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Separation Technology (CKD 20103)

CHAPTER 1s

January 2016

CHAPTER 1

SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY (CKD 20103)

Separation Technology (CKD 20103)

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Preface

The understanding of the principles and concepts for Separation Technology is essential in
the sense that will enable us to not only identify but as well as choosing the best method in
achieving Separation and Product Recovery while at the same time will also enable us to
identify the type of mixture that we are dealing with. This is because identification the type
of mixture to be separated and choosing the best method for separation is inter related and
dependable with each other. However, it is important to bear in mind that choosing the best
method for separation precede identification of product mixture.
As previously mentioned, it is very important to choose the best and suitable method
for Separation and Product Recovery. For that matter, it is worthwhile to bear in mind that
each and different methods has limitations as well as advantages. With that in mind, it is
important to choose the best and suitable methods which can produce the desired
separation and recover of wanted or desired product from the mixture as specified in the
products specification and classification.
With the product limit in terms of the products specification and classification,
sometimes, it will be troublesome and difficult to achieve the required specification and
classification by just using only one separation method. In normal cases, more than one
separation methods need to be chosen which compliment to each other in terms of their
respective limitation and enhance each others advantages. For that matter, these different
methods of separation can be combined in one big separation system or can be assemble
close to each other with separation process occurs from one step or stage to the other step
until the final step which at the final step the product analysis need to be done to check and
confirmed the product quality meets the products specification and classification.
Before we look at each method of Separation in more detail, it is important for us to
know the definition and concept of two classifications of mixture to be separated and then
followed by basic concepts in Introduction of Separation Technology. Then, we will look into
different types and General Classifications of Separation Technology.

1.2

Introduction to Separation Process/Technology

1.2.1 Chapter Overview

In this particular chapter, you will be exposed to first and foremost regarding the Purpose
of Separation. In other words, the question of "Why do we need to carry out Separation?
or what is the importance of having Separation Process / Technology? will be answered
and discussed in brief. This is then followed by the definition and discussion concerning
the broad classification of mixture which can either be classified as Homogeneous or
Heterogeneous.

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Next, this chapter will continue the discussion by looking at two broad categories of
Separation which can be classified as Chemical Separation or Physical Mechanical
Separation. The definition for both categories of Separation will be given in brief. After
that, we will look into specific classifications under both Chemical Separation as well as
Physical Mechanical Separation. Among the specific classifications under Chemical
Separation are Absorption, Distillation, Liquid-Liquid Extraction, Leaching, Membrane
Processing, Crystallization, Adsorption, Evaporation and Ion Exchange. This is then
followed by specific classifications under Physical Mechanical Separation which are
Filtration, Settling and Centrifugation. In this chapter, different definitions for each specific
classification for Chemical Separation as well as Physical Mechanical Separation will be
looked into as given by different reference books which are then followed by a summarized
and simplified definition.
Now let us look at the first part of the chapter which is concerning the Introduction
and Purpose of Separation.

1.2.2 Introduction and Purpose of Separation


In order to understand the concept of Separation Process / Technology, it is important to
KNOW the REASON or PURPOSE of carrying out Separation. The simple basic purpose
of carrying out Separation is of course to SEPARATE or SPLIT a mixture of compound
into two DIFFERENT individual elements with HIGH purity. It means, the individual
elements which has been separated have NONE or VERY MINIMUM amount of mixture
from the other compound.
The EXACT purpose and reason of carrying out Separation as given by reference
material is as shown below:
Separation processes require the extraction of a desired product at specified purity.
From the purpose given above, you have to determine the DESIRED product or the
product that you WANT to separate from the mixture. You also need to specify the degree
of purity of the product to be obtained at the end of Separation Process. Therefore, in order
to extract or separate the product that you want from the mixture, you need to choose the
methods of Separation Process or Separation Technology. It is important to bear in mind
that different methods have different capability and limitation and also depends on the
Processing involve in the plant.
Before the Methods of Separation to be discussed in detail, it is important to consider
the type of mixture to be treated or separated into individual components. This is because,
the type of mixture to be treated is directly related with the chosen Methods of Separation.
It is the type of mixture which will determine the suitability Methods of Separation to be
applied in order to obtain as high as possible individual component from the mixture.

