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Beginners Guide To DSLR Photography

How To Create Brilliant Digital Photography Like A Pro

Table of Contents



I want to thank you and congratulate you for downloading the book A Beginners Guide To DSLR
This book contains proven steps and strategies on how to take photos the right way with your digital
camera. You'll learn about all sorts of amazing points that relate to these cameras.
These are fascinating cameras in that they come with a variety of features. You can take a look at
many points in this book including how photos are to be taken, how you can create nice looks and
how to make your images stable as you take them. You will also learn about common mistakes that
people make and whether or not you might be at risk of creating a photo that isn't as sharp as you
want it to be.
You can also learn about the use of software to edit photos from a camera and the many aspects that
come with different kinds of cameras. You might be amazed at just how interesting the world of
photography is when you see how such a camera may be used.
Thanks again for downloading this book; I hope you enjoy it!

Chapter 1 What Is a DSLR Camera?

Alright, so first things first, what is a DSLR camera?
You must have heard from people wanting to buy a DSLR camera and to just get started on this
beautiful journey called photography. Now, to put in simple words, DSLR is a Digital Single-Lens
Reflex camera. It is basically your eyes, which makes everything look so beautiful.
A DSLR has got reflex mirrors which helps in showing you the exact scene which you are going to
shoot in your viewfinder. All this is done with the help of a focusing screen, condenser lens and a
prism wall.
So basically a DSLR is a digital camera that works on mirrors and interchangeable lenses. Now you
must have seen those big nozzles photographers attach in front of their cameras right; yes, thats a
lens. That is what gives you the required output for shooting images. There are various types of
lenses available and the best part about DSLRs is the flexibility to attach these lenses.
Here are some common types of lenses:
Macro lens: This is used for close object photography subjects like flowers, plants and
Tilt and shift lens: As the name suggests, it is used for tilt and shift photography. You must
have seen those long perspective building shots that professionals like to take; this is what
they use.
Wide Angle lenses: Perfect for landscape photography.
Standard prime and zoom lens: This is a standard tool used to take pictures in weddings,
events, photo journalism events and more. It is also ideal for portraits.
Telephoto prime and zoom lenses: This one is for action, sports and wildlife

Other Features
Now apart from its transformer-like ability to change lenses, what really defines a DSLR is the
quality and speed that comes with it. The imaging sensors in this camera are much larger in a DSLR
when compared with any compact digital camera. It works on bigger the better logic: the bigger the
imaging sensor, the better the image quality.

Another awesome thing about DSLR is the speed. It can capture images with a speed of 4fps [Frames
per second]. No compact digital camera can beat that.
Image sensors are basically what create noise in your photographs. These sensors are responsible for
maintaining the quality of the image and since point and shoot cameras or compact digital cameras
have smaller image sensors, they lose quality when the sensitivity is increased.
Also, DSLR cameras are pretty solid when it comes to exposing the image sensors to light. Most
point and shoot cameras have settings where you can keep the exposure to mostly just up to 1 minute
but a DSLR allows you to do that for as long as you want. Sometimes a good shot needs an exposure
for around 5 long minutes and only a DSLR will allow you to do that.
So now you know what a DSLR is and what it can do. Once you get your hands on such a camera and
start exploring, it will become like a Lego toy set. You can attach external flashes, various lenses, lens
filters which affect colors and contrast and more. Also, you can also upgrade the battery life for
longer photography sessions. It is not a camera for your selfies and party clicks; use your
smartphone for that. This is for great quality photographs and an amazing photography experience
with limitless capabilities.

Debunking Myths
The following are some photography myths so you dont get disappointed just yet:

1. Taking photographs outdoors in good daylight is something which can be easily done
with any camera so dont feel disappointed if you friend challenges you with his point and
shoot camera. There is a lot more you can do which he cant.

2. Indoor photography in sub-par light is a challenging task. So if you dont get a good
output, dont blame the camera. Learn the techniques and you will get a perfect photograph.

3. Clicking pictures of moving objects is difficult: a moving car, your dog, your kids. This
is especially when its indoors or when the lighting is not adequate. It is extremely difficult
for any camera and all photographers may struggle to master this art.

4. If you are spending money to buy a top notch camera from brands like Nikon, Cannon,
Olympus then make sure you buy lenses of the same brand to get the best output.

5. Lastly, the most important myth is about megapixels. Dont fall for it. Many salesmen
mislead customers to buy cameras with higher megapixels. The truth is that any camera over
4 megapixels is good enough to print an image as big as 2x3 feet in size. Its all about your
photography skills.

Tips for Getting Started

1. Try to give a unique name to each photo because most of the cameras have this default
naming system where it starts with DSC_0001 and the series goes on. So if you shoot 10
photographs, it will be a series of DSC_0001 to DSC_0010. Now if you take out your
memory card and reinsert it, it will again start the DSC_0001 series instead of DSC_0011. So,
make sure your name is properly adjusted if you dont want to accidentally overwrite old
2. You are still far from learning everything about photography. There are way too many
buttons and settings on your DSLR. Dont get confused with it, just play around with some
default settings or switch to auto mode. Get some hands on experience; feel comfortable
before you start getting technical.
3. Your camera is now your everyday companion; try to take it with you wherever you go.
You never know when a great photography opportunity might come up. Remember that quote
Cool things always happen when you dont have a camera. So make sure you dont miss out
on anything. And taking care of your camera is also important; dont keep it in extreme hot
and cold conditions. Keep it in a covered space.
4. Setting up the date and time in your camera will help you when you try to sort your
photographs. It is a digital camera and since you have so much memory you would not think
twice before clicking a picture; it is like getting a gun with unlimited ammo. But when you try
to sort it later, it might a pain. Setting up the date and time accurately will help you with details
like when was the picture taken and what the time was. It is a very minor detail but it can add
value to your photographs.

A Few More Points

These are some basic tips to use to make sure you get a good photograph.
1. Cleaning:
The lens and sensor always have to stay clean for the camera to work right. Cleaning them
will prevent unwanted dots and dust particles from appearing in your beauty shot. Get a lens
cloth and use it only to clean the lens. Always clean the lens in a circular motion. While
changing the lens, make sure you are in a safe environment; it helps in keeping the sensor
clean or else dirt can easily attack the sensor as it is exposed. Keep the camera off while doing
the transition. Most DSLRs have auto sensor cleaning options.
2. Lock the target:

Always lock your target before clicking a picture. It is about good composition and perfect
order. You target can be your friends, a tourist group or maybe just some fruits on the table.
Move them right/left, position it correctly and only shoot when you are satisfied and see a
proper frame.
3. Frame your shots:
Framing is what makes photographs appear rich and high in quality. To become a good
photographer, you must have an eye to frame your shots. Place your target properly and make
sure you leave some headroom. It is not necessary to keep your target directly in the center of
the frame. Do some experiments and study some photographs in magazines. You will get an
idea of what works best.
4. Lighting makes a difference:
Proper lighting helps in defining the mood of the photograph. Play around with internal flash
settings and check out how it works in various environments. Soon you will get an idea of
what settings are best for each type of shot. You can also attach external flash units for
advanced photography. A good lighting set up can change from night to day.
5. Controlled Exposure:
You need to learn how to manually control the exposure level on your camera. Auto exposure
is good in some photographs but if you want to take professional photographs then you will
need to master this art. Controlled exposure will help you take pictures with more focus on
your subjects. Exposure is directly related to the shutter. Manual controls will give you the
best results. For example, if you try to take a picture of a cloudy sky then the auto exposure
feature will focus on all the white clouds in the sky while you might just want to focus on one
beautiful cloud. The iris will be closed to focus on all the white clouds and it can lead to an
underexposed photo or a dark photo.
6. Depth of Field:
Ever seen those photographs where you see an object in focus in front and the background is
blurred? That is the depth of field. Once you learn the basics of this, your creativity will
expand beyond limits. This can really add professionalism to your photographs. This works
best with a Macro lens for close up photography. You can set the focus on the exact target.

Chapter 2 Critical Points

Aperture is a critical part of DSLR photography. ISO and shutter speed are the other two. Needless to
mention, aperture is as vital to photography as ISO and shutter speed are hence popular to talk about.
What aperture does is one of two things: the background of an image is either blurred or in what may
appear as wizardry, the background and the foreground objects are brought to focus.
A simplistic definition of an aperture would be a lens with a hole in it for light to travel into the body
of the camera. A lens on a camera can be comparable to the human eye. The underlying concept
behind all cameras of this day and age is the human eye. The cornea of a human eye is comparable to
the front portion of a lens through which external light passes to reach the iris. How much the iris
would expand or contract is directly related to and indeed dependent on how much external light is
available which in turn regulates the pupils size as well, thus letting light enter the eye even further.
In photography, parlance pupil is comparable to aperture. A look at how much light would pass
through to the retina is comparable to the sensor of a camera depends on how large or small the pupil
is. Hence, an aperture of a camera resembles and is indeed similar to the pupil of a human eye.
The iris is commonly referred to in the photography world as a diaphragm. What the diaphragm does
is prevent light from passing or entering; the exception being those lights that enter through the
aperture. They arent blocked by the diaphragm.

The expression of aperture in photography is in f-numbers or stops. This is an indication of how
large or small the aperture is. If the f-stop is small, it indicates that the aperture is large. Conversely, a
large f-stop would mean the aperture is small. The logic behind such a relationship is skewed.
Generally large numbers are associated with large values and vice versa but this is indeed an
exception. F/1.4 is larger than f/2.0 and so on.
With a high f-number, f/32 for example, the aperture is small. With a small f-number, all objects in
the foreground and background will be brought to focus. Conversely with a low f-number, f/1.4 for
example, the foreground would be in focus while the background would be out of focus, thereby
isolating the foreground objects from the objects in the background. It is to make the objects in the
foreground look relatively sharper than the objects in the background which would look blurred.

