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CHAPTER - 21

Safety in Textile Industry


THEME
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Need of Safety in Textile Industry


Types of Textile Industry
Statutory Provisions :
3.1 General
3.2 Health Provisions
3.3 Safety Provisions
3.4 Welfare Provisions
3.5 Cotton Ginning & Pressing
Factories Act & Rules
Indian Standards
Flowcharts of Textile Processes :
5.1 Composite Flowchart
5.2 Other Flowcharts
Short & long Staple, Viscose

6.6 Ring (Spinning) Frames


6.7 Doubling Machines
6.8 Rotor Spinning
7. Hazards and Safety Precautions of
Weaving
Preparatory and Weaving
Processes :
7.1 Winding Machines
7.2 Warping Machines
7.3 Sizing Machines
7.4 Looms
8. Hazards and Safety Precautions of
Processing (Finishing) and
Folding
Machines :
8.1 General Precautions
8.2 Bleaching Process
8.3 Processing Machines (Dyeing,
Printing etc.)
9. Fire & Explosion Hazards and Controls
10. Health Hazards and Controls :
Cotton dust, Heat & Humidity, Noise
and
other Hazards
10.1
Health Hazards in Cotton
Textile Industry
10.2
Health Hazards in Other Textile
Industry
11. Effluent Treatment and Waste Disposal
in Textile Industry

rayon,
Synthetic fibre, Spun &
Filament
Yarn, Jute
Hazards and Safety Precautions of
Spinning Preparatory and Spinning
Processes :
6.1 Opening and Blow Room
Machines
6.2 Carding Machines
6.3 Sliver and Ribbon Lap
Machines
6.4 Combers and Drawing Frames
6.5 Roving (Speed) Frames
6.

1 NEED OF SAFETY IN
TEXTILE
INDUSTRY

becoming sick in market competition. Yet


it is a fact that the old textile machines
are still in use in some mills. From safety
point of view, such old and poorly
guarded (and without built-in safety)
machinery needs more attention.
Indian textile industry is the oldest
one in the world. Cotton was invented
and planted by Grutsmad Rushi some
20,000 years ago. Yarn and threads were
manufactured by hands and cloth was
woven by hand looms. A reference is
published that a ginning machine made in
India was sent to England. Dhakas
malmal (the thinnest and lightest cloth)
was famous. British rulers cut off the
palms and fingers of Indian weavers so
that they cannot compete with cloth from
England. Dyeing by natural colours was

Clothing is the basic need for all of us


and with the modernisation a want of
more and more attractive (durable,
shining, anti-crease and colourful) fabrics
is increasing day by day. Therefore the
foundation of textile industry is very old,
ever changing and ever lasting. The
continuous blow room line, replacement
of mule spinning by ring spinning, rotor
spinning, high speed shuttle-less
and
workerless looms and computerised
processing
machinery
has
rapidly
changed the structure of textile industry
and the mills not following such
modernisation
and
automation
are

also in use. Old Indian garments were


white and colourful.
The textile mills established during
19th century in Lancashire and in New
England initiated the Industrial Revolution
and their cotton fabrics dominated the
world markets for many years. Indian
textile mill industry is also as old as the
first Indian Factories Act 1881 and Gujarat
is still leading in textile industries. Man
made synthetic fibres such as polyamides
and polyester are now blended with
cotton and a trend of such artificial
fabrics is increasing.
In 1979 there were 19728 cotton
textile factories working with 1147000
workers and 3244 wool, silk and synthetic
fibre factories working with 179000
workers out of total 135173 working
factories with total workers 6797000 in
India. This gives 10.33% textile (cotton
and others) factories and 19.50% textile
workers.
In 1999 estimated registered textile
factories in India and Gujarat were
@16000 and 4000 respectively. Similarly
estimated textile workers in India and
Gujarat were @14 lakhs and 3.0 lakhs
respectively.
Table
5.16 of Chapter-5 gives
following figures of textile factories in
Gujarat as on 30-6-1998.
NIC Code
23
24
25
26
Total

Working
Factories
1181
1754
16
299
3250

Therefore in want of correct and


latest statistics, it seems difficult to figure
out total textile factories and textile
workers.
Table 5.6 (Chapter-5) gives following
figures for textile industry in India for the
year 1992 :
Accidents
Incidence
Rate
Frequency
Rate

Fatal 67, Nonfatal 33047,


total 33114
Fatal 0.02, Nonfatal 8.55
Fatal 0.03, Nonfatal 14.80

Table 5.19 gives following figures for


textile accidents in Gujarat :
Type of Accidents
Fatal
Nonfatal
Total
Percent of total textile &
non-textile
fatal
&
nonfatal accidents

199
6
32
3978
4010
35.6
2

199
7
36
6967
7003
58.0
2

Thus total textile accidents occupy


nearly 35 to 55% of all industry accidents
in Gujarat. This indicates high need to
control textile accidents.
US incidence rates for the year 1995,
of some textile processes are as under :

Average
Workers
120527
89950
505
14884
225866

This indicates there was 16.43%


textile factories (cotton, man-made fibres,
wool, silk, jute and textile products) and
25.93% textile workers in these factories
in Gujarat in 1998.
Any estimate of unregistered textile
factories is vague. Most of such weaving
and texturising units employing less than
10 workers are many times more than the
registered
weaving
factories.
For
example,
against
100
registered
factories, an estimate runs up to 10,000
unregistered (partitioned) establishments.

Carpets
&
rugs
Knitting mills

10.
0
8.2

Manmade
fabric mills
Textile
finishing

6.1
7.8

Yarn
&
thread mills
Wool
fabric
mills
Cotton fabric
mills
Misc textile
goods

9.1
7.5
5.8
12.0

Comparing with all manufacturing


incidence rate 11.6, it indicates little
higher proportion of accidents in textile
industry in USA (Accidents Facts, 1997,
NSC).
A case study of one good composite
textile mill employing @3500 workers
indicates following figures :
Year
Total

1984
281

1985
343

1986
368

accidents
Due
to
unsafe
conditions
Due
to
unsafe
actions
Mandays
lost
Frequency
Severity
Rate

135
(48%)

161
(47%)

156
(42%)

146
(52%)

182
(53%)

212
(58%)

2100

7276

3995

32.78
245.04

40.25
849.0

45.04
466.1
6

Another case study of 2100


accidents in 10 composite mills, carried
out by the Central Labour Institute,
Bombay gives following figures :
Department
1 Spinning
Preparatory &
Spinning
2 Weaving
Preparatory &
Weaving
3 Finishing &
other
Departments
Total

The department wise accidents in


above study give following figures for the
year 1986.
1 Weavin
g

11
1

6 Bleaching,
Finishing
Lab etc.
7 Dyeing

23

2 Enginee
ring
3 Contrac
t
Workers
4 Spinnin
g
5 Printing

51
65

8 Folding,
Store, Office

15

53

Total

Agency
1 Looms
2 Ring Frames
3 Other
Machines
4 Material
Handling
5 Working
Conditions
6 Hand Tools
7 Hand Trucks
and Transport
Equipment
8 Chemicals
9 Others
Total

22

368

28

10
3

6 Fall
from
height

24

48

7 Burn by hot
substance,
chemicals
etc.
8 Cut
by
bobbin
shields

16

9 Others

72

34

30

27

Total

Percent
35.2

1019

48.6

343

16.2

2100

100

Agency distribution is as follows :

The causation wise accidents in


above study gives following figures for
the year 1986 :
1 Striking
against
objects
2 Struck
by
falling
bodies
3 Cut by
sharp
edges,
knife,
tools
etc.
4 Caught
betwee
n
objects
5 Flying
shuttles

Accidents
738

Accidents
617
321
335

Percent
29.4
15.3
15.9

228

10.9

202

9.6

176
121

8.4
5.8

34
66
2100

1.6
3.1
100

Above statistics ascertains that the


textile industry is one of the biggest
industries in India employing more than
20% of total labour force and contributing
more than 50% of total industrial
accidents thus highlighting the great
need of safety and accident prevention in
this industry. Heavy and numerous
machineries, health hazards including
machine accidents, shuttle flying, cut by
bobbin shield, byssionosis, heat stress,
humidity, high noise, fire hazards and
higher number of employment also stress
for the higher need of safety.
Almost 50% accidents occurring in
textile industry are due to unsafe
conditions. Therefore machine guarding

14

368

and other safety conditions need much


attention. The latest design of textile
machinery having built-in safety, dust
suction device and computer controls has
eliminated
many
hazards
of
old
machinery.

Asbestos
Amphiboles, Actinolite, Amosite,
Anthophyllite, Crocidolite,
Tremolite, Serpentine, Chrysotile

2 TYPES OF TEXTILE
INDUSTRY

Wollastonite
Zeolite, Sepiolite, Attapulgite

Cotton being the natural and old


product,
light,
easily
compressible,
transportable and most suitable for
human body (particularly for hot days),
cotton textile is pioneering and oldest
industry. But with inventions of new
fibres, natural and synthetic, it has, now,
become a mixed industry. The industry
includes the spinning, weaving, knitting
and finishing of all types of natural,
synthetic and artificial fibres. The
machines vary from handlooms of cottage
industry to very expensive and intricate
modern machines. Some are only
spinning mills, weaving units or dyeing
and finishing houses while some are
composite textile mills carrying out all
operations at one place.
A classification of various types of the
fibres is as follows :

Manmade Fibres
Artificial Fibres (Natural Polymer)
Viscose rayon (artificial silk)
Cupra rayon,
Staple fibre

and

Cellulose ester
Cellulose
triacetate

acetate,

Cellulose

Protein
fibres
from
milk,
seaweed, maize-soya groundnuts
Glass & Chemical fibres

Fibres

Glass fibres made from borosilicate


or calcio alumina silicate glass
(Glass wool)

Natural Fibres

Synthetic
Fibres
(Petrochemical
Origin)
Polyamides (Nylon), Polyesters
Polyolefins
(Courlene),
Polypropylenes
Polyurethanes (Spendex fibres)

Vegetable Origin
Cotton, From
Kapok, Coir

Filament

Seeds

&

Fruit,

Jute, From Bast, Flex, Hemp,


Ramile, Sisal

Polyvinyl derivatives (Acrylic Fibres)

From Leaf

Polyacrylonitrile, Polyvinyl chloride,


Polyvinylidene chloride,
Polyvinyl alcohol,
Polytetrafluoro ethylene & related
polymers (Teflon),
Polyvinylidene dinitrile, Polystyrene
and Miscellaneous.

Animal Origin
Wool, alpaca, mohair, goat,
camel hair
Silk & other filament

All these fibres are used for various


purposes such as garments, protective

Mineral Origin

wears, ropes, carpets etc. They are the


raw materials for various types of textile
industries.

interlocking of the exhaust fan with main


drive of the machine, thermostats to
regulate temperature, explosion doors
(flaps) to let off the fumes outside the
workroom, weekly cleaning of filter gauge
and exhaust dust, checking of V-belt
tension, examination and a register
therefore. See Part 3.3 for more details.
Rule
68D
for
thermic
fluid
heaters used to circulate hot oil in
stenter and other drying machines,
prescribes many provisions. See Part 10
of Chapter-18 for details.
For Rule 68G, GFR, for Oven &
Driers, see Part 27 of Chapter-23.
For Sch. 12 & 19 u/r 102, GFR, for
chemical works, see Part 11 of Chapter23 and for Sch. 23 u/r 102, for high noise,
see Part 4 of Chapter-12.
Chapter-3
(Health),
4(Safety),
5(Welfare),
6(Working
hours),
7(Employment of young persons) and
8(Annual leave with wages) of the
Factories Act are mostly applicable to
textile factories as they are applicable to
other factories.
Some relevant provisions of the
Factories Act & Rules applicable to textile
industry are mentioned below in brief.