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General Types of Mixtures

Basically, the types of mixture can be divided into two parts which are known as
Homogeneous Mixture and Heterogeneous Mixture.

1.3.1 Homogeneous Mixture


Homo actually refers to the word same or similar. Therefore, in the context of this
subject, Homogeneous Mixture can be defined as the type of mixture by which the
components of mixture are in the same phase with respect to each other. By here, it
means that if you refer to liquid mixture, it means that all the components inside the mixture
are in liquid form. Same goes if you refer to solid mixture or gaseous mixture. So, it can be
said that all the components inside the mixture are in solid form or in gaseous form
respectively.

1.3.2 Heterogeneous Mixture


On the other hand, Hetero means different or not the same. For that matter,
Heterogeneous Mixture can be defined as the type of mixture by which the
components of mixture are NOT in the same phase with respect to each other.
Therefore, it can be said that, if you refer to Solid - Liquid mixture, it means that the
mixture consist of one component of mixture in Solid form while the other component is in
Liquid form. The same goes if you refer to Solid - Vapour/Gas mixture or Vapour/Gas Liquid mixture. From here, it can be said that one component is in Solid form while the other
component is in Vapour or Gas form and one component is in Vapour or Gas form while
the other component is in Liquid form respectively.
At this point onwards, it is important if you can distinguish or differentiate betwee
Homogeneous Mixture and Heterogeneous Mixture. This is very essential and important in
order to understand the concept which will be discussed under each Methods of Separation.
In addition, as previously mentioned in the preceding page, the type of mixture is directly
related to the type of Method of Separation to be implemented. In fact, it can be said that it
is the FIRST STEP before choosing and implementing Separation Technology methods to
achieve separation and purity of product.
Now, let us look at the Methods of Separation which is given briefly in the following
page. These Methods of Separation basically can be divided into Chemical Separation and
Mechanical Separation. First we will look at the brief definition of Chemical Separation and
Mechanical Separation. Then, we will look at some examples of Chemical and Mechanical
Separation.

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Classifications of Separation Process

Separation Process basically can be generally classified or divided into two (2) types, which
are Chemical Separation and Mechanical Separation. The respective definition of these
two methods as well as examples of methods under Chemical Separation and Mechanical
Separation will be shown respectively as given in the below paragraphs.

1.4.1 Chemical Separation


Now, let us look at the first method of separation which is Chemical Separation. The
description of Chemical Separation from reference material can be given as below:
Chemical Separation is carried out based upon physical chemical properties
differences in the molecules themselves and on mass transfer of the molecules. The
mixtures are separated into two phase because of the molecular differences. In Chemical
Separation, in order to separate or remove one or more of the compounds from its original
mixture, it must be contacted with another phase.
Based on the description given above, it can be understood that:
1. In terms of Physical Chemical Properties Differences, it means that the mixtures
consist of compounds with different Physical and Chemical properties.
2. Mass Transfer is the mechanism whereby the molecules are moved from one mixture
to another mixture.
3. Two Phase is concerning the state of the mixture either in Solid, Liquid and Gas or
Vapour. This is related with the arrangement of the atoms or molecules for a compound
which has been covered in General Chemistry (CLD 10004).
In order to separate or extract a compound from the mixture, another medium or
phase is required in order for a transfer to occur. The medium or another phase could be
Solid, Liquid and Gas or Vapour which truly depends on the method of Separation Process
or Technology.
In the PREVIOUS page, we have looked into brief description of Chemical Separation
which is one of two general classifications of Separation Technology or Process. Some
examples on method of separation under Chemical Separation are as given below:
Absorption
Stripping
Adsorption
Membrane Processing

Distillation
Evaporation
Drying
Ion Exchange

Liquid-Liquid Extraction
Leaching
Crystallization

Now, we will look at brief description for each method of separation. The detail
principles and operation as well as application will be given in the next and coming chapters.
Let us look at brief definition for Absorption.

