room.
Television or monitor must be securely attached to the bracket (Photos courtesy
of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-491

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.3.4-4

FEMA E-74

Wall-mounted bracket for television or monitor weighing less than 50 lb (NE).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.4

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE

6.5.4.1

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE

Unsecured or improperly stored hazardous materials resulting in a release may close


businesses located in an otherwise undamaged building. Hazardous materials may include
cleaning supplies, laboratory or production chemicals, medical sharps, and biohazard
containers. These may be stored in fragile containers or may be in open vats in an industrial
setting.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Loose containers may slide, tip, overturn, or fall. Glassware may break; hazardous
contents may slosh or spill and create noxious fumes and toxic mixtures.

Spilled flammable liquids may cause a fire and destroy a home or business that
otherwise may have survived an earthquake without damage.

Unknown spills may cause building closure until a HAZMAT team can investigate.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-493

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.4.1-1

FEMA E-74

Spilled chemicals in high school chemistry lab in the 1971 magnitude-6.6 San
Fernando Earthquake (Photo courtesy of EERI).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-494

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.4.1-2

FEMA E-74

Spilled pharmaceutical and medical supplies in the 1994 magnitude-6.7


Northridge Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Robert Reitherman).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-495

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.4.1-3

FEMA E-74

Spilled fluids in a hospital in the Costa Rica Earthquake (Photo courtesy of


Degenkolb Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-496

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.4.1-4

Fire destroyed the chemistry building containing the entire chemistry


department at the University of Concepcin in the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile
Earthquake; fire exacerbated by the presence of hazardous chemicals (Photo
courtesy of Bill Holmes, Rutherford & Chekene).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE, 2010),
Sections 13.1.3.1 and 13.1.3.4 require that any component that conveys, supports or
contains toxic, highly toxic or explosive materials above a threshold quantity or a
component that conveys, supports, or contains hazardous substances that is attached to
a structure classified as a hazardous occupancy be considered a designated seismic
system with a component importance factor, Ip, of 1.5. These items may require
engineering calculations, special certification, and additional inspections. See ASCE 710 for additional requirements.

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), the International Building Code, and the
International Fire Code (IFC) contain many requirements pertaining to the classification,
labeling, handling, monitoring, shipping, containment, and storage of hazardous

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-497

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

materials. Check the applicable jurisdiction for requirements. See also the discussion
of hazardous materials piping in Section 6.4.5.1.

Hazardous materials storage cabinets and lockers are available with secure door
closures and internal containment in case materials spill inside the cabinet. Brace and
anchor all shelving units or cabinets used for storage of hazardous materials. See
Section 6.5.1.1 and 6.5.2.1 for restraint details. Where shelving or cabinets are
anchored to a partition wall, check that the partition, bracing and attachments to the
structure above are adequate for the imposed loads.

See Section 6.5.6.1 for recommendations for edge restraints and arrangement of
shelved items. Provide edge restraints for containers of flammable or hazardous
substances even if they are in closed cabinets.

Secure large containers of production chemicals or cleaning supplies; these may be


secured using tether cables or chains. See Section 6.4.2.3 or Section 6.5.5.3 for similar
restraint details.

Store small or breakable items in original packaging or in egg crate type boxes; not
loose on shelves or in drawers.

Ensure that all toxic items are in the correct containers and properly labeled.

Ensure that employees know what to do in case of a spill. Make sure they know where to
find the Material Data Safety Sheets (MSDS). The MSDS contains physical data for

chemicals, chemical compounds and chemical mixtures and provides information for

workers and emergency personnel regarding the safe use and potential hazards of each
product. The MSDS includes information such as melting point, boiling point, flash
point, reactivity, toxicity, health effects, protective equipment required, first aid

procedures, storage and disposal procedures, spill-handling procedures, and labeling


requirements. Facilities that use or store chemicals should have an MSDS for each

product on site; employees should know where to locate the MSDS binder and know
what steps to take in case of a spill.

Store incompatible materials at a safe distance from each other to avoid mixing if the
containers fall and break.

Order hazardous lab chemicals in unbreakable plastic bottles or in glass bottles with an
exterior plastic safety coating.

Keep all large containers or vats of toxic, hot, or hazardous items covered to prevent
surging in an earthquake.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.5

MISCELLANEOUS FURNITURE, FIXTURES AND EQUIPMENT

6.5.5.1

FILE CABINETS

Sheet metal file cabinets are often tall, narrow and heavily loaded. These cabinets frequently
overturn in earthquakes; the time required to pick up and reorganize files may be significant
business expense and result in lost productivity.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unanchored file cabinets can slide, tip, or overturn. Drawers may slide open increasing
the chance that the cabinet will overturn; contents may fall and get scrambled.

Overturned cabinets may block doors and exit corridors.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-499

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.5.1-1

FEMA E-74

Failure of file cabinets in the 1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge Earthquake (Photo


courtesy of Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-500

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.5.1-2

Tipped filing cabinets and other office equipment at the Lawrence Livermore
Lab, California (NGDC, 2009).

Figure 6.5.5.1-3

Unanchored cabinets toppled in the 1994 Northridge Earhtquake (Photo


courtesy of Wiss, Janney, Elstner)

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-501

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

ASCE 7-10, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE, 2010),
requires that permanent floor supported cabinets or shelving over 6 ft tall be treated as
architectural components. This requirement does not apply to wall mounted items with
both base and wall anchorage.

Do not locate cabinets where their failure would block a door or exit corridor; note some
school districts do not allow file cabinets within 6 feet of a doorway. Do not locate
where they could fall and break a window or glass partition.

File cabinets should be anchored to the floor or wall. Where cabinets or shelving are
anchored to a partition, check that the partition, bracing and attachment to the
structure above are adequate for the imposed loading.

Adjacent freestanding file cabinets should be anchored together and to the floor. Gang
multiple units together to create a more stable arrangement.

Provide strong drawer latches to prevent the drawers from sliding open. Fluids and files
dont mix; do not place flower vases or other breakable fluid containers on top of file
cabinets.

There are many acceptable ways to reliably protect file cabinets from earthquake
damage. The following details illustrate measures that can protect loaded cabinets up
to 6 ft tall in severe ground shaking at the highest locations within a building;
engineering may be required for floor-supported items taller than 6 feet. Alternate less
robust details may be developed for less severe loading conditions.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-502

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.5.1-4
FEMA E-74

Wall-mounted file cabinets (NE).


6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-503

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.5.1-5

FEMA E-74

Base-anchored file cabinets (NE).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-504

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.5.1-6

FEMA E-74

Wall-mounted and base-anchored lateral file cabinets (NE).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-505

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.5

MISCELLANEOUS FURNITURE, FIXTURES AND EQUIPMENT

6.5.5.2

DEMOUNTABLE PARTITIONS

These are freestanding half-height partition walls that are often used to delimit office work
spaces. These partitions are typically installed by tenants or occupants and may be readily
relocated.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Long runs of unbraced panels are vulnerable to falling over if not specially detailed.

Partitions that support overloaded shelving units are particularly vulnerable.

Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.5.2-1

FEMA E-74

Damage to demountable partitions at the Veterans Administration Medical


Center in Sepulveda as a result of the 1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge
Earthquake (Photo courtesy of James O. Malley).
6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-506

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.5.2-2

Damage to unbraced demountable partition in Silicon Valley office building in


the 1989 magnitude-6.9 Loma Prieta Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Maryann
Phipps, Estructure).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Check the internet for demountable partitions with seismic rated capacity; some of these
have been shake table tested and have improved seismic detailing.

Panel manufacturers typically have guidelines for acceptable panel configurations for
use in earthquake prone areas. Shorter runs of panels with panels at 90 degrees to one
another provide favorable conditions for earthquake resistance. Panel anchorage at the
base and interconnectivity between panels is also needed for reliable
performance.Where panels are not stabilized by return panels, or where panels are tall,
bracing at the tops of the panels, up to the structural framing, may be required.
Anchorage to the floor slab is another alternative as shown in Figure 6.5.5.2-4.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-507

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.5.2-3

FEMA E-74

Demountable partitions (NE).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-508

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.5.2-4

FEMA E-74

Demountable partition details (NE).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-509

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.5

MISCELLANEOUS FURNITURE, FIXTURES AND EQUIPMENT

6.5.5.3

MISCELLANEOUS FURNITURE AND FIXTURES

Furniture and fixtures come in all shapes and sizes. Items on castors will roll; squat items are
likely to slide; medium height items may slide, rock back and forth, or overturn; tall narrow
furniture is likely to overturn. This category provides general recommendations for a wide
range of items such as shop and kitchen equipment, vending machines, large office copiers,
pianos, china hutches, and entertainment centers.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Unrestrained items may slide, impact other items, tip, and/or overturn. Failure of one
item may damage others or cause the collapse of other items.

Contents supported on furniture or fixtures may fall, break, or spill.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-510

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.5.3-1

FEMA E-74

Residential damage in the 1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge Earthquake (Photo


courtesy of Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-511

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.5.3-2

FEMA E-74

Existing condition: Unrestrained kitchen equipment (Photo courtesy of EQE for


the Salt Lake City School District).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-512

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.5.3-3

Equipment on wheels did well during the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile


Earthquake; there were no reported injuries or examples of overturning related
to equipment mounted on wheels. Centrifuges on wheels shown in photo
(Photo and information courtesy of Bill Holmes, Rutherford & Chekene).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Many proprietary items are available to restrain a wide variety of furniture and fixtures.
Check the internet for seismic safety fasteners and security restraints.

Provide floor or wall anchorage for vulnerable items, especially items near doors, exits,
beds or other locations where people spend many hours. Anchor freestanding items
together and to the floor. Provide tethers for items like kitchen equipment, vending
machines, or grand pianos. Provide edge restraints and drawer and cabinet latches.

Canvas or metal straps can be used to attach some items where it is not acceptable to
penetrate the furniture or housing. Multiple tethers may be needed for strength and
stability; for instance a tether to only one leg of a grand piano may pull the leg off.

FEMA E-74

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-513

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Last Modified: January 2011

Where several items need to be tethered and the edges do not line up with studs in the
adjacent wall, a continuous steel angle or wood 2x4 may be attached to the wall and
then the tether restraints in turn attached to the steel angle wood stud. Where items are
attached to partitions, verify that the partition and attachment or bracing to the
structure above are adequate for the imposed loading.

Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.5.5.3-4

FEMA E-74

Anchored wood key cabinets in industrial plant control room; note top and
bottom units anchored together and both anchored to wall (Photo courtesy of
Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-514

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Figure 6.5.5.3-5

FEMA E-74

Typical tethering details for kitchen equipment and vending machines. Tether
provided on both sides of equipment and does not penetrate the equipment
housing (Photos courtesy of Maryann Phipps, Estructure).

6: Seismic Protection of Nonstructural Components

Page 6-515

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.6

MISCELLANEOUS CONTENTS

6.5.6.1

SHELF-MOUNTED ITEMS

Loose items stored on bookshelves, shelves of storage racks or cabinets, and store display
racks are all vulnerable during earthquakes. This includes retail merchandise, pharmaceutical
and medical supplies, laboratory supplies, stored inventory as well as shelved items found in
every home, school or office.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Items may slide, break, or fall. Inventory may be damaged, library books and medical
records may be scrambled or damaged; broken glass and spilled chemicals may be
hazardous for occupants.

Items falling from shelves can pose a safety hazard for occupants.

Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.6.1-1

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Merchandise fallen from drug store shelving in the 1979 magnitude-6.4 Imperial
Valley Earthquake (NGDC, 2009).

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Figure 6.5.6.1-2

Items fallen from kitchen cabinets in townhouse near Northridge Fashion Center
in the 1994 magnitude-6.7 Northridge Earthquake. An occupant cut her foot
on glass when she ran into the kitchen area in the dark when the power was out
(NGDC, 2009).

SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Unless each item is packed tightly or individually restrained, loose material will slide
around during an earthquake. Thoughtful organization of shelved items can reduce the
potential for damage. For instance,
o

Keep items in their original packaging

Place larger and heavier items on lower shelves and lighter and smaller items on
upper shelves

Provide edge restraints with wood, clear plastic or wire as shown

Provide individual restraints for especially toxic or costly items

Purchase storage racks or shelving units with shelving that slopes 3-4 degrees
towards the back; or attach a thin wedge to each shelf sloping towards the back
as this prevents many items from falling to the floor

Provide positive latches to prevent cabinet doors or drawers from opening; baby
proof latches are one example. Dont keep loose shelved items above a bed,
desk or other location that is occupied for long periods of time.

In industrial settings, shrink wrapping of goods on pallets may reduce the risk of
falling hazards

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Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.5.6.1-3

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High school lab supplies protected on shelving with edge restraints (Photo
courtesy of EQE for the Salt Lake City School District).

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Figure 6.5.6.1-4

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Shelf restraint example; shock cord made of wire and springs used to restrain
liquor bottles (Photo courtesy of Robert Reitherman).

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Figure 6.5.6.1-5

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Plexiglass lip provides restraint for pharmaceuticals (Photo courtesy of


Degenkolb Engineers).

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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.6.1-6

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Shelf-mounted items (NE).

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6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.6

MISCELLANEOUS CONTENTS

6.5.6.2

DESKTOP, COUNTERTOP ITEMS

Many types of office and laboratory equipment items rest on desktops, workbenches or
countertops. This may range from microwaves, microscopes, lab and medical equipment to
displayed items.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Desktop and countertop items may be affected by movement of the surface on which
they are supported; they may slide, bang, overturn, or fall. Equipment and glassware
may be damaged or be broken.

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Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.6.2-1

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Incubator in the microbiology lab at the University of Concepcin was ruined in


the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake (Photo courtesy of Bill Holmes,
Rutherford & Chekene).

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SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Provide bracing and anchorage for desks, work benches, and laboratory tables, if
located near doors and exits, or if the supported items are required for post-earthquake
operations.

Provide bracing and anchorage for overhead items such as lights, air diffusers, ceilings,
and piping that can fall and damage the desktop items.

Provide tethers, anchors, bumpers, or other safety fasteners to keep desktop items from
colliding with other items or falling. Many proprietary devices are available for this
purpose; check the internet for seismic safety straps and devices. Many of these are the
same as those used for computer equipment. Devices are also available that provide
base isolation for individual pieces of delicate or valuable equipment.

Ensure that any electrical cords or cables have sufficient slack to allow the item to travel
to the end of any tether. Tangled cords and cables attached to one item that falls may
pull other items down if the cords are tangled; use nylon ties to keep the cords and
cables organized.

Items must be anchored to structural wall or studs; do not use plaster or gypsum board
for anchorage. Provide a continuous steel shape or wood 2x4 along the wall at a
convenient height anchored to each stud or at 2 foot spacing to facilitate anchorage for
multiple items.

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Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.5.6.2-2

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Set-up for shake table testing at UC Irvine of typical laboratory bench and
shelving with countertop equipment and shelved books and supplies. Testing
was done in order to develop fragility curves for use in developing performance
based design parameters (PEER Testbed Study on a Laboratory Building:
Exercising Seismic Performance Assessment; Comerio, Editor. PEER 2005/12).

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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.6.2-3

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Desktop/countertop equipment restraints (NE).