3 STATUTORY PROVISIONS
3.1

General :

Section 15 (Artificial humidification),


27 (Cotton openers) and 31 (Pressure
plant) of the Factories Act are generally
applicable to textile plants. The Gujarat
Factories Rules has made some specific
provisions by Sch. I & II under rule 54 and
also under rule 68C & D, and Sch. 12, 23
& 27 u/r 102.
The statutory requirements are
individual machine drive, belt shifting
devices, inter locked covers for beaters,
card cylinders, headstocks and dangerous
parts, fixed fencing for dust chamber,
beater grid bars, guards for lap and fluted
rollers, nip guards for calendering
machines etc., and a wall fencing with
locked doors for the underground line
shafts of ginning factories.
More details are provided by a
substituted Schedule I under rule 54 of
the Gujarat Factories (Amendment) Rules
1995. This schedule defines calendar,
card, comber, combing machinery, rotary
staple cutter, garnet machine, gill box, inrunning rolls, interlocking arrangement,
kier, ribbon lapper, sliver lapper, loom,
starch mangle, water mangle, mule, nip,
openers and pickers, paddler, plating
machine,
roller
printing
machine,
continuous bleaching range, mercerizing
range, sanforizing machine, shearing
machine, singeing machine, slasher,
stenter
frame and warper.
Safety
requirements for these machines and
other machines such as centrifugal
extractors, rope washers, laundry washer,
printing machines, plating machines,
baling machines and flat work ironer are
also prescribed. For details of Sch I & II u/r
54, see Part 5.4 of Chapter-14.
Rule 68C for polymerising or
curing machine (fixing print by emulsion
technique), requires thoroughly drying of
printed fabrics, exhaust flap or damper,
cutting
off
electrical
heaters
in
emergency
or
solvent
dropping,

3.2

Health Provisions :

Cleanliness (removal of cotton dust


from work area), disposal of waste and
effluent
from
dyeing
and
printing
processes, good ventilation, temperature
and lighting, removal of dust and fume
from dusty and heating area, artificial
humidification required for cotton fibre
strength, drinking water, latrines and
urinals and spittoons are applicable
health provisions under Chapter-3 of the
Factories Act.
Artificial Humidification :
Section 15 of the Factories Act
requires that water to be used to increase
humidity of air artificially (mostly in
spinning department) should be clean and
from a source of drinking water.
Rules 19 to 29 prescribed u/s 15,
require other details as under :

1. Artificial humidification is not allowed


in spinning or weaving factory when
room temperature exceeds 29.50C
(850F) or when wet bulb reading of the
hygrometer is higher than that
specified in the schedule u/r 19 in
relation to the dry bulb reading of the
hygrometer at that time.
2. Provision of hygrometer.
3. Copy of schedule u/r 19 to be affixed
near every hygrometer.
4. Temperature to be recorded in
humidity register (Form No.6) at each
hygrometer.
5. Specifications of hygrometer.
6. Thermometer to be maintained in
efficient order.
7. Inaccurate thermometer not to be
used without fresh certificate.
8. Hygrometer not to be affixed to wall
etc. unless protected by wood.
9. No reading to be taken within 15
minutes of renewal of water.
10. Method of introducing steam for
humidification (pipe dia < 2.5 cm ,
pressure < 5 Kg/cm2 , jet projection <
11.5 cm , insulation thickness > 13
mm.)

partition, they can be employed on feedend side. This is due to the risk of more
flying cotton dust on delivery side and hitinjury when any revolving beater breaks
or any solid material is thrown out on
delivery side.
Hoist,
lift
and
lifting
machine
provisions are applicable to those
machines. Section 30 on revolving
machinery is applicable to hydroextractor
to remove water from wet fabric. The top
cover of the revolving basket should be
interlocked and safe working peripheral
speed should not be exceeded.
Section 31 and rule 61 are most
important for all pressure vessels to be
used in a textile industry. Jet dyeing or
beam dyeing vessels, ager, kier, drum
washers, cooking-pans, drying cylinders,
drying range, sizing cylinders, air receiver
tanks etc. are all subject of this provision.
Their design, construction, use and
maintenance must be safe. They must be
tested
by
a
competent
person
periodically. Their safety devices like
safety valve, pressure gauge, stop valve,
drain valve and PRV or pressure regulator
must be provided and maintained in a
safe working condition. Steam traps and
vacuum breakers are also essential.
Precautions
against
toxic
or
flammable gas and fire are also
applicable to textile processes using
solvent (eg. blancket cleaning) and cotton
godowns.
Schedules I & II for detailed machine
guarding u/r 54 are summarised in Part
5.4 of Chapter 14.
Rule 68C, GFR, provides following
safety precautions for Polymerising and
Curing Machines :

Byssionosis is included in the third


schedule of the Act as an occupational
disease due to cotton dust exposures to
workers. It is reportable u/s 89. For details
see Part 10 of this chapter.
For monitoring and control of cotton
dust (TLV
), new schedule 27 is u/r
102 is added in GFR vide Notification
dated
. It requires
* Add
1.
2.
3.
4.

3.3

1. Printed fabrics shall be thoroughly


dried before feeding to such machines
(to allow less solvent in the m/c).
2. 2/3 portion of the exhaust damper/flap
should always be open.
3. Infrared ray heaters shall be cut off
while running the prints.
4. Electrical heater should have separate
circuit and switch to isolate it at the
time of emergency.
5. Leakage of solvent should not come in
contact with the heaters.

Safety Provisions:

Section 21 regarding general machine


guarding is application to all textile
machines.
Section 27 prohibits employment of
woman or child in a cotton press room
where a cotton opener works. If feed-end
of a cotton-opener is separated by full

6. Exhaust
fan
drive
should
be
interlocked with main drive of the
machine so that when exhaust motor
stops, the machine (with heating
device) should also stop. (Exhaust fan
should start first before the fabric
moves into the chamber).
7. Thermostat
to
regulate
the
temperature of the heater, not
allowing it to go beyond the preset
value.
8. Explosion flaps to be provided at top to
let off the fumes in case of explosion.
9. Filter gauge and exhaust duct should
be cleaned weekly. Vee-belt tension
should be checked weekly.
10. Trained supervisor to examine the
machine. A register to be maintained
to enter all checks.

required depending on number of workers


employed.
Rules 68R to W of the Gujarat
Factories Rules regarding health records,
qualified
supervisors,
medical
examination, occupational health centre,
ambulance van and safety showers are
applicable to hazardous processes in
man-made fibre textile industry.

3.5
Cotton
Ginning
and
Pressing Factories Act and
Rules :
This old Act and Rules are applicable
to cotton ginning and pressing factories.
See Part 6 of Chapter-27 for details.

4 INDIAN STANDARDS

When thermic fluid heaters are used


to circulate hot oil instead of steam in
textile machines (eg. stenter for cloth
drying) rule 68D, GFR, is applicable. See
part 10 of Chapter-18 for details.
Rule 68E, requires suitable ladders,
crawling board and work permit to
prevent fall from fragile roofs.
Rule 102, Sch. 23 requires ear
protection for noise level above 90 dBA,
and auditory examination every year.
Weavers are mostly exposed to high
noise. Sch. 27 requires protection from
cotton dust.
Man-made Fibre (Cellulosic and
non-cellulosic) industry is listed in the
First Schedule of the Act as a hazardous
industry. Therefore while manufacturing
such synthetic fibre, Chapter 4A of the
Act and rules 68K to N, P and Q of the
Gujarat Factories Rules are applicable.
These provisions may be referred in
statute books for details. Then Schedule
19 u/r 102 also becomes applicable for
chemical work. Schedule 12 u/r 102 is
applicable where acids or alkalis are used.

3.4

From a variety of IS on textile


machinery, some are given below :
Textile motors 2972 (Part I for loom
motors, Part II for card motors, Part III for
spinning frame motors), Code for fire
safety in cotton textile mills 3079, rings
for spinning and doubling frames 3078,
6317, ring doubling and twisting frames
5938, 7614, ring frame, warp spindle
3698, tin rollers 838, metal travellers
3523, shaft bottom for cotton looms 833,
shuttle blocks for automatic looms 9280,
9287, shuttles-classification of terms
8684, spinning frames-bottom rollers
2510, spindles 3934, top roller 3176,
machinery nomenclature 6068, methods
for identification of application classes of
dyes on textile materials 4472 (Part I for
cotton and cellulosic fibres, Part II for
wool, silk and protein fibres, Part III for
man-made fibres), natural fibres 2364,
drafting in spinning machinery 4474,
finishing machines, nominal widths 7952,
treatment and disposal of effluents 9508,
tolerance limits for effluents 2490 (Part 1
to 10), water for quality tolerances 201,
twisting machinery 6068, warp bobbins
1724, warpers beams 9292, warp stop
motion 3683, warp ring frame 3698,
weavers beams 3165, weaving looms and
preparatory machines 3199, weft pirns for
shuttles 3265, winders-cone and cheese
8567, pirn 8568, winding rollers for
finishing machines 8304, wooden bobbins

Welfare Provisions :

Chapter-5 (Sections 42 to 50) of the


Factories Act is fully applicable to textile
factory.
Washing
facilities,
first-aid
appliances, canteen, lunch room and rest
room, crche and welfare officers are

for ring doubling and twisting frames


7614, woven fabrics testing 9, 2977,
7903, 10100, yarn acetate and rayon
filament 1229, blended 7866, polyester
and polyamide 7703, 7867, cotton count
determination 237, cotton winding cones
4888, twist determination 832, linear
density
determination
1226,
textile
conditioning 6359.
Cotton handloom colour
fastness
6906, residual chlorine 2350, scouring
loss determination 1383.
Dyes fastness 1688, Fibres, methods
of identification 667, flammability and
flame resistance test 11871, water
quality tolerances 201, textile items
made up, glossary 14281, processing
glossary 9603, testing handbook SP:15,
textile terms - wool and animal fibres
11206, mmf 1324, natural fibre 232,
woven fabrics 2364, textile belting 1891,
floor coverings, flame resistance 12722,
asbestos yarn 13362, electrical insulation
and plastic laminate 13128.

5 FLOWCHARTS OF
TEXTILE
PROCESSES
5.1

Composite Flowchart :

It is essential to understand a textile


process flow chart before proceeding
towards the textile machines. Therefore it
is shown below in Fig 21.1.

Cotton (with seeds) from agriculture

Ginning machines (removal of seeds)

Press (gives bales)

Cotton/man-made fibre bales

Opening, mixing and blow-room machinery (gives lap)

Carding machines (gives sliver)

Draw frames (precomb), superlap machine, combers, draw


frames (post comb), fly or roving frames (gives rove yarn),
interframes

Ring frames (gives fine twisted yarn)

Doubling frames (twisting of double yarns)

Ginning-pressing process

Spinning Preparatory Process

Spinning Process

Winding machines (give cheese or cone of yarn )

Warping machine
Pirn winding machine (gives
(gives warpers beam)
pirn, weft for shuttle)

Sizing machine (gives sized warp and } Sizing


weavers beam)
} process
(Starch

application
Draw frames (gives drawn warp)
)

Looms (give grey cloth)

Shearing Singeing (gives singed cloth)

Bleaching (gives bleached cloth)

Dyeing (gives dyed cloth)


} Dyeing process

Printing
} Printing process
Polymerising (gives printed cloth)

Sanforizing (gives sanforized cloth)

Folding/plaiting

Cloth bales (fabrics)

Weaving Preparatory
Process

Weaving Process

Finishing Process
(Processing Dept.)