There is a limit that every lens has in relation to the size of the aperture. The specifications of any
lens would mention the maximum and minimum apertures, in other words the lowest and highest fnumbers. The maximum aperture of a lens is more relevant than the minimum as it shows how fast
or slow the lens is.
A lens with an aperture of f/1.2 or f/1.4 as the maximum is a fast lens as more light can pass through
whereas a lens with a maximum aperture of f/4.0 is a slow lens since comparatively less light can pass
through. Hence for photography in low light, a slow lens would be ideal. Almost all lenses these days
have a minimum aperture of f/16 which isnt extraordinary but sufficient for normal photography

Lenses are of two types: fixed or prime and zoom. A zoom lens is flexible as it can be used to zoom
in or out. Point and shoot cameras have zoom lenses and therefore it is not necessary to be physically
near or far from the subject.
Fixed or prime lenses on the other hand only have a single focal length. The optical design of zoom
lenses is complex; hence most lenses for consumers are equipped with variable apertures. What this
means is that based on whether the user is zooming in or out, the f-number of the aperture would
increase to a maximum or decrease to a minimum accordingly.

Exposure in photography has to do with how light or dark an image is after it is captured. To a great
extent, photography is about intuition and tinkering with the exposure triangle would gradually and
eventually turn a rookie photographer into a pro.
Attaining just the right exposure has similarities with accumulating rain water in a bucket. Even
though rainfall cannot be controlled, what can be controlled when you are taking a picture, for
comparison's sake, is the size of the bucket, how long the bucket is left in the rain and how much rain
water accumulates. Keep the exposure right so the picture looks its best.
The underlying concept of combining width, time and quantity variables in as many different
combinations as possible aims at achieving just the right exposure. A bucket which is wide enough
would be full in no time whereas a bucket that is not as wide would not be full even if it were to be left
in the rain for the same length of time.
Natural light for a photographer is just like rainfall: Both cannot be controlled.

Shutter Speed
Apart from ISO and Aperture, Shutter Speed is the other pillar on which the entire essence of

photography is predicated. It relates to how well the camera can get a photo taken. This is a part of
DSLR cameras that cannot be ignored.
The sensor of a camera has a curtain in the front. This is the camera shutter which remains closed
until the camera shoots. The moment the camera shoots, the curtain or the shutter opens instantly and
the sensor is exposed to enable light to pass through the aperture of the lens. As soon as the sensor
captures the light, the shutter shuts down instantaneously, thereby preventing the light reaching the
sensor. The button that triggers the camera to shoot is known as the shutter button.
Shutter speed, or exposure time, means the duration the shutter of a camera is open to expose the
sensor to light. A fast shutter speed would result in frozen action.
A slow shutter speed would result in an effect known as motion blur where objects look blurred as
they are in motion in a certain direction. Motion blur is widely used in car and motorbike
advertisements to convey the notion of motion and speed by blurring the wheels that are in motion or
the surroundings of that vehicle.
Photographs of thunder and lightning or low light photography that are achieved through mounting
the camera on a tripod are examples of shots where the shutter speed is slow. Photographers who take
photographs of landscapes that have rivers and waterfalls maintain slow shutter speeds to accentuate
and convey a sense of motion and speed and yet keep all else in focus. Action can be frozen with a
high shutter speed. With a slow shutter speed, an artificial sense of motion can be created.
A fraction of a second is all it takes to measure shutter speed. Most state-of-the-art DSLRs with
cutting-edge technology are equipped with shutter speeds from 1/4000th of a second to 1/8000th of a
second and even faster. The shutter speed on almost all DSLRs is typically 30 seconds (which is the
longest). A shutter speed of more than one second is considered a long shutter speed and a tripod is
recommended for low-light photography at night or for motion photography.
Shutter speeds and aperture are set by most cameras automatically with the auto mode feature. If
aperture priority mode is selected then the lens aperture can be selected and the shutter speed can also
be automatically set by the camera.
Manually, the shutter speed can be set by selecting the shutter priority mode where the shutter speed
can be set and the aperture is automatically selected by the camera.
Shutter speed can be found by looking on the viewfinder. There should be a number on the bottom left
corner of the screen. On most DSLRs, the shutter speed would not be represented as a fraction of a
second but rather as a number.
If the shutter speed still cannot be ascertained, the camera should be set to aperture priority mode and

by looking through the viewfinder; the camera should be positioned in the direction of an area that is
dark. The display will have numbers which should be noted.

Manual Mode
After practicing on aperture priority mode and shutter priority mode in terms of which mode is
better, there isnt a unanimous opinion, good or bad, for either of the two modes. The fact is they are
both available for a definite purpose and can be used according to the demands of a situation. As they
say, practice makes perfect. Playing around with different shooting modes would instill a style in
photography to ascertain which mode is best to be used in a particular situation.
For instance, if the background needs to be blurred or if everything should be in focus then aperture
priority should be used. On the other hand, if the speed at which the image is captured is more
important then shutter priority mode should be used.
Anyone who's an expert in these particular modes will have a much easier time with the manual mode
feature on the camera. Shooting in manual mode is possible by turning the dial on the top part of the
camera to M. You can check the manual with your camera for information on what shutter speed and
aperture to use while you are on manual mode.
Being familiar with what aperture priority and shutter priority to use can help you to quickly set your
preferences in terms of shutter speeds and apertures. Care should be taken on exposure while the
shutter speed and aperture are reconfigured. An ideal setting for an exposure would be zero. For
brighter pictures though, an exposure setting anywhere between 0 and 1 would be ideal.

Inbuilt Flash
Every camera has an inbuilt flash. The computer of the camera ascertains whether or not flash is
required in relation to exposure, focus and zoom level. The activation of the inbuilt flash in compact
cameras is synchronized with the shutter speed. The difficult part though is controlling how intense
the flash would be and at what exact time the flash would trigger.
As a result, pictures could appear washed-out. Pop-up flashes are also available on DSLRs and the
pop-up flash and the shutter speed used at a given time can be synchronized. How intense the flash
would be would depend on the general light of the shot and may be tweaked accordingly. The flash on
DSLR cameras can be used in a manner that is artistic and soothing to the eye.

Chapter 3 Getting a Photo Ready

Now we can start talking about getting a photo ready the right way. Here are a few points to figure

Fast and Slow Speeds

The name itself is suggestive of the speed at which the curtain of the shutter in front of the sensor
opens and closes. In other words, it is how fast or slow the curtain of the shutter opens and closes,
thereby enabling an exposure as light passes through to the sensor.
How much light would enter the camera depends on the apertures size which translates to a hole in
the lens. Shutter speed commands the duration of the sensor s exposure to light. The shutter speed is
visible at the bottom of the viewfinder and on the LCD screen as well.
Fast shutter speeds typically have high numbers. For instance, 8000 means it only takes a fraction of a
second, 1/8000 to be precise, for the shutter to open and close. Low numbers are indicative of slow
shutter speeds: 1.6 represents 1.6 seconds, 500 represents 1/500 of a second so on and so forth.
A certain level of exposure can be maintained consistently when the shutter speed and aperture are in
sync. Shutter speed and aperture have an inverse relationship. With an increase in the shutter speed,
there would be a decrease in aperture and vice versa.
Apertures that are relatively smaller restrict light from entering the camera, necessitating the shutter
speed to be slow. The purpose of a slow shutter speed is to ensure that the sensor is exposed for a
little longer than with a fast shutter speed. If the aperture is wide it means there is plenty of light
coming into the image. With this, shutter speed needs to be fast and therefore there would be less time
for the snapshot.
In automatic and semi-automatic modes, the camera will automatically adjust to a proper speed.
However, on manual mode the adjustment has to be done on your own. How fast or slow the shutter
speed would be is limited by the aperture of the lens set to maximum.

How to Focus
An image will be formed when light passes through a convex lens. What the image will look like
depends on the path that light travels on to enter the lens. Which path light will take depends on two
vital factors; one is the angle at which the beam of light enters the lens and the other being what the
lens is made of.

The angle at which light enters the lens can vary with the proximity of the object in relation to the
lens. The light beam regardless of how it enters is bent by the lens to a certain degree. Hence, light
beams with a sharp angle of entry would have a blunt angle of exit and vice versa.
The bending angle on the lens remains constant at any specific point. Light beams within proximity of
the lens can converge at a distance while light beams from a point that is far away from the lens
converge at a nearer spot. The crux of the matter is that the actual image of an object that is closer is
formed at a distance whereas the actual image from a distant object is formed nearer.
This phenomenon could be observed by lighting a candle in the dark with a magnifying glass held
between the candle and the wall. The image of the candle can be seen upside down on the wall. If the
candles image cannot be seen on the wall then it would appear a little blurred. Thats because the
light beams emanating from a certain point are yet to converge. To bring the image of the candle in
focus, the magnifying glass should be moved nearer or kept at a distance from the candle.
This is exactly what is done by turning the camera lens to focus it essentially what is done is the lens
is nearer or at a distance from the surface of the film. As the lens moves, the actual focused image is
aligned so that it rests on the surface of the film.

Choosing AF Points
Focusing has never been as simple and easy as it is to do these days. All one has to do is use any of
the basic zone shooting modes Full Auto, Portrait or Landscape and the DSLR camera is fully
automated and programmed to work in the background. Its that simple and easy. The shutter button
needs to be feather-touched and more often than not the camera would be in focus within a fraction of
a second as the snapshot is ready to be taken.
Every now and then though, there might be photographs that just arent sharp enough. The solution
lies in the autofocus system and how it actually works. If free rein were to be given, a typical DSLR
would use its entire gamut of nine autofocus sensors that are strewn in and around the frame of the
The AF points are scattered and spread out at different sections of the frame. Sophisticated cameras
can have six AF Assist points in addition to the first nine but unlike the first nine, no one can actually
select them on a manual basis.
Info from all AF points is used in the focusing process. The distance between each object from the
camera is calculated and the nearest object is selected and in sync with an AF point and the AF is
This is how focusing on the nearest object is achieved but that isnt the case every time. Close-up

shots or a camera with a telephoto lens attached would reduce the depth of field. This would force the
photographer to be as accurate as possible with no real room for error in the process of taking an

Chapter 4 Getting Objects Sharp

You can get different objects to look clear with ease with such a fine camera. There are many things
that you can do to make your photos look more attractive.