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Figure 6.5.6.2-4

Desktop/countertop equipment restraining brackets (NE).

Figure 6.5.6.2-5

Desktop/countertop equipment restraining straps (NE).

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6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.6

MISCELLANEOUS CONTENTS

6.5.6.3

FRAGILE ARTWORK

Paintings, vases, glassware, ceramics, sculptures, or museum collections are often stored or
displayed without any seismic restraints.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Loose items on shelves or hanging items may slide, bang, overturn or fall. Paintings or
other wall hangings may fall Sculptures may slide or fall due to shaking.

Damage Examples

Figure 6.5.6.3-1

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Fallen sculpture that collapsed in the 2010 Chile Earthquake (Photo by Natach
Pisarenko, AP Photo).

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Figure 6.5.6.3-2

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Leaning fountain after the 2010 Chile Earthquake; corrosion was a factor
(Photos courtesy of Eduardo Fierro, BFP Engineers).

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SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Many proprietary safety straps, mats, small enclosures, base isolation platforms and
other devices are available to protect fragile or expensive art, collectibles and other
artifacts. Check the internet for available devices.

Items hanging on walls should be secured with a positive attachment such as an eyebolt
with closed wire loops. Ceramics, glassware, and decorative items on shelves should be
individually restrained or provide edge restraint for the shelves. Items hanging from the
ceiling should be anchored to structural framing; heavy items should not be located
where they can swing and impact a window, wall, or other object. Provide positive
restraint for statuary and large vases.Items displayed outdoors must be protected from
corrosion and weathering; mounting and connection hardware should be corrosion
resistant.

For protection of valuable items and museum artifacts, seek professional guidance. The
J. Paul Getty Museum and Getty Conservation Institute in Los Angeles, California have
published a number of references, such as Advances in the Protection of Museum

Collections from Earthquake Damage, (Podany, 2006) and Building an Emergency Plan, a
Guide for Museums and other Cultural Institutions (Dorge and Jones, 1999).

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Mitigation Examples

Figure 6.5.6.3-3a

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Seven foot tall marble statue located in the Archaeological Museum of Olympia,
Greece (Photo courtesy of University at Buffalo).

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Figure 6.5.6.3-3b

Installation of base isolation devices to support reinforced concrete slab for


statue (Photo courtesy of University at Buffalo).

Figure 6.5.6.3-3c

Completed installation of statue on platform with base isolation (Photo courtesy


of University at Buffalo, SUNY).

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Figure 6.5.6.3-4

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Seismic restraint of an object with artistic and historical value with nylon
filament (fishing line) in the Tokyo Museum in Ueno Park (Photo courtesy of
Robert Reitherman, CUREE).

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Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.6.3-5
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Fragile artwork restraints (NE).


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6.5

FURNITURE, FIXTURES, EQUIPMENT AND CONTENTS

6.5.6

MISCELLANEOUS CONTENTS

6.5.6.4

FIRE EXTINGUISHER AND CABINET

Fire extinguishers are often hung from a wall-mounted hook or placed in cabinets which may
be wall-mounted.

TYPICAL CAUSES OF DAMAGE

Extinguishers can fall and roll; they may be damaged and not function properly. If
located in a glazed enclosure, the enclosure may be damaged and the glass may break.

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Damage Example

Figure 6.5.6.4-1

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Fire extinguishers damaged during the 2010 magnitude-8.8 Chile Earthquake at


an industrial facility (Photos courtesy of Antonio Iruretagoyena, Rubn
Boroschek & Associates).

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SEISMIC MITIGATION CONSIDERATIONS

Provide safety fasteners with quick release straps for fire extinguishers.

Anchor cabinets for extinguishers and hoses to structural wall or studs.

Mitigation Details

Figure 6.5.6.4-2

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Fire extinguisher and cabinet (NE).

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6.6

INSTALLATION NOTES, SAFETY WARNINGS, AND ADDITIONAL

GUIDELINES
For those details for which the non-engineered approach is acceptable, a few words of caution
are in order. Many items shown in the upgrade details can be purchased at any hardware store,
but it is important to select hardware that is appropriate for the task at hand. A toggle bolt
mounted in gypsum board may hold a light picture frame on the wall, but it is not appropriate
for any of the details shown in this guide. At the other extreme, a 1-inch diameter bolt is too
large for a 2x4 wood stud, since the hole required to accommodate the bolt will unacceptably
weaken the 1 1/2- inch wide stud and does not meet the required edge distance in NDS 2005

National Design Standard Specifications for Wood Construction (AFPA/ANSI, 2005). The
following discussion provides general guidelines on hardware selection and installation
procedures for the details shown in this chapter.
FEMA 412 Installing Seismic Restraints for Mechanical Equipment , FEMA 413 Installing Seismic

Restraints for Electrical Equipment, and FEMA 414 Installing Seismic Restraints for Duct and
Pipe contain additional details for mechanical, electrical, and plumbing components. These
guides include lists and tables covering many specific types of MEP equipment with
recommendations on the type of detail, housekeeping pads, and anchorage hardware to use. In
addition, safety warnings that are important for anyone working on or around electrical
equipment are included in these guides; these
warnings are repeated here in Section 6.6.8.

6.6.1 POSITIVE CONNECTIONS


The objective of nonstructural anchorage or restraint
details is to provide what engineers refer to as a
positive connection between the item and a hard
attachment point, such as a structural wall, braced
partition, concrete floor, or built-in countertop.

Earthquake Forces
Keep in mind that although
heavy objects are hard to move
by hand, their weight (mass)
interacts with the shaking
(accelerations) of an
earthquake to produce large
inertial forces. Those forces

Positive connections generally consist of some

mostly act sideways to make

combination of screws, bolts, cables, chains, straps,

the object slide or tip, and

steel angles, and other steel hardware that transfer


seismic loads to structural framing. Positive
connections do not rely solely on the frictional
resistance produced by the effects of gravity.

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there are also vertical motions


in earthquakes that
temporarily "lighten" an object
and reduce frictional
resistance.

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Frictional resistance between the base of an object and the floor or mechanical friction
connections such as C-clamps or thumbscrew clamps are not considered positive connections.
The most common nonstructural connection details for wall attachments, floor or ceiling
attachments, countertop attachments, and attachments between adjacent items are discussed
below.

6.6.2 TYPICAL WALL ATTACHMENT DETAILS


Many types of nonstructural items can be anchored, braced, or tethered to an adjacent wall to
provide stability in an earthquake. Before installing any anchorage details, however, one should
determine whether the wall has adequate structural capacity to support the nonstructural items.
The wall element should consist of concrete, masonry, or structural framing members that are
securely attached to the structural framing at both the top and bottom of the wall.

ANCHORAGE TO WOOD OR METAL STUD PARTITION WALLS


Any type of attachment hardware or brace should be attached directly to a structural stud, not
to a gypsum board or to plaster wall covering. Gypsum board and most other interior wall
coverings have little capacity to resist out-of-plane loading, that is, loads perpendicular to the
wall. A nail or screw can simply pull out of this type of wall covering during an earthquake,
leaving a hole in the wall. Even a toggle bolt can pull through the wall sheathing if the
demands are sufficient.
Typical wood and metal stud walls are constructed with vertical studs located at either 16- or
24-inch spacing. Many interior partition walls in non-residential construction extend only to
the ceiling line and should not be used to anchor heavy nonstructural items, unless the top of
the partition wall is braced to the structure above. Heavy items anchored to unbraced partitions
may bring the partitions down with them, if they fall during an earthquake. Partition bracing
should consist of diagonal elements of similar size and material as the vertical studs, spaced
every few feet, connecting the top of the partition to the structure above. Engineering advice
may be needed if the partitions appear questionable.
The structural studs should be located at the start of a project, to confirm that they are within
reach of the items to be anchored. In situations where many items must be anchored to a stud
wall, it is sometimes advantageous to install a mounting strip first, in order to avoid having to
relocate items to line them up with studs. Sometimes referred to as seismic molding, a
mounting strip is a horizontal member mounted to the wall and anchored to each stud. The
strip should be located at or near the top of the items to be anchored. Furniture or cabinets
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may then be anchored directly to the mounting strip without regard to stud locations. A
mounting strip may be constructed of a structural-grade wood 2x4 or 2x6 or a continuous
steel channel or angle. The strip can be finished to have an appropriate architectural
appearance. In fact, horizontal strips a few feet off the floor were often included in older
architectural styles and were called chair rails; even today in many settings, such as hotel
conference rooms, there are similar architectural features.
In new construction this is typically accommodated by installing backing plates directly on the
studs, before sheathing is installed. Backing plates are commonly 16 gauge steel plates, runner
tracks or studs.

Hardware Recommended

Attach steel angle directly to wood studs using a minimum 1/4-inch diameter by 3-inch
lag bolt (maximum 3/8-inch lag bolt). Embed the bolt at least 2 inches into the wood
stud.

Attach steel angle to metal studs using #12 sheet-metal screws long enough to
penetrate the flange material. Use two screws per connection, located 3 inches apart
vertically.

Attachments for anchoring sheet-metal shelving or cabinets may be made by using a


minimum 1/4-inch diameter machine bolt. Where possible, attach the bolt through two
layers of material, for example where the top and side or back and side pieces overlap.
Otherwise, use an oversized 2-inch diameter by 3/32-inch thick fender washer with the
nut on the inside of the cabinet to provide additional strength.

For seismic molding, use #14 flat-head wood screws, with countersunk heads, with at
least 2 inches embedded into the wood stud behind the wall covering. Locate screws
along the centerline of the 2x4 or 2x6, and anchor the strip to each stud with maximum
spacing of 24 inches. For attachments to the wood molding strip, do not screw or bolt
anything within 1-inch of each edge of the wood member.

Small quick-release safety hooks (carabiners) and nylon cord or straps, are often
available at sporting goods stores that carry mountain climbing equipment. Self-drilling
screws may be useful, especially for a connection to metal studs. These items may be
used for tethering small office equipment.

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Hardware - Not Recommended

Toggle bolts mounted in gypsum board or plaster are not recommended for any of the
details presented here. They may be useful for items weighing only a few pounds.

Nails have little capacity in tension or withdrawal, i.e., when pulled directly on the head
of the nail. Thus, nails are not recommended for any of these details.

ANCHORAGE TO CONCRETE OR MASONRY WALLS


Connections to existing concrete or grouted masonry walls should be made with steel anchor
bolts made to insert into walls after they are built. Many types of anchors are available from
various vendors, including expansion anchors, sleeve anchors, and epoxy anchors. Since the
installation procedures and capacities for these anchors vary widely, it is important to check the
local building code or vendor literature for the allowable load capacity and to install the anchors
in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Holes into concrete or masonry walls
should be drilled with care, in order to avoid cutting any reinforcing steel (rebar). A magnetic
device can be used to locate the steel prior to drilling. If rebar is encountered while drilling,
stop, and relocate the hole; do not cut through the reinforcing steel unless directed by a
structural engineer who has examined the specific condition. In buildings with post-tensioned
construction, post-tensioning cables must be positively located prior to anchor installation.
The capacity of an anchor bolt in concrete is governed by the strength of the concrete, the bolt
diameter, the depth of embedment of the bolt into the concrete, the spacing between adjacent
bolts, and the distance to the edge of the concrete. Improper installation can result in a bolt
with virtually no capacity. The bolt will have a greatly reduced capacity if it is too near to an
edge or too close to an adjacent bolt, or if it has insufficient embedment into the concrete. In
order to develop the full capacity of a concrete anchor, as a rule of thumb, the spacing of the
bolts should be at least 12 bolt diameters, with a minimum edge distance of 6 diameters. The
minimum embedment length is typically 8 bolt diameters. Specific requirements for edge
distance, spacing and embedment depth are determined by anchor manufacturers and code
requirementsCaution should be used in selecting anchors to ensure that they have been
prequalified for seismic applications and are capable of maintaining their strength under
repeated cyclic loading including installations in cracked concrete. The most common postinstalled anchors are expansion anchors, where part of the shank expands to press against the
sides of the hole as the nut is tightened. Recently, large screw anchors have been gaining
popularity. Other types of anchors include sleeve anchors and adhesive anchors. Sleeve
anchors consist of a threaded sleeve installed directly into the concrete, flush with the concrete

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surface, and a bolt that is screwed into the sleeve. Sleeve anchors may be advantageous in
situations, in which items may be moved frequently. The bolt may be removed, leaving the
sleeve flush with the wall (or floor) and without leaving a protruding bolt. Adhesive anchors are
inserted into slightly oversized holes with epoxy or polyester resin so that the adhesive will
hold the bolt in place. Extreme care is required to ensure that the epoxy components are
mixed in the proper proportions within the hole and that dust is removed from it; otherwise the
bolt will never reach the manufacturer's rated capacity. Quality control is critical for all postinstalled anchors. Installation by experienced personnel and inspection by professional
inspectors is recommended..

Hardware and Procedures Recommended

Do not cut reinforcing steel, tendons, or electrical conduit embedded in concrete or


masonry walls. Locate the steel or conduit prior to drilling. There are many types of
devices available for locating steel in concrete or masonry. These devices require the
user to be familiar with their limitations.

Follow manufacturer's recommendations for installation. Remove dust from the hole
prior to inserting the anchor bolt by using a hand-held vacuum cleaner; or blow the
dust out with a bellows or a bulb.

For anchorage to reinforced concrete walls, expansion anchors are commonly used.

To check if an anchor is properly installed, test a sample of installed bolts with a proof
load or by torque as required by the manufacturers, test reports, or direction by the
design professional of record.

Use galvanized or preferably stainless steel bolts and other hardware in locations where
they will be exposed to moisture or weathering.

Corrosion resistant chains, eyebolts, and quick-release safety hooks can often be found
at marine supply stores, hardware stores, or ordered from industrial catalogues. These
fasteners may be needed to provide wall anchorage for gas cylinders or other items
stored outside or in a damp location.

For anchors in walls constructed of concrete masonry units, the expansion anchors
should be installed only in grouted cells, where the cavity in the masonry unit is filled
with grout and reinforcing steel. In order to achieve adequate embedment into the
grout, longer bolts may have to be used in concrete masonry unit walls. Through-bolts,
where feasible, generally provide the highest capacity and reliability. These are machine
bolts that go through the concrete slab and are fastened with nuts and steel plate
washers on the underside of the slab. Unreinforced masonry walls, particularly

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cantilever partition walls, may not have adequate strength to anchor heavy nonstructural
items. For light loads, up to 100 pounds, masonry toggle bolts can be used in
ungrouted cells.

For unreinforced masonry walls, engineering assistance is recommended. Published


capacities for expansion anchors typically apply to concrete, not to brick. Anchorage to
the floor may be a preferable solution in a brick building.

Anchorage hardware, installation procedures, and code requirements are continually


evolving. Some types of bolts may not be appropriate for overhead applications,
vibratory loading, seismic loading, or cracked concrete applications; check with the
manufacturer for recommended usage.

Hardware and Procedures - Not Recommended

Adhesive or epoxy anchors are not recommended, unless they are installed by
experienced personnel with proper quality control. Unless specifically tested for high
temperature applications, adhesive or epoxy anchors should not be used in
unconditioned environments, since their strength can be reduced at elevated
temperatures.