Folding Dept. &


Cloth Godown

Fig 21.1 Composite (Complete) Flowchart of textile processes


General layout of different departments of a composite textile mill is shown
in fig. 21.s.
* Add

Above flowchart is self-explanatory,


yet some main processes are explained
below :
Ginning : The fibres and the cotton
seeds are separated by gin machines in
a ginning factory.
Pressing & Baling : The ginned
cotton is compressed and packed into
bales
by
cotton
presses
(mostly
hydraulic) in a pressing factory. Generally
ginning and pressing factories are
combined and situated in villages where
cotton is collected. The cotton bales are
transported to a spinning mill or a
composite textile mill. The cotton-seeds
are separately collected. They are used to
extract oil therefrom and also for cattlefood.
Schedule-2, rule 54, GFR is applicable
to ginning and pressing factories while
Sch-1 is applicable to following processes.
Bale Opening and Scutching: In a
blow room the bales are opened by bale
openers, sometimes tinted in a tinting
room for quality separation and mixed
with cotton from other bales or manmade fibres through a hopper feeder. By
a moving spiked lattice, beaters and a
series of rolls the fibres are thoroughly
mixed, cleaned and further opened by
revolving beaters and air currents against
a grid through which the dirt is separated.
A cotton lap is formed and lap-rolls are
sent to the carding machines
Carding : The fibres are made
parallel to each other, remaining hard
tuffs are broken and short thin fibres and
impurities are removed. A sliver (flat
untwisted rope) is formed and it is
collected in cans.
Spinning
:
Through
pre-comb
drawing frames, sliver lap machines,
comber machines, drawing frames and
inter frames the sliver is converted into
inter-end by drawing, drafting, combing
and twisting processes. More slivers are
passed through pairs of suitably spaced
rollers, each pair revolving at a higher
speed than the preceding pair. Further
attenuation of the yarn is accompanied
by ring frames and doubling frames. Inter
roving ends are converted into yarn of
required count by drafting and twisting in
the ring frame machines. A new method

known as open-end or rotor spinning is


most suitable for spinning coarse yarns
and can replace not only the ring frame
but some other initial processes as well.
Texturising is done to synthetic yarn to
reduce its denier.
Weaving Preparatory : In winding
department yarn defect is removed and
cheese and beam (by warping machine)
are produced. Pirn bobbins are filled to
put them in shuttles. Yarn singeing is
carried out to burn off the projected fibres
(hairs). Sizing (starch) process is carried
out in sizing machines.
Weaving : After the weaving
preparatory processes, the warp threads
(beams) and weft threads (pirn bobbins)
are fed to looms to weave cloth. Various
types of looms are used. New alternations
to the shuttle for weft insertion are rapier, water jet, air jet and ripple or
wave shedding. The cloth is sent to the
grey folding department for cleaning,
mending, inspection and folding (plaiting)
purposes.
Artificial humidification is employed in
carding,
spinning
and
weaving
departments to reduce yarn breakage,
because moist thread has relatively
higher breaking strength than a dry
thread.
But
high
humidity
causes
discomfort. Therefore its regulation is
required by hygrometers and by rules 19
to 29 under the GFR.
Finishing Processes : Here shearing
cropping,
cloth
singeing,
piling,
mercerising, drying, washing, desizing
(removing starch by enzymes solution),
scouring (removing fats and waxes by
hydroxide solution), bleaching (by H2O2 or
Cl2), dyeing (wide range of dyes
available)
and printing (screen
or
multicolour rotary printing) processes are
carried out in sequence. The dyed or
printed cloth is dried, smoothed and
pressed. It may also be subjected to other
treatments to improve its appearance or
wearing qualities. It may be made
waterproof, flame repellent or rotproof.
Synthetic resins are used for these
purposes. The finished cloth (fabric) is
sent to finish folding department, for
checking, sample cutting, folding and
baling purposes.

Now we shall see the flowcharts of


different types of fabrics.

5.2

Other Flowcharts :

To understand flowcharts of fabric


manufacturing
it
is
necessary
to
understand sequence or stages of
manufacture from fibres to fabrics and
then bleaching, dyeing, printing and other
finishing processes on the fabrics.
The first stage in the production of a
fabric is to clean and mix fibres
thoroughly. The fibres are then generally
straightened, but for the production of
certain types of fabric they must be
brought into a condition in which they are
all parallel. The fibres are next drawn out
into the form of sliver, which resembles a
flat rope but with the fibres having no
twist. Repeated drawing (extenuating)
and twisting follow. This twisting is to give
the resulting roving i.e. just sufficient
strength to prevent breakage in its
manipulation (extenuation). Thus a fine
roving is produced which is finally twisted
into yarn. The yarn is used to produce
fabrics by either knitting or weaving.
It will be realised that for the carrying
out of these manufacturing processes a
wide range of different types of
complicated machines and a great variety
of methods are used. Such processes
have taken more than two centuries to
perfect and even now, partly owing to the
increasing use of rayon and synthetic
fibres, modifications are constantly being
introduced.
Fibres are of two types - staple fibre
and continuous fibre. Staple fibres are of

certain lengths while continuous fibre is a


very long filament made from chemicals.
Continuous fibre can be cut to required
lengths which may be short or long, for
the purpose of mixing with other short or
long staple fibres.
Short and Long staple Fibres :
Staple fibres are classified as short,
medium or long. Normally less than 2 inch
(5 cm) long are short staple fibres and
longer than that are called long staple
fibres. Wool is called short staple if less
than 2.5 inch long and called long staple
or worsted if more than 2.5 inch long. In
short staple spinning process, gilling
machine (gill box) is not used. In long
staple process gilling machinery is used
to straighten the sliver. Carding is an
excellent method for straightening and
attenuating short fibres. Gilling is not
satisfactory if the fibres are short.
Therefore in the preparation of wool fibres
for combing, it is preferred to straighten
them by carding if the fibres are less than
about 9 inch (230 mm) in length and to
gill if the fibres are longer, say up to 15
inch (380 mm) in length.
Long staple worsted wool, jute, coir
and flex can be classified as long staple
fibres, cotton as short staple fibre and
man-made synthetic filament including
stretchable textured yarn as continuous
fibre.
Process flowcharts are shown from Fig
21.3 to 21.9.

1. Process Flowchart of Short Staple i.e.


Finishing :

Cotton Spinning and

Raw impure cotton highly compressed in bales

Sorting, selection and blending to suit type of yarn required

Opening-out and loosening of the baled cotton fibres


(with removal of coarse impurities such as twigs, leaf, earth, etc.)
(in lap form)
Carding
(with removal of short fibres and residual cotton impurities)
(in sliver form)

Combing
Drawing and doubling
(with parallelism of the fibres and removal of
(several stages with parallelism of the fibres,
short fibres)
removal of short fibres and roving attenuation)

(in roving form)


Drawing and doubling (several stages to effect
Spinning into coarse and medium-fine yarns
mixing and further parallelism of the fibres and
roving attenuation)
(in roving form)
Spinning into fine cotton yarns by mule or ring machines and finally winding as cops or on bobbins

Fig 21.3 Flowchart of Cotton (Short Staple) Spinning


Spinning & Weaving

Finishing

Bale Opening and


Cleaning

Singeing

Picking

Desizing

Carding

Kier Boiling
Combing

Bleaching

Drawing

Mercerizing

Roving

Framing
Dyeing

Printing

Ageing

Ageing

Washing

Washing

Framing

Framing

Spinning
Winding
Warping
Quilling
Slashing

Calendering
Weaving

Sanforizing

Inspection

Inspection
Legend
Dry Processing Operation
Wet Processing Operation
Fig. 21.4 : Cotton Processing Flowchart

2. Process Flowchart of Long Staple (i.e. Worsted Wool) Spinning :


Raw greasy wool

Sorting, selection and blending to suit type of yarn required

Opening-out and loosening of fibre packages

Scouring to remove grease and suint (sheeps dried perspiration)


and carbonisation (if necessary) to remove cellulose impurities

(in lap form)

(in sliver form)

(in sliver form)

Carding

Backwashing (scouring)

(in roving form)

(in sliver form)

Gilling

(in sliver form)

Backwashing

Condensing

Spinning on mule
machine into woollen
yarn

(in sliver form)

Gilling

(in sliver form)

Combing

(in sliver form)

Gilling

(in sliver form)

Wool tops

(in roving form)

Drawing and doubling


(several stages)

(in roving form)

Spinning by flyer, cap,


ring or mule machine
into worsted yarn

Fig. 21.5 Process Flowchart of Wool spinning.


A complete flowchart of wool processing - spinning, weaving & finishing is shown below
in Fig 21.6.
Spinning & Weaving

Finishing

Sorting and Blending

Singeing

Scouring
Drying

Crabbing
From Burling & Mending

Carding
Backwashing and Oiling

Scouring
Drying
Dyeing

Carbonizing

Gilling
Fulling

Washing and
Drying

Ball Winding
Combing

Pressing

Gilling

Inspection

Roving

Spinning
Winding

Warping
Quilling
Slashing
Weaving

Inspection

Burling and Mending

Finishing

Legend
Dry Processing Operation
Wet Processing Operation

Fig. 21.6 : Wool Processing Flowchart

3. Process Flowchart
Manufacture :

of

Viscose

Rayon

and

Synthetic

Fibre

Wood Pulp (Alpha Cellulose)

Caustic Soda
19% (200C)

Steeping Press

Rough Cutter

Shredder
CS2

Alkali Cellulose Waste


vacuum 600 Chemical Reaction between Alk Cell & CS2

Churn - 350C

Caustic Soda
3% (70C)

Cell Xanthate

Xanthate Waste

Dissolver

Blending Filtration Ripening

Filtration Waste

Deaeration

Viscose Storage Tank

CS2 + H2S
Exhaust to chimney

Spinbath
acid 570C

Acid
Recovery

Spinning
Raw Cakes

Evaporation
Crystallisation

Godet
Waste

By Product
Na2SO4

Yarn
Waste

Wash Bleach Purification


Hydro Extraction

Desulphurisation 800C

Dryer

- 700C

Moisture Control Room


Spg.
Spg.
Yarn
Godet
Waste
Waste
Packing

Cake Packing
Conning

Conning Yarn
Waste

Hanks

Cone Packing

Yarn Waste

Yarn Waste

Fig. 21.7 Process Flowchart of Viscose Rayon Manufacture

Hank Packing

4. Process Flowchart of Spun and Filament Yarn :


(A) Manufacture of Nylon 6.
Caprolactum

Water
Opacifier

Stabiliser

1st Reactor

2nd Reactor

Granulator

Washing of
Chips

Chip Storage

Compounding products

Melting

Extrusion

Spinning

Granules for
Plastic
Conversion

Batching

Filament Winding

Drawing or Texturising if
necessary

Sale

Sale

Spinning & Drawing


Nylon chips

Thread guide

Feed rollers

Take-up bobbin (Spinning)

Thread guides

Input feed rollers

Deflector

Output feed roller

Thread guide

Hopper feeder
Spinning vessel
Electrical heater
Pool of molten nylon
Spinning jet
Metering pump
Cold air cross flow
Steam chamber

Take-up bobbin (drawn nylon)

Fig 21.8 : Process Flowchart of Filament Yarn (Nylon-6)


(B) Manufacture of Span or Oriented
Yarn (LOY, POY, HOY & FOY) :

Many PET fibres also contain optical


brighteners.

Polyesters :

Manufacturing and Processing :

Polyesters were initially discovered


and evaluated in 1929 by W.H. Carothers,
who used linear aliphatic polyester
materials to develop the fundamental
understanding
of
condensation
polymerisation, to study the reaction
kinetics, and demonstrate that high
molecular
weight
materials
were
obtainable and could be melt-spun into
fibres.
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is a
fibre of great commercial significance,
useful in cordage, apparel fabrics,
industrial
fabrics,
conveyor
belts,
laminated and coated substrates, and
numerous other areas. However, to
engineer specific properties for special
uses, many product variants have been
developed and commercialised. These
variants
include
alternative
cross
sections, controlling polymer molecular
weight, modifying polymer composition
by using co-monomers and using additive
including delusterants, pigments and
optical brightners.
High molecular weight polymer is
used for high strength fibres in tyres,
ropes, and belts. High strength and
toughness are achieved by increasing the
polymer molecular weight from 20000 to
30000 or higher by extended melt
polymerisation
or
solid-phase
polymerisation.
Special
spinning
processes are required to spin the high
viscosity polymer to high strength fibre.
Low molecular weight fibres are weak but
have a low propensity to form and retain
pills, i.e. fuzz balls, which can be formed
by abrasion and wear on a fabric surface.
Most pill-resistant fibres are made by
spinning low molecular weight fibres in
combination with a melt viscosity booster.
Most of the textile fibres are
delustered with 0.1-3.0% wt TiO2 to
reduce the glitter and plastic appearance.

Terephthalic Acid (TA) or dimethyl


terephthalate (DMT) reacts with ethylene
glycol (EG) to form bis (2-hydroxyethyl)
terephthalate [959-26-2] (BHET) which is
condensation polymerised to PET with the
elimination of EG. Molten polymer is
extruded through a die (spinneret)
forming filaments that are solidified by air
cooling. Combinations of stress, strain
and thermal treatments are applied to
the filaments to orient and crystalize the
molecular chains. These steps develop
the fiber properties required for specific
uses. The two general physical forms of
PET fibers are continuous filament and
cut staple.

