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Year 12 Mathematics B

Assignment
Wayne LIU

Task 3
Part 1
A nomogram can be used to measure the magnitude of an earthquake.
The magnitude can also be obtained using the formula:
M = log(mm) + 3log[8 t(s)] 2.92
Where M = magnitude, mm = amplitude, t(s) = S-P time
Verify: The result using the distance and amplitude readings in the formula will
give approximately the same reading as that shown on the nomogram

As shown in the task sheet, using the nomogram, when S-P time = 24 s,
amplitude = 23 mm, the line joining these two points intersect at the magnitude
of 5 approximately.
Using the formula:
M = log(mm) + 3log[8 t(s)] 2.92
Put S-P time = 24, amplitude = 23 in it
M = log23 + 3log(8x24)-2.92
M = 5.29

5.3
1

Therefore, the result using the distance and amplitude readings in the formula will
give approximately the same reading as that shown on the nomogram.
Find: the magnitude of the earthquake when S-P time = 40 s, amplitude = 20
mm, using both the nomogram and the formula provided.
Nomogram:

As drawn on the task sheet, the magnitude is approximately 5.6


Using formula provided:
M = log(mm) + 3log[8 t(s)] 2.92
Put S-P time = 40, amplitude = 20 in it
M = log(20) + 3log[8x40] 2.92
M = 5.89648
M = 5.9 (1 d.c pl.)
The magnitude worked out using the formula is approximately 5.9

Part 2
2

Part 3
a)
Richter
number,
M
(Magnitu
de)

Energy, E
(kWh)

0.55
6

17.3

537

167
0

5.19x1
05

1.61x1
07

5.02x1
08

1.56x1
010

4.85x1
011

Plot the data on a graph:

The graph above shows that the data do not form a linear function. It suggests
that an exponential function may fit the data better.
3

Plot the data on a semi-log graph:

The data form a straight line in the semi-log graph, so it suggests an exponential
function of the form y=A(10)kx, where A, k are constants, and k is gradient of the
straight line in the semi-log graph.
The value of k can be found using the first and last point provided

Put (1, 0.556) and (9, 4.85x1011) into the equation


k = (log4.85x1011 log 0.556)/(9-1)
k = 1.492583368
k

1.49258 (6 sig fig)

Therefore: y=A(10)1.49258x
The value of A can be found by substituting the first point provided: (1, 0.556)
into the equation
0.556=A(10)1.49258(1)
A = 0.556/101.49258
A = 0.017885102
A

0.0178851 (6 sig fig)

Therefore: y=0.0178851(10)1.49258x
The equation of the Richter number and energy released is:
y=0.01798851(10)1.49258x
Compare: How many times more energy was released in Japan (magnitude-9)
earthquake than Christchurch (magnitude-6.3) one?
4

When magnitude = 9, Energy released = 4.85x1011 (provided by the table)


Substitute x = 6.3 into y=0.0178851(10)1.49258x
y = 0.0178851(10)1.49258(6.3)
y = 45265429 kWh
Energy released by a 6.3-magnitude earthquake is 45265429 kWh
Ratio between 9 and 6.3 magnitude of earthquake
= 4.85x1011/45265429
= 10715
The energy released in Japan is 10715 times that of Christchurch, therefore the
earthquake in Japan released 10715-1=10714 times more energy than the one
that hit Christchurch.
b)
Find: Magnitude of an earthquake that releases 5.63x109 kWh of energy
Put energy(y) = 5.63x109 in y=0.0178851(10)1.49258x
5.63x109 = 0.0178851(10)1.49258x
(10)1.49258x = 3.14787x1011
1.49258x = log 3.14787x1011
x = 7.703
x

7.7 (1 dc pl.)

The magnitude of an earthquake that releases 5.63x109 kWh of energy was


approximately 7.7. Referring to the table given, the magnitude 7.7 lies between 7
and 8, and the energy released 5.63x109 kWh lies between 5.02x108 kWh and
1.56x1010 kWh. Therefore, the result is reasonable.