Inserts made of lead or plastic placed in holes drilled in concrete or masonry and used
with lag screws have very limited capacity and are not recommended.

6.6.3 TYPICAL FLOOR AND CEILING ATTACHMENT DETAILS


For heavy items, anchorage to a concrete floor slab is often preferable to wall anchorage
because it avoids the additional seismic load to the wall. Ceiling attachment details are
required for many types of piping, ducts, light fixtures, and overhead fans or heaters. The type
of detail used in each situation will depend on the structural materials of the floor and ceiling
framing.

ANCHORAGE TO WOOD FRAMING


Because wood flooring such as1/2-inch plywood or 1/4 to 3/8-inch strip oak flooring typically

does not have adequate strength to resist large concentrated forces, floor or ceiling anchorage
hardware should be attached directly to the floor or ceiling beams or joists.

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Hardware and Procedures - Recommended

Locate the floor or ceiling joists prior to beginning work. If wood beams or joists are
not situated within a convenient distance, then wood blocking may be used to provide
additional anchor locations. Install blocking perpendicular to the joists, using, as a
minimum, a member of the same size as the joists. Anchor the blocking with framing
clips to the joists at each end. Do not toenail the blocking.

Wood screws or lag bolts should be used for simple anchorage connections for lighter
items. A 1/4-inch diameter by 3-inch lag bolt will be adequate for many types of
connections.

For anchorage of heavier items to the roof or floor, add blocking beneath the anchor
location, run A307 bolts through the blocking, and tighten them on the underside with
nuts and washers.

Hardware and Procedures - Not Recommended

Do not anchor heavy items directly to wood or plywood floor or roof sheathing, as these
materials typically do not have adequate capacity to resist significant out-of-plane
loads.

Nails are not recommended for nonstructural anchorage details.

ANCHORAGE TO STEEL FRAMING


Caution should be used in anchoring nonstructural items to structural steel framing.
Engineering expertise may be needed to determine whether holes can be drilled through
structural steel framing without compromising the integrity of the structural members. There
are several types of connection details that do not require holes through the steel framing.

Hardware - Recommended

Vendor catalogues of hardware that can be used to provide both vertical and lateral
support for piping often include fittings specifically designed for steel framing. While
C-clamps are not recommended, there are a variety of other devices that clamp
mechanically around the flange of a steel beam or are designed to fit between column
flanges. These devices are typically load-rated by the vendors and come in a variety of
sizes. Besides bracing piping and ducts, this type of hardware might also be used for
bracing or anchoring items like lights or ceiling fans.

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ANCHORAGE TO CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS


Concrete expansion anchors are the most common type of hardware used to anchor items to a
concrete slab on grade or to a structural floor slab. Most manufacturers require a minimum
slab thickness on the order of 1.5 times the anchor embedment depth. For heavy loads or
concrete slabs less than 4 inches thick, it may be preferable to use through-bolts.

Hardware and Procedures - Recommended

Refer to discussion of expansion anchors under concrete wall anchorage details.

Do not cut reinforcing steel or tendons in concrete slabs or beams. Locate the
reinforcing steel, post-tensioning tendons, any embedded water pipes, and electrical
conduit prior to drilling holes in concrete slabs.

For anchorage to a concrete foundation pad, slab on grade, or suspended floor, check
the drawings for the thickness of the concrete, or perform exploratory investigation to
confirm the thickness. While short expansion bolts may be adequate to prevent sliding
of squat equipment, longer bolts with greater embedment are generally needed to
prevent the combination of sliding and overturning forces for items that are taller than
they are wide.

If equipment is resting on leveling bolts or must be level to allow for proper operation,
then vertically slotted connections may be needed to allow for adjustment.

Hardware and Procedures - Not Recommended


Anchors that have not been qualified for seismic applications should not be used unless they
are specifically justified by a licensed professional and are permitted for use by the authority
having jurisdiction.

6.6.4 TYPICAL SHELF OR COUNTERTOP ATTACHMENT DETAILS


If important or essential contents are to be secured, then the shelf or mounting surface should
be secured prior to anchoring nonstructural items. While standard desks and office tables are
unlikely to overturn, they may slide during an earthquake. Desktop computers and printers can
be anchored to the desk by means of hook-and-loop tape such as Velcro or by using various
types of security devices designed to prevent theft.

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Hardware and Procedures - Recommended

Unanchored desks or tables may slide and pull on the electrical cords of office
equipment, if the items are anchored to the tabletop. Electrical cords should have
adequate slack to allow for movement of unanchored desks or tables.

Loose shelves should be secured to the wall or to shelf brackets. Wood shelves that rest
on wall-mounted brackets may be secured to the brackets with 1/2-inch long wood
screws.

Many types of vendor-supplied anchorage and security devices are available for
computer equipment. These may also be adapted for other types of countertop
equipment, such as medical or laboratory equipment. Heavy-duty hook-and-loop tape
with adhesive backing can be purchased at most hardware and fabric stores and can
readily be cut into strips.

Desktop computer equipment usually consists of several independent components. If


items are stacked, then make sure that each component is anchored to the one beneath
it and that the bottommost item is anchored to the desk. For tall configurations of
items that do not have to be moved frequently, it may be more advantageous to tie an
assembly of components together using nylon strap and then to anchor the base to the
desktop.

For light and nonessential items on shelves or countertops, a 1- to 2-inch lip secured to
the edge of the counter or shelf may be adequate to prevent miscellaneous items from
falling. In this case, individual items need not be anchored.

6.6.5 PURCHASING
In some instances, it is easier to install nonstructural anchorage details for newly purchased
equipment than for existing equipment. Many items are available off the shelf or can be
special-ordered with seismic detailing. Some file cabinets come with predrilled holes for floor
anchorage and strong latches on the drawers. Installing a strong shelf over the top of a bank of
file cabinets that will line a wall or using other architectural ways to provide built-in restraint
can be cost-effective and have a non-seismic benefit. Battery racks, industrial storage racks,
and computer access floors that meet seismic requirements specified in the building code can
be ordered. It is always useful to inquire about the availability of seismic details when
purchasing new equipment.

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.6.6 PATCHING, PAINTING, AND CORROSION PROTECTION


Most of the details shown here assume that the nonstructural component in question is situated
in a dry, interior location. In these locations, some cosmetic patching and painting may be
desirable, primarily for aesthetic reasons.
For basements, roofs, or other exterior locations, it is important to provide adequate protection
from weathering and corrosion. If attachment details perforate a roof membrane, then
appropriate sealants or localized repair will be needed, in order to avoid roof leakage. If
expansion anchors or other steel hardware will be exposed to moist conditions or weathering,
then either stainless steel or galvanized hardware should be selected to avoid corrosion and
deterioration. Many types of paints and coatings are available that will help retard corrosion.
Exterior earthquake protection devices may need periodic maintenance to avoid deterioration.
In cases where a chain, latch, or tether is installed and users must remove and replace some
hardware whenever they need to use the item, it may be helpful to select a bright or distinctive
paint color as a reminder that the seismic restraint, chain, or hook needs to be refastened.

6.6.7 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


As with any type of construction work, there are safety precautions that must be followed while
installing nonstructural attachment details. Employers and the skilled trades must comply with
numerous local, state, and federal safety regulations and follow guidelines established for
specific trades or industries. The following list is not comprehensive but is a brief list of safety
precautions that merit emphasis in connection with the nonstructural attachment details shown
here.

Procedures - Recommended

The individuals installing seismic mitigation measures should have adequate training
and supervision. Office workers or volunteers may not have the necessary background.

Electrical hazards are present around any equipment supplied with electrical power. See
the electrical danger warnings in the next section.

The installation of most nonstructural restraint details involves the use of power tools.
Personnel should use safety goggles and other protection recommended by tool
manufacturers, and all workplace safety standards should be followed.

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Many heavy pieces of furniture or equipment may have to be moved temporarily in order
to install seismic restraint details. Unless proper lifting techniques are utilized, back
injuries or other injuries may result.

Drilling holes into metal cabinets containing electrical components or piping may void
the equipment warranty or damage the equipment. Care should be taken to protect the
equipment when drilling holes.

6.6.8 ELECTRICAL DANGER WARNINGS AND GUIDELINES

Only qualified personnel familiar with proper voltage equipment are to perform work
described in this set of instructions. Workers must understand the hazards involved in
working with or near electrical circuits.

Perform work only after reading and understanding all of the installation instructions in
this manual and the manufacturers literature.

Turn off all power-supplying equipment before working on or inside equipment.

Always use a properly rated voltage sensing device to confirm that the power is off.

Beware of potential hazards. Wear Personal Protective Equipment as required by NFPA70E, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace (2009), and take adequate safety
precautions.

Replace all devices, doors, and covers before turning on the power to the equipment.

All activities must be performed by qualified personnel in accordance with local codes.

The following precautions should be taken for circuit breakers:


o

The circuit breaker must be removed from its compartment and isolated from

Control voltage must be in the open (O) position.

o
o

the voltage.
The circuit breaker must be in the open (O) position.
All circuit breaker springs must be discharged.

Handle equipment carefully and install, operate, and maintain it correctly in order for it
to function properly. Neglecting fundamental installation and maintenance
requirements may lead to personal injury, as well as damage to electrical equipment or
other property.

Heavy equipment should be stabilized with straps and other tie-downs to reduce the
possibility of tipping.

Spreader bars must be evaluated by the appropriate design professional prior to lifting.

When lifting, do not pass ropes or cables through lift holes. Use slings with safety
hooks or shackles.

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Damaged vent housings can constrict proper air flow and expose the interior of
electrical voltage compartments to weather.

Do not make any modifications to the equipment or operate the system with interlocks
and safety barriers removed. Contact the manufacturers representative for additional
instructions if the equipment does not function as described in this manual.

Complete seismic installation and proper inspection of work prior to enabling the circuit
breakers.

Use out-of-service tags and padlocks when working on equipment. Leave tags in place
until the work is completed and the equipment is ready to be put back into service.

Restore all seismic restraints removed for maintenance to their original installation
configuration and torque all bolts and anchors to their proper values.

Carefully inspect the work area and remove any tools and objects left inside the
equipment.

Remove all tools, lifting assembly, and miscellaneous items left on the equipment prior
to enabling the circuit breaker.

All instructions provided in this manual and by the manufacturer are written with the
assumption that the customer has taken the above measures before performing any
maintenance or testing

These electrical danger warnings and guidelines were originally developed for FEMA 413; refer
to FEMA 412, 413, and 414 for additional warnings regarding the installation of bracing or
anchorage details for MEP equipment, ducts, and piping.

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Last Modified: January 2011

A. SPECIFICATION
This appendix contains Specification Section 130541, Seismic Restraint Requirements for
Nonstructural Components. This Section is intended to aggregate requirements for seismic
restraint of nonstructural components and should be cross referenced from each specification
section that includes nonstructural components requiring seismic protection. This specification
has been written to address nonstructural components for which the Contractor is assigned
responsibility for both design and construction. Items that have been explicitly designed by the
design team and included on the drawings may be removed from this section, or the relevant
section may be modified to indicate that the Contractor is required to furnish and install
restraints only.
The specification is intended to be used in conjunction with the responsibility matrices provided
in Appendix B to facilitate compliance with nonstructural performance objectives.
The Section is provided as a Microsoft Word file (.doc) file for download here and should be
customized for use in projects.

FEMA E-74

A: Specification

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure A-1

Screenshot showing Specification Section 130541, Seismic Restraint

Requirements for Nonstructural Components.

FEMA E-74

A: Specification

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Last Modified: January 2011

B. RESPONSIBILITY MATRIX
This appendix contains responsibility matrix templates for the seismic protection of
nonstructural components. The templates are to be used for assigning responsibility for
design, construction, and inspection of nonstructural installations governed by ASCE/SEI 7-10.
Three separate templates are provided for Seismic Design Categories B, C, and D/E/F,
respectively. In addition, a Basic Form is provided for general use. The matrices are intended
to be used in conjunction with the construction specification provided in Appendix A.
The matrices are provided as a Microsoft Excel file (.xls) file for download here and should be
customized for use in projects.
.

FEMA E-74

B: Responsibility Matrix

Page B-1

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure B-1

FEMA E-74

Screenshot showing Responsibility Matrix for the Seismic Protection of nonstructural Components, Seismic Design

Catergory B worksheet.

B: Responsibility Matrix

Page B-2

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Last Modified: January 2011

C. NONSTRUCTURAL INVENTORY
FORM
The intent is that Appendices C, D and E be used together as tools for the facility survey. The
first step is to review the map in Figure 3.2.1-1 and discussion in Section 1.3 to see if
nonstructural hazard mitigation is a concern for the facility in question. If so, then Appendices
C and D can be used in tandem to perform the survey. Risk ratings from Appendix E could be
added to the inventory form during the field survey or added later in order to help prioritize the
items in the list.
The questions in Appendix D are stated in such a way that the answer "No" or Unknown
indicates that the component may be noncompliant and likely to pose a nonstructural
earthquake hazard. All of the noncompliant components should be entered as individual line
items on the facility inventory form in this Appendix. As shown below, the form provides
columns for the following information:

Priority: This can be added at the end after the priorities have been established.

Nonstructural Item: Name or description of nonstructural component.

Location: Information such as building, floor, or room number.

Quantity: Number of items, lineal feet, or square feet.

Risk Rating for Life Safety (LS), Property Loss (PL) and Functional Loss (FL) from
Appendix E.

Notes: Space for comments regarding the current condition, presence or absence of
anchorage details, proximity to other hazardous items, issues with secondary damage
such as leaks or hazardous materials release, and whether the component in question is
important for functionality of the facility. This might also include a photo number if
photos of each item are taken to assist with the survey.

The inventory form provided here has been adapted from the spreadsheet provided by the U.S.
Bureau of Reclamation on their website under the heading Online Orders/Free Tools,
http://www.usbr.gov/ssle/seismicsafety/onlineorders.html. The website contains two types of
downloadable survey forms: one in spreadsheet format (Microsoft Excel) and one in database

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C: Nonstructural Inventory Form

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Last Modified: January 2011

format (Microsoft Access). Both of these forms have built-in sorting algorithms so that
components with high risk in any category can be shifted to the top of the list. These sorting
criteria may be adjusted to suit individual needs. Survey forms can be customized to include
cost data, which may be useful for prioritization and planning. Proprietary forms are also
available for purchase from specialty vendors.

FEMA E-74

C: Nonstructural Inventory Form

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Last Modified: January 2011

Figure C-1

Sample inventory checklist for a facility located in an area with Moderate seismic risk. The sorting algorithm of the
spreadsheet makes this a useful tool for prioritization. The electronic file is free to download from the U.S.
Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamations website,

http://www.usbr.gov/ssle/seismicsafety/onlineorders.html.

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Last Modified: January 2011

D. CHECKLIST OF NONSTRUCTURAL
SEISMIC HAZARDS
This checklist is intended to be used in surveying buildings to assess whether the nonstructural
elements (architectural, MEP, FF&E, or contents) pose a danger to the building occupants or are
likely to cause financial loss or interruption following an earthquake.
This checklist of nonstructural hazards is intended for use in areas where seismic hazards are a
significant concern. Review the discussion in Section 1.3 for the applicability of these
nonstructural guidelines and the sidebar in Section 5.3.1 for rules regarding exemptions from
the nonstructural provisions in ASCE/SEI 7-10 Minimal Design Loads for Buildings and Other

Structures (ASCE, 2010) that apply to new construction.