Raw Materials :
For
the
first
decade
of
PET
manufacture, only DMT could be made
sufficiently
pure
to
produce
high
molecular weight PET. After about 1965,
processes to purify crude TA by
hydrogenation and crystallisation became
commercial. In Japan, oxidation conditions
are modified to give a medium purity TA
suitable to manufacture PET, provided
colour toners such as bluing agents or
optical brighteners are added during
polymerisation.
Compared
to
DMT,
advantages of TA as an ingredient are
lower cost, no methanol by-product, lower
investment and energy costs, higher unit
productivity, and more pure polymer
because less catalyst is used. Catalysts
are used in the transesterification
reaction of DMT with EG and in
polycondensation. Many compounds have
catalytic activity. Divalent zinc and
manganese
are
the
prevalent
transesterification catalysts. Antimony,
titanium
and
germanium
are
the
predominant polycondensation catalysts.
Up to 3% delusterant is added to many
PET fibre products to make them more
opaque and scatter light; titanium dioxide
is the most common delusterant. PET
fibre blended with cotton for apparel
frequently contains small amounts of
fluorescent optical brighteners added
during polymerisation.
Commercial
production
of
PET
polymer is a two-step process carried out
through a series of continuous staged
reaction vessels. First, monomer is
formed by transesterification of DMT or
by direct esterification of TA with EG.
In general, esterification is conducted
in one or two vessels forming low
molecular weight oligomers with a degree
of polymerisation of about 1 to 7. The
oligomer is pumped to one or two prepolymerisation vessels where higher
temperatures and lower pressures help
remove water and EG; the degree of
polymerisation increases to 15 to 20
repeat units. The temperatures are
further
increased
and
pressures
decreased in the final one or two vessels
to form polymer ready to spin into fibre.
For most products, the final degree of

polymerisation is about 70 to 100 repeat


units. Average molecular weight is about
22,000; weight average molecular weight
is about 44,000.
Spinning:
PET fibres are made either by directly
spinning molten polymer or by melting
and spinning polymer chips. A special,
precise metering pump forces the molten
polymer heated to about 2900C through a
spinneret consisting a number of small
capillaries, typically 0.2 to 0.8 mm in
diameter and 0.3 to 1.5 mm long, under
pressures up to 35 MPa (5000 psi). After
exiting the capillary, filaments are
uniformly cooled by forced convection
heat transfer with laminar-flow air.
Following solidification, the threadline
is passed over a finish applicator and
collected. A spin finish is applied to
reduce friction and eliminate static
change.
It
is
convenient
to
classify
commercial
PET spinning processes
according to the degree of molecular
orientation developed in the spun fiber.
Generally, the classification is a function
of spinning speed. Low oriented yarn
(LOY) is spun at speeds from 500 to 2500
m/min; partially oriented yarn (POY) is
spun at 2500 to 4000 m/min; highly
oriented yarn (HOY) is spun at 4000 to
6500 m/min; and fully oriented yarn (FOY)
is spun at greater than 6500 m/min.
Drawing and Stabilisation :
Drawing is the stretching of low
orientation, amorphous spun yarn (LOY) to
several times their initial length. This is
done to increase their orientation and
tensile strength. Drawing in two or more
stages is useful to optimise tensile
properties
and
process
continuity.
Stabilisation is heating the fiber to
release stress within the molecular chains
melt and reform crystals and increase the
level of crystallinity in order to stabilise
the fibre structure.
Staple Processes :

In staple processing, the containers of


combined
spun
ends
are
further
combined to form a tow band and fed to a
large drawline. The tow band is spread
out into a flat band tracking over multiple
feed and draw rolls. Crimping is the
process by which two dimensional
configuration and cohesive energy is
imparted to synthetic fibres so they may
be carded and converted to spun yarns.
The tow band is cut to precise lengths
using a radial multiblade cutter, normally
30 to 40 mm for blending with cotton, 50
to 100 mm for blending with wool and up
to 150 mm for making carpets. Cut staple
is packaged in up to 500 kg. bales at
densities greater than 0.5g/cm 3.
Safety and Environmental Factors :
Health & Safety : PET Fibres pose
no health risk to humans or animals.
Fibres have been used extensively in
textiles with no adverse physiological
effects from prolonged skin contact. PET
has been approved by the U.S. Food and
Drug Administration for food packaging
and bottles. PET is considered biologically
inert and has been widely used in medical
inserts such as vascular implants and

artificial blood vessels, artificial bone and


eye sutures.
Environmental
Factors
:
PET
materials are not dangerous to the
environment and cannot contaminate
surface
or
ground
water.
During
polymerisation, non-condensible organic
by-products are stripped from the process
outflow streams and burned. Glycol and
water are separated by refining. The
water is treated in a standard water spray
facility. The glycol is reused. The method
from the DMT transesterification is
refined and reused. Like all materials,
polyesters should be disposed of properly
to avoid litter and can be disposed of by
landfill or incineration.
A key environmental advantage for
PET materials is the ability to recycle.
Polyester materials, especially bottles,
can be separated from contaminated
materials such as aluminium caps and
paper labels and remanufactured by
direct remelt extrusion into fibres for
filling products or carpets or into layered
constructions for good-grade bottles.

A block diagram of above mentioned process


is shown in Fig 21.9.

Catalyst

TA/DMT
Storage

Glycol Feed

Feed
Preparatio
n Tank

Rec

ycle
Glycolwater
Separation
Column

Additives
Preparatio
n

Glycol Hot
Well

Esterification

Oligomer
Filter

Prepolymerisation

Pelletizing

LOY

Spinning

POY

Finisher

Gear Pump

Staple Fibre

HOY

FOY

Fig. 21.9 Block Diagram for Polyester Manufacturing by Continuous


Polymerisation Process

5. Jute manufacture :
The jute plant flourishes in hot and
damp regions of Asia, mainly in India,
Bangladesh,
Pakistan,
Burma
and
Thiland. Jute is a natural fibre and is
used to make sack cloth, jute ropes,
bags, camp beds, filter cloths etc.
In 1820, jute was sent to England
from India and was spun experimentally
at Abingdon near Oxford. In 1822
Dundee mills in Scotland began
spinning of jute. By 1850 the jute
industry was well established.
In India and Bangladesh, the jute
plants (Corchorus) are harvested with a
hand sickle. Jute plant grows to 5 mt
with a stalk diameter of 2 cm. The
fibres are separated from the stem. The
strands of fibre, as much as 2 mt long,
are washed and hung up in the sun to
dry. They are compressed into bales
and sent off to the mills for spinning.
Small amount of mineral spindle oil
is added
into
the
fibre during
conversion into yarn. Normal jute goods
may contain upto 5% oil, but so-called
stainless yarns to be used for special
purposes like wall coverings, cables
etc., contain 1% or less oil.
Jute Processes :
Raw jute is first passed through the
softening machine. Oil and water
emulsion is sprayed on to the jute.
Sometimes sodium alkyl phosphate
(Teepol) is also used. This process is
known as batching.
After preparation, the fibres are
carded or combed, drawn and spun.
Then cop and spool winding, weaving,
finishing, croppong, cutting and lapping
complete the processing.
Bleaching and dyeing of jute is also
possible. Dyestuffs used for cotton, are
also useful for jute. The fibre has a
special affinity for basic dyes, which
provide brilliant effects even on
unbleached
base.
The
increased
demand for rugs, mats and carpets

require dyed jute yarns and fabrics


suitable for these applications. Azoic
and vat dyes give very bright and fast
results but their high cost limits their
use with jute. The tendency of jute to
turn brown in sunlight is a permanent
disadvantage.
Hazards and Controls :
Machinery hazards are high as in
case of cotton textile machinery. Main
drives, gears, in-running nips of rollers
or bowls, spindles and shafts, knives
and cutters, flying shuttles etc. need
efficient guarding.
Fire may occur due to friction and
heat. Water hydrants are necessary.
Pesticides used in cultivation of jute
may cause poisoning. Dust is given off
in bale opening and spinning. Local
exhaust
ventilation
is
a
must.
Dermatitis gives skin trouble due to
dust, batching oil, dyes etc. Excessive
noise in weaving operation may cause
hearing
loss.
Ear
protection
is
necessary. Carrying heavy loads may
cause strains. Medical examination of
workers is necessary.

6 HAZARDS AND SAFETY


PRECAUTIONS OF
SPINNING
PREPARATORY AND
SPINNING PROCESSES
6.1
Opening and Blow
Room
Machines:
1. Types of machines used are :
Bale opener or breaker, Hard waste
breaker,
step
cleaner,
Super
cleaner, Cotton opener - Porcupine
or Chrighton opener, Roving waste
opener,
Scutcher,
Combined
opener and Scutcher, Scutcher and
Lap machine, Axi-flo, hopper feeder
etc. Tinting room is used to colour

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.
7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

the cotton or synthetic fibres for


their mixing.
Each machine should be driven by
separate motor or by separate
counter-shaft with fast and loose
pulleys and efficient belt shifting
device. All main drives, counter
drives and reduction gears shall be
securely guarded.
All beater covers or doors giving
access to any dangerous part of
the machine should be interlocked
or be securely fenced. Dirt door or
desk door should have hinged or
fixed grill as a guard and door for
dirt/dust removal.
Dust chamber opening should be so
fenced that while admitting light,
prevents contact between any
portion of a workers body and the
beater grid bars.
All belt and chain drives should be
guarded.
In Roving waste opener, cage-wheel
and side shaft wheel should be
guarded.
In opener machine, door giving
access to the nip between the
lattice and the fluted guide roller of
the lattice and evener rolls etc, be
interlocked.
Inspection
doors
(covers)
on
trunkings
should
be
properly
situated and closed. If their location
is dangerous, it should be changed
or interlocked.
Spiked or fluted rollers which feed
the materials from conveyors
should be guarded. In-running nips
of Feed and Calendar rollers must
be guarded or interlocked.
Safe means of access i.e. catwalk,
guard-rails, steps, ladders, handrails etc., should be provided on top
of the machine where a worker has
to work.
Lap rods - Lap stand should be
proper. Lap rods should not fall out
of it. Stacking of lap-rods should be
proper
Knock-off lever - Its design or
placement should be proper and
the knock-off wheel should not hit a
person.

13. Unsafe actions : The interlocks


(micro-switches)
on
machines
should not be tempered with. The
supervision should be proper for
loading dead weight on a buckley
opener, handling a guard, cleaning
the inside of a buckley cage or
bottom dust chamber collecting
cotton or waste from near any
revolving part, placing spiked
lattice on a bale breaker, removing
jam med material from rack and
rack wheel, climbing the opener,
feeding the lap on a scutcher and
removing choked cotton through an
opening in a pneumatic pipe.

6.2

Carding Machines :

1. If the spacing between the cards is


too small, all dangerous parts such
as belts, ropes, pulleys, gears etc.,
should be securely guarded. Main
drive shall be guarded.
2. The
cylinder-doors
must
be
interlocked (R. 54, Sch. I) and
effective.
Stripping
(cleaning
cylinder) operation with open doors
should be done by a trained man.
The newer machines have safer
stripping attachment.
3. The belt shifting devices for fast and
loose pulleys should be properly
maintained.
4. The nip between the plate-wheel and
the side shaft wheel should be
guarded.
5. Coiler : (i) Coiler head should not fall
down (ii) Gears of the coiler box be
guarded. (iii) The nip between the
calendar roller wheel and the coiler
back shaft wheel should be guarded
or fenced.
6. Licker-in : (i) The access to the
underside of the licker-in should be
properly guarded by a hinged swing
door or flap guard swinging back
upwards to prevent contact while
collecting dust (ii) The checking of
the clearance between the licker-in
and its casing while the licker-in is in
motion must be prohibited (it may be
done
while
the
licker-in
is
stationary).

7. Doffer & Comb Blade : (i) Covers


on doffer wheels should be closed.
(ii) Work at or near the doffer cover
and doffer comb blade must
be
done
with
care
and
properly
supervised.
8. High Speed Carding machine :
The in running nip between cross
rolls should be securely guarded.
9. Mounting or dismounting of belt or
rope and stripping and grinding
operations should be done with care
and should be properly supervised. It
should be checked that while such
stripping or grinding, the stripping
brush is properly positioned so that it
may not be loosened, the idler wheel
and the umbrella wheel are properly
fitted (so that they may not get
loosed and fell down) (ii) Gauging
the clearance between the flats and
the card-cylinder should be done
with the cylinder stationary (not
rotated even manually) and by a
standard angular gauge for this
operation.
It
should
be
so
supervised.
10. Local Exhaust Ventilation :
Modern card machines have built-in
local exhaust system with dust
collection chamber to extract the
cotton dust generating in the
machine and to prevent its exposure
in the work environment. This
system
should
be
efficiently
maintained.