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Absorption
There are different descriptions of Absorption which can be given as follows which are
based on referenced materials:
1. When the two contacting phases are a gas and liquid the unit operation is called
absorption. Solute A is absorbed from the gas phase into a liquid phase. Involves
molecular or turbulent diffusion. Mass transfer of a solute A thorough a stagnant nondiffusity gas B into a stagnant liquid C.
2. For gas absorption, the gas contains a desired component, say A. A liquid solvent which
has specific affinity only to A is then contacted with the gas stream, and a fraction of A
coming into the absorber is "absorbed" by the entering liquid. Ideally, the chosen solvent
should have low volatility such that almost none of the solvent escapes with the gas. The
fraction absorbed is again strongly dependent on the operating temperature and
pressure, where lower temperature and higher pressure is more desirable. The solvent
containing absorbed A is then passed to another separation unit such as a distillation
column to finally separate the two.
3. A widely used alternative to Distillation for the separation of a solute from a gas stream
is Absorption. In this separation process, the gas mixture is contacted with a liquid
solvent which preferentially absorbs one or more components from the gas stream.
Liquid flow rate, temperature and pressure are the variables that must be set in this
separation process. (Peters, Timmerhaus & West : Plant Design An Economics
For Chemical Engineers).
From the brief description, it can be said that the method of Absorption involves two
phases which are GAS or VAPOUR and LIQUID. Also, from the description above it can be
simplified that:
If the desired component of GAS or VAPOUR is to be separated or extracted from the
mixture of gases, a LIQUID will be used as a SOLVENT to ABSORP the desired gas into
the liquid. This process is called ABSORPTION.

Stripping
There are basically two brief descriptions concerning the process of Stripping which are
as given below:
1. The reverse of Absorption is called stripping or desorption, and the same theories
and basic principles hold. (Geankoplis : Transport Process And Separation
Process Principles)
2. Once a solute is dissolved in a solvent, it is often necessary to separate the solute
from the absorbent in a stripping operation to recycle the solvent back to absorber.
(Peters, Timmerhaus & West : Plant Design An Economics For Chemical
Engineers).

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From the two descriptions given in previous page, it can be said that the Stripping also
involves TWO phases which are LIQUID that consist of mixture between liquid solvent
being used for Absorption and solute which is being Absorbed into the solvent and
VAPOUR that is to Desorbed or Stripped the solute. In other words, it can be said that:
Stripping or Desorption is the REVERSE process of Absorption whereby the liquid
mixture from Absorption process is to be SEPARATED by using Vapour which is to
DESORP the solute from the Liquid mixture into the Vapour. This is done in order to
REGAIN the Liquid solvent to be recycled or reused for Absorption process.

Distillation
There are different descriptions concerning the process of Distillation which are as given
below:
1. A volatile vapor phase and a liquid phase that vaporize are involved. Distillation of an
ethanol-water solution where the vapor contains a concentration of ethanol greater than
in the liquid. In the distillation of crude petroleum, various fractions such as gasoline,
kerosene and heating oils are distilled off.
2. Distillation is similar in concept to evaporation, but allows the capture of the substance
which evaporated. Distillation is the process of heating a liquid to its boiling point,
condensing the vapors back to a liquid (by cooling), and then collecting the liquid
distillate. Since different substances have different boiling points, control of the
temperature allows a separation to occur. As an example, crude oil is refined into
various products such as naphtha, gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, and lubricating oil
through a fractional distillation process.
3. The heavy phase is liquid while the light phase is vapor. For the binary case, say a
mixture of compounds A and B, separation depends strongly on the relative volatilities
of each component. If both have the same volatility then separation via distillation is not
effective. However, as will be shown later, the volatilities depend on the vapor pressures
at the operating temperature and the column pressure used.
4. The creation or addition of another phase in Distillation is obtained by the repeated
vaporization and condensation of the fluid. The separation process exploits the
differences in vapour pressure of the key components in the mixture to initiate the
separation. (Peters, Timmerhaus & West : Plant Design An Economics For
Chemical Engineers).
Based on the three brief descriptions of Distillation, it can be seen that the separation
of desired compound involve ONE phase only which is in LIQUID phase. Therefore, it can
be simplified or concluded that:

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DISTILLATION involves the Separation of desired compound based on their


DIFFERENCE in BOILING POINT and VOLATILITY. The MORE volatile compound will
vapourize and then condensed before being collected while the LESS volatile compound
will remain in the column.

