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Rizal and the Revolution

a. Andres Bonifacio wanted Rizals opinion on Katipunans uprising
against the Spaniards
i. He sent Dr. Pio Valenzuela to go to Dapitan in June 1896.
ii. Dr. Pio Valenzuela then told Jose Rizal the goals of the
Katipunan, which is to overthrow the Spanish rule.
iii. Rizal pointed out that a revolution without sufficient arms
should not be started against a more powerful country such
as Spain.
iv. Rizal suggested influential and wealthy Filipinos should join
the cause of the society in order to ensure the success of the
v. Rizal also suggested that Antonio Luna be appointed to
direct all military operations.


Preparations for the Struggle

a. Andres Bonifacio had ordered for bolos to be distributed among the
members of the Katipunan and the populace.
b. Andres Bonifacio sought the help of Japanese Admiral Kanimura
when the warship Kongo stopped over at Manila Bay. Bonifacio had
an interview with Kanimura but the Admiral did not want to be
involved with the uprising.
c. After being rejected by Admiral Kanimura, Bonifacio decided to
order two Katipuneros Tito Miguel and Roman Ramos, who were
employed in the Maestranza (arsenal) to steal different weapons
such as pistols and rifles.
d. Bonifacio also decided to order more bolos for the members of


Spanish Suspicion Aroused

a. The increase of Katipunan supporters and members seemed to be
a disadvantage.
b. The new members were considered a liability because they were
impatient to fight and they also caused various rumors that reached
the friars knowledge.
c. 1895 Banishment of prominent men of Malolos, Bulacan by
Governor-General Blanco.
d. 1896 Banishment of prominent men of Taal, Batangas by
Governor-General Blanco.
e. June 20, 1896 Friar in Cavite denounced the existence of the


The Discovery of the Katipunan

a. Father Mariano Gil headed to General Echaluce, the military
governor of Manila, and revealed information about the Katipunan.
i. Echaluce did not humor the friars and ended up making
Manila safer from any disturbance.
b. August 19 Teodoro Patio revealed the secret of the Katipunan to
Father Mariano Gil.
c. Father Mariano Gil searched Diario de Manila for proof of
Katipunan existence and found a lithographic stone and receipts in
which Patio confirmed to be authentic.

d. Locker of Policarpio Turla was forced open and Katipunan

documents were found inside.
i. This discovery was followed by mass arrests and torture of
guilty and even innocent Filipinos.

Wealthy Filipinos Implicated

a. The wealthy Filipinos refused to join the Katipunan so Bonifacio
made it look like they were involved in the operations of the
Katipunan by forging their signatures in fake letters.
b. The wealthy Filipinos denied that they had any part in the
operations but the Spaniards refused to believe them. Some of
them were executed while bribing officials saved some.


The Cry of Pugadlawin

a. Bonifacio summoned all leaders to a general assembly on August
24 at Balintawak.
b. On August 21, Bonifacio changed the code of the Katipunan
because the Spaniards have already deciphered it.
c. On August 21, 500 Katipuneros arrived at Kangkong, where
Apolonio Samson gave them shelter and food.
d. On August 22, the Katipuneros proceeded to Pugadlawin and
arrived in the yard of Juan A. Ramos the next day.
e. All the Katipuneros agreed to fight to the death.
f. They tore up their cedulas, shouting: LONG LIVE THE


First Skirmishes
a. Bonifacio ordered the Katipuneros to get ready for the Spanish
b. They then decided to retreat since they had inferior arms.
c. On August 24, they arrived at the yard of Melchora Aquino.
d. They decided to attack Manila on the night of August 29, 1896.
e. During the first skirmish fought against the Spaniards, after both
parties retreated, the Katipuneros lost two men while the Spaniards
lost one.
f. On August 26, Spanish reinforcements were sent to Pasong Tamo
to scare away rebels but ended up in to dead innocent farmers.
g. On August 27, the rebels arrive at Marikina and eventually
abandoned it to proceed to Hagdang Bato.
h. On August 28, Bonifacio issued a manifesto-ordering people to take
up the Filipino cause and get ready for the concerted attack on the
Spaniards planned for August 29.
i. The attack did not go through because of insufficient arms.
ii. On August 30, Bonifacio and Jacinto led an attack in San
Juan del Monte.
iii. Bonifacio and his men lost the battle because of the arrival
of fresh Spanish troops.


The Revolution Spreads

a. Number of rebels grows in strength in the south of Manila.
i. 1000 men in Pasig
ii. 400 men in Pandacan
iii. Pateros, Taguig, Caloocan, Kawit, San Francisco de
Malabon, Noveleta, San Pedro Makati, and other towns.
b. Bonifacio attacked San Mateo, Marikina, and Montalban which they
captured but ended up being re-captured by the Spaniards.
c. Bonifacio ordered his men to retreat to Balara.

d. Bonifacio almost died while saving Jacinto in battle.

e. In the north, San Isidro rebels attacked the Spaniards on
September 2, 3, and 4. They did not win.

The Reign of Terror

a. The Spaniards resorted to scaring the populace into following them.
i. They invaded Filipino homes.
ii. They found incriminating evidence against Katipuneros
b. Governor-General Ramon Blanco declared the state of war and
martial law in Manila, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan,
Pampanga, Tarlac, and Nueva Ecija.
i. Blanco emphasized that katipuneros should surrender within
48 hours. Some surrendered and ended up being forced to
talk at the point of the bayonet and tortured them.
c. Hundreds were arrested.
i. Fort Santiago was full of prisoners that many of them died of
d. Hundreds were also massacred.


The Katipunan in Cavite

a. The Katipunan in Cavite was divided into two factions
i. Magdalo led by Baldomero Aguinaldo in Kawit
ii. Magdiwang led by Mariano Alvarez in Noveleta
b. On August 31, 1896, they attacked the municipal building of San
Francisco de Malabon.
c. On September 5, Aguinaldo defeated the Spanish troops under
General Aguirre.
i. Spaniards lost hundreds of men.
d. The rebel triumphs fueled the passion of the people.
e. On October 31, Aguinaldo issued two manifestos ordering people to
continue to fight until liberty was won.
f. Aguinaldo created:
i. Secretary of State and Security Jacinto Lumbreras
ii. Secretary of Interior Daniel Tirona
g. General Blanco was relieved as governor.
h. General Camilo de Polavieja replaced Blanco
i. Eventually, one-third of Cavite fell into the Spaniards hands.


Bonifacio in Cavite
a. Magdiwang invited Bonifacio to intervene the conflict between
Magdalo and Magdiwang.
b. Bonifacio went to Cavite toward the end of December 1896.
c. On December 31, an assembly of revolutionists was held at Imus to
determine whether the Katipunan should be superseded by another
form of government where:
i. Magdiwang contended that the Katipunan should remain
the government of the revolutionists.
ii. Magdalo believed that with the outbreak of the revolution,
the Katipunan had ceased to be a secret society and should
be superseded by one or more in keeping demands with the