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Agronomy

PlantBreedingPracticesinRice(Oryzasativa2n=2x=24)

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CurrentCategoryBreedingofFieldandHorticulturalCrops

BreedingofFieldand
HorticulturalCrops

PlantBreedingPracticesinRice(Oryzasativa2n=2x=24)
It is worlds most important crop after wheat and maize. It is a warm season crop grown
extensivelyKorea,South eastern Asia account for 90 % of world rice production. In India, rice
cultivatedonlargescaleinAndhraPradesh,Karnataka,Tamilnadu,Maharashtra,Assam,Oryza,
Bengal, Bihar, U.P, M.P, Punjab and Haryana. The high yielding rice and wheat cultivars led to
thebirthofGreenrevolution.

Origin:
Oryza sativa originated from India and China. The greatest diversity is observed in Assam and
Meghalayaareaandsouthwestchina.Theseveralauthorsconsideredannualtypewaslikelyto
betheprogenitor.Cultivatedspp2,andwildup16.

Types:
1)IndiaType:
It is tropical type rice. It is extensively grown in India, Srilankha, Thailand, Malaysia and
adjacent countries. These are tall plants, weak stem, photoperiod sensitivity, easy shattering,
andbroaddroopyleavesandhavinggraindormancy.
2)JaponicaType:
These are temperate type extensively grown Yangtze river valley of china, Korea, and Japan,
these are tolerant low temperature, have more leaves, few tillers, relatively resistant to
shattering.Thegrainsareshort,broadlowinamylasecontent.Ricebecomesstickyoncooking.
3)JavanicaType:
Theseareintermediatetype.ThesearecultivatedinIndonesia,Phillippines,TaiwanandJapan.
Thesearetall,thickstemmed,lowtotilleringandresistanttoshattering.These varieties have
broadstiffleaves,longawnsandlargeboldgrains.

BotanyandFloralBiology:
Annual plant growing 60 to 150 cm, stem erect and cylindrical, soild nodes and hollow
internodes, buds in axil of basal leaves give rise tillers, leaves are alternate and linear with
parallel venation. Inflorescence is terminal panicle. Each spiklet is complete flower consist of
outer two glumes boat shaped pelia and flattered lemma. Lemma and pela from husk and
encloseagrainafterfertilization.
Lemma and pelia enclose six stamens with slender filament and pistil. During early stage
spiklets are white with green anthers and closed style. On maturity spiklets turn green and
antherbecomeyellowandstyleseparateoutfromeachother.

Flowering:
Rice is predominantly self pollinated crop but natural cross pollination take place up to 3%
dependinguponvarieties,seasonandenvironmentalconditions.
A blooming starts from tip of the panicle and proceeds downward and continues for 7 to 10
days. Most of the flower blooms with in 2 to 4 days from emergence of panicle. Flowers open
during morning hours between 9 to 11 hours depending upon temperature (30 to 35 0C) and
relativehumidity(70to80%).
Theflowersremainopenfor30to70minutesandcloseafterfertilization.Anthersdehisceand
shed pollens just before the flower opens. Anthers and pollination take place simultaneously
withtheopeningofflower.

BreedingObjectives:
1)Highgrainyield,
2)Nonshatteringhabit,
3)Dwarfgrowthhabit

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PlantBreedingPracticesinRice(Oryzasativa2n=2x=24)
4)Wideradaptability
5)Synchronoustilleringhabit
6)Resistancetopeststemborer,midge,gallfly,etc.
7)Resistancetodiseases
8)Earlymaturity
9)Resistancetohighdosesoffertilizers.
10)Grainquality,shape,andsize,scentcookingandmillingquality.

Emasculation:
It is done in the afternoon on preveious day or early in the morning on the day of pollination.
Theearjustemergedisselectedandallspikletsalreadyopenedareclippedthespikletswhich
are likely to be opened are selected and six anthers from each spiklet is removed with needle
and fine pointed forceps. The emasculated ear after examination with lens covered with
perforatedbutterpaperbagandlabelled.
In mass emasculation method hot water having temperature 42 to 45 0C is carried in thermos
flaskinthefield.Thepanicleoftheproperstageisselectedandinsertedinthewaterfor2to3
minutes.Theflaskisunopenedspikletsareclippedoff.

Pollination:
It is done on next day morning. Matured anthers are collected from protected male parent in
petridishanddustedonthestigmaofemasculated flower with brush and forceps and covered
withbutterpaperbagtoprotectnaturalcrosspollination.