Liquid - Liquid Extraction


There are three descriptions concerning the method of Liquid-Liquid Extraction from a
referenced material which are as given below:
1. When the two phases are liquids, where a solute or solutes are removed from one
liquid phase to another liquid phase.
2. A solution containing the desired component A and solvent C is mixed with another
liquid B. A fraction of A is then "extracted" from C into B. However, B can not be
completely miscible with C. The greater the immiscibility between B and C, the better.
Also, the B-rich phase containing A has to be easier to separate than the C-rich phase,
otherwise the whole extraction scheme becomes unnecessary.
3. Liquid - Liquid Extraction is a process often selected to separate Azeotropes and
components with overlapping boiling points. The extraction process requires the
addition of a solvent in which one or more of the components in the mixture are soluble.
Components in the liquid mixture are separated based on their different solubilities in
the solvent. (Peters, Timmerhaus& West :Plant Design An Economics For
Chemical Engineers).
As given in the title, there is only ONE phase involve which is LIQUID phase. The basic
principle being used for this method is the SOLUBILITY. Therefore, the concept of Liquid
- Liquid Extraction can be summarized or concluded as follows:
A desired compound in the mixture and in LIQUID phase is to be separated or extracted.
To achieve this, a solvent also in LIQUID phase need to be used. The criteria of choosing
the solvent is based on the desired compound has high SOLUBILITY towards the solvent.
This approach is known as LIQUID - LIQUID EXTRACTION."

Leaching
There are four brief descriptions concerning the method of Leaching from three different
referenced materials:
1. The process of Leaching occurs if a fluid is being used to extract a solute from a solid.".
2. Leaching refers to the extraction of a soluble constituent from a solid by means of a
solvent. (Coulson & Richardson Volume 2).
3. This is the method of removing one constituent from a solid by a means of a liquid
solvent. (McCabe, Smith & Harriott : Unit Operations).
4. In order to separate the desired solute constituent or remove an undesirable solute

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component from the solid phase, the solid is contacted with a liquid phase. The two
phases are in intimate contact and the solute or solutes can diffuse from the solid to the
liquid phase, resulting in a separation of the components originally in the solid. This
separation process is called Liquid - Solid Leaching or simply Leaching. (Peters,
Timmerhaus & West : Plant Design An Economics For Chemical Engineers).
Based on the four different and similar descriptions given in previous page, it is
important to realize that SOLVENT used is in the form of LIQUID, while the mixtures which
consist of the desired and undesired compound is in the form of SOLID. To conclude the
brief description of Leaching:
If a process of EXTRACTING solute which is the desired compound in the form of SOLID
from its SOLID MIXTURE with the usage of a solvent in the form of LIQUID, then the
process is called LEACHING or SOLID EXTRACTION."

Membrane Processing
There are three brief descriptions concerning Membrane Processing as one method of
separation under Chemical Separation which is listed below:
1. The relatively thin, solid membrane controls the rate of the movement of molecules
between 2 phases.
2. This is the method of separating gaseous or liquid mixtures by the usage of semi
permeable membranes which act like a filter. This membrane allows one or more
constituents of the mixture to pass through more readily than the others. (McCabe,
Smith & Harriott : Unit Operation).
3. This type of separation is accomplished with the use of specially prepared membranes
that selectively permit one or more components of a feed stream to pass through the
barrier while retarding the passage of other components in the feed stream. (Peters,
Timmerhaus & West : Plant Design An Economics For Chemical Engineers).
Based on the two brief descriptions given in previous page, it can be seen that the
membrane is basically in the form of SOLID while the desired compound is in the form of
either LIQUID or GAS in the mixture of LIQUID or GAS respectively. Therefore, the
description of Membrane Processing can be given as:
The method of SEPARATING the desired compound from the mixture by the usage of a
MEMBRANE FILTER which ONLY ALLOWS the DESIRED compound to pass through
and left behind the other compound in the mixture. This method is known as MEMBRANE
PROCESSING."