The form includes eight columns marked as follows:
ITEM NO.: ID number to indicate the type of component (architectural, MEP, FF&E or contents)
and the subgroup. These numbers are based on the section or subsection in this text and as
shown in the tables in Chapter 6.
COMPONENT NAME(S): Name or description of item.
PRINCIPAL CONCERNS: List of problems often associated with this type of item such as falling
hazard, water or fuel leakage, broken glass. These concerns should be taken into account
when answering the checklist questions. For example, the primary concern for adhered veneer
is that it may pose a falling hazard. If a facility has adhered veneer, but only at the base of the
building below 6 ft, then this might be checked Compliance, if the purpose of the survey is to
identify life safety hazards or might be rated Noncompliance, if the survey is also intended to
help control property damage and limit losses.
EXAMPLE: Example number. All examples, which contain photos and detailed drawings when
applicable, can be found in Chapter 6.
COMPLIANCE (C): The questions in this form have been stated in such a way that an
affirmative answer indicates that the item is not likely to pose a nonstructural hazard.

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NONCOMPLIANCE (NC): The questions in this checklist are stated in such a way that the
answer "No" or Unknown indicates that the component may be noncompliant and likely to
pose a nonstructural earthquake hazard. All of the noncompliant components should be
entered as individual line items on the facility inventory form in Appendix A. Comments should
be entered in the survey form noting the location, condition, presence or absence of anchorage
details, proximity to other hazardous items, issues with secondary damage such as leaks or
hazardous materials release, and whether the component in question is important for
functionality of the facility.
NOT APPLICABLE (N/A): This column should be checked if none of the listed items are present
and has been included, so that it is clear that the item was not missed or overlooked when
performing the survey.
CHECKLIST QUESTIONS: Questions are all Yes-No questions, which are answered by
checking the appropriate box from among the previous three columns.

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D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.3

Architectural Components

Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

6.3.1

Exterior Wall Components

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

[Exterior falling hazards are a primary concern,


especially items situated above 10 feet and
items that may fall over exits, walkways, or
sidewalks.]

Adhered veneer

Falling hazard

6.3.1.1

Is the adhered veneer adequately attached to


the structure? [This includes relatively thin
sections of tile, masonry, stone, terra cotta,
ceramic tile, glass mosaic units, stucco, or
similar materials attached to a structural wall or
framework by means of an adhesive].
Based on visual observations and/or tapping, is
the veneer free of cracked or loose sections
that may fall during an earthquake?

Anchored

Falling hazard

6.3.1.2

Is the anchored veneer adequately attached to


the structure? [This includes thicker masonry,

veneer

stone, or stone slab units that are attached to


the structure by mechanical anchors].
Is the masonry or other veneer supported by
shelf angles or other elements at each floor?
Is the masonry or other veneer connected to a
structural back-up wall at adequate spacing?
Has the veneer been adequately maintained?
Are the anchors in good condition, free of
significant corrosion, and inspected regularly?
Were the panels and connections designed by

Prefabricated

Falling

panels

hazard,

an architect or engineer to accommodate the

damage to

expected seismic distortion of the surrounding

panels and

structure?

6.3.1.3

connections,
broken glass

Are prefabricated cladding panels detailed to


allow relative movement between the panel and
the structure?

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Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)
Are prefabricated panels supported for vertical
loads with at least two connections per panel?
Are prefabricated panels supported for out-ofplane loads with at least four connections per
panel?
Have the panels been adequately maintained?
Are the panel connections in good condition,
free of significant corrosion, and inspected
regularly?
Are there adequate separations between panels
so they will not come into contact with each
other during an earthquake?

Glazing

Falling

exterior wall

hazard,

architect or engineer to accommodate the

system

broken glass

expected seismic distortion of the surrounding

6.3.1.4

Is it known that the glazing was designed by an

structure?
Do large window panes and storefront windows
have safety glass? [All exterior glazing should
be laminated, annealed or laminated heatstrengthened safety glass or other glazing
system that will remain in the frame when the
glass is cracked. This is particularly important
for glazing located over 10 feet above an
exterior walking surface].
Glass blocks

Falling

6.3.1.5

hazard,

Are partial-height glass block walls laterally


braced to the structure?

broken glass

Is the glass block reinforced with panel anchors


and panel reinforcing wire?

Overhead

Falling

glazing or

hazard,

skylights

broken glass

6.3.1.6

Are transoms (glass panes over doors) made of


safety glass?
Are skylights made of safety glass or covered
with shatter-resistant film?

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Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)
Are large panes made of safety glass or is it
known whether the glazing assembly was
designed by an architect or engineer to
accommodate the expected seismic distortion
of the surrounding structure?

6.3.2

Partitions
Heavy

Falling

6.3.2.1

Are block wall partitions reinforced? [This

hazard;

would include concrete masonry unit (CMU),

collapse or

brick, and hollow clay tile partitions. Most

spalling with

brick and hollow clay tile walls in pre-1933

debris in

buildings in California are unreinforced;

exitways;

unreinforced masonry partitions may still be

large cracks

found in current construction in other parts of

often

the country.]

mistaken for

Are unreinforced masonry walls braced at

structural

regular intervals? [In zones of low and

damage

moderate seismicity, are partitions braced at 10


foot intervals or less? In zones of high
seismicity, are partitions braced at 6 foot
intervals or less?]
Are full-height CMU partitions detailed to allow
sliding at the top?

Light

Cracking of

6.3.2.2

plaster or

Are partial-height stud wall partitions braced to


the structure above the ceiling line?

gypsum

Are full-height stud wall partitions detailed to

board; costly

allow sliding at the top?

to patch and
paint

If partitions function as lateral support for tall


shelving or other nonstructural components,
are these partitions adequately anchored or
braced to the structure above the ceiling line?

Glazed

Broken glass

6.3.2.3

Are interior glazed or glass block partitions


laterally braced to the structure?

6.3.3

Interior Veneers

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Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Stone and tile

Falling

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

6.3.3.1

hazard,

Is the adhered veneer adequately attached to


the structure?

debris in
exitways
Is the anchored veneer adequately attached to
the structure?
6.3.4

Ceilings, Soffits
Does the suspended ceiling have adequate

Suspended

Dropped

acoustic lay-in

acoustical

diagonal bracing wires and compression struts

tile ceiling

tiles,

to support seismic loads from the ceiling grid

perimeter

plus all lay-in items that do not have

damage,

independent lateral supports?

6.3.4.1

separation of

If the ceiling supports lay-in lighting or

runners and

diffusers, do the lay-in items all have

cross

independent vertical supports consisting of

runners;

wires located at least at two diagonally opposite

falling hazard

corners?

if grid and
lights come

Do lay-in fixtures weighing over 50 pounds

down

additionally have independent lateral bracing


wires at all four corners?
If located in a high seismic zone, is the
suspended ceiling supported by a heavy duty
ceiling grid with adequate capacity and does
the grid include supplemental hanger wires at
light fixtures or other mechanical items?

Directly applied
to structure

Falling hazard

6.3.4.2

Are decorative ceiling panels and/or latticework


securely attached, particularly beneath exterior
eves over exits?
Are decorative finishes and/or latticework on
beam soffits or beneath exterior eves securely
attached, particularly over exits?
For plaster ceilings or stucco soffits, is the wire
mesh or wood lath securely attached to the
structural framing above?

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D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

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Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)
Is the plaster or stucco in good condition and
not deteriorated by water damage or corrosion?

Suspended

Falling hazard

6.3.4.3

If the suspended gypsum board ceiling extends


over more than one level, does the suspended

heavy ceilings

ceiling system have adequate diagonal bracing?


Is the suspended wire mesh or wood lath
securely attached to the structural framing
above?
Is the plaster ceiling in good condition and not
deteriorated by water damage?
6.3.5

Parapets, Appendages, Roof Tiles


Unreinforced

Falling hazard

6.3.5.1

Are unreinforced masonry parapets adequately

masonry

braced? [If there is a local parapet ordinance, is

parapet

it known if the bracing complies with the local


ordinance?]

Parapets,

Are parapets and cornices reinforced and

Falling hazard

cornices,

adequately braced?

appendages

Do other decorative elements and appendages


have positive anchorage to the building?
Are hanging appendages braced or secured
with a safety cable?

6.3.6

Canopies, Marquees, Signs


Canopy,

Falling hazard

6.3.6.1

Are cantilevered elements braced to the

Marquees,

structure with steel shapes, not chains, to

Signs

provide restraint and prevent bouncing?


Are exterior signs or billboards adequately
braced and anchored?
Are interior signs securely attached with
positive connections?

Flagpoles

Falling hazard

Are flagpoles securely attached to the


structure?

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Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

6.3.7

Chimneys and Stacks


Unreinforced

Example

Falling hazard

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

6.3.7.1

masonry

Is the brick chimney restrained with braces to


the roof near the top of the chimney?

chimney

Is the brick chimney anchored near the roof


line?

Stacks

Are stacks anchored to the supports or

Falling hazard

foundation by means of anchor bolts of


adequate length and double nuts?
6.3.8

Stairways
Stairways

6.3.8.1

Do steel stairs in multistory buildings have


sliding supports at one end that can
accommodate the anticipated interstory
displacements?
Have any unreinforced masonry partitions,
piping, or lighting in stairwells been removed,
strengthened, encapsulated or braced,
especially if the stairway is used as a primary
exit route?

6.3.9

Freestanding Walls or Fences


Freestanding

Falling hazard

Walls or Fences

if over 4 tall

6.3.9.1

Were freestanding walls or fences designed by


an architect/engineer to resist lateral forces?
Are CMU walls adequately reinforced with
vertical bars set in grout-filled cells and
horizontal bars embedded in the mortar joints?
Were CMU walls or fences built with adequate
foundations to prevent them from tipping over
in an earthquake?

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

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Last Modified: January 2011

6.4

Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing Components

Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

6.4.1

Mechanical Equipment

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

Are the boilers, pumps, chillers and similar

Boilers,

Sliding,

furnaces,

overturning,

wet-side HVAC equipment securely anchored to

pumps and

broken

the floor or wall with adequately sized bolts?

chillers ( HVAC

gas/fuel or

wet-side

exhaust lines,

equipment)

leaking fluids,

6.4.1.1

Do HVAC wet-side equipment items that are


mounted on vibration isolators have adequate
lateral restraint provided by snubbers,

loss of

bumpers, or restrained vibration isolators?

function

Are housekeeping pads under boilers and


similar equipment anchored to the floor slab?
Does the gas line have a flexible connection to
the water heater or boiler that is able to
accommodate movement?
Are furnaces, and furnace or boiler bases,
constructed without using unreinforced
masonry?
Is manufacturing and process machinery and

General

Falling

manufacturing

hazards,

related equipment, cranes, tanks, piping,

and process

hazardous

chutes, and conveyors all adequately restrained

machinery

material leaks

and anchored, particularly items that may fall

or spills, loss

and injure workers, result in hazardous

of function

materials release, or create hazardous electrical

6.4.1.2

conditions?
Have all life safety hazards been addressed by
bracing or anchoring clear falling hazards and
other hazardous items?
If immediate occupancy or operations is a
project objective, has a design professional
familiar with nonstructural anchorage of
manufacturing and process machinery been
engaged to perform a detailed survey of the
plant?

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-9

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

HVAC

Fall off

equipment with

isolators,

compressors, fans, blowers and filters that are

vibration

overturning,

mounted on vibration isolators have adequate

isolation

broken

lateral restraint provided by snubbers,

gas/fuel or

bumpers, or restrained vibration isolators?

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

6.4.1.3

exhaust lines,

Do HVAC dry-side equipment items such as air

If large equipment is mounted on a concrete

leaking fluids,

housekeeping pad, is the pad adequately

loss of

anchored into the structural slab?

function

Do roof-mounted HVAC units that are mounted


on vibration isolators have adequate lateral
restraint provided by snubbers, bumpers, or
restrained vibration isolators?
For roof-mounted units, are the curbs
supporting the vibration isolators securely
attached to the structural roof framing?
Is equipment (e.g. gas-fired boiler, commercial

HVAC

Sliding,

equipment

overturning,

water heater, chiller, etc.) securely mounted to

without

broken

the floor, wall, or roof with adequately sized

vibration

gas/fuel or

bolts?

isolation

exhaust lines,

6.4.1.4

If large equipment is mounted on a concrete

leaking fluids,

housekeeping pad, is the pad adequately

loss of

anchored into the structural slab?

function

Does the gas or fuel line have a flexible


connection that is able to accommodate
movement?
For roof-mounted units, are the curbs
supporting the vibration isolators securely
attached to the structural roof framing?
Are wall- or window-mounted window air
conditioning units securely mounted to the wall
or shelf?
HVAC

Falling or

equipment

swinging

FEMA E-74

6.4.1.5

Is suspended equipment braced or anchored


independently from the ductwork?

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-10

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

suspended in-

hazard,

Does the equipment have flexible connections

line with

separate from

to gas, fuel, or electrical lines?

ductwork

ductwork,

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or

loss of
function
Suspended

Gas leak,

equipment

falling hazard

6.4.1.6

Are the suspended room heaters, especially


gas-fired ones, laterally supported?
Are gas-fired heaters fitted with flexible gas
connections?

6.4.2

Storage Tanks and Water Heaters


Structurally

Tank or

supported

vessel

tanks and

rupture, pipe

vessels

break

6.4.2.1

Is the tank securely attached to the supports?


Are the tank supports braced in both
directions?
Are the tank supports attached with anchor
bolts to concrete walls or foundation pad?
Is the foundation large enough to keep the tank
from sliding or tipping over?
Is the wall strong enough to support the tank?

Flat bottom

Tank or

tanks and

vessel

vessels

rupture, pipe

6.4.2.2

or foundation?
Is the foundation large enough to keep the tank

break

Compressed
gas cylinders

Gas leak

Is the tank securely anchored to a concrete slab

from sliding or tipping over?


6.4.2.3

Are all gas cylinders tightly secured with a


chain near the top and bottom or otherwise
restrained from movement in each direction?
Are the chains or restraints securely anchored
to a wall or counter with screws or bolts rather
than clamps?
If the gas cylinders are attached to piping, are
the restraints adequate to prevent damage at
the piping connections?

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-11

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Water heaters

Gas leak,

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

6.4.2.4

water leak,

Are the water heaters securely anchored to the


floor or wall?

loss of

Do the gas lines or electrical conduit and water

function

lines have flexible connections to the water


heater that are able to accommodate
movement?
Does the water heater meet the limitations for
use of prescriptive restraints? Is the capacity
less than 100 gallons and is there a structural
wall within 12 inches?
Does the wall have adequate strength to
restrain the water heater?

6.4.3

Pressure Piping
Suspended

Breaks, leaks,

pressure piping

loss of

6.4.3.1

Are the pipes laterally restrained at reasonable


intervals in each direction?

function

Are the restraints securely attached to the


structure?
Are the pipes free of asbestos insulation that
could be damaged by movement in an
earthquake?
Are the pipes free of asbestos that would need
to be abated before any retrofit work?

