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Mohd Hadri Mohamed Nor

Topic Learning Outcome

On completion this topic, you should be able to do the
Describe a mechanism
Describe the inversion of mechanism
Define the velocity
Solve the velocity and acceleration point within
Use mathematical and graphical method
Construct velocity and acceleration diagram.

When any one link of kinematics chain is
fixed, it is called mechanism.
Primary function: transmit or modify
2 types of mechanism
- simple mechanism
- compound mechanism, >4 links

Example: Crank, connecting rod and piston


Angular motion
Input torque

Linear motion

Inversion of Mechanism
It is the method of obtaining different
mechanisms by fixing different links of the
same Kinematics chain.

Inversion of four bar chain mechanism

Inversion of slider crank mechanism
Inversions of double slider crank chain

Four Bar Chain Mechanism

Consist of four links AB, BC, CD, DA

Grashofs Law (if to be continuous relative motion between two links)

shortest and longest link < remaining 2 links

AB crank

BC connecting rod

CD rocker/follower

AD frame of m/c

Some of the inversion of four bar chain


Crank and follower mechanism Oscillatory motion

Pantograph Instrument used to reproduce same

motion exactly in a reduced or enlarged scale.

Slider Crank Mechanism

1st inversion Slider crank
link 1 fixed, link 2 rotates, link 4 reciprocates

2nd inversion Oscillating cylinder

when link 2 rotates
piston reciprocates in piston
cylinder reciprocates at hinge point C

3rd inversion Crank and slotted lever mechanism

link 2 rotates
slider O reciprocates
block N move linearly

link 4 rotate

4th inversion Hand pump

link 4 fixed

link 2 and 3 can be rotate

link 1 move

Velocities in Mechanism Relative Velocity Diagram

Velocity of any point on a link wrt t another point on the
same link is always perpendicular to the link joining these
points in the FBD.
Consider point A and B on a link (Fig a). Let velocity A is
VA is known in magnitude and direction. Direction of
velocity point B is VB. The magnitude of point B can be
found by draw the velocity diagram (Fig b)

Step in drawing velocity diagram

A convenient point O was selected as the starting point.
From O, line Oa was drawn parallel and equal to magnitude
of VA to some suitable scale.
From a, a line perpendicular to AB represent velocity of B
wrt A. i.e VBA was drawn.
From O a line parallel to VB was drawn, meeting the VBA at
Line Ob was measured to give the required velocity of
point B to scale.
The velocity of point C on AB link was determine using ratio

Line Oc was joined. The vector Oc now represent the

velocity of point C wrt O. i.e VC
Note that velocity diagram must be drawn according to suitable scale.

Example 1

Rubbing velocity at a Pin Joint

If r = radius at pin joint and 1 and 2 = angular
velocities of two links, then;

Angular velocities added if link rotates opposite direction

and subtract if rotate in same direction.

Example 2
The crank and connecting rod of a theoretical
steam engine are 0.5m and 2.0 m respectively.
The crank makes 180rpm in the clockwise
direction. When it has turned 45 from the
inner dead centre position, determine:


Velocity of pistons
Angular velocity of connecting rod
Velocity of point E on the connecting rod 1.5m
from the gudgeon pin.
Velocities of rubbing at all pins of the crankshaft,
crank and cross-head, when the diameter of their
pins are 5cm, 6cm and 3cm respectively.

Example 3
ABCD is a four bar chain with the link AD is fixed as Figure
below. The length the links are AB=6.25cm, BC=17.5cm,
CD=11.25cm, DA=20cm. The crank AB makes 100rpm in
the clockwise direction. Find the following when the angle
BAD is 60.

The angular velocity of links CD and BC

Velocity of point E, 10cm from C on the link BC.
The velocity of point F, which is 10.5cm from B and C and
lying outside ABCD.

Acceleration Diagram for a Link

Consider two point of A and B on rigid link. Let point B moves wrt
A with velocity rad/s and be the angular acceleration of link
AB. For an acceleration of a particle whose velocity changes with
magnitudes and directions at any instants has two components:

Radial or centripetal components which is parallel to AB

Tangential component, which is perpendicular to AB

Radial component of acceleration of B wrt A

Tangential component of acceleration of B wrt A

Example 4