Crystallization
For the brief description of the method Crystallization, there are four descriptions based

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on the referenced material which can be given as follows:


1. Solute components soluble in a solution can be removed from the solution by adjusting
the conditions, such as temp. or concentration so the solubility of one or more solute
components is exceeded and they crystallize out as a solid phase.
2. Precipitation or Crystallization is a process in which a solution is cooled until a solute
precipitates to form a solid phase (which is called a precipitate). The two-phase mixture
may then be further separated by decantation or filtration. The word crystallize is more
specific and is used when the solid forms crystals rather than an amorphous solid
(powder or granules). Crystals have well-formed planar faces and a regular geometric
shape.
3. A solution is heated to evaporate the solvent and is then cooled through careful
temperature schedules to obtain predetermined crystal size and composition. Then the
slurry is either passed through a series of settling tanks or filtration units.
4. Under certain operating conditions, dissolved materials in solution are recoverable in
solid form by precipitation upon cooling, removal of the solvent or the addition of
precipitating agents.(Peters, Timmerhaus & West : Plant Design An Economics
For Chemical Engineers).
Based on the four brief descriptions of Crystallization or also known as Precipitation,
it is important to realize that INITIALLY the mixture which contains the desired compound
is in the form of LIQUID. Then, the temperature is adjusted so that the desired compound
become SOLID. The definition of Crystallization can be summarized as follows:
CRYSTALLIZATION is the method of separation whereby the mixture which consists of
desired compound is in liquid form. The temperature is adjusted by either one of the
following methods:
The temperature is INCREASED to vapourize the undesired compound and left with
desired compound which is then COOLED until it turns to SOLID. Finally, the
crystals are collected by using Filtration.
The temperature of the mixture is DECREASED in order to SOLIDIFY the desired
compound which is then filtered from the mixture.

Adsorption
There are basically two descriptions concerning the method of Adsorption as given in the
referenced materials which are as follows:
1. One or more components in a gas stream are adsorbed on the surface of the pres of
a solid adsorbent and the separation is obtained.
2. Adsorption is a separation process in which certain components of a fluid phase are
transferred to the surface of a solid adsorbent.

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3. The selective adsorption of components on an adsorbent followed by removal of these


components through regeneration forms the basis for adsorption.
(Peters, Timmerhaus & West : Plant Design An Economics For Chemical
Engineers).
Based on the brief description, it is important to bear in mind that the mixture as well
as the desired compound is in the form of LIQUID or GAS. Meanwhile, the medium where
the desired compound is to be transferred is in the form of SOLID. Therefore, the method
of Adsorption can be summarized as:
ADSORPTION is a process whereby the desired compound in the mixture of LIQUID or
GAS will be separated from other compound by the usage of an Adsorbent which is in the
form of SOLID."

Evaporation
There are different descriptions of Evaporation which can be given as follows which are
based on referenced materials:
1. Evaporation refers to removal of relatively large amounts of water from material. In
Evaporation, the water is removed as vapour at its boiling point. In Evaporation, the
vapour from a boiling liquid solution is removed and a more concentrated solution
remains. In the majority of cases, the separation process called Evaporation refers to
the removal of water from an aqueous solution. (Geankoplis : Transport Process
And Separation Process Principles).
2. In Separation Technology, Evaporators may be considered as liquid dryers or
concentrators that separate solvents from a solution by Evaporation. In most cases, the
solvent is water. Evaporation, as a separation process, is distinct from Distillation in that
the solute is nonvolatile and a high degree of separation can be achieved in one stage.
(Peters, Timmerhaus & West : Plant Design An Economics For Chemical
Engineers).
Based on two brief descriptions concerning Evaporation, it can be understood that the
mixture is in Liquid form or a Homogenous type of mixture. Therefore, the concept of
Evaporation can be summarized as follows:
EVAPORATION is a method of REMOVING Water which acts as a solvent or Organic
solvent from the liquid mixture. The evaporated Water or Organic solvent is DISCARDED
or DISPERSED to the atmosphere and leaving the desired product in MORE
CONCENTRATED form.

