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LECTURE-09

THEORY OF METAL CUTTING - Mechanics of Metal Cutting

P x
P y
P z

NIKHIL R. DHAR, Ph. D.

DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL & PRODUCTION ENGINEERING BUET

Mechanics of Metal Cutting

The force acting on a cutting tool during the process of metal cutting are the fundamental importance in the design of cutting tools. The determination of cutting forces necessary for deformation the work material at the shear zone is essential for several important requirements:

to estimate the power requirements of a machine tool

to estimate the straining actions that must be resisted by the machine tool components, bearings, jigs and fixtures

to evaluate the role of various parameters in cutting forces

to evaluate the performance of any

new work material, tool

material, environment, techniques etc. with respect to machinability (cutting forces)

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/2

The force system in the general case of conventional turning process is

shown in the following Figure.
P x
P y
P z
P x
P y
P xy
R
P z

P x = feed force in the direction of the tool travel P y = thrust force in the direction perpendicular to the produced surface P z = cutting force or main force acting in the direction of the cutting velocity.

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/3

P

x

P

y

=

=

P

xy

P

xy

sin

cos

R

Z
P z
R
P xy

XY

Y
X
φ
P xy
P y
P x

Π o

[1]

[2]

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/4

Several forces can be defined relative to the orthogonal cutting model. Based on these forces, shear stress, coefficient of friction, and certain other relationships can be defined.

P n
β
Ch ip
R 2
P s
P xy
γ
R
F
N
P z
R
1
W orkp
iece
T ool

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/5

Merchant Circle Diagram (MCD)

The following relationships suggest a circle representation of forces as done by Merchant and indicated in the following Figure.

R

=

F

+

N

=

P sin γ

F

N

P

s

=

=

=

P

n

=

z

o

P

z

P

z

z

cos γ

cos β

P sin β

P

s

+

P

n

=

P

z

+

o

+

P

xy

cos γ

o

P

xy

sin γ

P

P

xy

xy

sin

cos

o

+ P xy

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

From Equation [4] and [5]

μ =

F

N

=

 P z sinγ o + P xy cosγ P z cosγ o P xy sinγ o

o =

tan

[8]

Where, μ = kinetic coefficient of friction η = mean angle of friction at the rake surface

P
xy
η
P
β
n
P
z
N
R
η-γ o
F
Chi p
P
γ
s
o
Tool
W
o rkpi ece

γ o

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/6

From the geometry of force relations of MCD circle

P

z

P

s

=

=

R cos(η

R cos(β

+

γ

η

0

)

γ

0

)

Fron Equation [9] and [10]

cos (η

P

γ

0

)

P

=

s

cos (β

+

η

γ

o

)

z

[9]

[10]

[11]

Based on the shear force, the shear stress (τ s ) which acts along the shear plane between the work and the chip is:

P

s

s

s

τ , where As

A

τ P sinβ

area of the shear plane

=

=

s

[12]

=

S

o t

s

=

P
xy
η
P
β
n
P
z
N
R
η-γ o
F
Chi p
P
γ
s
o
S
t
o
sinβ
Tool
W
o rkpi ece

γ

o

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/7

From Equation [11]and [12]

cos(η
γ
)
0
P
=
τ
S
t
[13]
z
s
0
sinβ cos(β
+
η
γ
)
o
P
xy
Similarly,
η
P
β
n
P
sin(η
γ
)
z
0
N
P
=
τ
S
t
[14]
R
xy
s
0
sinβ cos(β
+
η
γ
)
η-γ o
o
F
Chi p
P
γ
s
o
In metal cutting one of the main problem is to
evaluate the cutting forces P z and P xy from the
given cutting conditions and initial properties of
work material and it is necessary to determine τ s ,
β and η by suitable relationships.
Tool
W
orkpi ece

γ o

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/8

Earnest-Merchant Theory

Ernst and Merchant extended their analysis and studied the relationship between the shear angle and the cutting conditions. They suggested that the shear angle always takes the value that reduces the total energy consumed in cutting to a minimum. Because the total work done in cutting is dependent upon and is a direct function of the component P z of the cutting force, they developed an expression for P z in terms of β and the constant properties of the workpiece material. Condition for maximum cutting force (P z ) from Equation [13]

dP

z

=

dP

z

0

0

d
τ
S
t
cos(η
γ
)
s
0
0
=
.
= 0
sinβ
cos(β
+
η
γ
)
o
cosβ cos(β
+
η
γ
)
sinβ sin(β
+
η
γ
)
0
0
)
= 0
{
2
sinβ cos(β
+
η
γ
}
0
γ
)
sinβ sin(β
+
η
γ
)
=
0, or cos(β
+
β
+
η
γ
)
0
0
0
[15]

0, or,

τ

s

S t cos(η

0

γ

cosβ cos(β

+

η

γ

π

4

η

2

β =

Combining Equation [13] and [15]

P

+

2

2 τ

s

S

0

[16]

=

t cot

z

=

0

=

cos

π

2

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/9

Merchant Theory

Merchant modified the relationship derived by Earnest-Merchant, by assuming that the shear stress along the shear plane varies linearly with normal stress (σ n ). It is given as (from the following Figure).