Getting Things Sharp

Tack sharp is a part of photography jargon which means that an images clarity is as great as it can
be. Focus and contrast are two elements that impact the sharpness of an image. An image is tack sharp
when the focus of the image is crisp, has a suitable contrast and is from a pixel level where there isnt
any noticeable blur.
The notion that image clarity can be enhanced by a photo editing software program is ill conceived. If
the image itself is not tack sharp while the photograph is being taken, editing an image with software
isnt going to rectify and enhance the quality of the image in terms of contrast. Also, software may
not work all that well with regards to fine detailing or with trying to remove blur from the image to
make it sharp. Hence it is absolutely vital to master the art of capturing tack sharp images directly
from the source the camera.

Shutter Speed
Shutter speed is a big point to see when you are trying to focus on sharpness. The reasons behind
blurred images that aren't sharp come firstly from how the camera may shake as it may be held in
hand. The shutter speed may either be slow or not as fast as it should be to capture a subject that is
moving. Knowing how to rectify the issues is crucial to capturing images that are tack sharp.
What shutter speed should be used would depend on the subject that is being shot, whether the subject
is in motion or is still and the effect that the person taking the photograph intends to attain.
A salient point to be noted is that the proximity of an object in motion in relation to the person taking
the photograph would determine the shutter speed. In other words, if the person is near an object in
motion then a fast shutter speed would cause the action to stop.
A rule of thumb in photography is the reciprocal rule which is widely used. What this rule aims at
achieving is to find the slowest shutter speed that can be used while the camera is hand held and to
also keep the camera from shaking. The rule mentions that while the camera is held by hand, the
shutter speed should be faster than the lenss reciprocal focal length.
The rule is controversial and at the same time can be relied upon. It is only meant to be used as a

guideline for setting shutter speeds. This is a big point for photos that need to be as sharp as possible.

Effective Focal Length

A good indicator of a lenss focal length would be the size of a 35mm film roll. If the camera has a
full frame digital sensor which is similar in size as a 35mm frame then the effective focal length
would be the lens markings.
A basic DSLR would have a relatively smaller sensor and the effective focal length has to be
calculated manually. If there is a crop factor then the focal lengths reciprocal has to be multiplied to
ascertain a minimum shutter speed.

Multiple Bursts
Your chances of capturing tack sharp images while the camera is hand held would increase
exponentially if the camera is on a continuous shooting mode where multiple shots are taken back to
back. It can be expected that at least one shot out of so many would be tack sharp.

Image Stabilization
Shutter speed can be slow with an image stabilizer on the camera. You can try and shoot
at speeds of 2-4 stops if the lens permits. All lenses have their own factors for how they can take
stable images so be certain that you will be using the right ideas when getting those images taken

A tripod is an essential accessory to keep with a camera still so you can actually get sharp pictures.
However, care needs to be taken while purchasing one as there are many different tripods out there to
choose from.
If a camera with the largest lens attached can rest on a tripod then it will certainly be to your
advantage. Also, different weather conditions are a good indicator of whether or not a tripod can
support the weight of the camera and not cause the camera to shake or fall with the camera mounted
on the tripod. Hence the necessity of a good quality tripod cannot be emphasized enough.
There are limitations in terms of the weights of tripods and these weights can be compared with the
weight of the camera with the largest lens attached to the camera. If the cameras weight with the
heaviest lens attached is almost equal to the maximum permissible weight limit on that tripod then it is
almost certain that the camera would shake regardless of the weather conditions.
It is recommended for lenses with image stabilizer and vibration reduction features that the image
stabilizer be turned off while the camera is mounted on a tripod. The logic behind this
recommendation is that lenses with IS and VR look for movement or motion and when there is none

the IS/VR lens becomes erratic.

The fact is there are a handful of tripods that can actually keep the camera with the heaviest lens
mounted in a stable pattern. The more recent IS/VR lenses are able to detect whether or not the camera
with the lens attached is mounted on a tripod. Also, the camera might still shake a little bit due to the
split second movement caused by pressing the shutter release. This is all it takes to not have a tack
sharp image at slow shutter speeds. A remote shutter release or a self-timer is the solution as that does
not require a need for touching the camera.

The lower the ISO within 100-200 range, the less light the camera will need. Hence if for example the
day is bright and sunny and outdoor shots are being taken, an ideal ISO would be 100. The higher the
ISO, the more light the camera would need.
For indoor shots without a flash when its not well lit up, the ISO ought to be set typically to 800 or
higher so that the shutter speed is sufficiently high to allow you to hold your camera with your hand.
With a high ISO, pictures may appear grainy which does not look good if the color of the picture is
either red or orange. Therefore, using the lowest ISO possible is advisable.

Chapter 5 - Avoid Common Mistakes

Photographs are often blurry because of the shutter speed. The shutter speed should have a
denominator which is faster than the focal length. A slow shutter speed with the camera mounted on a
tripod and a remote release or a self-timer would be an even better option to eliminate the possibility
of the camera shaking. If a tripod isnt an option then the ISO could be raised or an external flash
could be used.
For subjects that are moving or are in motion, doing away with blur isnt as easy. An action mode
could be set on the camera or the shutter speed could be manually increased. Another way of reducing
blur is to keep shutter lag to a minimum by keeping the trigger pressed halfway until the
photographer is prepared to take the snapshot.

Mundane Photos
Uniqueness in photography is what matters. A photograph ought to be attractive and a cut above the
rest. A reasonably good photograph is expected of anyone but surely there is a difference between a
lackluster photograph and one that is exceptional. A photograph is exceptional when its taken
skillfully. Every photography enthusiast should explore, discover and pursue their unique own styles.
A photographer should not shun challenges so as to remain in one's comfort zone. Instead, one should
rise up to the occasion and meet the challenge head on. Travel photography goes a long way in
creating interesting and unique shots. Inspiration in photography can be found everywhere, near and
far and even in ones backyard. One has to have an eye for detail.

Post Processing
With post processing, complacency sets in as the inclination to be perfect would be to be less than
inspired while taking a shot and to rely more on post processing to set things right. Prior to taking a
shot, appropriate and recommended camera settings should be adhered to. A test photo could be taken
to make sure that lighting, composition, white balance and exposure are all perfect for the shot.
Lighting in particular needs to be proper as insufficient lighting cannot be fixed by post processing.
To save time on post processing, photos need to be analyzed to rectify issues. Correcting mistakes
that arent critical proactively is a far better option than relying on post processing. By doing so, the
composition of photographs would be better and stronger which in turn would improve the skills of a

Poor Lighting
Decent lighting is vital to photography. With proper lighting, a reasonably good photograph can
become extraordinary. Outdoor photography turns out to be the best in the early morning or late
evening as there is light for shots of scenes and portraits alike.
Portraits under an overcast sky make for a perfect shot as the light from an overcast sky would create
subjects that are lit evenly, thereby having shadows that are negligible. Indoor shots should not be
taken using flash. Reliance on natural light is advisable.

A photograph with a lot of contrast would have two extremes of light: the highlighted area and the
shadowy spot. Photographs that are taken on a bright and sunny day are the ones where the contrast is
quite apparent. The dark areas of the image could be filled in by using flash and the image could be
underexposed as well to observe whether it makes any difference whatsoever.

Red Eye
Even though an image editing software would rectify red eye effects, prevention is better than cure.
Light-eyed people are generally prone to red eye due to the reflection of the flash on the retinas of
their eyes. Red eye could be prevented by not using the inbuilt flash of the camera as much as you
might normally do. Some cameras do have an option of reducing red eye automatically; this is known
as the automatic red-eye reduction mode.
The alternative to avoiding red-eye is to have the subject not look into the camera so as that there isnt
any reflection whatsoever. Finally, if the room is bright then that would let light into the pupil of the
subjects eye which would cause them to shrink. However, this may not be a practical solution as it is
easier said than done.

Off Colors
Off-colors, or color casts as they are also known, are a common issue related to digital photography.
The settings with regard to white balance could be used to fix the issue.
Depending on the scenario, the white balance setting should be chosen. An indoor picture may look
orange due to the emission of orange light from the lamp caused by the lamps incandescence. By
adding blue, which is the recommended tungsten setting for such a scenario; it would essentially be in

Less Is Actually More

While the photograph is being framed and composed, the objective and the focus should
indeed be on aesthetics and relevance. Usually just a single point of focus is sufficient. If

background is the point of focus and the foreground has a distraction then the image needs to
be cropped by zooming in so that the item that is a distraction can be avoided.
An image editing software program can do this type of editing work as well. The goal and
objective of this exercise is to ensure that the human eye gravitates to the attractiveness of the

What If the Subject is Far Off?

The purpose of every photograph that is shot is to ensure that the frame has something
engaging within in. If for example the subject is at a distance then the desired impact may not
be there at all. A telephoto zoom lens would accomplish the task of moving closer to the
subject or the image could be cropped later with an image editing software. The image ought
to be shot at the highest possible resolution as cropping the image would adversely affect its

Low Resolution
One advantage of low resolution images is that more images can be stored on a memory card
although its neither advisable nor recommended. The quality of the image would deteriorate
if the image is shot in low resolution. Moreover, large photographs would have noticeable
pixels and hence cannot be printed.
In addition, every time a jpeg file is saved, the quality of the file will suffer. If the file isnt
big to begin with then there wont be too many options for editing. Taking high resolution
photographs with memory cards that have huge storage capacities may be better to consider
than taking photographs on low resolution to save on memory storage.