In-line valves

Loss of

and pumps

function,

they mounted on vibration isolation springs

leaks

with additional seismic lateral restraints?

6.4.3.2

Are the distribution pumps anchored, or are

Are suspended valves and pumps adequately


braced and anchored to structural elements?
Flexible

Breaks, leaks,

connections,

loss of

expansion

function

joints, seismic
separations

FEMA E-74

6.4.3.3

Are flexible connections provided where piping


connects to rigidly mounted equipment?
Are flexible connections provided where pipes
cross expansion joints or seismic separations
between buildings?

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-12

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)
Are pipe penetrations through structural walls
or framing members large enough to allow for
some seismic movement?

Pipe Risers

Breaks, leaks,

6.4.3.4

Are risers (vertical runs of piping) laterally

loss of

restrained at each floor level or roughly at 20

function

foot intervals?
For risers subject to thermal expansion and
contraction, have the seismic supports been
designed to allow ample thermal movement?

Floor-mounted

Breaks, leaks,

pipe supports

loss of

6.4.3.5

Are the pipes laterally restrained at reasonable


intervals in each direction?

function

Are the restraints securely attached to the


structure?

Roof-mounted

Breaks, leaks,

pipe supports

loss of

intervals in each direction and do the restraints

function

appear adequate for the roof level?

6.4.3.6

Are the pipes laterally restrained at reasonable

[Accelerations at the roof level are typically


higher than at lower levels of a building.]
Are the curbs and restraints securely attached
to the structure and protected from weathering
and corrosion?
Wall-mounted

Breaks, leaks,

pipe supports

loss of

6.4.3.7

Are the pipes laterally restrained at reasonable


intervals in each direction?

function

Are the restraints securely attached to the


structure?

Pipe

Breaks, leaks,

penetrations

loss of

or framing members large enough to allow for

function

some seismic movement or are the pipes

6.4.3.8

Are pipe penetrations through structural walls

restrained to prevent impact with the structural


element?
6.4.4

Fire Protection Piping


Suspended fire

Damage to

protection

sprinkler

FEMA E-74

6.4.4.1

Are the fire sprinkler piping components


laterally restrained in each direction?

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-13

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

piping

heads, leaks,

Is the ceiling restrained so the ceilings won't

loss of

break the sprinkler heads?

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or

function
6.4.5

Fluid Piping, not Fire Protection


Is the hazardous material piping laterally

Hazardous

Breaks, leaks,

materials

hazardous

restrained at reasonable intervals in each

materials

direction?

6.4.5.1

release

Are the restraints securely attached to the


structure?
Where required, does the hazardous material
piping have double walls, secondary
containment, leak detection systems or
monitoring and are these systems designed for
seismic loading?
Do the pipes have flexible connections that are
able to accommodate relative movement at
locations where they are attached to rigidly
mounted equipment or where they cross
seismic separations?
Does piping containing fuel or other hazardous
materials have a seismic shut-off valve or
excess flow valve?
If the shut-off for the line is manual, is a
wrench stored within easy reach?

Nonhazardous

Breaks, leaks,

materials

loss of
function

6.4.5.2

Is the piping laterally restrained at reasonable


intervals in each direction?
Are the restraints securely attached to the
structure?
Do the pipes have flexible connections that are
able to accommodate relative movement at
locations where they are attached to rigidly
mounted equipment or where they cross
seismic separations?

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-14

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

6.4.6

Ductwork

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

Are the rectangular distribution ducts larger

Suspended

Collapse,

ductwork

separation,

than 6 sq ft in cross sectional area laterally

leaking,

supported in each direction?

6.4.6.1

fumes

Are circular ducts larger than 28 inches


diameter laterally supported in each direction?
Are the supports and hangers securely attached
to the structure?
Are the distribution ducts able to accommodate
movement at locations where they cross
separations between buildings?

Air diffusers

Drop out of

6.4.6.2

Are the air distribution grills or diffusers


anchored to adequately supported sheet-metal

ceiling grid

ducts or to the ceiling grid or wall?


Do the diffusers have positive restraint,
independent of the ceiling grid, such as at least
two vertical hanger wires per diffuser?
6.4.7

Electrical and Communications Equipment

Caution: Only qualified personnel should open


access panels on electrical equipment.
Are the control panels, motor control centers,

Control panels,

Sliding or

motor control

overturning,

switchgear and similar items all properly

centers,

broken or

anchored to the floor or laterally supported by

switchgear, etc.

damaged

a structural wall?

6.4.7.1

conduit or

Do the walls used to support these electrical

electrical bus

cabinets have adequate strength to restrain


these items?

Emergency

Failed

generator

vibration

especially if mounted on motor vibration

isolation

isolation springs?

6.4.7.2

mounts;
broken fuel,
signal, power

FEMA E-74

Is the emergency generator adequately secured,

Is the concrete housekeeping pad adequately


anchored to the structural slab?

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-15

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

and exhaust

Is the diesel fuel tank adequately braced and

lines; loss of

anchored? (Refer to additional questions for

function

structurally supported tanks and vessels).

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or

Are the fuel lines, cooling water lines, and


exhaust flues for the emergency generator
attached with flexible connections that are able
to accommodate relative movement at
junctions to spring-mounted equipment, at
building entry and exit points, and at
expansion joints within the building?
Have all the components of the emergency
power generating system and the electrical
distribution system been checked as part of
this survey?
Transformers

Sliding, oil

6.4.7.3

leakage,

Are transformers properly anchored to the floor


or wall?

bushing
failure, loss
of function
Batteries and

Batteries fall,

battery rack

rack tips; loss

6.4.7.4

Are the batteries securely attached to the


battery rack?

of emergency

Is the battery rack cross-braced in both

power

directions?
Does the battery rack have anchor bolts
secured to a concrete foundation pad?
Is the foundation large enough to keep the
battery rack from sliding or tipping?

Photovoltaic

Falling hazard

power systems

for roof

6.4.7.5

Are the solar panels securely anchored to the


roof?

mounted

Is the piping laterally restrained?

panels

Is the microwave communications equipment

Communica-

Sliding,

tions

overturning,

(antennae, receiver, transmitter, etc.) securely

equipment

or toppling

supported and/or anchored?

FEMA E-74

6.4.7.6

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-16

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

leading to

Are the components of the public address

loss of

system and phone system secured?

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or

function
6.4.8

Electrical and Communications Distribution Equipment


Electrical

Electrical

raceways,

hazards, loss

laterally braced, including both transverse and

conduit, cable

of function

longitudinal braces at reasonable spacing?

6.4.8.1

trays

Are the raceways, bus ducts, and cable trays all

Are electrical cables or conduit able to distort


at the connections with the equipment or where
they cross seismic joints between buildings?

Distribution

Electrical

panels

hazards, loss

6.4.8.2

Are the electrical distribution panels securely


anchored to the floor or wall?

of function
6.4.9

Light Fixtures
Recessed

Falling

6.4.9.1

Are recessed lights securely attached to the


ceiling grid to resist seismic shaking and is the

hazards

ceiling grid adequately braced?


Do the lay-in fluorescent light fixtures have
positive support, independent of the ceiling
grid, such as at least two diagonally opposite
hanger wires per light fixture?
Do lay-in fixtures weighing more than 50
pounds have independent lateral support?
Are lens covers attached or supplied with safety
devices?
Surface-

Falling

mounted

hazards

6.4.9.2

Are spot lights or track lights securely attached


to resist seismic shaking?
Are exterior light fixtures properly supported or
securely attached to the structure?
Are emergency lights and exit lights mounted
to protect them from falling off the wall or off
shelf supports?

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-17

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Pendant light

Falling

fixtures

hazard, light

safety cables to prevent them from impacting

fixture or

each other or a window?

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

6.4.9.3

unrestrained

Do chandeliers or other hanging fixtures have

Are lens covers attached or supplied with safety

bulbs

devices?
Do pendant or stem light fixtures have safety
cables so they will not fall if the fixture sways
and breaks the stem connection, or are they
braced to prevent swaying?

Heavy light-

Falling

fixtures

hazards

6.4.9.4

Are heavy light fixtures, such as operating


room lights, adequately braced and anchored to
the structure independent of the ceiling
system?

6.4.10

Caution: The moving parts or components of

Elevators and escalators

these systems need to be evaluated by qualified


personnel. Inappropriate seismic restraints may
compromise the safe operation of these
systems.
Hydraulic

Loss of

elevator

function

Traction

Loss of

elevator

function,

are protected against misalignment during an

counter-

earthquake?

6.4.10.1

Are the components of the hydraulic system


properly anchored?

6.4.10.2

weights out
of guide rails,
cables out of
sheaves,
dislodged
equipment

Are the cables installed in such a way that they

Is the elevator cab properly attached to the


guide rails?
Are the counterweights properly attached to the
guide rails?
Are the guide rails securely attached to the
building?
Are the motor and motor control cabinets
properly anchored?

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-18

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)
Is the elevator equipped with a seismic switch?

Escalators

Loss of

Is the escalator control equipment securely

6.4.10.3

function

anchored?
Is it known if the escalator was designed by an
engineer to accommodate relative movement
between floors during an earthquake?
Is the control equipment for the moving
walkway properly anchored?

6.4.11

Conveyors, material handling


Conveyors

Loss of

Are supports for the conveyors properly

6.4.11.1

function,

anchored to the floor or wall?

falling hazard

Is the conveyor control equipment properly

if elevated,

anchored?

contents fall

6.5

Furniture, Fixtures & Equipment and Contents

Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

6.5.1

Storage racks

Example

Light duty

Contents fall,

shelving

shelves

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

6.5.1.1

Are tall shelving units securely anchored to the


floor or walls?

damaged

If walls are used for lateral support, has the


capacity of the walls been checked for
adequacy to restrain the shelving?
Are heavily loaded shelving units supported in
both directions?
For shelving units significantly taller than wide,
are large anchor bolts used to anchor each leg
to a concrete slab?

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-19

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)
Are breakable items secured to the shelves, or
are they stored in stable units (e.g., are they
shelved in the original packing boxes, or are
small items shrink-wrapped together)?

Industrial

Contents fall,

storage racks

racks

anchored to a concrete floor slab or concrete

damaged

walls?

6.5.1.2

Are industrial storage racks braced and

If walls are used for lateral support, has the


capacity of the walls been checked for
adequacy to restrain the shelving?
Has the capacity of the concrete floor slab been
checked for adequacy to resist uplift of the
storage racks?
Are the racks equipped with dampers, base
isolation, or other specialized seismic restraint
systems?
6.5.2

Bookcases, Shelving
Bookshelves

Contents fall,

6.5.2.1

Are bookshelves 5 or taller properly anchored

shelving

with brackets to a solid wall or studs, or

damaged

anchored to the floor, particularly if they are


located next to a bed or desk or where they
could block an exit?
Does the wall or partition used to anchor the
book shelves have adequate strength to
support seismic loading from the shelving?
Are bookshelves fitted with edge restraints or
elastic cords to keep books from falling?
Are large and heavy books located on the
lowest shelves?

Library and

Contents fall,

other shelving

shelving

stacks and shelving have been designed by an

damaged

architect or engineer?

FEMA E-74

6.5.2.2

Is it known if the lateral supports for the library

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-20

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)
Are library shelving and stacks properly braced
and anchored to the floor and walls, including
bracing to the floor above if shelving is tall and
slender that tie the shelving units together?
If all shelving units are not independently
braced or anchored, are adjacent units fastened
together with bolts or other mechanical
fasteners?
Do walls or partitions used to anchor library
stacks have adequate strength for the imposed
lateral loads?
Are bookshelves fitted with edge restraints or
elastic cords to keep books from falling?
Are large and heavy books located on the
lowest shelves?
Are rare or fragile books given extra protection
to prevent falling and water damage?

6.5.3

Computer and Communications Equipment


Are the support pedestals for computer access

Computer

Collapse,

access floors

separation

floors anchored to the floor and braced with

and equipment

between

diagonal steel members, or is it verified that

modules, loss

the vertical pedestals are a seismically qualified

of function

model, installed in accordance with the

6.5.3.1

manufacturer's recommendations?
Do cable openings in the access floor have
edge guards to prevent equipment legs from
sliding into the openings
Are computers, tape racks, and associated
equipment that are about twice as tall as wide,
anchored, tethered, and/or laterally supported?
Does heavy computer equipment have supports
which are braced and anchored to the structural
floor slab independently of the computer
access floors?

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-21

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)
Is computer cabling long enough to
accommodate lateral movement within the
building?

Computer and

Lost data or

communication

damaged

racks

equipment

6.5.3.2

Is computer information vital to operations


backed up and stored off-site?
Is critical computer and communications

may cause

equipment securely anchored to the rack?

downtime

Are computer and communication racks


securely anchored to the floor or wall?
Is sensitive computer or communications
equipment located out of range of fire sprinkler
heads or joints in the sprinkler pipes where
they are less prone to water damage if the
sprinkler lines break?
Desktop

Falling

computers and

hazard, lost

accessories

data or

6.5.3.3

Are computers and monitors anchored to


desktops?
Are desktop or countertop computers and

damaged

printers mounted with positive restraint, resting

equipment

on high-friction rubber pads, or located far

may cause

enough from the edges of desks and tables to

downtime

prevent them from sliding and falling in an


earthquake?

Televisions and

Falling hazard

6.5.3.4

Are wall- or overhead-mounted television sets,

video monitors,

video monitors, surveillance cameras or sound

wall-mounted

system speakers securely braced and anchored


to the wall or ceiling or equipped with safety
cables?

6.5.4

Hazardous materials storage


Are chemical supplies secured with shelf lips

Hazardous

Hazardous

materials

material

several inches high, or are they stored in "egg

storage

release,

crate" containers in drawers, so that the

mixing of

containers will not overturn or fall and spill?

incompatible
substances

FEMA E-74

6.5.4.1

Are chemicals stored in accordance with


manufacturers' recommendations?

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-22

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)
Are incompatible chemicals stored at an
appropriate distance from one another so that
they will not mix if the containers are broken?
Are the chemicals in each cabinet catalogued
properly and marked clearly?
Are Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) stored
in a location separate from the chemicals?
Are cabinets for hazardous materials securely
attached to the floor or to a sturdy wall?
Has asbestos insulation been removed, or has it
been encapsulated to reduce the possibility of
damage in an earthquake?
Is the facility free of asbestos that would need
to be abated before any retrofit work?

6.5.5

Miscellaneous FF&E
File cabinets

Cabinets fall,

6.5.5.1

may block

Do the file cabinet drawers or doors latch


securely?

exits,

Are tall file cabinets anchored with wall

contents spill

brackets to a solid wall or studs, anchored to


the floor, or bolted to one or more adjacent
cabinets to form a more stable configuration,
i.e., a larger "footprint"?
Are unanchored cabinets located so that they
will not fall or slide and block a door or exit?

Demountable

Collapse,

partitions

block exit

other and arranged in a stable layout with many

path

perpendicular wall segments?

6.5.5.2

Are demountable partitions attached to each

Are partial-height partitions anchored to the


floor?