BreedingMethods:

1)Introduction:
The seeds of released varieties in other countries are imported tested, evaluatd along with
native varieties and if found superior , released for commercial cultivation. The variety
Taichungnative1(TN1)isthecrossbetween
Deegeowoogene and Tsai Taichung is imported in 1960 for seed multiplication and
distribution. Another variety IR8, a tall and heavy tillering disease resistant developed from
crossbetweenIndicavarietyofIndonesiaanddeegeogeneimportedin1966.
2)Selection:
Fromlandracesoutstandinglinesareselectedandevaluatedalongwithexistingvarietiesand
superior types are multiplied and released for commercial cultivation. The varieties developed
byselectionareTerna,Tuljapur1,Ambika,Ambemohorpussa33,etc.
3)PedigreeMethod:
It is the most common method of rice breeding. Crosses made to combine genes for desirable
characteristics from two or more parents. Seeds of such crosses sown in pedigree nursery.
SelectionsaremadeinF3andonwardsgenerationsandsuperiorprogeniesarecarriedforward
andtestedwithexistingcheckvarietyandiffoundsuperiorreleasedforcommercialcultivation.
Bulk selection method is not followed in rice but single seed decent known as rapid generation
advanceisinuseinIARI.Twotothreegenerationingreenhousecanbegrowninayear.
4)BreedingforDiseaseandPestResistance:
NameofDisease

Donor

Bacterialblight

Xa4,BJ1andTKM6

Blast

Ramtulsi,TetepandM302.

Tungro

Ambemohor157,IR20andKamod

GrassyStunt

IR28,IR29,IR30,andIR34.

NameofPest

Donor

Brownplanthopper

Babawee,RathuHenati

Gallmidge

PTB10,PTB18,PTB21

StemBorer

TKM6,MTU15,TKM3,andRatna

BasmatiRice:
Basmati rice is a good source of foreign exchange earning for us. Traditional basmati rice
varietiesaretallpronetologginglaterandpoorinyield.TheincorporationofBasmatiqualityin
high yielding semi dwarf backgrounds has been quite challenging ne. it is likely due to and
complicated inheritance of quality components. Basmati quality is characterized by pleasant
aroma,linearkernelelongationoncookingandsofttexture.

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PlantBreedingPracticesinRice(Oryzasativa2n=2x=24)
BasmatiVarieties:
Basmati370,Pusa150,Pusa523,Kasturi,DRRHyderabd,Pusabasmati.

HybridRice:
CGMS lines are used in production of hybrid seed china is the only country in the world where
farmers use hybrid rice technology on commercial scale. To produce hybrid seed male and
female parents are planted alternatively in specific row rations. The most common rations are
1:6to1:8thetechnologyincludes.
1.Plantingacrossthewinddirectiontoincreasepollendispersalonfemaleplants.
2. Clipping of flag leaves of male sterile and restores lines at booting to facilitate pollen
circulation.
3.Applying2030ppmGA3tomalesterileandRestorelinesatheadingtopromoteemergence
ofpaniclefromsheath.
4.Supplyingpollinationbyropepullingduringflowering.Chinesenowgettinghybridseedyield
more than 1000 kg/ha. The seed rate used is only 25% of the conventional varieties and the
country has sufficient manpower for hybrid seed production so the hybrid rice is popular in
china. The countries where manpower is expensive and higher seedling rate is necessary. This
production technique is not economically acceptable. Generally the hybrids must yield 25%
higher than the commercial varieties to become technology commercially reliable. E.g. Karats
Hy.1(Saihydri).

NationalProgramme/Institutes:
1. All India coordinate Rice Improvement Project (AICRIP) Established in 1965. with
headquarter.HyderabadinthefarmProjectDirectorateMultidisciplinaryteamapproachhaving
countrywidetestingwithAgricultureUniversitiesandICARstations.
2. Central Rice Research Institution Cattak (CRRI) Established 1946 controlled by ICAR, basic
andappliedresearchindifferentfieldsofRice.

InternationalInstitutes:
InstitutesRiceResearchInstitute(IRRI)Established1960,Govtofphilliplinesatmanila.

CoordinatingCentres:
A.R.SVadganmaval,DistPune
A.R.SKarjatDistThane
A.R.SIsatburi.DistNasik
CurrentCategoryBreedingofFieldandHorticulturalCrops

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