Excess Noise
Noise in digital photography and grain on a film are similar to one another. An image could
have these specks of what may appear as dust particles to an untrained eye. If the ISO is high
there will be more noise. As the image is enlarged, more noise will appear.
Images at night are susceptible to noise as its a struggle for the camera to capture detail.
Noise can be reduced by selecting the highest setting for image quality. By using the lowest
ISO setting, the image would not be blurred as the camera would be mounted on a

Underexposed Photographs
An image that is extremely dark is underexposed as the sensor did not receive sufficient light
while the shot was taken. If the LCD display shows the image as being dark, which means the

image is underexposed, then the aperture could be opened to let as much light in as possible.
The exposure on a DSLR could be adjusted with the + which would add more light. This is
normally done in increments of 1/2 stop each.

Overexposed Photographs
If the photograph happens to be extremely bright and lacks detail then the photograph is
overexposed. What this essentially means is that the sensor is exposed to light more than is
required. When the day is bright, overexposure could be detrimental.
Overexposure could also be detrimental when the subject is light colored. Overexposure
could be reduced by selecting either /0.5 or -0.1 and observing whether or not the finer details
in the section are intact. Spot metering works best to ensure that the results are accurate. An
area which has plenty of gray mid-tones needs to be picked on the image as a guideline.

Owners Manual
Granted, reading the owner s manual is not like reading a novel. Owner s manuals are normally
written in a way that is cut and dry and there is no beating around the bush. Hence they arent userfriendly by any stretch of the imagination. Not that its surprising that there are many authors who
actually write these manuals on how these cameras ought to be used. Some authors might not have
even used the cameras that they are actually writing about.

One tool should be right for the job. If pictures of all of the products that need to be used with your
camera are be uploaded on a retail site like eBay then the product would be too high-end unless and
complicated for use. Normally a point and shoot camera would suffice. If you see too many parts on a
product then it may not be the right option for you to use because it would not be all that easy to use
and may even be far more expensive than what you might be willing to spend on such a camera.

Reliance on the LCD or Preview Screen

Everything appears sharp on a little LCD monitor on the back of a camera but that doesn't mean they
will be just as sharp when you are done taking a picture. Its always a good idea though to open the
image on an image editor and view it with the zoom set at 100% so you will get a realistic idea of
what the photo will actually look like.

Editing Image on Camera

By all means the temptation to edit images on a camera should be resisted. More often than not, a shot
could have been taken unintentionally but instead of deleting the image it should be saved on a
memory card and downloaded on a computer.

Backing Up Images
This may sound too obvious but nonetheless it is essential to back up images prior to erasing or

deleting them as once the images are erased, they are gone forever. There are file recovery programs
though that may be able to recover or salvage pictures that may have been erased or deleted but they
cant be relied upon every single time.

Lack of Memory Cards

There was a time when memory cards were expensive but those days are far gone. They are much
more affordable now more than ever before and can hold more data for less money. Therefore,
purchasing as many cards as possible is advisable and recommended. With sufficient memory cards,
high resolution pictures can be taken and the best results would be guaranteed even if the pictures
were to be cropped.

Lack of Batteries
If there is no power then the camera is nothing but a paper weight. There are some paper weights that
are heavier and then there are some that are relatively lighter. Only those cameras that are compatible
with AA batteries are the ones that are recommended.
Proprietary batteries are alright also but sufficient spare batteries should be available. A card reader
rather than a computer to transfer images is advisable because by using this, the battery will have a
longer life.

Not Researching On Hardware

Prior to purchasing a camera, what needs to be ensured is whether or not the photo editing software
that you will be using is compatible with the computer you have. Many cameras these days require
high-end computers so they can read and process images. A computer that is outdated would not be
able to cope and may even stall. It could very well get the job done but at a much slower pace. In
short, you have to take a look at the hardware you need to get when using such a camera so you will
know what you will be doing when getting an image taken the right way.

Afraid of Making Mistakes

As they say, failures are the pillars of success. Its an apt analogy because through mistakes, one
learns and progresses and grows as a photographer. To be afraid of failing is tantamount to
restricting oneself to explore and thereby not being able to create extraordinary photographs. Picture
perfect shots cannot be guaranteed every time and even expert and professional photographers
havent been consistent with taking exceptional snapshots. You should not be afraid of not doing well.

Rule of Thirds
Not following the rule of thirds is a problem in digital photography that people constantly get into.
The underlying premise of this rule is that the eye of a human being is by nature inclined to focus on
points of intersection that can be seen due to the image being split into three different sections.

The rule of thirds is in essence two imaginary lines vertically and horizontally making three columns
and rows and nine sections on an image. Vital elements of composition and leading lines are put in
place on or in proximity from the imaginary lines and at intersection points.
With the rule of thirds in mind the composition of the photograph is best done in the camera to avoid
having to crop later and retain the image as much as possible and to avoid sacrificing quality of
photographs as well.

Chapter 6 - Anatomy of a Viewfinder

An LCD viewfinder is a big point of a camera to spot. It can have 65000 to 220000 pixels and a
refresh rate of 1/8 and 1/30th of a second. They are designed for viewing at an optimum distance
between 8 and 18.
To compose images, the cameras eye level viewfinder ideally ought to be used and the LCD
viewfinder to set parameters and view the image that has been captured. Even high-resolution LCD
viewfinders that the digital cameras are equipped with use the image as a test sample therefore one to
one resolution cannot be seen on the viewfinder. Hence they arent suitable for focusing in detail or
for framing purposes. Whats even worse, LCDs consume a lot of power and moreover if used for
protracted periods of time it could lead to dead batteries rather quickly. Yet another significant
disadvantage is the proximity to a CCD or CMOS image sensor.

The ubiquitous viewfinder

is incorporated on most digital cameras and there are two types available. One is a clear glass frame;
the other is the beam splitter, a swinging mirror in other words. A beam splitter viewfinder, also
known as a pellicle mirror, has a fixed angled mirror on the sensor through which 90% of the light
The remaining 10% is rerouted at an angle of 90-degree through a pent prism to reach the eye of the

photographer. This system has one advantage as the mirror is stationary to eliminate vibration. Its
main disadvantage and indeed a flaw that could turn out to be fatal for indoor shots and for
photography in poor light is that very little light reaches the eye of the photographer so much so that
the photographer may find it difficult to compose and focus properly as the subject may appear dark.
Single lens reflex film cameras and professional digital cameras are equipped with swinging mirrors
capable of reflecting 100% of the light to the eye of the photographer while the image is being
composed. As soon as the shutter release is pressed, the mirror swings so as not to hinder the
viewfinder from being blacked out momentarily until 100% of the light reaches the film or image
sensor. Thereafter the mirror swings back in so that the photographer can continue viewing the
subject. When shutter speeds are fast, the mirror will be invisible to the photographer.
An inexpensive and less complicated viewing solution at eye level is the optical glass viewfinder
which most digital cameras are equipped with. Made of clear glass, it may see something but it does
not show what the lens sees. Instead it gravitates to the lenss top or the side.
The biggest advantages are that no power is required, there arent any moving components and its
brightness is unparalleled. The system isn't impacted by inaccuracy as it usually shows quite a bit less
than what actually has been captured. Still, this may lead to elements on the edges of the photograph.
The cause of parallax is positioning the viewfinder 1 or 2 from the lens. Thus the angle from which
the viewer sees the subject is a little different when compared with the lens. This hardly matters while
shooting distant shots but for relatively closer shots the difference between the viewer s angle and the
angle from which the shot is actually taken increases. Macro shots are typically within 12 of the
subject or closer; glass viewfinders are practically useless due to the parallax error being very high.
The optical viewfinder is replaced by a far more advanced viewfinder which is the electronic eye
level viewfinder equipped with a small high resolution color monitor that consumes minimum power
and can be viewed when the camera is held at eye level. Over and above what most electronic
viewfinders have to offer in terms of direct and viewing in detail which brings clarity as to whether
or not a subject is in focus. Electronic viewfinders display vital statistics with regard to the settings of
the camera including f-stop, shutter speed, flash status, so on and so forth.
An electronic eye level viewfinder undeniably is popular but its also unpopular in equal measure due
to its disadvantage. The technology has not been tried and tested enough in still digital cameras as it
has been in camcorders and therefore is in its incubation stage. Hence in terms of brightness, clarity
and responsiveness, a traditional optical viewfinder is a far better option.

Chapter 7 - Post Processing and Image Editing

An image editing software program is equipped with tools and features to enhance a photograph. Post
processing is about adjusting pictures after they have been taken by opening photographs in an image
editing software which is equipped with tools to enhance the pictures appropriately.
An image editing software program sharpens the photographs automatically to add to its focus. No
matter how much the photographs are sharpened by software, if the pictures are blurred then there
isnt much that software can do to remove the blur. Focus and sharpness of a picture begins from the
camera. All that a software program does is to further sharpen and improve the picture.
Saturation is the process of moving the colors of a photograph either more towards gray which is
known as desaturation or to saturate them to make them vibrant. Saturation if used effectively could
make pictures lifelike but at the same time pictures may be lacking in their natural look.
Levels control the shadows, mid tones and highlights of a picture. Contrast or lightness or darkness
are simple controls that simultaneously adjusts shadows, mid tones and highlights. With levels, each
of these features can be controlled separately. With the midtone control, an overall adjustment of an
image in terms of the image being lighter or darker can be made. The shadow control increases the
depth and how shadows are accentuated. Highlights can create contrasts to be higher so the
photograph can be aesthetically appealing. There arent any preset formulas or rules to use Levels.
An image may have the wrong temperature which could be rectified with the hue control tool. There
are categories of colors that are warm and then there are categories of colors that are cold. Reds and
yellows are warm colors while greens, blues and violets are cold colors.
If a photograph of a group of people is taken and there is a blue cast due to lighting, the group would
lack warmth; hence with hue control, the general color of the photograph would have to be moved
towards red and yellow, thereby warming the image. Hue adjustment is more of a matter of
perception as there arent any guidelines or rules to abide by or follow. White balance of a camera
effectively rectifies color issues as well.