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-23

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)
If tall shelving or cabinets are located next to
the partitions, can these items be moved or
independently anchored to the floor or
structure?

Miscellaneous

Falling hazard

6.5.5.3

Are tall items located near beds or desks

furniture and

securely anchored to a wall with adequate

fixtures

capacity?
Are large kitchen and laundry equipment all
securely anchored to the floor, wall, or
countertop with adequate capacity?
Are vending machines tethered a column or
wall to prevent tipping and sliding?
Are unanchored furnishings located where they
cannot slide or overturn to block corridors or
doors?
Are heavy wall pictures and other wall hangings
well anchored to the studs or structural
framing?
Are heavy hanging plants secured to prevent
falling or impact with windows?
Are personal or storage lockers and vending
machines anchored and laterally supported, or
are they clear of exits?

6.5.6

Miscellaneous Contents
Shelf-mounted

Contents fall,

items

items broken
or mixed

6.5.6.1

Are valuable or fragile items protected against


tipping or falling off shelving?
Are the drawers and cabinet doors latched
securely, e.g., with special latches or babyproof hardware that will not fly open in an
earthquake?
Are rare or valuable items (rare books, museum
collections, medical records) given extra
protection against falling and water damage?

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-24

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)
Are heavy potted plants on file cabinets or tall
shelves restrained to prevent falling?

Desktop,

6.5.6.2

countertop

Is radio equipment restrained to keep it from


sliding off shelving or tabletops?

items

Is important equipment restrained to keep it


from sliding off shelving or tabletops?
Are fax machines restrained or placed far
enough from the edge that they will not slide
and fall off?
Is the public address system restrained to
prevent the equipment from sliding and falling
off the shelving?

Fragile artwork

Loss of rare

6.5.6.3

or expensive

Are heavy sculptures anchored to prevent


overturning during an earthquake?

art objects,

Are heavy wall-mounted paintings, mirrors, or

falling

other wall hangings well anchored to structural

hazards

studs or framing?
Do hanging sculptures or mobiles have a safety
cable to prevent them from swinging
excessively, impacting windows or other
artwork, or falling?
Are fragile items restrained by mono-filament
lines, hook and loop material, Plexiglas display
cases, or some other seismic safety device?

Fire
extinguisher

6.5.6.4

Are the fire extinguisher cabinets and/or hose


cabinets securely mounted?

and cabinet

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-25

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Emergency Systems
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

Emergency system components were not

Emergency Egress

covered in the body of the document but are


an important consideration for providing
earthquake safety.
If primary exit doors are heavy metal fire doors

Emergency

Exit doors

Egress

jammed,

that might jam if the building racks during an

corridors

earthquake, is there a crowbar or

blocked, no

sledgehammer located near the exit to facilitate

emergency

emergency exiting?

lighting,
falling
hazards

6.6.1.1

Do automatic doors with optical or floor


sensors and mechanized roll-up doors have a
manual override in case of a power outage after
an earthquake?
Are the building utilities and architectural
finishes along egress routes (piping, ducts,
ceilings, lights, partitions, etc.) braced or
anchored adequately to prevent falling
obstructions and to keep the egress routes
clear after an earthquake?
Are the furniture and contents along egress
routes (desks, supply cabinets, shelving, etc.)
braced or anchored adequately to prevent
falling obstructions and keep the egress routes
clear after an earthquake?
Are unanchored furniture and contents along
egress routes kept far enough from the exits so
they will not fall or slide and obstruct the
doors?
Have any unreinforced masonry walls in
stairwells, corridors, and elevator enclosures
been removed, strengthened, or encapsulated
to prevent collapse during an earthquake?

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-26

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)
Are parapets, canopies, veneers, cornices and
any other ornamentation above building exits
braced and anchored to prevent collapse?
Are emergency lights and exit lights securely
mounted to protect them from falling off walls
or shelf supports during an earthquake?
Are transoms, skylights, corridor glazing or
glazing above exits made of safety glass or
covered with shatter-resistant film?
If the building has elevators, does the elevator
have a seismic switch?

Emergency

Loss of

Is the emergency generator adequately secured,

Power

function

especially if mounted on motor vibration

Generation and
Distribution
System

isolation springs?
Is the concrete housekeeping pad adequately
anchored to the structural slab?
Is the diesel fuel tank adequately braced and
anchored?
Are the batteries and battery racks adequately
braced and anchored?
Are the fuel lines, cooling water lines, and
exhaust flues for the emergency generator
attached with flexible connections that are able
to accommodate relative movement at
junctions to spring-mounted equipment, at
building entry and exit points, and at
expansion joints within the building?
Have the transformer, MCC, switchgear and bus
ducts been checked?
Have all the components of the emergency
power generating system and the electrical
distribution system been checked as part of
this survey?

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-27

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

Fire Detection

Loss of

Are fire and smoke detectors properly

and Protection

function

mounted?

Example

System

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or

Is the control equipment for the fire alarm


system and automatic fire doors securely
anchored?
Are the fire extinguisher cabinets and/or hose
cabinets securely mounted?
Are the fire extinguishers secured with quickrelease straps?
Are the fire sprinkler piping components
laterally restrained in each direction?
Is the ceiling restrained so the ceilings won't
break the sprinkler heads?
Are the distribution lines able to accommodate
movement where they cross between buildings?
Is the fire water pump anchored, or is it
mounted on vibration isolation springs with
additional seismic restraints?
Is the emergency water tank or reservoir
securely attached to its supports?
Are the tank supports anchored to the floor and
braced in both directions?
Are the supports or braces properly anchored
to the foundation?
Are the smoke control fans properly supported
and/or anchored?
Are the fan control centers securely anchored?

Emergency

Supplies

Is the cabinet properly braced and anchored to

Supply Cabinet

inaccessible

the floor and/or walls?

in emergency

FEMA E-74

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-28

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011
Item

Component

Principal

No.

Name

Concerns

FEMA E-74

Example

NC

NA

Checklist Questions (Yes=Compliance; No or


Unknown=Noncompliance; NA=Not Applicable)

D: Checklist of Nonstructural Hazards

Page D-29

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/

Last Modified: January 2011

E. NONSTRUCTURAL SEISMIC RISK


RATINGS

The risk ratings that appear in this Appendix are provided as an aid to establishing priorities and
are based on the following definitions and assumptions:
SHAKING INTENSITY: For a particular geographic location in the United States, the shaking
intensity may be estimated by using the seismic map in Figure 3.2.1-1 that shows the areas that
are likely to experience minimal, low, moderate, or high ground shaking during future probable
maximum considered earthquake events that may affect the areas. The shaking intensity estimates
based on the map in Figure 3.2.1-1 should be adequate for items situated at or near the ground in
simple, nonessential facilities. For other situations, it may be advisable to choose the next higher
shaking intensity or to seek the advice of professional consultants. Note that for areas with light
shaking, a full blown upgrade of nonstructural components may not be warranted, unless an owner
is particularly risk averse; the current code would not require many of the protective measures
recommended herein, even for new construction.
LIFE SAFETY (LS) RISK : Risk of being injured by the item. This does not include the overall impact
on life safety systems in a building, such as loss of emergency power in a hospital or loss of fire
detection capability. These disruptions of service are covered under Function below.
PROPERTY LOSS (PL) RISK: Risk of incurring a repair or replacement cost because of damage to
the item. This property loss, as used here, includes the cost of fixing a broken pipe but not the
indirect cost of water leakage damage, and includes the cost of repairing a computer but not the
loss of business revenue computer downtime might cause. These indirect effects cannot be
estimated here on a generic basis.
FUNCTIONAL LOSS (FL) RISK: Risk that the item will not function because it has been damaged.
This includes some consideration of the impact of this loss of function of the component on the
operation of an ordinary occupancy building. Not included are off-site functional impacts, such as
the loss of function of a piece of equipment because of a city-wide power outage. Outages of
power, water, and other utility company or agency services are real problems to consider but are
outside the scope of the item-by-item ratings here.

FEMA E-74

E: Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings

Page E-1

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/

Last Modified: January 2011

TYPE OF DETAIL: For components where an illustrated example is provided in Chapter 6, the detail
type is indicated as Non-engineered (NE), Prescriptive (PR), or Engineering Required (ER). The
example number (e.g. 6.3.1.1 for adhered veneer) is shown at the left.
ASSUMPTION 1: The risk ratings are based on the assumption that the item has been installed
without seismic bracing, seismic anchorage, seismic restraint, or allowance for differential
movements. In areas of the U.S. where seismic building code provisions have only recently been
enforced, this assumption will be generally true. In areas of the western U.S. where seismic codes
have been enforced for some time, this assumption may not always be true. Particularly in
buildings constructed in the western states since the mid-1970s, some nonstructural items may be
anchored or braced, but the assumption of unanchored and unbraced items will still be true for
many items on these lists.
ASSUMPTION 2: The item is assumed to be located at or near the ground level, or in a low-rise
building. The most common case of a relatively stiff low-rise building with structural walls is
presumed in the ratings here. Items such as full-height partitions and glazing are more likely to be
damaged in flexible buildings that experience large lateral deformations. Damage to items
sensitive to imposed deformation will be greater in buildings or portions of buildings that are more
flexible, such as mid- and high-rise buildings; flexible frame buildings without significant
structural walls; "soft stories" of buildings with structural walls in most stories but with a story,
typically the ground story, that is much less laterally stiff because of the absence of walls; and the
"soft wall" sides of bearing wall buildings where there is little or no solid wall area, such as the face
of a typical commercial storefront building.
ASSUMPTION 3: For building occupancy, an ordinary occupancy category is assumed. Thus, in
the case of essential or specialized facilities, some nonstructural components would be rated
differently. For example, in this appendix the risk ratings are given for shelving in an ordinary
occupancy building, but the same shelving would be rated quite differently with regard to Life
Safety risk in a lab, Property Loss risk in a museum, or risk of Functional Loss in a communications
center.

FEMA E-74

E: Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings

Page E-2

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/

Last Modified: January 2011

Example
No.

Shaking

Example Name

6.3

Architectural Components

6.3.1.1

Adhered veneer

6.3.1

6.3.1.2

6.3.1.3

6.3.1.4

6.3.1.5

N/A

Anchored veneer

Prefabricated panels

Glazed exterior wall system

Glass blocks

Overhead glazing or skylights

Partitions

6.3.2.1

Heavy (CMU, brick, hollow clay

6.3.2.3

tile)

Light (partial- or full-height


stud wall partitions)
Glazed

6.3.3

Interior Veneers

6.3.3.1

Stone and tile

6.3.4
6.3.4.1

FEMA E-74

Life

Loss (PL)

Property

Functional

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Loss (FL)

Type of
Detail

Exterior Wall Components

6.3.2

6.3.2.2

Safety (LS)

Intensity

Low

ER

ER

ER

ER

ER

ER

ER

ER

ER

Ceilings
Suspended acoustic lay-in tile

ceiling

E: Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings

PR

Page E-3

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/

Last Modified: January 2011

Example
No.

6.3.4.2

N/A

6.3.4.3

Shaking

Example Name

Directly applied to structure

Soffits (stucco, gypsum board,

plaster)

Suspended heavy ceilings

6.3.5

Parapets, Appendages, Roof

6.3.5.1

Unreinforced masonry parapet

N/A

N/A

N/A

Parapets, cornices, decoration

Hanging appendages

Clay roof tiles

Canopies, Marquees, Signs

6.3.6.1

Canopies, Marquees, Signs

N/A

Heavy signs or exterior


billboards
Flagpoles

6.3.7

Chimneys and Stacks

6.3.7.1

Unreinforced masonry chimney

N/A

FEMA E-74

Life

Loss (PL)

Property

Functional

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Loss (FL)

Type of
Detail

NE

PR

Tiles

6.3.6

N/A

Safety (LS)

Intensity

Stacks, small

E: Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings

ER

ER

ER

Page E-4

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/

Last Modified: January 2011

Example
No.

Shaking

Example Name

6.3.8

Stairways

6.3.8.1

Stairways

Safety (LS)

Loss (PL)

Property

Functional

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Intensity

6.3.9

Freestanding Walls or Fences

6.3.9.1

Freestanding Walls or Fences

Life

6.4

Mechanical, Electrical, & Plumbing Components

6.4.1.1

Boilers, furnaces, pumps and

6.4.1

N/A

N/A

N/A

6.4.1.2

6.4.1.3

N/A

N/A

FEMA E-74

Loss (FL)

Type of
Detail

ER

PR

Mechanical Equipment

chillers (HVAC wet side)

Boilers and furnaces (rigid


mount)

Chillers

Heat pumps or heat exchangers

General manufacturing and


process machinery

HVAC equipment with vibration


isolation

Fans, blowers, filters

Air compressors

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

E: Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings

ER

ER

ER

Page E-5

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/

Last Modified: January 2011

Example
No.

N/A

N/A

6.4.1.4

N/A

6.4.1.5

6.4.1.6

Shaking

Example Name

Roof mounted HVAC units

Roof mounted equipment, vents


or flues

HVAC equipment without

vibration isolation (rigid mount)

Wall-mounted room air


conditioning units

HVAC equipment suspended


in-line with ductwork

Suspended equipment

6.4.2

Storage Tanks and Water

6.4.2.1

Structurally supported tanks

N/A

N/A

6.4.2.2

FEMA E-74

Safety (LS)

Loss (PL)

Property

Functional

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

Intensity

Life

Loss (FL)

Type of
Detail

ER

ER

ER

Heaters

and vessels

Diesel fuel tank

Propane tank

Flat bottom tanks and vessels

E: Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings

ER

ER

Page E-6

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/

Last Modified: January 2011

Example
No.

6.4.2.3

6.4.2.4

Shaking

Example Name

Compressed gas cylinders

(oxygen, CO2, ammonia, etc.)

Water heaters

6.4.3

Pressure Piping

6.4.3.1

Suspended pressure piping

6.4.3.2

6.4.3.3

6.4.3.4

6.4.3.5

6.4.3.6

6.4.3.7

6.4.3.8

In-line valves and pumps

Flexible connections, expansion


joints and seismic separations

Pipe Risers

Floor-mounted supports

Roof-mounted supports

Wall-mounted supports

Penetrations

6.4.4

Fire Protection Piping

6.4.4.1

Suspended fire protection

FEMA E-74

piping

Safety (LS)

Loss (PL)

Property

Functional

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

Intensity

Life

E: Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings

Loss (FL)

Type of
Detail

NE

PR

ER

ER

ER

ER

ER

ER

ER

ER

ER

Page E-7

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/

Last Modified: January 2011

Example
No.

Shaking

Example Name

6.4.5

Fluid Piping, not Fire Protection

6.4.5.1

Hazardous materials

N/A

6.4.5.2

Fuel line

Nonhazardous materials

6.4.6

Ductwork

6.4.6.1

Suspended Ductwork

6.4.6.2

Air diffuser

6.4.7

Electrical and Communications

6.4.7.1

Control panels, motor control

6.4.7.2

6.4.7.3

6.4.7.4

6.4.7.5

6.4.7.6

FEMA E-74

Safety (LS)

Loss (PL)

Property

Functional

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Intensity

Life

Loss (FL)

Type of
Detail

ER

ER

ER

NE, ER

Equipment

centers and switchgear

Emergency generator

Transformers

Batteries and battery rack

Photovoltaic power systems


(Solar panels)

Communication antennae

E: Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings

ER

ER

ER

ER

ER
ER

Page E-8

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/

Last Modified: January 2011

Example
No.