6.3
Sliver and Ribbon Lap
Machines:
1. Types of these machines are :
Sliver lap, lap m/c or lap-former,
Derby doubler, Ribbon lap m/c etc.
The main and counter drive shall be
securely guarded.
2. Nip between the lap forming rollers
(lap roller and fluted roller) should be
guarded. It is desirable if it is
interlocked (R. 54, Sch. I).
3. Ribbon lap m/c : The lap drum and
calendar drum gap should be
interlocked.

4. Sliver lap m/c : Nip guard at the


intake end of the calendar rollers
necessary.
5. The carding slivers should be made
parallel and combined to form a lap
sheet suitable for feeding to a
combing m/c.
6. Unsafe actions : Care must be
taken during operations such as
cleaning cap bars of a lap m/c,
placing laps on lap rack, putting a
lap rod on a lap stand, removing the
chain drive from lap forming m/c,
cleaning the ribbon of lap m/c and
putting a lap end around a spool.

6.4
Combers and Drawing
Frames :
1. Comber Machine : (i) The main
drive shall have fixed guard (ii) The
moving spiked cylinder should be
interlocked. (iii) The cylinder covers
i.e. hood of the comb near comber
cylinder and the coiler covers should
be fixed so as not to fall down and
hit (iv) Hinged transparent guard to
prevent
contact
with
rotating
segment i.e. nipper or gripper (v)
Guard on top comb and detaching
rolls (vi) Guard on calendar rollers
and gears (vii) Interlock guard on
coiler and draw-box gears.
2. Drawing frames : (i) Guards be
provided on moving calendar rollers
and gears (Nip between rollers
should be covered). (ii) The gear
wheels should be guarded or fenced.
(iii) The head stock gearing must be
guarded. (iv) The mango vacuum
box of the top roller should be
securely fixed. (so as not to fall
down) (v) Sharp projections on the
coiler bottom plate should be
removed or rounded (vi) Off-end gear
cover should be guarded.

6.5
:

Roving (Speed) Frames

1. Types of these m/cs are : Slubbing


frames, inter frames etc. The main
drive shall be securely guarded.

2. The head stock gearing (jack box


wheels) should be interlocked. (R.
54, Sch I GFR).
3. Slubber Frames : (i) The driving
bevel and bevel wheel should be
guarded. (ii) The spindle shaft wheel
should be guarded. (iii) Bobbin and
spindle bevel gears should be
guarded. (iv) The ratchet wheel
should be guarded. (v) Work close to
revolving flyers should be done only
after stopping the flyers. It should be
supervised so. (vi) Care should be
exercised while handling of rollers
and weights.
4. Inter (Speed) Frames : (i) The
guard of the head stock gearing
should be adequate or interlocked
(ii) The stacking of bobbins on creel
top should be done in safe manner.
(so that the bobbins may not fall
down) (iii) The height of creel top
should be proper. (so as to reach
easily). If not suitable, foot boards
and hand holds should be provided
(iv) Work close to rotating flyers
should be done after stopping them
(v) Draft rolls, draft gears, inter
gears (jack box), cone drive and
main drive should have guards.
The new open end or rotor
spinning system eliminates some
steps of the spinning preparatory
operation
and
reduces
many
accidents. See Part 6.8.

6.6
:

2.

3.

Ring (Spinning) Frames

Return-air system with humid air


suppliers (diffusers) is used for better
ventilation
and
humidification.
It
provides large duct area through floor
openings, air cleaning, rapid air
changes, more humidification and more
reduction in flying fluffs.
1. Transmission parts : (i) The main
drive and the other driving belts and
ropes should be guarded. (ii)
Mounting of taps on jockey pulleys
should be done after stopping the
pulley by cutting of power. (iii) The
headstock
gears
should
be

4.

5.

interlocked. Tieing ribbon on limitswitches and making interlocking


ineffective is noticed many times. By
frequent
checking such unsafe
practice must be discouraged. (iv)
Drafting gear and drafting rollers,
warm and warm wheel should be
guarded.
Damaged Bobbin Shields : Sharp
edges of the broken metal shields of
bobbins cause many injuries on
fingers while piecing or doffing
operations.
Following
remedies
should be provided. (i) Inspection
and rejection of damaged shields. (ii)
Use of plastic bobbins instead of
wooden with metal shields. (iii)
Suitable knee-brake for each spindle
to stop it. The height of this brake
should coincide with the knee of the
worker.
This
is
the
design
(ergonomic) aspect.
Struck
against
various
m/c
parts : (i) The sharp edge of a
protruding metal sheet on the frame
and broken edge of a ring frame may
cause struck injury. Such damaged
components should be replaced. (ii)
Care should be taken while creeling,
de-creeling, piecing, cleaning rollers,
cleaning
cotton
fluff,
stopping
bobbins for piecing, fixing bobbins on
spindles, doffing and adjusting arbor
so as not to be struck against rollers,
their supporting brackets or roller
beams; work near lappet rail, filterbox, lappet middle-rollers, top arm
and cradle and middle arbor and
cradle assembly, pocker rod, tube
bracket and dashing against the
frame
of
the
machine
while
attending to different jobs. Proper
supervision necessary.
Fall of bobbins from creel top : (i)
Stacking of bobbins on creel top
should not be haphazard. Only one
row of bobbins should be stacked. (ii)
Safe means of access i.e. suitable
foot-boards and hand-holds should
be provided for climbing up.
Fall of rollers : (i) Fall of clearer
rollers and dead weight rollers occur
in the course of operations such as
releasing
auto-lever,
piecing,
removing the rollers or holding them

for cleaning. Care is necessary. (ii)


Mechanism holding the rollers in
position should be maintained in
good condition.
6. Auto-lever : (i) Care should be
taken while releasing or replacing
the auto-lever. (ii) Condition of the
saddle should not be defective.
7. Ring travellers : These can fly and
injure persons unless there is an
effective
system
of
periodical
replacement. Also the travellers
should be of good quality and
properly fitted.
8. Doffing boxes : (i) The hook on the
doffing boxes for placing them on the
rail should be proper. (ii) Splintered
condition of the boxes and the
protruding metal band may cause
accident. Their periodical inspection
and repair is necessary.
9. Suction pipes : Sharp or broken
edge of a suction pipe may cause
injury. It should be checked and
required or replaced. Suction fan
with duct is provided to collect
broken ends.
10. Others : (i) Side plate of a frame
may get loose and fall down. It
should be periodically inspected. (ii)
All motor fans should be closed by
the covers.

6.7

Doubling Machines :

1. Drives : Main drive pulley belt and


head stock gearing should have
guards. Delivery roll gears should be
guarded.
2. Knee-brakes : They should be
provided to stop bobbin for piecing
operation and maintained properly.
They should be at proper knee
height.
3. Cans : (i) The edges of cans for
storing bobbins should not be broken
or sharp. (ii) They should be
inspected and repaired or replaced.
(iii) Plastic cans are desirable.
4. Ring Travellers : (i) They should be
of good quality and properly fitted.
(ii) They should be periodically
inspected and replaced.

5. Machine Parts : The creel tops to


store bobbins should be within the
arms reach. Foot rails should be
provided.
6. Unsafe actions : Striking against
knee-brakes, ring travellers, top
roller, tap on a spindle, rough edge
of jockey pulley etc., may cause
accidents. Care should be exercised
and supervised.

6.8

Rotor Spinning :

Rotor spinning is an open end (OE)


or break spinning technique and is
mostly useful for cotton, synthetic and
wool fibres. It was developed in Cotton
Research Institute at Czechoslovakia
during 1960s. This technique came into
production with the BD 200 machine at
the end of 1967. This not only altered
the technique of forming a yarn, but
also the technology involved in fibre
preparation.
The difference between the ring
spinning and rotor spinning is that in
the latter the spool does not need to be
rotated in order to put twist into the
yarn. Fast revolving roller (rotor) or a
succession
of
rollers
(rotors),
completely open up the sliver so that
the fibres can be fed virtually
individually into the spinning operation.
This in effect, breaks apart the sliver,
hence, the terms open-end or break
spinning are used.
At a stroke the rotor spinning
system achieved many advantages
which were not achieved by ring
spinning. A few are
1. Elimination
of
the
slubbing
condenser
and
roving-frame,
realising after short end spinning
system.
2. It raised the productivity of yarn
formation by 3 to 5 times compared
with ring spinning by ring and
traveller limitations.
3. Larger spools can be wound with
long lengths of knot-free yarn.
4. Reduction in handling spools.
5. Better fibre elongation.

6. Excellent dyeability with white


shades.
7. Blend homogenation.
8. Greater production economy.
9. Increased quality of rotor-spun yarn.
10. Reducing access to dangerous
machine parts, thus increasing
safety.
11. Reduction in dust amount.
Main three fibre length groups are :
1. Short staple upto 60 mm.
2. Medium staple, 61 to 125 mm.
3. Long staple, 126 to 200 mm.
All the three types of staple groups
can be processed by rotor spinning
system. Its major use is for short staple
(cotton) sector.
The qualitative properties of
rotor-spun yarn are much better than
those of carded short staple cotton. It is
more regular, has fewer naps, has
fewer thick and thin places and has
better weaving and knitting properties.
It is possible to use much lower quality
of cotton with the rotor spinning
technique with one precondition that a
well drafted sliver - highly clean and
regular - is required.
Limitations of this open end
system are
1. It is not possible to spin combed
yarn.
2. Slivers should be free of foreign
matter in order to operate OE
system effectively.
3. Power consumption increases with
the increase in spun yarn count.
4. For longer staple, larger rotor is
required, which in turn reduces the
maximum turbine speed and thus
the productivity.
5. The yarn counts are lower than 40
(14.8 tex) which limits their use to
heavier, coarser fabrics such as
denims, towels, some poplins and
interlinings.
6. The spun yarn is weaker due to their
coarseness.
The
characteristics
of
new
developments in cotton blow room are :

1. Intensive removal of dust by means


of special condensers (dust can only
be extracted by suction).
2. Very fine opening of the tufts with
simultaneous cleaning to remove
the smallest trash particles.
The basis of this rotor technology
is the simultaneous opening and
cleaning processes and separation of
micro dust consisting of fine seed and
fibre fragments.
Low quality cotton (i.e. with high
dust content) requires more cleaning by
extra condenser with reserve chute.
That will do more dust extraction.
The card, a cleaning device to
eliminate small and very small trash
particles, should be effective to have
successful rotor spinning. Many rotor
spinners have recognised that the
tandem card seems to be the best
suited for good parallelisation and a
clean and regular sliver.
Limits
of
yarn
manufacturing
process have been increased due to
rotor speed.
Rotor spinning has the widest
economic and technical application
range. All purpose capability of rotor
spinning provides a universal spinning
process. It is technically possible to spin
yarns in metric counts ranging from Nm
1 to 100 by the rotor system.
Rotor machine fulfils the spinners
requirement of - Productivity, Product

quality and Economy.

7 HAZARDS AND SAFETY


PRECAUTIONS OF
WEAVING PREPARATORY
AND WEAVING
PROCESSES
7.1

Winding Machines :

Types of machines used are :


Barber-Coleman m/c, Auto-coner, pirn
winder etc.
1. Guards should be provided on main
drive, revolving drum, drum drive

2.

3.

4.

5.

motor, timer drive, cam drive,


traveller pulley and track nip and
conveyor
drive.
Knotter-carriage
assembly & spindle assembly should
have cover.
The gap between the moving parts
of conveyor and fixed parts should
be checked all along its length and
reduced to the minimum by suitable
covers/guards.
Bobbins/sleeves used on the m/cs
should be inspected for broken
edges, burrs etc. as also for their
proper fitment on driving spindles.
Haste in loading spindles with empty
bobbins should be avoided. Also,
dust and other extraneous materials
on spindle and moving yarn should
not be removed while they are in
motion. Dust collecting blower and
bag are useful.
Automatic winders like cone winder
and spoolers prevent hands reaching
near the rotating drum and are
preferable.