Chapter 8 - Memory Cards

A memory card or a flash memory card is a small storage device where different types of data - text,
pictures, audio, and video - can be stored and used on portable or remote computers.
Other memory cards that are available include the secure digital card, the compact flash card, the
smart media card, the memory stick, and the multimedia card.
These cards are available in various shapes and sizes and with a wide range of storage capacities that
impact the price. The CompactFlash card is approximately the size of a matchbox while the Multi
Media Card and Secure Digital card each are as big or small as a postage stamp. This is important for
any camera you use.
Most cards that are out there are reliable. There will be absolutely no loss of data due to power snags
and there is no need to periodically refresh data either. As memory cards are solid state media with
immovable parts, they will not have technical issues.
The cards that are available today are decidedly smaller and consume less power than older options
and the storage capacity is much higher on average.

Chapter 9 - Why Upgrade?

Quality of image
As the image sensors are comparatively larger on DSLRs, the sizes of the pixels on these cameras are
larger as well. DSLRs can also be used at faster ISOs which leads to shutter speeds being faster. To
illustrate this point, shooting at 1600 ISO on a majority of DSLRs would have comparatively less
noise than on point and shoot cameras with the same ISO. DSLRs are fully integrated with inbuilt
noise-reduction when JPG images are generated.

Ability to Adapt
Lenses can be changed on DSLRs which in itself is a window of opportunity for photo enthusiasts.
DSLRs in comparison with point and shoot are far more flexible in terms of the range of premium
quality lenses that are included from wide angle to super long focal lengths which can be used based
on what the photographer is shooting. In addition to the lenses that are available, there is also an
entire gamut of accessories, flashes, filters, etc. that are available. Hence DSLRs are adaptable to any
situation or circumstance. Point to be noted; with regard to your choice of lenses, DSLRs have an
unparalleled reputation. The qualities of lenses that are used can directly influence the quality of the

Normally DSLRs are quite fast cameras in terms of startup, focusing and shutter lag.

Optical Viewfinder
As DSLRs are equipped with reflex mirrors they operate based on the WYSWYG, or what you see is
what you get, principle.

Large ISO Range

What would the ISO range be varies from camera to camera. Generally DSLRs are equipped with an
entire gamut of ISO settings which makes it flexible to shoot in varied conditions.

Manual Controls
There are many point and shoot cameras which are equipped with manual mode of shooting.
However, a DSLRs design is such that the user would be inclined to control settings manually. DSLRs
are equipped with auto modes as well but since the manual controls are at a photographer s fingertips,
they are far more accessible than auto modes. Hence its far more convenient for a photographer to
set the controls manually while shooting.

Retaining Value

Arguably DSLRs in comparison with point and shoot cameras would be valuable for a long time to
come. In all probability there is truth in this speculation. In fact, the lenses that are bought along with
the camera are compatible and universal in the sense that as long as one does not change brands, the
lenses can be used on other cameras as well. Hence the lenses can be used for a long time to come and
the investment is not a waste after all.

Depth of Field
In many ways DSLRs are versatile cameras. Depth of field in particular is really referring to extended
manual control when you adjust the photos you shoot. DSLR has the flexibility of using varied lenses
as well but what makes the camera special is its depth of field which has the ability of taking
everything from the foreground and putting them in the background and in focus. Blurred
backgrounds may be created at this point to create an extra effect.

Quality Optics
There is no denying that the quality of lenses of DSLRs does vary but generally DSLR lenses in
comparison with point and shoot are of a higher standard. There is more glass in these optics, thus
making the lenses of high quality. A lot of man hours are spent to manufacture the lenses particularly
when the lenses are high end lenses. Nothing but the best quality lenses ought to be purchased.
However, if the camera is a high-end model then the lens ought to be high-end as well.

Chapter 10 How to Choose a Model

Increasingly, DSLR cameras are becoming within reach of novice or average photographers due to a
fall in prices caused by user friendly models that are being manufactured in increasing numbers.
The big question though is how one decides which DSLR camera would be suitable. One would easily
be spoiled for choices as there are many varieties of DSLRs available today.
The factors that are to be taken into consideration while deciding and choosing a DSLR camera are as

Price obviously takes precedence over other factors while looking for a suitable DSLR camera. Some
models may be found for thousands of dollars each. Having a budget for a purchase is a wise
decision but the budget should not be rigid as there are additional costs involved apart from the cost
of the camera.
It's particularly best to go with upgrading lenses than lit lenses.
All DSLRs come with a single battery but a spare battery is required for traveling
The memory card that comes with most models does not have enough memory, hence the
need for an upgrade of memory to at least a gigabyte on average.
A camera bag would be included with the camera but that to a great extent depends on the
dealer. Some dealers give camera bags and some dont. The bag though is not of a high
standard as its complimentary; to protect the DSLR camera, the best quality bag should be
bought separately from the camera itself.
A UV filter is needed for each lens that is purchased. Other types of filters could be
considered later on as well.
Opinions vary on extended warranties whether they are good or bad but nonetheless they
should be considered.

What Would It Work For

It is the question that would be asked by most sales persons in a camera store. The other variant of the
same question that would invariably be asked is what type of photography does the photographer
intend to get into. Once the photographer in his or her mind knows the answers to these questions it

would be easier to decide on what type of accessories would be required.

Some of the other questions to ask oneself are, will the camera be used as a general purpose camera
to photograph life or will it be used for travel photography. Is sports photography the purpose of
purchasing the camera or is macro or low light photography needed? A realistic list should be made
of the type of photography that the camera would be used for.

DSLRs are sizable than one of those compact point and shoot cameras but there is a fair amount of
size variants as well. Carrying heavy gear for some photographers is not an issue at all but for
photography on the go though, travels, bushwalking, etc. lighter models are more convenient.

Previous Gear
The best thing about DSLRs is that in most cases they can be used with the existing gear that one may
already have. Hence they are compatible.
A case in point is with the lenses. More often than not, the lens that is used on a film SLR could be
used on a DSLR as well if both the lenses are made by the same manufacturer. It would be wrong to be
under the assumption that all lenses would be compatible, older gear in particular. Nonetheless the
question should be asked just so that a considerable amount could be saved.
The memory card of a point and shoot camera can be compatible with a DSLR as well. This in all
likelihood would probably not be a major issue as memory cards are quite a bit cheaper than what the
price used to be but nonetheless it is a point worth considering.

Photography enthusiasts and those who arent can be are curious about megapixel of a camera. The
emphasis on megapixels is perhaps more than is required but nonetheless its a point to be taken into
consideration as there are a wide array of megapixel ratings on DSLRs. Megapixels have a role to
play in deciding how images would be used. If enlargements need to be printed then the more pixels
the better. On the contrary, if the size of the image is going to be small then the number of pixels isn't
going to be much of a concern.

Sensor Size
Another question in relation to resolution that needs to be considered is the size of the image sensor.
More often than not, crop factor is a terminology that linked with image sensor size. Simply put,
there are advantages of a lager sensor compared to a smaller one.

Future Upgrades

If future upgrades are not a possibility then entry level DSLRs can be affordable but they become
obsolete quickly when compared with high end models. Moreover there is the possibility of venturing
to purchase a professional camera to suit the needs of a professional photographer. Your level of
expertise and your desire to keep moving on in this field are critical to your decision for what type of
camera you need to use.

Burst Mode
This is a feature worth exploring on many cameras. It is the ability to shoot images one after the other
in quick succession by keeping the shutter release pressed. This works just fine for sports and action
photography. Not all DSLRs can shoot the same number of frames but they can shoot on a per second
mode and on burst mode as well. This is where the camera shoots multiple images in a single burst.

Maximum Shutter Speed

There would be an acceptable range of speeds on most DSLRs but some DSLRs do have top speeds
that are commendable. For sports and action photography alike top speeds are required. You need to
think about the types of cameras you want to use.

ISO Ratings
Like maximum shutter speed, most DSLRs would offer a decent range of ISO settings. There are a
few DSLRs though that have advanced features and offer ISO settings for low light photography as

LCD Size
Even a difference in size of half an inch is a noticeable difference in terms of the LCD screen on a
camera. It hardly makes any difference though in the way photos are shot but it would be nice to be
able to watch shots even on a slightly bigger screen.

Anti-shake is a new and emerging technology that has been implemented in newer cameras. While
lenses are equipped with image stabilization technology, the fact that cameras are being built with
anti-shake technology is truly an advancement in leaps and bounds because it protects the camera
from physical shakes.

You have to think about what you are going to do to transmit photos from the camera into a computer
or directly onto a printer. A USB port can be used in most cases. Firewire and wireless connectivity
options are also options.

Semi-Auto Modes
Just like point and shoot cameras, most DSLRs, the low end ones in particular, are equipped with
multiple shooting modes like the portrait, sport and night choices. By using these modes on a point
and shoot camera, one would know how to use them on a low end DSLR as the high end ones
generally dont have these features except on a few may be.

Normally professional level DSLRs arent equipped with inbuilt but models for beginners will have
it. You might want to think about your flash needs when finding a camera like this.
These are features worth exploring when finding ways to get your DSLR camera to do more for you.

Chapter 11 Remote Controls

Most DSLR cameras have a range of remote control capabilities that we don't even realize exist. If
you've ever wanted to take a nice self-portrait, dive into time-lapse photography or just get a different
perspective on your images, you can do all of it with a variety of wired and wireless options. Here's
how you can control your camera remotely to expand your photographic tool set without spending a
bunch of money on accessories you don't need.

What Can Be Done With It?