Shaking

Example Name

6.4.8

Electrical and Communications

6.4.8.1

Electrical raceways, conduit,

6.4.8.2

and cable trays

Distribution panels

Light Fixtures

6.4.9.1

Recessed

6.4.9.3

6.4.9.4

N/A

Surface-mounted lighting

Pendant light fixtures

Heavy light fixtures

Exterior lighting

6.4.10

Elevators and Escalators

6.4.10.1

Hydraulic Elevator (cab and

6.4.10.2

N/A

elevator equipment)

Traction Elevator (elevator cab)

Cables, counterweights and

guide rails (for cable-traction


system)

FEMA E-74

Life

Loss (PL)

Property

Functional

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Loss (FL)

Type of
Detail

Distribution Equipment

6.4.9

6.4.9.2

Safety (LS)

Intensity

E: Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings

ER

ER

PR

PR

NE

NE

ER

ER

Page E-9

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/

Last Modified: January 2011

Example
No.

N/A

6.4.10.3

Shaking

Example Name

Elevator motor and motor


control cabinets

Escalator

6.4.11

Conveyors

6.4.11.1

Conveyors

Safety (LS)

Loss (PL)

Property

Functional

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Intensity

6.5

Furniture, Fixtures, & Equipment

6.5.1.1

Light duty shelving

6.5.1

6.5.1.2

Industrial storage racks

Bookcases, Shelving

6.5.2.1

Bookshelves

Library and other helving

6.5.3

Computer & Communications

6.5.3.1

Computer access floors

N/A

N/A

FEMA E-74

Loss (FL)

Type of
Detail

ER

ER

Storage racks

6.5.2

6.5.2.2

Life

NE, ER

ER

NE

ER

Equipment

Large computer equipment

Computer networks, data


storage

E: Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings

ER

Page E-10

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/

Last Modified: January 2011

Example
No.

N/A

6.5.3.2

6.5.3.3

6.5.3.4

N/A

Shaking

Example Name

Computer cabling

Computer and communication


racks

Desktop computers and


accessories

Television and video monitors,


cameras, wall-mounted

Suspended speakers in

conference room or auditorium

6.5.4

Hazardous materials storage

6.5.4.1

Hazardous materials storage,

N/A

N/A

cabinet and contents

Chemical, laboratory, medical


supplies

Asbestos

6.5.5

Miscellaneous FF&E

6.5.5.1

File cabinets, tall vertical or

FEMA E-74

lateral files

Safety (LS)

Loss (PL)

Property

Functional

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Intensity

Life

E: Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings

Loss (FL)

Type of
Detail

NE

NE

NE

NE

NE

Page E-11

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/

Last Modified: January 2011

Example
No.

6.5.5.2

6.5.5.3

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Shaking

Example Name

Demountable partitions

Miscellaneous furniture

Miscellaneous furnishings

Large kitchen or laundry


equipment

Lockers, vending machines

Freestanding wood stove

(wood, pellet, or gas-fired)

6.5.6

Miscellaneous Contents

6.5.6.1

Shelf-mounted items

N/A

N/A

N/A

Especially valuable or fragile


merchandise

Drawer and cabinet latches

(kitchen, laboratory, office, etc.)

Potted plants or indoor

landscaping resting on shelves


above the floor

6.5.6.2

FEMA E-74

Safety (LS)

Loss (PL)

Property

Functional

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Intensity

Desktop, countertop items

Life

E: Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings

Loss (FL)

Type of
Detail

NE

NE

NE

NE

Page E-12

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/

Last Modified: January 2011

Example
No.

6.5.6.3

N/A

6.5.6.4

FEMA E-74

Shaking

Example Name

Safety (LS)

Loss (PL)

Property

Functional

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Low

Mod

High

Intensity

Fragile artwork

Tall sculptures (over 5 ft)

Fire extinguisher and cabinet

Life

E: Nonstructural Seismic Risk Ratings

Loss (FL)

Type of
Detail

NE

NE

Page E-13

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

F. LIST OF RESOURCES RELATED TO


NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
This appendix is a list of available resources related to nonstructural components, including
codes and standards, testing protocols, guidance documents, nonproprietary details, photos,
sample specifications, proprietary details, products, and research efforts. This list originates
from Appendix B of the ATC-69 Report, Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake

Damage, State-of-the-Art and Practice Report, prepared by the Applied Technology Council for
FEMA (ATC, 2008).
The information in this appendix is organized into the following tables:
Table F-1

Codes and Standards Related to Nonstructural Components

F-2

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components

F-10

Table F-3

Nonproprietary Details and Other Resources for Nonstructural


Components

Table F-4

F-23

Proprietary Details and Products for the Protection of


Nonstructural Components

Table F-5

Recent and Ongoing Research Related to Nonstructural


Components

FEMA E-74

F-32

F-37

F: List or Resources

Page F-1

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-1

Codes and Standards Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

ACI 318-08

Building Code Requirements


for Reinforced Concrete and
Commentary

2008

ACI 355.2-07

Qualification of Post-Installed
Mechanical Anchors in
Concrete

2007

ASCE/SEI 7-05

Minimum Design Loads for


Buildings and Other
Structures

2005

Chapter 13

Chapter specifying seismic design requirements for nonstructural


components; published by the American Society of Civil Engineers,
Reston, Virginia.

SEI/ASCE 31-03

Seismic Evaluation of Existing


Buildings

2003

Sections 3.9,
4.2.7, 4.8,
and Table 4-9

Successor document to FEMA 310 Handbook for the Seismic


Evaluation of Buildings A Prestandard. Relevant sections describe
evaluation procedures for existing nonstructural components.
Includes comprehensive checklists of potential nonstructural
hazards. Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers,
Reston, Virginia.

FEMA E-74

Appendix D

Appendix on requirements for anchorage in concrete; published by


the American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan.

Published by the American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan.

F: List or Resources

Page F-2

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-1

Codes and Standards Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

ASCE/SEI 41-06

Seismic Rehabilitation of
Existing Buildings

2007

ASCE/SEI 43-05

Seismic Design Criteria for


Structures, Systems, and
Components in Nuclear
Facilities

2005

Provides design criteria for structures, systems, and components in


nuclear facilities, with the goal of ensuring that these facilities can
withstand the effects of earthquake ground shaking at the desired
level of performance. Published by the American Society of Civil
Engineers, Reston, Virginia.

ASHRAE SPC 171P

Method of Test of Seismic


Restraint Devices for
HVAC&R Equipment

2006

Establishes methods of testing and documenting the working shear


and tensile strength of seismic restraint devices that are integral with
vibration isolators or resilient devices. Published by the American
Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers,
Inc., Atlanta, Georgia.

ASTM E580/
E580M-06

Standard Practice for


Application of Ceiling
Suspension Systems for
Acoustical Tile and Lay-In
Panels in Areas Requiring
Seismic Restraint

2006

Standard for Zone 2; could also be used for Zones 3 and 4.


Published by ASTM International, West Conshohocken,
Pennsylvania.

FEMA E-74

Chapter 11

Successor document to FEMA 356 Prestandard and Commentary for


the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. Relevant chapter describes
design procedures for the rehabilitation of existing nonstructural
components, and a table identifying nonstructural component types
and their applicability to different performance objectives. Published
by the American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia.

F: List or Resources

Page F-3

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-1

Codes and Standards Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source
Bulletin
2004-014-BU

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

Seismic Restraint of
Nonstructural Components

2004

Addresses suspended ceilings and non-load bearing partitions.


Published by the City of Vancouver, British Columbia.

Seismic Risk Reduction of


Operational and Functional
Components (OFCs) of
Buildings

2006

Operational and functional components (OFCs) is a Canadian term


for nonstructural components. The second edition of a document
first published in 2001. Describes how to identify and evaluate
hazards caused by nonstructural components, and provides
strategies to mitigate damage. Intended to be applicable to most
buildings types, either new or existing, and intended for building
owners, inspectors, facility managers, engineers, architects and
others whose focus is to provide safety, serviceability and durability
of nonstructural components when subjected to earthquakes.
Published by the Canadian Standard Association, Mississauga,
Ontario.

(Vancouver)
CSA S832-06
(Canada)

FEMA E-74

F: List or Resources

Page F-4

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-1

Codes and Standards Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source
E.030
(Peru)

EN 1998-1:2004(E)
(Europe)

FEMA E-74

Title

Publication
Date

National Construction Code,


Technical Standard for
Buildings, E.030 EarthquakeResistant Design

2003

Eurocode 8: Design of
Structures For Earthquake
Resistance (English version,
Final Draft)

2004

Relevant
Sections

Comments
Design requirements for buildings in Peru. Drift provisions changed
in 1997, and are now among the most stringent in the world. Drift
must be computed without an R factor, and allowable drift is limited
to .007h for reinforced concrete, and .01h for steel structures.
Standard school construction must be confined concrete, and
masonry infill must be isolated from the concrete frame. Schools
built since 1997 meeting these criteria have suffered virtually no
damage in recent large earthquakes in Peru. Published by El Servicio
Nacional de Normalizacin, Capacitacin e Investigacin para la
Industria de la Construccin (SENCICO), Lima, Per.

Part 1,
Sections
4.3.5, 4.3.6

Includes general rules, seismic actions, and rules for buildings.


Relevant sections cover design of nonstructural elements and
additional measures for masonry infilled frames. Non-structural
elements mentioned include parapets, gables, antennae, mechanical
appendages and equipment, curtain walls, partitions, and railings.
Nonstructural elements that might cause risks to persons, affect the
main structure, or disrupt services of critical facilities must be verified
to resist seismic design actions. Designs for nonstructural elements of
great importance are based on realistic models of the structure and
on appropriate response spectra derived from the response of the
supporting structural elements. Lateral force calculations include
consideration of period ratio, importance factor, and behavior
factor. Published by the European Committee for Standardization
(CEN).

F: List or Resources

Page F-5

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-1

Codes and Standards Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

IBC 2006

2006 International Building


Code

2006

National model building code, latest edition; scheduled for adoption


in most jurisdictions across the United States. Specifically references
ASCE 7-05 for design of nonstructural components. Published by the
International Code Council, Washington, D.C.

IBC 2003

2003 International Building


Code

2003

National model building code; adopted in some areas of the United


States. Published by the International Code Council, Washington,
D.C.

ICC-ES AC-156

Acceptance Criteria for


Seismic Qualification by
Shake-Table Testing of
Nonstructural Components
and Systems.

2004

Published by the International Code Council Evaluation Service,


Whittier, California.

NFPA 13

Standard for the Installation


of Sprinkler Systems, 2007
Edition

2007

Published by the National Fire Protection Association, Quincy,


Massachusetts.

FEMA E-74

F: List or Resources

Page F-6

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-1

Codes and Standards Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

Chilean Norm
NCh 433.Of96, Earthquake
Resistant Design of Buildings

1996

Chilean code for buildings. Includes the following drift criteria: (1)
drift must be computed without an R factor; and (2) must be less
than 0.002h for buildings with precast shear walls with dry joints;
less than 0.003h for shear wall building with rigidly attached
masonry infill; less than .0075h for unbraced frames with isolated
infill; and less than .015h for other structures. Includes a scale factor
Q/Qmin that allows a reduction of the computed drift for longer
period structures where the design base shear Q is less than a
minimum base shear Qmin. Stringent drift criteria (more stringent than
U.S. codes) have resulted in an almost exclusive use of shear wall
systems in buildings. As a result, drift-related nonstructural damage is
significantly reduced. Published by the Instituto Nacional de
Normalizacion (INN-Chile), Santiago, Chile.

Chilean Norm NCh2369,


Earthquake Resistant Design
of Industrial Structures and
Facilities

2003

Chilean code for industrial buildings. Includes recommendations and


design rules for mechanical equipment that could be applicable to
other types of buildings. Currently only available in Spanish.
Published by the Instituto Nacional de Normalizacion (INN-Chile),
Santiago, Chile.

UBC 1961

Uniform Building Code, 1961


Edition

1961

First appearance of separate provisions for nonstructural components


in the UBC; maximum lateral force of 0.2g in Zone 3.

UBC 1976

Uniform Building Code, 1976


Edition

1976

Nonstructural provisions updated in response to 1971 San Fernando


Earthquake; maximum force increased to 0.3g in Zone 4.

NCh 433.Of96
(Chile)

NCh 2369.Of2003
(Chile)

FEMA E-74

F: List or Resources

Page F-7

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-1

Codes and Standards Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

UBC 1988

Uniform Building Code, 1988


Edition

1988

Update of nonstructural provisions to consider response of non-rigid


items and items at grade; maximum force remained 0.3g in Zone 4
for rigid items.

UBC 1997

Uniform Building Code, 1997


Edition

1997

Nonstructural seismic requirements are a blend of requirements


from the 1994 and 1997 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for
Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures.

USACE

Tri-Service Manual, Seismic


Design for Buildings

1998

Chapter 10

Successor document to TM 5-809-10 and TM 5-809-10-1.


Published by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C.

Tri-Service Manual, Seismic


Design for Buildings

1996

Chapter 8,
Appendix L

Provides a dynamic analysis procedure for design of nonstructural


components that must remain functional after a major earthquake.
Requires generation of floor response spectra and consideration of
inter-story drift at the location of essential equipment. Appendix
includes four design examples. Published by the US Army Corps of
Engineers, Washington, D.C.

TI 809-04

USACE
TM 5-809-10

FEMA E-74

F: List or Resources

Page F-8

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-1

Codes and Standards Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source
USACE
TM 5-809-10-1

USACE
TM-5-809-10-2

VISCMA 102-07

FEMA E-74

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

Tri-Service Manual, Seismic


Design Guidelines for
Essential Buildings

1986

Chapter 6

Provides methodology for design; defines essential nonstructural


systems (Table 6-3); defines two levels of earthquake ground motion
(EQ-I and EQ-II); requires equipment certification. Published by the
US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C.

Tri-Service Manual, Seismic


Design Guidelines for
Upgrading Existing Buildings

1988

Chapter 9

Chapter focuses on improving performance of existing nonstructural


installations. Includes a list of nonstructural systems with descriptions
of potential damage and failure modes (Table 9-1). Published by the
US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, D.C.

Static Qualification Standards


for Obtaining a VISCMA
Compliant Seismic
Component Rating

2007

Testing protocol for mechanical, electrical and plumbing equipment.


Published by the Vibration Isolation and Seismic Control
Manufacturers Association, Wayne, Pennsylvania.

F: List or Resources

Page F-9

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

ASHRAE RP-812

A Practical Guide to Seismic


Restraint

1999

Published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia.

ASHRAE /SMACNA

Seismic Restraint
Applications CD-ROM

2002

Provides technical information for design and installation of seismic


restraints for HVAC equipment, piping, and ducts. Includes
representative bracing details, layout examples, and tables. Consists of
portions of the following documents: SMACNA's Seismic Restraint
Manual: Guidelines for Mechanical Systems; ASHRAE's Handbook HVAC Applications (2003); and ASHRAE's A Practical Guide to
Seismic Restraint. Produced by the American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. and the Sheet
Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association.