7.2

Warping Machines :

Different types of warping m/cs are


available.
1. The flanges of rotating beam should
be properly guarded. Multiple photoelectric device is more safe.
2. The main drive, gear wheels, motor
pulley, clutch pulley-belt and other
parts should be properly guarded.
3. The nip between the driving roll and
warp beam should be guarded. Trip
cum distance guard should be
provided for protection from rotating
beam.
4. Beam side distance guard (rod)
should
be
interlocked
(contact
switch) with drum which drives the
beam.
5. Aluminium flange beam without
metal flange ring is safer. Metal
flange ring may open, fly out and hit.
6. Stop motion indicator lamp is useful.
7. Wheels of moveable stands should
have guards.

8. Drum drive motor pulley, beam drive


chain, beam ends and section
warping gears should be guarded.
9. Unsafe actions : Dashing against
rotating beam, leading the thread
from the creel to the drum (at this
time the m/c should be stopped),
removing ball bearing from the shaft
of the warp roll, stepping on the
slopping platforms of the m/c,
removing empty pegs from bobbins
on creels and loading and unloading
the beams can cause injuries.

7.3

Sizing Machines :

1. Nips : Nip guards should be provided


on in-running nips between the
driving rolls and other revolving rolls
at the front of the m/c. Guards on
drag rolls and squeeze rolls are
essential.
2. The main drive, beam drive chain,
size
box
drive
chain
and
speedometer
chain
should
be
guarded.
3. Suction hood necessary to arrest
steam vapour.
4. Gears : The gears of the marking
mechanism of the m/c should be
guarded.
Other m/c parts be
guarded.
5. Beam weights : The counter
weights of a beam should be
properly placed so that they may not
fall down while touching.
6. Loading and unloading of beams
can cause accidents. Care should be
exercised.
7. Rule 61(8) GFR : (i) These
provisions should be followed for thin
wall cylinders. (ii) Form No. 11 test
report - should be available for each
sizing cylinder. (iii) Pressure reducing
valve, safety valve, pressure gauge,
steam trap and drain-cock for
condenset, steam stop valve etc.,
should be properly provided, set and
maintained for ensuring safety. (iv)
Maximum
permissible
working
pressure shall be reduced 5% every
year (v) Maximum life 20 years. (vi)
New and second hand pressure
vessel shall be tested at 1.5 times

its Maximum
Pressure.

7.4

Permissible

Working

Looms (power looms) :

1. Types of looms are : Ordinary


power looms, automated jacquard
looms,
dropbox,
dobby,
airjet,
waterjet, rapier etc. Loom sizes are
46, 52, 56, 60 and 64.
2. Flying Shuttles : (i) Shuttle flight
may be caused by warp breakage,
broken or improper heald (heddle)
wires,
slackness
in
picking
mechanism
and
other
causes.
Shuttle less looms (auto looms) is
the best remedy for shuttle flights,
but it is not economical. Therefore,
the practical remedy is the shuttle
guard. The shuttle guards be
properly provided. It should extend
sufficiently forward and the gap
below it should not be too much.
Because of possibility of change in
this gap and despite the guard the
shuttle can fly and hit. Certainly they
protect the upper body of a worker
from hitting. (ii) To protect from
injury due to shuttle flying from the
adjacent loom, every loom must be
equipped with barrier guard placed
close to each end of the slay beam.
Such guards of strong wire netting or
similar material are advisable. (iii)
Reasons for shuttle flights should be
properly recorded, investigated and
removed.
3. Shuttles : (i) Shuttle receptacle
should be provided near each end of
the slay to place the shuttle properly.
(ii) Removing empty pirn (bobbin in
shuttle) and loading wound pirn into
the shuttle may cause injury. Also
care should be exercised while
placing shuttle on the slay. (iii)
Automation of process of filling up
the empty shuttle can reduce these
hazards where a pirn battery loads
the shuttle as soon as the weft yarn
on it is exhausted. This device of
modern looms is advisable.
4. Picking stick assembly : (i)
Vertical
picking
stick
is
less
dangerous than horizontal one. Work

near the proximity of the stick should


be done carefully. (ii) Spacing
between two looms should be at
least 55 cm measured from the
farthest projecting point of an
adjacent loom or wall. The aisles
(alleys) should atleast be one meter
wide. It is so desirable for safe
movement. (iii) Picking stick (arm)
should be securely guarded along its
fixed path of movement so that
hitting by it can be avoided. (iv) The
loom spindle on which the picker
moves may crack or fly out and hit.
Defective spindle should be found
out and replaced. (v) Picking spring
should be inserted in position
carefully (vi) The picking wheel
should be guarded. (vii) All parts of
picking mechanism and heald frame
should be sound for proper fitment,
wear and tear.
5. Beam Weighing : (i) Compound
lever should be adopted for beam
weighing wherever possible. The
shape of the weights should be such
that they would not come off the
lever and hit. Weights of shape 8
should be preferred to those of
shape
C.
Weights
must
be
harnessed to the beam by strings or
straps of adequate strength (ii)
Spring loaded mechanism used for
beam weighing should be inspected
at least once in a week and defects,
if any, rectified. Defects of spring,
lever handle, threads used if any,
should be found and removed.
6. Cloth and Emery rolls : (i) The
support brackets of the cloth roll
should be examined once a week for
any defects to ensure that the cloth
roll sits tight in the brackets. (ii) Care
should be taken from hitting the
cloth or emery rolls while walking
near them (iii) Heavy cloth rolls
should be handled mechanically or
by more workers. (iv) Guards should
be provided on emery roll and guide
roll, crank tappet gears, take-up
gears, bottom cam drive gears,
motor drive, shedding motion etc.
7. Slay beam : (i) The slay moving
towards and away from the weaver
may hit the hand and fingers may

get trapped between the moving


slay and the front rest head frame,
temples etc. Hands should not be
placed on the slay or at places near
its path. (ii) Clearance between the
slay bolts of two adjacent looms
should be adequate. (iii) Setting of
the weft fork holder and hammer
should be proper. (iv) Removing fluff
or wastes and attending to minor
adjustment on the loom must be
done only after stopping the loom.
8. Duck bill and Hitter : The duck bill
and hitter should be guarded on
every loom to prevent contact with
sharp edges of these moving parts
or being trapped between them.
Such guards can be in the form of
close pitched springs surrounding the
duck bill and extending 3 to 5 cm
beyond so that approach to the
sharp edges from the sides is
prevented.
9. Others : (i) Driving pulley-belts
(main drive) of the loom must be
securely guarded by a fixed guard.
(ii) Ratchet and pawl or crank and
tappet mechanism (including gears)
should be guarded. The edges of the
guards should not be sharp so that it
may injure. (iii) The tuning of the
loom should be checked once in
every shift and adjusted wherever
necessary (iv) Spare pirns and their
boxes should be examined for their
broken edges etc., and should be
rectified. (v) The operators must be
alert to join the broken ends. They
should be joined only after stopping
the loom. (vi) Fall of various
improperly fitted loom parts on
workers while cleaning, oiling etc.,
dashing against loom parts, getting
caught between loom parts due to
accidental starting, striking weft box
while loading or unloading pirns,
striking heald wire while drawing
ends or doing adjustments nearby
etc., may cause accidents. Care
should be exercised and supervised
in such operations. (vii) Suction
device for pirn-battery return air
system,
diffusers,
sprinklers,
hydrants, fire extinguishers etc.
should be in good working order.

10. Noise : Hearing loss is possible due


to high noise in loom shed. Noise
level should be below 90 dBA.
Shuttle less loom gives less noise.
Good lubrication and maintenance,
proper tuning, quick replacement of
damaged
parts
of
picking
mechanism and stroke resistors help
to reduce noise. Workers should wear
ear protection.

8 HAZARDS AND SAFETY


PRECAUTIONS OF
PROCESSING
(FINISHING) AND
FOLDING MACHINES
8.1

General Precautions :

1. Types of machines in use are :


Shearing,
singing,
washing,
bleaching, kiers, yarn and cloth
dyeing,
printing,
polymerising,
sanforising,
stentering,
padding,
finishing,
folding,
bale
(cloth)
pressing machine etc.
2. The in-running nips between
rollers and similar parts, unless the
nips are inaccessible, should be
securely guarded with nip guards
(bars) along the whole length on the
intake side (Rule 54, Sch I, GFR).
3. In dryers and similar machines
where there is a risk of access from
the sides to nips referred to in item
(2) above and driving gears should
be guarded to prevent such access.
4. Other machine parts such as main
and counter drive, belts, pulleys,
shafts, gears and flappers should be
guarded.
5. Removing crease from the cloth on
rollers should never be done when
the machine is in motion.
6. Oiling, greasing, adjustment or
repairing near dangerous parts
should not be done with the machine
running.
7. Threading of tape or fixing lapping
on cylinders should not be carried
out while the rollers are in motion.
The motion which may be necessary
should be provided either manually

or
by
provision
of
inching
arrangement.
8. Entanglement with the cloth in
process is a serious hazard in some
of the machines. While working here,
care should be exercised and
supervised.
9. To the extent possible, splash guards
should be provided for containing the
likely splashes of chemicals and hot
liquids at those parts of machine
where splashes generally occur.
These would also facilitate keeping
the floor free from spillage.
10. Wherever risk of splashes from
chemical or hot solutions exists,
operators should be provided with
PPE such as face shields or goggles,
hand gloves, aprons and gum-boots.
11. Wherever persons have to reach
and work at parts of machine
situated at heights, suitable means
of access in the form of catwalks and
platforms
should
be
provided.
Wherever these are not provided due
to infrequency of the operations or
any
other
reason,
alternative
arrangements such as scaffolding or
safe ladder should be provided and
the operations carried out confirming
to standard safe practices.
12. Dismantling and fitting of heavy
parts of machine should be done
with care. To the extent possible,
mechanical handling devices should
be used for the purpose.
13. Acids, alkalis, bleach liquors or
whitening agents, dyestuffs and
solvents are used for process or
cleaning purpose. Their storage
should be kept away in a separate
room. They should be handled in
small containers with lids. Their
spillage or leakage should be
avoided and cleaned immediately.
Solvent cleaning is risky. Source of
ignition must be avoided while using
solvent to clean printing machine,
vessel, container etc. Then nearby
electric fitting should be flameproof
or switched off. Ordinary short-circuit
has caused many accidents.
Schedule 12 and 19 u/r 102, GFR
should be followed while handling
acids, alkalis and other chemicals.

Rule 68D should be followed for


using hot oil circulation in stenter
etc. through thermic fluid heaters.

8.2

Bleaching Process :

Normally
chlorine,
sodium
hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide are
used
as
bleach
liquors.
Their
concentration should be within safe
limits. They should be stored in
minimum quantities. Transfer from bulk
storage to small containers should be
safe. Flexible connections must be
checked for safety. Emergency kit to
handle chlorine leak should be kept
ready. Proper respirator, eye goggles
and gloves should be worn while
working near chlorine gas or hydrogen
peroxide fumes. Addition of chlorine in
caustic solution to make sodium
hypochlorite should be in closed and
safe system. See Part 16.7 of Chapter18 for chlorine safety.
Open bleaching tanks should have
fencing to prevent fall inside.
Bleaching machine should have
fume exhaust device. Bleaching range
should have nip guard on rolls.

8.3
Processing Machines
(Dyeing, Printing etc) :
Water is used in large quantities in
processing machines. Reverse Osmosis
(RO) Plant should be used to remove
hardness as well as total dissolved
solids (TDS) if the water available is
hard and saline (salty). Such soft and
salt less water decreases rate of
corrosion and increases life of the
vessels/ machines.
Safety measures for some
processing machines are stated below.
1. Washing machine : Purpose is to
wash the cloth in open tub (i.e. no
pressure) (i) Nip Guards on rollers
(ii) Catwalk and platforms to reach
and work at the required places
with
sufficient
handhold
and
foothold (iii) Guard on moving
flappers. (iv) Distance guard, belt
and chain guard (v) FRP and

2.

3.

4.

5.

acidproof lining if acid/alkali is used.