The reasons for remote controls when taking photos are great to see. As the camera can be controlled
remotely, the person taking the photograph could be included in the photograph as well. Whether its
a group photograph or a beautiful self-portrait, there is no substitute for a remote shutter. As the name
suggests, the shutter of the camera is activated remotely without touching the camera. Its not just that
the shutter of the camera is triggered remotely but a person can see his or her self-portrait before the
shot is taken.
Over and above self-portraits, remote controls can also work for time-lapse photos. Traditionally,
time-lapse photography is grueling and tedious as well as hard to accomplish without the assistance
of a timer. As if this was not enough, there is the risk that the camera may be moved from its
alignment because of the fact that the shutter that is on the camera is activated. With a remote option
and automation, the entire procedure is not as prone to errors as it is otherwise. Manual intervention
is not required at all.
Remotely-controlled and fully automated photography creates an opportunity to move away from the
viewfinder and photo composition can be accomplished from an entirely new angle. A domestic
photo studio could be set up without having to invest in anything except the camera. Today remote
shutters can be used on almost all digital cameras but the specific options that you can use will vary
by each model.

Using a Remote
A camera could be controlled by the remote itself. If the camera has an inbuilt infrared receiver, a
remote could either be built or bought so that the shutter could be clicked from a distance.
Building a remote could be fun on a weekend but there isnt any cost advantage. It could in fact be a
hobby for someone who is a keen and avid electronics expert. A more functional remote could
perhaps be made than bought.
Most people though would prefer buying a no-frills remote. Clicking the shutter remotely with a twosecond delay is all that these remotes can do but thats all that is needed anyway.

This is a cheap and simple option for self-portraits, group photography or to get the camera ready
and the shutter is pressed from a distance. Remote photography is possible, but all facets of the
camera cant be controlled remotely.

Smartphone Controllers Can Work

Smartphones are awesome controllers. Their support is varied and therefore is compatible with all
kinds of cameras. A DSLR equipped with an infrared receiver is more compatible with smartphones
than with a remote that has been bought for a particular model.

Infrared Controllers are Popular

Just like an infrared controller can be built for the smartphone and an application could be used to
control the camera, a controller could similarly be bought which would fit into the headphone jack of
the smartphone. The camera could be controlled with a sensible application. It could very well be that
the smartphone is already equipped with an infrared controller.
Once the infrared is set up, an application will be required. All that needs to be done to begin remote
shooting is to plug in the infrared transmitter to the smartphone. The camera should be on a remote
shooting mode and the application that was downloaded will need to be opened.
From that point onwards, the smartphone should be within 30 feet while pointing in the direction of
the camera and the corresponding buttons ought to be pressed for a snapshot.
It's simple to use like a hardware remote but the software has more features like high dynamic range,
timed exposure and more.

Wi-Fi and Tethered Controllers

When applications interact directly with the camera then things can really get exciting. If the camera
supports live view mode then what the camera sees can be seen as well from an Android handset. All
that is required to do is to purchasing a female USB adapter if the device doesnt already have a USB
port. The camera needs to be hooked up and turned on as the application is launched. If the mobility
of a smartphone or tablet is not required then tethering it to the computer is the next best option as the
camera can be controlled a little better.

Chapter 12 - Modes
While choosing a shooting mode, you have to carefully think about which creative aspect which depth
of field or motion and which exposure mode would be selected. Decisions related to creativity are
best left to the camera but everything could be handled personally as well.
The advanced shooting modes are as follows:

Program Auto (P)

Also known as Programmed Auto or Program AE, it is a combination of advanced auto mode and the
relative ease of a point-and-shoot along with the flexible advanced shooting modes flexibility.
As the shutter button is pressed halfway, the aperture and shutter speeds of the camera are set
automatically. In program auto mode, the advanced options of the camera can be set. In program auto
mode the metering mode and drive mode can be changed. The white balance settings could be
tweaked as well. Program Auto is ideal for snapshots and flash photography.

Aperture priority (A)

In Aperture priority mode, the aperture is set and the shutter speed is ascertained by the camera.
Aperture priority mode is used when the depth of field needs to be controlled. Aperture mode is
appropriate for portraits, landscapes, and close-ups. In Aperture Priority or Aperture Value mode as
its also known by, the required aperture is set by using the main dial and an appropriate shutter speed
is selected automatically according to the light in the area.
The purpose and objective of using AV mode is to control the depth-of-field which is again
controlled by the aperture that is selected. The depth of field could be a factor based on how far the
subject of the camera is from it. As the lens aperture is shrunken down, you will see larger f numbers.
It affects the depth of field as does when the distance between the camera and the subject decreases.

Shutter Priority (S)

Also, known as shutter-priority auto or shutter-priority AE (TV), this is where the shutter speed is set
manually and the aperture is set by the camera. Shutter priority mode ought to be used when the
shutter speed needs to be controlled to either freeze or to blur the action intentionally.
Shutter priority mode is appropriate for sports, action and kids photography and when one is in
motion. Shutter priority is also known as Time Value; hence the abbreviation of TV mode is perfect
for taking photographs of subjects that are in motion. Selecting TV on the mode dial of the camera
signifies an automatic aperture selection has been made to be in sync with the user s chosen shutter
speed. Unlike program mode, on shutter priority mode it has to be ensured that the aperture range that

is available is enough for the correct exposure at the chosen shutter speed. Most SLRs would provide
some sort of indication or signal and if the shutter speed selected is one of the two extremes, either
too fast or too slow for sufficient exposure, shutter speed should be different.

In manual mode the aperture, shutter speed and often the ISO are set manually. Normally auto ISO
isnt available in manual mode. Even though the metered standard exposure is displayed on the
exposure meter, the exposure could be set however one wants. Manual mode works best for those
photographers who seek the freedom of diversion from the recommended exposure. Its also superb
when the settings are unchanged for a series of shots.
Manual mode is used by most professional photographers. There are certain lighting situations that
are confusing even to the most sophisticated automatic exposure metering system. This is where
manual mode is suitable. This mode is meant for experienced photographers. Manual exposure can be
exceptional when the contrast in relation to the subject is high and the light in the background is
strong. It is also effective to further enhance a certain mood.

Bulb is a variation of the manual mode with which shutter speed can be lengthened by exceeding the
cameras setup. Bulb mode is a special type of Manual mode that lets you lengthen the shutter speed
beyond your camera's built-in limit which normally is 30 seconds.
As the shutter button is pressed, the shutter opens and closes when released. For long shutter speeds, a
bulb is ideal. It also works during night time photography or in low light situations. It's equally ideal
for shooting storms, lightning, fireworks, etc. Without the B setting on the mode dial, the other
alternative is to enter manual mode and lengthen the shutter speed until B or bulb appears.

Mode Dial
A mode dial, a setting which is also known as a camera dial, is nothing but a simple dial that is used
on digital cameras to change the mode of the camera. Most digital cameras, including DSLR and SLR
cameras, support modes selected either by a dial or from a menu. On point-and-shoot cameras that
support modes, a veritable range of scene types is available. On DSLR and SLR cameras alike,
manual settings can be accessed normally by mode dials.
The point-and-shoot cameras which are comparatively more compact and cameras that offer a lot of
modes often don't have these dials as they use menus instead. There are a few SLR lenses that can
control aperture to reduce the need for support from modes in the body of the camera.
The mode dial on most DSLRs and SLR bridge cameras can be found on the top of the camera on one

side of the flash or viewfinder. On point-and-shoot cameras, the mode dial does not have a standard
The mode dial on most models can be found on top as it is found on DSLRs as well. On point-andshoots with thin bodies in particular, the dial can be found on the back of the camera often along with
a menu-navigation button. A few thin cameras can also use a slide switch instead of a dial.
Most DSLRs have only a few manual settings and a small sampling of automatic modes. Most SLR
cameras also have manual modes and multiple automatic scene modes. All manual controls on pointand-shoot cameras could be compressed into one mode known as aperture shutter priority or could
be absent.
Compact cameras show a wide array of scene modes. Point-and-shoot and SLR digital cameras
normally have movie modes for capturing videos and modern DSLRs these days support movie
modes as well.

Automatic Scene Modes

In automatic modes, all aspects of exposure can be determined by the camera by selecting exposure
parameters based on the application within the limits of proper exposure through the camera's
aperture, focusing, light metering, white balance, and equivalent sensitivity. In portrait mode for
example, the camera would be using a broader aperture so that the background is out of focus and
would look for and focus on the face of a human rather than extraneous content on the image. In a
similar light condition, a smaller aperture is required for landscape photography and focus would not
be enabled to recognize faces.
There are cameras that have innumerable modes and show only the majority in the menu instead of
on the dial. Its not documented as what the modes do but to understand how they work it is often best
to experiment with them.

Metering Modes in DSLR Photography

There are various metering modes that can be set on the camera in order to facilitate the light meter
of the camera to work at its optimum capacity and thereby ensure that the exposure is nearly perfect.
A light meter s main function is measuring the amount of light that enters the camera. Apart from
that, more specifically what it measures is the light that reflects from various objects that are an
integral part of a scene. The question though is how is it determined what would be the right exposure
when there are different subjects in the scene with each reflecting unique shot and often times certain
amounts of lights can compete with each other.
This is exactly the juncture where the metering modes of DSLRs can come into play. Each of the

metering modes of the camera would deal with the scene in a unique way and the photographer gets to
decide the best mode to use in relation to the scene.
What would be the best exposure can be found out by setting the digital SLR to a specific metering
mode out of the 3 or 4 unique metering modes (the actual number that you will have to use will
depends on the manufacturer of the camera that you have).
With that in mind, let's take a look at a few of these critical metering models to get an idea of what
you can expect out of your digital camera.