τ

From the geometry of force relations of MCD

τ

0

+ k σ

=

n [17]

s

P

s

P

n

P

n

A

s

σ

n

=

R cos(β

+

η

+

η

= tan(β

P

s

P

s

= +

A

s

=

τ

s

η

tan(β

tan(β

+

γ

0

) and P

n

γ

0 )

η

γ

γ

0

)

0 )

=

Rsin(β

+

[19]

η

γ

0

)

From Eqation [17] and [19]

τ

s

=

τ 0

[

]

1

k tan(β

+

η

γ

0

)

[20]

[18]

τ
s
k
τ 0
σ
n

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/10

Combining Equation [13] and [20]

S
t cos(
)
o
0
0
P
=
[21]
z
sin
cos(
+
) 1
{
k
tan(
+
)
}
0
0
Condition for maximum cutting force (Pz) from Equation [21]
dP
dP
d
S
t cos(
)
z
z
o
0
0
=
0, or
=
= 0
d
d
sin
cos(
+
) 1
{
k
tan(
+
)
}
0
0
cos
cos(
+
)
sin
sin(
+
)
0
0
S
t cos(
)
s
0
0
k
cos
sin(
+
)
k
sin
cos(
+
)
0
0
or
[
sin
cos(
+
)
k
sin
sin(
+
)
]
2
0
0
cos(2β
+
η
γ
)
k sin(2β
+
η
γ
)
=
0
0
0
cot(2β
+ γ
η
)
=
k
0
1
0
0
+
η
γ
= cot
(k)
=
c
80
to 85
[22]
0
From Equation [21] and [22]
P
=
τ S
0 t[cotβ
+
tan(c
β)]
[23]
z s

= 0

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/11

Lee and Shaffer Theory

According to this theory the shear occurs on a single plane. So for a cutting process according to this theory, the following are supposed to hold good:

The material ahead of the cutting tool behaved as ideal plastic material

The chip does not get hardened

The chip and parent work material are separated by a shear plane.

Lee and Shaffer derived the following relationship as:

β

+

η

γ

=

π

0 4

[24]

From Equation [13] and [24]

P

τ

s

 t ( cot β + 1 ) 1 ξ sin γ

S

0

=

o

tan β

t

(ξ

0

cos γ

+

0

tanγ

o

1)

=

z

s

Where,

cot β =

P

z

=

τ

S

ξ

[25]

tan γ

[25]

o

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/12

Thermal Aspect of Chip Formation

Machining is inherently characterized by generation of heat and high cutting temperature. At such elevated temperature the cutting tool if not enough hot hard may lose their form stability quickly or wear out rapidly resulting in increased cutting forces, dimensional inaccuracy of the product and shorter tool life. The magnitude of this cutting temperature increases, though in different degree, with the increase of cutting velocity, feed and depth of cut, as a result, high production machining is constrained by rise in temperature. This problem increases further with the increase in strength and hardness of the work material. Knowledge of the cutting temperature rise in cutting is important, because increases in temperature:

adversely affect the strength, hardness and wear resistance of the cutting tool

cause dimensional changes in the part being machined, making control of dimensional accuracy difficult and

can induce thermal damage to the machined surface, adversely affecting its properties and service life.

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/13

In addition, the machine tool itself may be subjected to temperature gradients, causing distortion of the machine. The main sources of heat in metal cutting are shown in the following Figure. These three distinct heat sources are:

the shear zone (q 1 ), where the main plastic deformation takes place

the chip-tool interface zone (q 2 ), where secondary plastic deformation due to friction between the heated chip and the tool takes place

the work tool interface (q 3 ), at flanks where frictional rubbing occurs.

Chip
q 1
q 3
q 2
Workpiece
Tool

The heat balance in chip formation can be written as :

Total amount

=
of heat generated

Amount of heat away in chips

of heat radiated into the surrounding air

+ Amount of heat remaining in the

+

cutting tool

+

Amount of heat passing into the workpiece

Amount

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/14

Various studies have been made of temperatures in cutting, based on heat transfer and dimensional analysis, using experimental data. A simple and approximate expression for the mean temperature for orthogonal cutting is

T =

0.4 U V t

c

C

K

0 333

where,

T =

U =

=

mean temperature rise at the tool-chip interface (

specific energy in the operation (N-m/mm

cutting velocity (m/sec)

o

C)

3

)

V

c

t = depth of cut (mm)

pC

=

K =

volumetric specific heat of the workpiece (J/mm

thermal diffusivity (ratio of thermal conductivity to volumetric specific heat) of the workpiece material (m 2 /sec).

2

-C)

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/15

Exercise

The dynamometer recorded the following, feed force 200 kg, cutting force 300 kg. The rake angle of the tool used was 10 o . The chip thickness ratio 0.35. Find

Shear angle (β)

Shear force (P s )

Co-efficient of friction at the chip-tool interface (μ) and the friction angle (η)

Compressive force at the shear plane (P n ).

A seamless tube 3cm outside diameter is reduced in length on a lathe with the help of a single point cutting tool. The cutting speed is 40 m/min, the depth of cut is 0.125mm. The length of continuous chips, for one revolution of the tube, on measurement comes to be 17.77cm. The cutting force is 200 kg and the feed force is 75 kg. the rake angle of the tool is 35 o .Calculate,

Co-efficient of friction

Chip thickness ratio

Shear plane angle

Velocity of the chip along the tool face

Velocity of shear along the shear plane

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/16

During the machining of AISI-1025 steel, with 0-10-6-6-8-90-1 (mm) ORS shaped tool the following observations were taken:

Feed 0.50 mm/rev

Depth of cut = 2.0 mm

Cutting speed = 40 m/min

The shear angle = 20 o

The power consumed while machining= 3kW

The power consumed while running idle = 0.50 kW Calculate:

The shear force

Chip thickness ratio

Normal pressure on the chip

Chip thickness

Department of Industrial & Production Engineering

18/17