(vi) Clean overflow pipe with water
tank (vii) Nip guard on draw nip
(viii) Air regulator for pneumatic
loading of rolls (ix) Guards on chain
drives of nip rolls (x) Doors on soap
tanks (xi) safety of steam lines and
(xii) Guard on chain drive of a
plaiter. (xiii) Nip guard on padding
mangle.
Washing Tanks : Purpose is to
wash the cloth. (i) Railing near hot
water tanks to prevent falling into it
(ii) Drain pipes and valves to drain
hot water from the tank. Simple
hole, cotton plug (stopper) and
bamboo use is an unsafe practice.
Hydroextractor : Purpose is to
remove water from wet cloth. (i)
Interlock basket cover (ii) Fixed
guard on pulley-belts (iii) Brake to
stop basket.
Jigger machine : Purpose is to
colour the cloth in open tub (i.e. no
pressure). (i) Nip guards on rollers
and gears (ii) Splash guards should
be provided on each of such
machines to minimise chances of
chemicals and colour solutions
splashing on persons. (iii) Aprons
and chemical goggles should be
given to workers (iv) Periodic
inspection and maintenance of the
floors. They should be free from
water and solution so as not to keep
it slippery. (v) Pneumatic valve to
control steam flow (vi) Cover on
motor pulley belt drive and gearbox
(vi) Roll motion controller.
Calendar machine : Its function is
to give fine finish (ironing) by
passing the cloth through calendar
rolls or bowls. (i) Auto temperature
control to prevent over heating (ii)
Nip guards on in-running nips (iii)
Guards on main motor drive and
reduction gears. (iv) Heavy rolls
should be handled mechanically (v)
Contact with hot rolls may cause
burn injury. Care should be taken
while working at heights (vi) When
steam
pressure
is
above
atmospheric pressure, Rule 61 GFR
should be complied with. All safety

devices
should
be
properly
maintained.
6. Drying machines : Purpose is to
dry cloth. (i) Nip guards on rotating
rolls and mangle rolls. Guards on
chain, bevel gears, winch drive and
stack drive. (ii) Platform, foothold
and handhold to work at heights (iii)
Hot cylinders of drying range may
cause burn injury. Care and effective
supervision (iv) For pressure control,
follow Rule 61, GFR.
7. Kiers and Agers : Purpose is
heating by steam pressure. (i) While
tightening the eye bolts of kier, bars
used should be of such construction
that they hold the eye bolt securely
and do not slip off. (ii) Catwalks and
platforms to work on the top of the
Kier (iii) Care form coming into
contact with the hot parts of the
kier (iv) Pressure reducing valve,
safety valve, pressure gauge, stop
valve etc. should be properly
maintained for the safe working
pressure inside. Safety valve and
pressure gauge should be provided
on jacket also (v) Hydraulic pressure
test at every two years (vi) Chain
pulley block or hoist to lift heavy
parts.
8. Stenter machine : Purpose is to
dry cloth by passing it through heat
chambers. Padding mangle, feeding
zone, heating zone (chambers),
batching and plaiting are main
divisions (i) Nip guard between inrunning rolls and rollers of the
padding mangle, guard on uncurler
nip, main drive and bevel gears (ii)
Catwalks or platforms for working at
heights. (iii) Temperature control
devices (iv) Effective exhaust hood
and chimney for removal of fumes
from the machine. (v) Effective and
sufficient exhaust fans in the
workroom (vi) Scouring process i.e.
oil removal from fabric before
feeding it to the stenter machine to
reduce
the
oil
fumes.
(vii)
Textometer to detect moisture
content. (viii) Covers on roll drive
chain box, overfeed chain drive,
batching and plaiter drive (ix) 3-way

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

pneumatic oil flow control valve


where oil heaters are used.
Padding machine : (i) Nip guard
on in-running rolls and padding
mangle. (ii) Guard on main drive,
roll chain drive and gear drive. (iii)
Pressure regulator for pneumatic
loading of rolls.
Jet Dyeing machines : Purpose is
to colour the cloth under steam
pressure. (i) PRV or pressure
regulator in pressure feed line (ii)
Adequate safety valve and rupture
disc both of at least 1.5 inch (dia)
size and in parallel on the top of the
vapour cell (iii) High pressure alarm
and automatic or manual depressure (venting) device to operate
at that alarm (iv) Use of heatexchanger for indirect heating and
cooling (v) Periodical hydraulic tests
and NDT for corrosion effects (vi)
Non-corrosive metal, joints and
body parts (vii) Flap guard near
filter cover at the bottom and
internal disc to restrict outflow (viii)
Temperature
gauge
near
the
pressure gauge on the vessel (ix)
Water, steam and air control valves
(x) Manhole cover interlocked with
depressure device (xi) Maximum
pressure indicator and automatic
pressure controller (xii) Trained
operator (xiii) Effective supervision
and auto programming.
Drum washer : It is a washing
machine under steam pressure. (i)
Fixed guards on belt and chain drive
(ii) Pressure Reducing Valve, Safety
Valve and Pressure Gauge on steam
supply line (iii) Drum motion fixing
device (locking) while loading and
unloading. Internal drum should not
rotate while loading or unloading it.
It should be mechanically locked.
Power should also be de energised
at that time.
Expander machine : (i) Nip guard
on rollers and between the cloth in
process and the rollers (ii) Parts of
machine should be periodically
examined
to
detect
defective
conditions such as protruding nails.
Stitching and sewing machine :
(i) Gap between the needle and the

14.

15.
16.
17.
18.

19.

20.

machine table should be guarded to


prevent access to this zone. (ii)
Electric earthing should be proper
and ELCB should be provided in
power supply line.
Printing machine : Purpose is to
print the cloth by machine. Various
types of machines are in use. (i) Nip
guards on the printing roller, cloth
roller and on the lapping and a roller
(ii) While removing a heavy roll from
the machine, care should be taken
or the mechanical handling should
be used. (iii) Care should be
exercised while changing a design
roller otherwise a hand may be
caught between the design roller
and control roller (iv) Care should be
taken while turning a handle to
apply pressure to the printing rollers
otherwise a worker may slip and fall
from height (v) The doctor blade of
the machine should be removed
carefully otherwise it may slip and
its sharp edge may cause injury. (vi)
Fixed guards on pulley-belt drive,
sector, connecting (eccentric) rod,
repeat-setting device and under
table rollers (vi) Safety while
cleaning blanket.
Stretching machine : Nip guard
between running cloth and roller.
Polymerising
or
curing
machine : See part 3.3 and 9 of
this Chapter.
Gas/Electrical Singeing machine
: See part 9 of this Chapter.
Shearing and Cropping machine
: (i) Rotating cutters should be
interlocked by a transparent cover.
(ii) Guards on main drive, suction
blower and dust chamber and (iii)
Metal detector are necessary.
Sanforizing and Palmer machine
: Its function is to give final finish
(ironing) to the cloth. (i) Nip guards
and side guards on in-running rolls
and trip wire near cylinder (height <
1.7 mt) to stop the motion (ii)
Pneumatic controls and roll drives
guards (iii) Steamline safety (iv)
Plaiter drive guard.
Mercerising machine : Nip guard
on mangle rolls, guards on main
drive coupling, chain drive, bevel

gears, mangle roll gears, chain


return wheel, squeeze roll belt
drive, squeeze rolls, impregnator nip
between float roll and top roll,
stabilizer-tension roll and top roll nip
and splash guard on caustic tank
are necessary.
21. Carbonising unit : Its function is
carbonising i.e. acid burning of
cotton fibre of the blended cloth. (i)
Acid bath (70% H2SO4) should have
safe overflow device and splash
guards on both sides (ii) Nip guard
on squeeze rolls (iii) FRP tray and
acid-proof flooring, PVC valves for
acid use and use of PPE and safety
shower by workers.
22. Folding machine : (i) The crankwheel and reciprocating arm should
be guarded to prevent hit injury. (ii)
Fixed guard on main drive.
23. Towel cutting machine : Cutting
edge should be guarded at the
feeding end of towel.
In addition to above textile machine
guarding, general safety measures for
metal
working
machinery,
lifting
machines, material handling, hand
tools, hand trucks, chemicals, flooring,
fire and health hazards, must also be
provided and maintained. Welfare
facilities of canteens, lunch/rest room,
ambulance room, crche, welfare and
safety officers should also be provided.
See Part-3 for statutory provisions.

9 FIRE AND EXPLOSION


HAZARDS AND
CONTROLS
A booklet Fire Prevention in Textile
Industry, Instructions for Supervisors
published by the Loss Prevention
Association of India Ltd., Mumbai - 1
(Gujarati copy is also available), IS:3079
and 2190 are most useful to understand
and control fire/explosion hazards in
textile industry.
Cotton dust is not fine enough to
cause dust-explosion but it may
certainly cause fire if any spark is
available. Explosion hazard lies with
polymerising or curing machine where

flammable liquids are used and


therefore explosion relief doors are
required. Fire hazard is more in blowroom and spinning sections due to loose
and flying cotton and in processing
department due to solvents and
chemicals.
The main cause of fire in textile
mills can be attributed to the failure of
electrical
equipment,
sparks from
foreign material carried along with
cotton stock, friction, hot bearings due
to inadequate oiling and attention,
presence of excessive quantities of fly
and dust in the department and the use
of flammable liquids and processing of
cloth at high temperatures.
Building Construction : Textile
mill buildings are classified as fireproof;
non-fire proof and inferior. In order to
minimise the risk of fire, all mill
processes and storage buildings must
be of fire proof construction of at least 6
hours grading. The behaviour of a
structure when subject to fire stresses
must be taken into account at the
design stage.
Godowns for cotton and finished
products shall be essentially single
storey structures and located at least
30 mt away from the spinning
department. In textile mills, the
departments that requires separation
by perfect party walls in order to reduce
the fire loads are : (a) Baled cotton
warehouses, cotton mixing and blowing
rooms; willow and thread extractor
rooms; waste opening rooms; carding
rooms; speed and ring frames; mule
spinning
department;
preparatory
sections
and
loom
sheds,
cloth
processing houses with fire walls around
special hazard processes such as
singeing and cloth raising. (b) Boiler
houses and firing places must be
separated from all process and store
buildings except the engine rooms and
the like. (c) Electric generating stations
and transformer houses must be cited
at least 10 mt away.
Cotton and yarn drying chambers
must be constructed of incombustible
materials and fitted with thermostat
controls in order to cut off the source of

heat
supply
at
predetermined
temperatures.
Warehouses and Stores : (a)
Breakage of cotton bale hoops causes
sparks and subsequent fires (b) Faulty
electrical equipment, both for lighting
and bale stackers may cause fire. (c)
Lots of baled cotton must be stacked in
an orderly manner away from godown
walls to prevent spread of fire and
assist
fire
fighting
and
salvage
operations. (d) Adequate drainage of
godown floors is necessary in order to
prevent excessive water damage of
lower layers.
All
sources
of
ignition
like
mechanical sparks due to friction,
electrical spark, spark from welding or
cutting, prismatic effect of sunrays from
glass window on cotton bales, use of
naked flames, heated lamp or metal
parts, oil dripping and electrical loose
wiring or electrically heated metal parts
should
be
avoided
by
prompt
supervision. Fire hydrants should be
kept nearby.
Cotton Mixing and Blow Rooms :
(a) Generation of sparks from foreign
matters, particularly pieces of metal
carried along with cotton stock through
metal
rollers and spiked lattices of
opening and blowing lines. Loose rivets
and short ends of hoop iron are the
main causes which could be eliminated
by
providing
suitable
magnetic
separators which should be cleaned
during each shift. (b) Machines with
high speeds are more prone to fires.
Machines with higher capacities are
exposed to large quantities of loose
cotton and hence fires in such machines
are carried faster and at longer
distances (c) All cotton opening and
cleaning machines with spiked lattices
and rollers must be sprinkled.
Carding Department : Cotton in
the carding machines being still in the
loose stage is susceptible to fire due to
friction
between
metallic
parts,
particularly fillets, licker-ins and grinds.
Spinning Frames : (a) Frequent
fires occur due to heated spindle
bearings of those of the rollers driving
them (b) Lint and fly cleaner units of
spinning frames cause fire due to

improper conductor or collector shoe


contacts with the open bus bars running
the entire length of the machines. The
uneven contacts of the collector shoes
cause sparking which ignite the fluff
collected
around
the
buses.
(c)
Generation of static electricity is
generally encountered in the spinning
of rayon yarn particularly in the card
room and it is safer to ground all
machines and to provide suitable
humidification system to eliminate
static charges.
Loom
Shed
:
The
picking
mechanism usually gets jammed due to
accumulation of fluff which causes fire
spreading and droppings below the
loom or at times to the warp beams.