Evaluative (Matrix) Metering Mode

Evaluative Metering or Matrix Metering is known by quite a few other names like segment metering,
multi zone metering and multi pattern metering but their functions are all same.
What this metering mode does is it splits the entire scene into tiny zones or grids on a matrix and each
zone or grid is individually measured. By averaging the matrix as a whole, the best exposure which is
a combination of shutter speed and aperture is determined. With the increasing sophistication of
DSLR cameras, there are many that in addition to measuring the amount of light in this mode will
take into account tone distribution, color, composition and even distance. This is normally the
default setting in almost all digital SLR cameras and results in the exposure being good for most

Center-Weighted Average Metering Mode

Center-Weighted Average Metering or Center-Weighted Metering also makes an attempt to measure
the scene in its entirety. The only difference is that the average that is ascertained would have the
viewfinder with more weight placed on the center rather than on the rest of the scene. Hence
approximately 70% of the metering is accomplished on or around the center of the viewfinder. This
metering mode presumes that the crucial portion of the scene is towards the center of the viewfinder
with the exception being while composing a picture.

Partial Metering Mode

Approximately 9% of the viewfinder is covered by the partial metering mode and is extremely
effective with a background that is brighter than the subject. Due to its emphasis, specifically on the
center of the viewfinder, this metering mode is extremely effective when the edges of the viewfinder
or scene are considerably lighter or darker than the center to such an extent that the edges could exert
an influence on the exposure of the main subject. The downside of this metering mode is that it
emphasizes the center of the viewfinder above all parts.

Spot Metering Mode

With the spot metering mode, an emphasis will be placed on the control that you have to work with.
There is control over where light for exposure is measured as only about 4% of the viewfinder is
covered. This happens to be the smallest area among all metering modes.
The biggest advantage of spot metering is that the spot could be rooted on any one of many autofocusing points within the viewfinder and therefore the flexibility is greater with regards to the point
of the scene that is to be metered. With spot metering, a specific area can be metered to highlight as
much detail as possible. Hence it is ideal for portraits where reflection from the subjects face is
directly metered.

When To Use Each of the Metering Modes?

Its a dilemma in terms of selecting the metering mode to use out of so many. A bigger dilemma
perhaps is to know when to use it. In the end, it actually boils down to a matter of personal preference.
In the final analysis it hardly matters which metering mode one uses. It is far more important that
consistency is gained for a better understanding of how metering is dealt with by a DSLR. Exposure
compensation and bracketing is a much more important concept than metering, for instance.
Regardless of which mode is used, ultimately adjustments through exposure compensation or
bracketing could very well be made for any kind of subject you are targeting. For beginners,
Evaluative/Matrix Metering is recommended and sticking to that for a while. This may work at least
until you can get a foolproof understanding of how the camera deals with exposure in various
environments and adjustments through exposure compensation and bracketing.

Chapter 13 - Understanding Digital SLR

DSLRs were pricey when they were introduced. Professional photographers were the proud owners
of DSLR cameras for the most part. Over the years the price of DSLRs has fallen gradually and is
now within reach of the masses. As DSLRs have become more affordable the general public is
purchasing digital SLRs without having any knowledge of its functions or what they are doing when
they are using their cameras in particular.
If you want to use a DSLR then you need to be aware of what you are doing when getting photos taken
the right way. Here's a look at what you can do in particular.

Look for a Subject

Photographs can be taken with a wide array of settings. Therefore it's vital that photographs of
anything dark arent taken. The human eye is able to perceive light intensities whose range is wider
than the sensor of a digital camera referred to as the dynamic range. By looking through a window,
what is inside can be seen even though the light conditions inside could be completely different from
the light conditions outside. Cameras and digital cameras in particular cannot do the same. While
viewing through a camera, only the outside can be seen unlike the human eye. This point ought to be
considered when subjects are chosen.

Steady Your Camera

A tripod to mount the camera would keep the camera steady. If a solid surface to rest the camera on
can be found then by all means that is exactly what needs to be done. Tripods arguably are required.
There is more hype around tripods but they may be useful. To make a note of the effects of different
camera settings it would be great to have multiple shots of exactly the same subject. For relatively
slower shutter speeds, tripods can be quite useful. There are many pictures that worsen due to a
camera's shakes. If the lens is equipped with an automatic stabilizer then you should significantly
consider using it.

Use Automatic Mode

On some cameras there is an auto-ISO sensitivity mode which needs to be set separately so that the
camera can choose that automatically. There is a switch on some cameras or lenses with which
manual focus and or one or more auto-focus modes can be chosen. Normally auto-focus mode along
with single shot mode are required prior to taking a picture. Manual focus is ideal for low light and
other conditions where the auto-focus is of no use. The shutter button is partially depressed to keep
the delay from being prominent when taking a photo. This has a great effect on sports photography
and other fast-moving subjects.

Play With ISO Speed

This is a camera setting that can be experimented and tinkered with. It can be set on the camera's main
menu. On most cameras this can be changed with a few button presses as well. ISO measures the
sensitivity to light within the sensor on the camera. The lower the number, the less sensitive the sensor
is, and conversely the higher the ISO number the more sensitive the sensor is to light.
ISO speed and shutter speed are directly related. A slow ISO speed would cause the shutter speed to
slow down as well. Conversely, a photo taken with the faster ISO speed would have used a faster
shutter speed as well. Due to the noticeable difference between the two it could very well be heard.
With a faster shutter speed though, motion or movement could be frozen and camera shake avoided in
poor light than with a slower one.
Photographs taken with a slower ISO speed would have less noise as well represented by random
discolored pixels. Digital SLRs with their large sensors have a significantly greater ISO performance
than what the compact point-and-shoot digital cameras have. Hence, there is always a trade-off in
terms of quality of the image and usability in low-light conditions.
The minimum ISO speed would have a corresponding shutter speed, generally 1/focal length for
handheld pictures which would be in sync with a shutter speed which normally is between 1/focal
length for handheld pictures and with image stabilization one or two stops slower, for action faster
such as 1/250 for action or sports and an extremely small aperture to have all vital elements such as
people accommodated within the depth of field. This more often than not will have quite a high ISO. A
few discolored pixels scattered here and there is far better than a defocus or motion blur that smears
the image or chunks of it across innumerable pixels. If the ISO is reasonable then some cameras can
automatically pick up.
The camera could be set to aperture-priority mode momentarily.
The lens aperture is also known as diaphragm. This could be a dial on the lens with numbers one
after the other anywhere between approximately 1.4 and 22 on most lenses.
The diaphragm lets more or less allows light into the sensor through an opening towards the front of
the lens. The diaphragms size is best expressed as a ratio of focal length to aperture size. Therefore
they are referred to as, for example, f/5.6 among many other numbers.
An aperture that is small will have less light that could potentially get onto the sensor; this is
expressed by a greater number. By taking two photographs, one whose aperture is large and then by
stopping down and taking the one with a smaller aperture, you can see just how much of an impact
this can make. The background of the subject isnt as sharp when the aperture is large as it is when the
aperture is small. This is what is known as the depth of field through which a subject could be isolated

from the background.

The background could be blurred by using a large aperture; even more elements of the scene could
be brought to focus and last but not the least a smaller aperture could be used. There are pairs of lines
on some lenses that would fit into different distances on the focusing scales of the lenses to reveal the
range that would be sharp enough at a preset aperture. The area that is not within that range would be
blurry the more it is outside but comparatively less blurred when the aperture is small than when it is
large. It is the angle that the defocus relies upon at which rays of light diverge in relation to the object
to make an entry into the lens. The intensity increases rapidly as something is in close proximity to
the lens.
When the aperture is small at f/16, for example, the background and foreground of a pictures focus
would be sharp. At bigger apertures like f/1.8, the pictures would be blurred.
When the camera is in automatic mode, it will adjust one of two things: either the aperture or the
shutter speed. This is to let an adequate amount of light onto the sensor; What the AV mode does place
an emphasis on the aperture so the shutter speed would only be adjusted by the camera. What this in
essence means is that the effect of the changed aperture on AV mode cant be seen on the exposure as
the camera in all likelihood may have compensated.
On full manual mode, the effect of the aperture in relation to light can be seen. Therefore, both the
depth of field and low light performance cant be had. To have one, one has to let go of the other. The
choice is between a wide open aperture, which would give a negligible depth of field but a lot of light
would be added onto the sensor. A smaller one would do exactly the opposite. There are issues with
effects of diffraction which steals sharpness at tiny apertures; as a rule of thumb, it is advisable not to
use apertures smaller than f/8 or f/11 unless of you really need a greater depth of field.

Set to Manual Mode

By setting the camera to fully manual mode, the camera knows to relinquish control of trying to
expose the pictures properly. Most of the time it wont be necessary to use this as the exposure control
is there for a reason but there is a need to do this anyhow so that the effects of shutter speed can be

Play With Your Shutter Speed

Shutter speeds are nothing but numbers in a sequence that go up and doubles each time and are
usually represented in fractions of a second; i.e. 1 second, 1/2, 1/4, 1/16, 1/25, and so on and so forth
with each one normally being called a stop. By taking two pictures at shutter speeds a few stops apart,
what has been observed is that the photo with the fast shutter speed is darker. Depending on lighting
conditions this can either be a good or bad thing,

A slow shutter speed could result in motion blur if the camera is hand held. Even if the camera were
to be mounted on a tripod at slow shutter speeds of half a second or more, such as the one used at
night, there might be some blur due to camera shake.
Hence, in very dark conditions a slow shutter speed is recommended but slow shutter speeds could
cause motion blur as well. In brighter conditions, a faster shutter speed is required which will have the
effect of freezing motion. This can be a good thing or a bad thing. For a longer exposure during the
daytime, an ND filter could be used.
In terms of light three settings can be adjusted and they are aperture, ISO speed or shutter speed as
compensation for varying degrees of strengths of light. If either one of them is adjusted anyone of
them would have a positive or negative effect on the image.
Fixed lenses of various sizes have different focal lengths; zoom lenses have a variable focal length.
The focal length could be defined as the distance in mm between the elements of a lens and the film or
sensor. The viewpoints are unique for each focal length.
The standard 50mm lens is almost similar to the sharp central field of view of the human eye. This is
especially if pairing is done with 35mm film or a full-frame sensor. However, most digital SLR
sensors are smaller than regular 35mm film. Therefore, the effective focal lengths are multiplied by
about 1.5 on most digital SLRs for what is called FOV cropping.
Wide-angle lenses are 28mm lenses and can be useful as they will have a lot of room to help you fit a
lot of the shot onto the sensor. The view of a wide angle lens will have an impression that is created
by a wide angle lens that the object is being looked at from a distance. It is therefore ideal for taking
pictures of small rooms as they look bigger, landscapes, etc. Substances on the edge of the frame
would appear elongated. When subjects are very close to a wide angle lens they would look big but
the background area still looks vast. When the background in general has a sweeping view then a
wide angle lens is better.
A telephoto lens is normally 80mm or longer and can bring things closer. Hence, a telephoto lens is
ideal for portraits as it compels the photographer to be farther away from the subject. However, for
the same amount of light to pass through a telephoto lens as it passes through a smaller lens, the
telephoto lens has to be a lot bigger.
An extreme 200-500mm f/2.8 zoom lens can weigh nearly 35 pounds and is still nearly twice as slow
as the 50mm lenses of 30 years ago. In addition, most consumer rated telephoto lenses tend to be slow
which means its aperture in relation to the focal length is relatively small in comparison with a
smaller lens which leads to using longer shutter speeds if in a low-light situation.
This can be compensated with faster ISO speeds. Wide aperture lenses are expensive and are heavy.