CISCA 1991

Recommendations for
Direct-Hung Acoustical and
Lay-in Panel Ceilings, Seismic
Zones 0-2

1991

Industry standards for ceilings in low seismic zones. Published by


Ceilings and Interior Systems Construction Association, Deerfield,
Illinois.

CISCA 1990

Recommendations for
Direct-Hung Acoustical and
Lay-in Panel Ceilings, Seismic
Zones 3-4

1990

Industry standards for ceilings in high seismic zones. Published by


Ceilings and Interior Systems Construction Association, Deerfield,
Illinois.

FEMA E-74

F: List or Resources

Page F-10

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

Guide and Checklist for


Nonstructural Earthquake
Hazards in California Schools

Identifies potential hazards associated with nonstructural components


and provides recommendations to mitigate hazards. Includes typical
details and a nonstructural earthquake hazards checklist. Published by
the California State Department of General Services, Division of the
State Architect, and the Governers Office of Emergency Services,
Sacramento, California.

DOISSP

Nonstructural Hazards
Rehabilitation Guidelines;
Vol. I; Guidelines Usage,
Architectural, Mechanical,
Electrical, Plumbing

Contains guidance gathered from various sources, both public and


private sources. Includes both proprietary and non-proprietary
details. Published by the Department of the Interior Bureau of
Reclamation, Seismic Safety Program (DOISSP), Washington, D.C.

DOISSP

Nonstructural Hazards
Rehabilitation Guidelines;
Vol. II; Furnishings, Interior
Equipment, Miscellaneous
Components, Mobile
Homes, Manufactured
Homes, FEMA 273, FEMA
310, FEMA 178, & ASCE 31xx Excerpts

Contains guidance gathered from various sources, both public and


private sources. Includes both proprietary and non-proprietary
details. Published by the Department of the Interior Bureau of
Reclamation, Seismic Safety Program (DOISSP), Washington, D.C.

DGS, DSA
(California )

FEMA E-74

F: List or Resources

Page F-11

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

EERI 84-04

Nonstructural Issues of
Seismic Design and
Construction

1984

Results of workshop including invited papers on nonstructural issues.


Published by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, Oakland,
California.

FEMA

Instructor's Guide for


Nonstructural Earthquake
Mitigation for Hospitals and
other Health Care facilities.

1988

Materials for course given by Emergency Management Institute,


Emmitsburg, Maryland.

FEMA

Final Report, Nonstructural


Earthquake Mitigation
Guidance Manual.

2004

Based on FEMA Region X Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Handbook


for Public Facilities, 2002. Includes flowcharts, step-by-step
procedures and some details. Divides nonstructural components into
four groups: contents, exterior building elements, interior building
elements, and building utilities. Prepared by URS Group, Inc. for
FEMA.

FEMA Region X

Earthquake Hazard
Mitigation Handbook for
Public Facilities

2002

Available at http://www.conservationtech.com/FEMA-WEB/FEMAsubweb-EQ/index.htm

FEMA 74

Reducing the Risks of


Nonstructural Earthquake
Damage: A Practical Guide.
Third Edition

1994

Successor document to previous editions of FEMA 74, first published


in 1985.

FEMA E-74

F: List or Resources

Page F-12

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

FEMA 74-FM

Earthquake Hazard
Mitigation for Nonstructural
Elements, Field Manual

2005

Includes three types of details: Non-Engineered, Prescriptive, and


Engineered. Contains more details than FEMA 74, along with a field
data sheet based on the FEMA 74 checklist.

FEMA 150

Seismic Considerations:
Health Care Facilities

1990

Published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency,


Washington, D.C.

FEMA 172

NEHRP Handbook of
Techniques for the Seismic
Rehabilitation of Existing
Buildings

1992

Chapters
5, 6

Relevant chapters include details for electrical cabinets, chimneys,


parapets, masonry partitions, raised access floors, and mechanical
equipment.

FEMA 178

NEHRP Handbook for the


Seismic Evaluation of Existing
Buildings

1992

Section 10.5

Predecessor document to FEMA 310.

FEMA 232

Homebuilders' Guide to
Earthquake-Resistant Design
and Construction

2006

FEMA E-74

Includes details based on the 1994 edition of FEMA 74.

F: List or Resources

Page F-13

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

FEMA 273

NEHRP Guidelines for the


Seismic Rehabilitation of
Buildings

1997

FEMA 310

Handbook for the Seismic


Evaluation of Buildings - A
Prestandard

1998

Sections 3.9,
4.2.7, 4.8,
and Table 49

Predecessor document to SEI/ASCE 31-03. Relevant sections describe


evaluation procedures for existing nonstructural components.
Includes comprehensive checklists of potential nonstructural hazards.

FEMA 356

Prestandard and
Commentary for the Seismic
Rehabilitation of Buildings

2000

Chapter 11

Successor document to FEMA 273/274, and predecessor to ASCE/SEI


31-03. Relevant chapter describes design procedures for the
rehabilitation of existing nonstructural components, and a table
identifying nonstructural component types and their applicability to
different performance objectives.

FEMA 389

Communicating with Owners


and Managers of New
Buildings on Earthquake
Risk: A Primer for Design
Professionals

2004

FEMA E-74

Predecessor document to FEMA 356.

F: List or Resources

Page F-14

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

FEMA 395

Incremental Seismic
Rehabilitation of School
Buildings (K-12): Providing
Protection to People and
Buildings

2003

Includes a table of "Nonstructural Seismic Performance


Improvements" (page C-21) that lists possible seismic performance
improvements that could be undertaken on nonstructural
components common to school occupancies.

FEMA 396

Incremental Seismic
Rehabilitation of Hospital
Buildings: Providing
Protection to People and
Buildings

2003

Includes a table of "Nonstructural Seismic Performance


Improvements" (page C-23) that lists possible seismic performance
improvements that could be undertaken on nonstructural
components common to hospital occupancies.

FEMA 397

Incremental Seismic
Rehabilitation of Office
Buildings: Providing
Protection to People and
Buildings

2003

Includes a table of "Nonstructural Seismic Performance


Improvements" (page C-24) that lists possible seismic performance
improvements that could be undertaken on nonstructural
components common to office occupancies.

FEMA 398

Incremental Seismic
Rehabilitation of Multifamily
Apartment Buildings:
Providing Protection to
People and Buildings

2004

Includes a table of "Nonstructural Seismic Performance


Improvements" (page C-22) that lists possible seismic performance
improvements that could be undertaken on nonstructural
components common to multifamily apartment occupancies.

FEMA E-74

F: List or Resources

Page F-15

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

FEMA 399

Incremental Seismic
Rehabilitation of Retail
Buildings: Providing
Protection to People and
Buildings

2004

Includes a table of "Nonstructural Seismic Performance


Improvements" (page C-22) that lists possible seismic performance
improvements that could be undertaken on nonstructural
components common to retail occupancies.

FEMA 400

Incremental Seismic
Rehabilitation of Hotel and
Motel Buildings

2005

Includes a table of "Nonstructural Seismic Performance


Improvements" (page C-23) that lists possible seismic performance
improvements that could be undertaken on nonstructural
components common to hotel and motel occupancies.

FEMA 412

Installing Seismic Restraints


for Mechanical Equipment

2002

Includes numerous elaborate details and many recommendations for


seismic restraint of mechanical equipment.

FEMA 413

Installing Seismic Restraints


for Electrical Equipment

2004

Includes numerous elaborate details and many recommendations for


seismic restraint of electrical equipment.

FEMA 414

Installing Seismic Restraints


for Duct and Pipe

2004

Includes numerous elaborate details and many recommendations for


seismic restraint of duct and piping components.

FEMA 424

Design Guide for Improving


School Safety in Earthquakes,
Floods, and High Winds

2004

Includes pictures of nonstructural damage (pages 4-17 through 4-19,


4-23, 4-24, 4-30, 4-31); a list of types of nonstructural components
(page 4-59); graphics for ceilings, shelves, and walls (pages 4-60 and
4-61).

FEMA E-74

F: List or Resources

Page F-16

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

FEMA 433

Using HAZUS-MH for Risk


Assessment: How-To Guide

2004

FEMA 445

Next-Generation
Performance-Based Seismic
Design Guidelines: Program
Plan for New and Existing
Buildings

2006

Section 4.2

Describes how performance-based seismic design guidelines will be


developed under the ATC-58 Project. Section 4.2 refers specifically to
the development of nonstructural performance products.

FEMA 450

NEHRP Recommended
Provisions for Seismic
Regulations for New
Buildings and Other
Structures, Part 1 and 2:
Provisions and Commentary

2004

Chapters 6,
6A, and
Commentary

Provides criteria for the design and construction of structures to resist


earthquake ground motions. Relevant chapters include prescriptive
requirements for the design of architectural, mechanical, electrical
and piping components.

FEMA 452

A How-To Guide to Mitigate


Potential Terrorist Attacks
Against Buildings

2005

FEMA E-74

F: List or Resources

Page F-17

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

FEMA 454

Designing for Earthquakes: A


Manual for Architects

2006

FEMA 460

Seismic Considerations for


Steel Storage Racks Located
in Areas Accessible to the
Public

2005

FEMA E-74

Relevant
Sections
Section 6.6,
Chapter 9

Comments
Discussion of code issues including nonstructural issues. Contains a
collection of photos and generic details borrowed from various
sources including: FEMA 74; details developed for the Lawrence
Livermore National Lab; and the SMACNA Guidelines. Includes a
discussion on the need for systems engineering, considering all parts
of the building as a whole. Provides a checklist (Table 9-3) showing
allocation of design responsibilities for nonstructural systems and
components.
Includes: a review of the performance of storage racks in past
earthquakes; a history of the development of codes and standards
used for storage rack design; current storage rack design practices;
guidance on recommended performance goals and design
requirements for storage racks; guidelines for
implementation/responsibilities associated with the specification,
procurement, and installation of pallet storage racks; suggested
guidance for securing contents; recommendations for operations and
use; suggested guidance for quality assurance programs; a discussion
of current and past storage rack research and testing; suggestions for
post-earthquake inspections; and proposed modifications to seismic
design provisions and standards for racks.

F: List or Resources

Page F-18

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

FEMA 461

Interim Protocols for


Determining Seismic
Performance Characteristics
of Structural and
Nonstructural Components

2007

FEMA 577

Design Guide for Improving


Hospital Safety in
Earthquakes, Floods, and
High Winds: Providing
Protection to People and
Buildings

2007

FEMA 582

Design Guide for Improving


Commercial Buildings Safety
in Earthquakes, Floods, and
High Winds

Future

FEMA E-74

Relevant
Sections

Comments
Provides an interim protocol for testing of building components to
establish their performance capability in the form of fragility functions.
Fragility functions are used to assess the seismic performance of
individual components, systems incorporating these components, and
buildings containing these systems and components that are subjected
to earthquake shaking. Protocols are not intended for seismic
performance qualification testing of nonstructural components
required by the building code, although the loading protocols could
be used for that purpose.

F: List or Resources

Page F-19

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

John Wiley & Sons,


Inc.

Earthquakes, an Architect's
Guide to Nonstructural
Seismic Hazards

1990

Target audience is architects. Written by H.J. Lagorio. Published by


John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, New York.

OCIPEP
(Canada)

Seismic Hazard Assessment


and Mitigation for Buildings
Functional and Operational
Components: A Canadian
Perspective

2002

Contains figures and photos from various sources, including FEMA 74.
Includes damage photos from 1999 Chi Chi, Taiwan Earthquake:
damage to rooftop equipment (page 19); collapse of free-standing
non-structural wall (page 20); and damage to sprinkler systems.
Prepared by the Department of Civil Engineering, University of
Ottowa, for the Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection and
Emergency Preparedness (OCIPEP), Ontario, Canada.

Oregon Emergency
Management

Earthquake Preparedness
and Mitigation Guidance for
Oregon State Agency Offices
and Warehouses

2004

Focuses on office and warehouse occupancies, with special attention


to storage racks. Includes photos and guidance including shrink-wrap
and netting to mitigate potential falling hazards. Provides some
specific information on performance of furniture by specific vendors
(Hayworth, Steelcase, and Artmet).

Pan American
Health
Organization

Principles of Disaster
Mitigation in Health Facilities

2000

FEMA E-74

Chapter 3

Includes guidance on assessing and mitigating seismic vulnerabilities


of nonstructural components. Published by the Pan American Health
Organization, Regional Office of the World Health Organization,
Washington, D.C.

F: List or Resources

Page F-20

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source
Salt Lake City
School District

Title
Seismic Design Criteria of

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments

2001

Developed under a FEMA Project Impact Grant. Intended for use


on new school design projects and seismic retrofit projects in the Salt
Lake City School District. Establishes minimum design procedures,
general detailing requirements, design approval procedures, and
construction inspection procedures for nonstructural items. The
design engineer or architect is responsible for development of project
specific nonstructural details. Some requirements exceed the
minimum standards given in the Uniform Building Code (UBC).

Nonstructural Systems For


New School Facilities And
Existing School Facilities

Seattle Public
Schools

School Facilities Manual:


Nonstructural Protection
Guide. Safer Schools,
Earthquake Hazards,
Nonstructural. Second
Edition

2000

Includes detailed inventory form and details not included in FEMA


74.

University of
California, Berkeley

UC Berkeley: Q-Brace
Quake Bracing Guidelines

2005

Guidelines developed for University of California, Berkeley campus


facilities. Includes detailed solutions for contents identifying vendor
supplied products or size of hardware to use.

USACERL
TR-98/34

Seismic Mitigation for


Equipment at Army Medical
Centers

1998

Presents simple methods for reducing the seismic vulnerability of


equipment at Army medical centers. Illustrations, observations, and
recommendations are based on examples from Madigan Army
Medical Center (MAMC). Concerns about particular well-anchored
critical medical equipment are presented. Published by the U.S.

FEMA E-74

F: List or Resources

Page F-21

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-2

Guidance Documents Related to Nonstructural Components (continued)

Document
Number/Source

Title

Publication
Date

Relevant
Sections

Comments
Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories.

USACE, Engineering
and Support

Seismic Protection for


Mechanical Equipment

Presentation on procedures to design seismic supports of equipment,


piping, and ducts; includes force coefficients and methods to
calculate forces. Also includes a list of references useful as guidelines
for the design. Available from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at

Center

http://www.dtic.mil/ndia/2005triservice/track16/stut.pdf.
VISCMA

Understanding the 2000 IBC


Code (Architectural
Components and Equipment
Restraint)

2005

Available on the Vibration Isolation and Seismic Control


Manufacturers Association website at
http://www.viscma.com/articles.htm

VISCMA

The Pitfalls of Combining


Internal & External
Equipment Isolation

2003

Explains problems associated with utilizing both internal and external


isolation in equipment. Shows that performance is better if only
external isolation is used. Available on the Vibration Isolation and
Seismic Control Manufacturers Association website at
http://www.viscma.com/articles.htm

FEMA E-74

F: List or Resources

Page F-22

Available at: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/earthquake/fema74/


Last Modified: January 2011

Table F-3

Nonproprietary Details and Other Resources for