Ion Exchange
There are different descriptions of Ion Exchange which can be given as follows which are
based on referenced materials:

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1. Ion Exchange is also similar to Adsorption in that solid particles are used in the
separation process and regeneration is necessary. However, a chemical reaction is
involved. (Peters, Timmerhaus & West : Plant Design An Economics For Chemical
Engineers).
2. Ion Exchange processes are basically chemical reactions between ions in solution
and ions in an insoluble solid phase. The technique used in Ion Exchange so closely
resemble those used in Adsorption that for the majority of engineering purposes Ion
Exchange can be considered as a special case of Adsorption. In Ion Exchange, certain
ions are removed by the Ion Exchange solid. Since electro neutrality must be
maintained, the solid releases replacement ions to the solution. (Geankoplis :
Transport Process And Separation Process Principles).
3. Ion Exchange is a chemical reaction wherein an ion from solution is exchanged for a
similarly charged ion attached to an immobile solid particle. (Mohd. Adi Abdul Hadi,
Mohd Azri, Mohd Helmy & Idris : Ion Exchange Separation).
Based on three brief desriptions concerning the concept of Ion Exchange, therefore, it
can be summarized as follows:
Ion Exchange is a SPECIAL case of Adsorption since it is SIMILAR with Adsorption but
with the DIFFERENCE by having CHEMICAL REACTION between IONS of solution with
ions of Solid Particle or Ion Exchange Resin. As a result of the chemical reaction, the ions
of solution exchange with ions of Solid Particle based on SIMILARLY CHARGED Ions.

Drying

There are basically two brief descriptions concerning the principle and concept of Drying
which are as shown below:
1. Drying generally means removal of relatively small amounts of water from material. In
Drying, the water is usually removed as a vapour by air. (Geankoplis : Transport
Process And Separation Process Principles).
2. The main purpose of this separation process is to remove liquid from a liquid - solid
system to produce a dry solid. Generally, the liquid removed is water, but drying can
also be used to separate organic liquids from solids. (Peters, Timmerhaus & West :
Plant Design An Economics For Chemical Engineers).
Therefore, from the two brief descriptions given above, it can be seen that the mixtures
for Drying is basically a Heterogeneous which is SOLID and LIQUID. For that matter, the
concept of Drying can be summarized as follows:

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Drying generally involves the method of REMOVING water or organic solvents from the
wet Solids at a specified MOISTURE CONTENT. The water or organic solvents being
removed to the atmosphere is in the form of VAPOUR.
Now, we have FINISHED our brief discussion concerning each method of

separation under CHEMICAL SEPARATION. In the NEXT section, we will look at some
brief description concerning the Mechanical Separation as well as the methods of
separation.

1.4.2 Mechanical Separation


Now, let us turn our attention to the next method of separation which is known as Physical
Mechanical Separation or simply Mechanical Separation. The description of Mechanical
Separation as given by referenced material is as shown below:
Mechanical Separation is carried out by using mechanical physical forces and will be
acting on particles, liquids or mixtures of particles and liquids. Among the Mechanical
Physical Forces are gravitational, centrifugal, mechanical and kinetic forces. As a
result, particles and or fluids are separated because of the different effects produced on
them by these forces.
By referring to the statement given above regarding Mechanical Separation, it can be
understood that Mechanical Physical Forces such as gravitational, centrifugal,
mechanical as well as kinetic forces are applied to solids, liquids or mixture of both solids
and liquids in order to cause separation of desired product.
In order to achieve Mechanical Separation, the specific methods used are as listed
below:
Filtration
Centrifugal Settling

Settling & Sedimentation


Centrifugal Filtration

Now, let us look at briefly the concept of using these three methods of Mechanical
Separation starting with Filtration.

Filtration
There are basically two brief descriptions concerning the principle and concept of Filtration
as given by reference materials which are as shown below:
1. In Filtration, a pressure difference is set up that causes the fluid to flow through small
holes in a screen or cloth which block the passage of the large solid particles; these, in
turn, build up on the cloth as a porous cake. (Geankoplis : Transport Process And
Separation Process Principles).

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2. In this mode of separation, solid particles in a liquid or gas are removed by passing the
mixture through a porous medium that retains the particles and passes the fluid."
(Peters, Timmerhaus & West: Plant Design An Economics For Chemical
Engineers).
As a summary, the concept of Filtration as given in the reference material can be
given as follows:
Filtration is used to separate a solid from a liquid or solid from gas. In this case, the
mixture is poured through a porous medium (often filter paper), in which the size of the
pores allows liquids or gas and dissolved solutes to pass through but retains solid
particles. This is essentially like using a strainer, but with much smaller openings. The clear
liquid phase obtained is called the filtrate.
From the statement given above, it can be understood that the method of Filtration is
used to SEPARATE a mixture which contains SOLIDS and LIQUIDS for Solid Liquid
Mixture but also used to separate mixture which contains SOLIDS and GASEOUS for Solid
Gaseous Mixture. Solid is the desired product while Liquid is an unwanted product for the
case of Solid Liquid Mixture.
For the case of Solid Gaseous Mixture, Solid is again the desired product while
Gaseous is an unwanted product. Therefore, in order to achieve separation, the Solid and
Liquid or Solid and Gas need to be separated by the usage of a POROUS MEDIUM such
as Filter Paper. The concept of Filtration is about the same with Membrane Processing in
the Chemical Separation. The DIFFERENCE is that Membrane Processing is used to
separate LIQUID mixture as well as GASEOUS mixture whereas Filtration is used to
separate mixture which contains SOLID and LIQUID or SOLID and GAS.