More often than not it's actually better to buy the cheaper variety which will be attached to the camera
even if that means it is a little bit noisier and you will have to bear with a high ISO setting. The cheap
ones are equipped with apertures that are 5.6 or smaller which are normally required for a noticeable
depth of field. If the depth of field is shallow, an expensive wide-aperture lens could be used, or
simply a longer-focus moderate-aperture lens can be added provided that you move back. These
choices could be used until the subject is the same size.
Zoom lenses could have distortions of such proportions that it is capable of making straight lines
look crooked or typically curved at the highest zoom level in particular. Some cameras are capable of
automatically altering the images to compensate.
A flash can be used in many ways. SLRs generally automatically control the output of inbuilt flash, or
an external flash with maximum power, to spread light evenly across a subject. A flash is at reduced
power by applying negative flash exposure compensation in sunlight to soften but not remove
shadows that define shape.
Flash can be used in dim light to make the scene brighter. A flash can be bounced off the ceiling with
the help of an external unit that would softly light a big area. The part of an exposure coming from a
flash is very brief; therefore, aperture and ISO setting basically determine the exposure but not shutter
speed which is normally limited to 1/250 or even slower due to the way a focal plane shutters.
A slow shutter speed is the cause of loss of ambiance in the scene and it makes the ambient light
conspicuous by its absence. As a result, the scene is blurred due to the camera shakes or the subject
being in motion. In other words there is noticeable subject movement on a long exposure.

A Polarizing Filter
A circular polarizer is compatible with autofocus lenses and is useful under the sun as it reduces glare
and makes colors bright by reducing the effects of reflected sunlight to make the sky dark blue. By
rotating it in its mount, a maximum effect can be derived. Cheap ones are fine but it needs to be
verified as to whether or not they are coated or even multi-coated to reduce the images reflection
spots. The threads should be cut to a high standard as anything short of high quality could damage the
threads in the lens more so if the filter threads in the lens are made of plastic.
The camera may need to process JPEG images in addition to the semi-processed raw files. Part of the
processing setup for the raw images requires the images to be adjusted for colors so that the
brightest, fully reflective objects seem white instead whether they are being lit by an artificial light or
if they are being taken under a clear and bright open sky.
Everything else may appear to have the proper mix of colors under sunlight or to a naked eye. The
white balance setting does just that. Automatic white balance (AWB) more often than not isnt

effective enough. It is a setting for the type of light that is dominant in the scene. Some cameras can
automatically adjust to any color of light.

Chapter 14 - Questions to Ask When Taking a Photo

What is the story that is being told?
This is the all-important question that is supposed to help a photographer to make as many photos as
they want to make in terms of composition, framing, exposure, etc. Essentially what is being asked is
'why is this shot being taken?'
The purpose of the shot and what is being conveyed must be considered. Is it a way of recording a
moment, is the emotion of the moment that the photographer is after, could it be that the shot would
be given to someone or is it part of a bigger series of shots, or is the shot the only shot to honor the
moment, etc.

What Competing Focal Points are There?

Once it has been identified what is it that a photographer wants the viewer s eyes to gravitate towards
and it has been placed in the frame, it should be ascertained as to whether or not competing focal
points add to or take from the image. The fact is that secondary focal points can indeed add depth to
shots but at the same time can be distracting and therefore repositioning or adjusting focal length and
or depth of field to keep or remove them from shots.

What Background and Foreground Things Are There?

Distractions mainly occur in the background of shots in digital photography. The space behind the
subject if seen intently could include many unwanted elements in addition to the subject which is the
focus of the image. For the foreground as well, the same observation can be made. Based on the
observation it has to be decided whether the background should be in focus or blurred.

How Close Are You?

Yet another mistake in digital photography involves shots being taken where the subject in the frame
is too small. When the subject is the main focus of the shot and the frame is filled with the subject, in
other words the subject occupies all the space in the frame; those are dynamic shots with as much
detail of the subject as possible. To have this effect, the photographer needs to move closer, move the
subject closer or use a focal length long enough for the desired effect of closeness.

What is the Main Source of Light?

Light is of utmost importance in photography and therefore it has to be considered as to whether the
subject is well lit or not. Detail and clarity of an image is often lost due to a lack of light. The camera
compensates by increasing ISO and lengthening shutter speeds which could lead to noisy and blurred
images. The main source of light, whether or not there is there enough light, any artificial light

sources in a spot, the flash required, whether the camera needs to be stable on a tripod to prevent
camera shake due to insufficient light and many others are some of the questions that needs to be
asked and answered satisfactorily prior to taking a shot.

Chapter 15 - Accessories
Out of the multitude of accessories that are out there, some are a necessity while others are simply
occupying space in the camera bag.

Neck Strap
Neck straps that come with cameras typically do not have pads and are made of fabric that is
irritating. Hence an upgrade of the neck-strap is essential. Neoprene is the raw material that the strap
can be made from and it works like a shock absorber while carrying a DSLR which would more than
likely have a long lens. A fabric that does not slip can be kept on the underside which would keep the
camera in place when slung around the shoulder.

Camera Bag
A camera bag with padding is an absolute necessity when carrying a DSLR as the bag is a protection
for the camera which is an investment that needs to be protected. There is enough room for extra
lenses and other accessories and paraphernalia which can all be kept in the bag.

Dust Blower
Tiny dust particles accumulate on lenses and on cameras sensor. Hence a dust removal kit is a
necessity for quality photos. Air in air tight cans is effective but is pricey and too heavy to carry. A
dust blower ought to be durable, powerful, and easy to use. All it takes is a few blasts and dust would
fly in the air. An upright position and air valve may be used to keep dust from getting in. It may also
be battery powered to ensure that you don't have to plug it into anything in particular.

Polarizer Filter
A polarizer is an appropriate solution to help you reduce reflections on glass and other shiny objects
while further deepening blue skies simultaneously and intensifying color saturation. Quality
polarizers would have coatings on the glass so that reflection is reduced. This can also keep dirt and
scratches at bay.

Tripod and Ball head

While taking shots in low light, a tripod is an absolute necessity. It is equally necessary for tack sharp
focus. In terms of specifications and configuration, there are many options out there for you to
choose from. However, tripods made of carbon fiber are sturdy and at the same time do not weigh
much. The icing on the cake is a multi-adjustable ball head and a rig that comes with it. The ball head
ensures that the camera is secured and firmly mounted and attached to the tripod with almost infinite

adjustability options.

Audio Adapter for Video

With the emerging high definition video capability on some DSLRs, videos and stills can be shot as a
bundled package. As DSLRs have so many lenses it is possible to shoot video as well. Its the best of
both worlds that is being offered.
The on-camera audio could perhaps be more flexible in a few cases. The limitation on DSLRs is that
they are often limited to using an internal mike or an external one as well through a mini-plug.
DSLRs may experience swings in the audio level and an occasional background hiss which are both
purged with the DXA-5Da. For best results, nothing less than high-sensitivity microphones would do.

White-Balance Lens Cap

It can be a challenge to achieve the correct white balance on a DSLR. Everyone does not take a white
balance reading off of a grey card either.
A white balance lens cap seems to be the solution to this commonplace issue. Correcting white
balance on innumerable photographs could get tedious. By taking the lens cap off of the lens, the
white balance lens cap should be popped onto the lens and the camera should be set to custom white
balance mode. A shot could be fired off, resulting in a WB profile which is warmer and photos that
are more vivid. As an incentive, it does not have to be taken off of the camera and used as a lens cap.
This is an advantage as one less item needs to be carried. Prices can vary according to the diameter of
the lens.

Low Light Capable Lens

Taking photos in natural light produces stunning results, more so in low light. Many standard kit
zoom lenses that are often packaged with DSLRs are incapable of handing low light situations and
moments very well. As an alternative a lens of f/1.8 aperture or an even more light-capable f/1.4
aperture would be better suited. Most manufacturers offer fixed lenses in these aperture ranges. A
majority of these options are relatively inexpensive.

External Hard Drive

After painstakingly and passionately taking pictures anyone would want to protect them which is
crucial. What needs to be done at this juncture is to create backups with an external drive. Backing the
data up on a dual drive works as two drives are involved. Both drives will receive the same data
online in real-time. Hence there are essentially two backup copies of the same information as a
preventive measure in case anyone of the drives fails.

Thank you again for downloading this book!
I hope this book was able to help you to see how DSLR cameras work and how they can be used for
your general needs. You can see how these cameras may be used for a variety of different types of
needs and how you can take your cameras ready for all sorts of particular needs.
The next step is to take a look at the different kinds of cameras that you can find today. If you go to
any technology store then you'll find plenty of DSLR options to call your own.
Thank you and good luck!

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