Settling
There are basically two brief descriptions given by referenced material which can be shown
as follows:
1. In Settling and Sedimentation, the particles are separated from the fluid by gravitational
forces acting on particles of various sizes and densities. (Geankoplis: Transport
Process and Separation Process Principles).
2. In Settling processes, solid particles or liquid drops are separated from a fluid by
gravitational forces acting on the particles or drops. The fluid can be a liquid or a gas.
(Peters, Timmerhaus & West: Plant Design An Economics For Chemical
Engineers).
To summarize the concept of Settling based from the statements given by two referenced
material, the description can be given as below:
Settling or also known as GRAVITATIONAL SETTLING is a method of separating SOLIDS
from the mixture of SOLIDS and LIQUID by the usage of gravitational force. Here, the Solid

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which has higher density will obviously slowly drop to the bottom of the container or tank
which is then sucked by pumps to separate the Solid by the usage of Filter.
Here, it can be seen that the method of Settling cannot stand on its own. This method
needs to come together with Filtration in order to achieve complete separation of solids from
the filtrate or the liquid remains of the mixture.

Centrifugal Settling
There are basically two brief descriptions given based on referenced materials which can
be given as follows:
1. In Centrifugal Separations, the particles are separated from the fluid by centrifugal
forces acting on particles of various sizes and densities. (Geankoplis : Transport
Process And Separation Process Principles).
2. Use of centrifugal force increases the force acting on the particle and permits more
rapid separation times. Beside solids separation from liquids, it is also sometimes used
to separate two liquids with different densities by centrifugation. ( Peters, Timmerhaus
& West : Plant Design An Economics For Chemical Engineers ).
As a summary, the concept of Centrifugation which is based on referenced material can be
given as below:
Centrifugation is the process of separating a suspended solid in a liquid by high speed
rotation which result in centrifugal force acting on the particle or more denser liquid.
Based on the statement given above, it can be seen that the mixture contains SOLIDS
and LIQUIDS or can also Liquids with DIFFERENT DENSITIES. Solid with higher density
is the desired product. If the method of Settling allows the desired product which is the solids
to drop slowly by gravitational force, Centrifugation is a method of separating the solid from
the liquid by rotating the tank or vessel in high speed. As a result, water will be removed
outward and at the top while the solid will be removed at the bottom of Centrifugal Separator.
This concept is similar to our usage of Spinning in Washing Machine.

Centrifugal Filtration
It is unfortunate at the time of writing that not much description is given for this type of
Mechanical Separation. However, there is only one brief description which can be given as
follows:
In the second type of centrifugal separation process, centrifugal filtration occurs, which is
similar to ordinary filtration, where a bed or cake of solids builds up on a screen, but
centrifugal force is used to cause the flow instead of a pressure difference." (Geankoplis :
Transport Process And Separation Process Principles).

Separation Technology (CKD 20103)

January 2016

Based on the statement given above, it can be understood that there is not much
different as compared to Filtration as been mentioned earlier. This is because this method
also deals with either Heterogeneous mixture of Solid - Liquid or Solid - Vapour or Gas. The
only difference is concerning the causes of flow with Pressure Difference is applied for
normal Filtration but obviously Centrifugal Force is used for Centrifugal Filtration type.
By now, we have FINISHED our discussions concerning the basic concept of
CHEMICAL SEPARATION and MECHANICAL SEPARATION. In the NEXT TOPIC, we will
look at SOLID - LIQUID SEPARATION which involves DRYING and FILTRATION.