Processing Department :
1. Cloth
and
Yarn
Singeing
(burning by fuel fire) : Due to
the presence of open flames and
flammable gases, fires are frequent
in singeing rooms but these could
be avoided by the use of proper
electrical equipment and electrical
interlocked sequence in order to
prevent the machine being started
up before the exhaust and gas
blower fans are brought into
operation. All control gear in such
case must be mounted externally
with vapour-proof lighting fixtures.
Solenoid valve on the fuel line is
essential to stop fuel supply in the
event of power or m/c failure. This
will
prevent
stationary
fabric
undergoing singeing and from being
ignited.
LPG and air pipe lines should be
colour coded. NRV to prevent flash
back, gas burner control, no
smoking notice and ready fire
extinguishers are required. LPG
safety rules should be followed.
Fuel (petrol) control valve on
carburettor
(petrol
vaporiser),
temperature control on air heater,
suction hood, duct and dust
chamber, flameproof electric fitting,
guards on nip rolls and batch drive,
brush rolls and roll drive, water

cooling of the guide rolls near


burner and safety ladder to fuel
tank are also important.
2. Electrically
heated
Yarn
Singeing
Machines
:
An
interlocking
arrangement
is
necessary to ensure that the
heating
elements
cannot
be
switched on while the yarn is
stationary in the machine. Only
water washed fabric should pass.
Solvent may cause hazard.
3. Polymerising
or
Curing
Machines : Its function is to dry (by
heating) the printed cloth. Several
explosions and fires have occurred
in polymerising machines in textile
mills due to the mixture of organic
solvents in the printing pigments.
Precautions
to
eliminate
accidents are : (1) Pre-drying of
printed fabric over drying ranges to
remove most of the solvent outside
the machine. (2) Lock the exhaust
openings in top of curing machine at
least 2/3 full opening. (3) Electric
heaters must be provided with
thermostat
controls
and
synchronised with the exhaust fan
and machine main drive so that in
the event of accidental failure of
exhaust fan motor, the entire
machine stops along with the
heating elements. (4) Provision of
safety flaps on the tops of
polymerising machines which would
open out automatically in case of
explosion. (5) Air circulation fan
filter gauze must be regularly
cleaned as poor circulation would
cause localised pockets of solvent
vapour. (6) Exhaust duct must be
regularly cleaned every week and
extended outside the work room. (7)
Interlocking of exhaust fan with
fabric motion so that the fans will
start before fabric is fed into the
chamber.
See Part 3.3 for Rule 68C GFR.
Steam curing is safer.
4. Cloth Raising Department : Here
fires are frequent due to passage of
foreign materials between filleted
rollers and it is necessary that the

cloth be inspected before passing


through the machine. The machine
must be regularly cleaned of fluff
accumulation.
5. Electrical Installation: Electrical
equipment
must
comply
with
Electricity Act and Rules (See Part
2.7 & 2.8 of Chapter-28), relevant
Indian Standards and installed and
maintained
in
safe
condition.
Lighting fixtures in places where
considerable
dust
and
fluff
accumulate and godowns must be of
dust-proof type, wired in screwed
conduits and switchgear must be
mounted externally. Stop motion
devices on machines must be dustproof, wired in conduit and checked
regularly. Overhead electric lines in
compounds should also be cleaned
regularly.
Fire Extinguishers :
Fire
fighting
arrangements
consisting of portable appliances, water
hydrants and automatic sprinklers must
be designed and laid in accordance with
relevant IS Specifications.
The automatic sprinkler system
discovers fire, sounds alarm and
extinguishes the smallest fire. In
sprinkled building, water damage will
be less because the amount of water
necessary for extinguishing is smaller,
hence all mill buildings must be
sprinkled.
Such
installations
are
expensive but their worth is justified.
High pressure automatic sprinklers of
special design must be provided in
generating stations, transformer houses
and oil godowns. They should be used
after power is switched off. A trained
fire fighting squad shall be maintained
round the clock within the mill
premises.
General Safety Precautions :
Mill compounds must be regularly
cleaned and housekeeping both inside
as well as in the yard should be of good
order. Overhead structures in all
departments must be regularly cleaned
and floors swept during each shift.

Electrical
equipment
shall
be
satisfactorily maintained and periodic
check-up
is
necessary.
Risk
of
overheating
can
be
reduced
by
providing efficient lubrication and dayto-day maintenance of all machines,
bearings and moving parts. Adequate
guarding for machines should be
provided particularly on blowing and
carding machines. Smoking should be
prohibited within 6 mt of process and
storage blocks and it is advisable to
provide smoking booths.

10 HEALTH HAZARDS AND


CONTROLS
Some important health hazards in a
textile industry are as follows :
Accidents to fingers, hands and
other body parts are due to a variety of
textile machinery and their hundreds of
moving
parts.
Constant
machine
guarding is the best solution. Noise and
vibration
are
incidental
hazards.
Byssionosis is a lung disease due to
prolonged
exposure
to
high
concentration of cotton dust. Extraction
and suppression is the best remedy.
Sch. 27, Rule 102, GFR requires this.
Increased
humidity
and
temperature
cause
discomfort
to
workers. Limits of dry and wet bulb
temperatures should be maintained.
Well designed and maintained AC plants
are more comfortable.

10.1

Health Hazards in
Cotton Textile Industry
:

1. Cotton Dust and Byssionosis :


According to one survey 20%
(approx. 3 lakh) of the textile
workers in mills were found victim of
byssionosis. It was 14% in carding
section and 10% in spinning and
winding sections.
Measurement of cotton dust
concentration in 8 units in India
showed it from 3.4 to 5.6 mg/m3 in
blow room and 0.1 to 2.2 mg/m 3 in

card room. Another survey showed


cotton dust level as under:
At
At
At
At

Kanpur
Delhi
Ahmedabad
Mumbai

7.85
5.50
4.00
3.90

mg/m3
mg/m3
mg/m3
mg/m3

The threshold limit suggested is


0.2 to 0.75 mg/m3. 2nd Schedule of
the Factories Act prescribes 0.2
mg/m3 lint free raw cotton dust. ILO
prescribed cotton dust values are as
under :
TWA OSHA
0.2 mg/m3 in yarn manufacturing.
0.5 mg/m3 in other operations.
0.75 mg/m3 in slashing and
weaving.
STEL ACGIH 0.6 mg/m3
IDLH
0.5 mg/m3
Vacuum stripping and suction
exhaust arrangement attached to
carding machines, lint and dust
collectors and general exhaust
ventilation
are
necessary
to
minimise the flying cotton dust.
Proper dust mask or cotton cloth
should be given to workers.
Byssionosis is an occupational
disease caused to many mill workers
by the cotton dust. This name was
given by Proust in 1877. It is a lung
disease like TB or Asthma and
reduces working capacity of a
worker. After working for 5 to 10
years in cotton dust area, respiratory
problem starts. Initial symptoms are
cough or bronchitis, chest pain,
breathlessness, emphysema and
phlegm. Ultimately the lungs are
damaged. The victim gets exhausted
soon by a small work. He feels
energy loss and becomes unfit to
work. Its major hazard area is
spinning department, though it can
happen to winders and weavers and
also to flax, hemp or jute workers.
Under section 89 and the Third
Schedule of the Factories Act,
byssionosis
is
a
notifiable
occupational
disease
and
the

medical practitioner noticing this


disease has to report to the
Inspector of Factories, otherwise he
is liable for penalty.
For
its
diagnosis
(1)
Occupational history of the worker
and (2) Lung function test are
required. The effected worker is
examined on the first day after his
holiday and also at the end of his
shift after working. His loss of
working
capacity
is
measured.
Workman Compensation is available
under WC Act or ESI Act.
Factory Medical Officer should
check such workers periodically. His
workplace must be changed soon
after the first detection. X-ray and
gradation
reports
should
be
maintained.
There is no medical remedy for
this disease. Therefore its prevention
is the only best solution. Local
exhaust ventilation attached with
machine, room exhaust ventilation,
water sprinklers and use of cotton
dust mask or respirator are the
effective remedial measures.
Workers engaged in cleaning of
cotton
dust
or
in
its
high
concentration must be provided with
air line respirator and hood or
efficient face mask. Instead of
broom-stick
cleaning,
vacuum
cleaning machine should be used to
minimise the flying particles.
2. Heat
and
Humidity:
Higher
temperature
due
to
closed
operations and work rooms, humidity
(to reduce thread breakage), heat
generating processes such as sizing,
kiers, drying range, stenter, hot
dyeing, singeing, polymerising or
curing, steam and oil heaters, hot air
dryers, boilers etc., create higher
temperature
in
spinning
and
processing departments which if
exceeds 29.50C (850F) (threshold or
effective temperature), or humidity
is increased, causes discomfort and
fall in productivity. Therefore the
room
temperature
must
be
controlled @ 25.5 to 29.50C (78 to
850F)
by
good
natural
and

3.

4.

5.

6.

mechanical ventilation (See Chapter


10). Workers should be relieved at
short interval from high temperature
zone. Air conditioning is desirable.
Hot metal parts should be insulated.
Noise : High noise in weaving and
ring
frame
department
causes
mental stresses and may result in a
hearing loss which is an occupational
disease under the Factories Act.
Permissible limit of 90 dB for 8 hr.
working should not be exceeded.
One survey in a mill at Bombay
indicated the noise levels in Spinning
Dept. - 96.5 dB, Doubling machines 97.6 dB, Winding machines - 98.5
dB, Auto loom shed - 99 dB and Nonauto loom shed - 102 dB. Use of
sound absorbing material is effective
but expensive. Use of ear muffs or
ear plugs (glass wool) is the most
practical remedy and the workers
must be trained to wear them. In
Nigeria, it was observed that due to
use of ear protection individual
efficiency was increased by 12% and
overall production by 1%. The long
term solution is the design of
noiseless looms.
Legally Sch. 23, rule 102, GFR is
applicable.
Weavers Cough : This is caused by
inhalation of sizing materials, 50% of
which comes out during weaving. As
the name suggests the workers of
loom shed are prone to it. Good
ventilation dilutes the effect.
Cancer and Coronary diseases :
These diseases like bladder cancer,
chrome
eczema
or
chrome
poisoning, dermatitis are caused due
to the chemicals like lead chromate,
potassium or sodium bichromate,
toxic solvents, titanium dioxide,
hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide
and trioxide. Local exhaust system
near toxic fume generation, chemical
respirators, gloves, aprons etc. are
useful. Non or less hazardous
substitutes
should
be
utilised.
Medical health check-ups and advice
should be followed. Training and
supervision will also help.
Machinery hazards : Foregoing
parts 6 to 8 have classified and

explained
process-wise
machine
hazards in textile industry. Newer
machinery has reduced many of
these hazards. The most dangerous
parts of textile machines are main
motor and gear drives, head stock
gearing of spinning frames, revolving
beaters of blow-room machines, card
cylinder, flying shuttles and loom
gears, picking stick and in-running
rolls
of
processing
machinery.
Specific hazards of jet dyeing and
other pressure vessels have also
caused many accidents. The fixed
guards, interlocked guards, nip
guards and other safety devices
should not be tempered with or kept
open while machinery is in motion.
7. Material handling : Heavy rolls
and other machine parts and bulk
containers are to be handled in
textile industry. Excessive weights
may cause health injuries, strain and
pain. Mechanical aids should be used
to lift, carry and handle such heavy
loads.
8. Poor lighting : Many textile
processes require high standards of
illumination, such as drawing in
threads through healds and reed,
weaving and processing of coloured
cloth, jacquard (design) weaving,
fabric defect checking, folding and
packing etc. Poor lighting on such
processes causes eye strain. Poor
lighting in passage ways, corners,
stairs, platforms, confined spaces,
tanks, pits and vessels, unguarded
machinery and slippery surfaces
may cause accidents. Therefore in
addition
to
providing
sufficient
lighting (see Part 5 of Chapter-9),
window glasses, lamps and tubes
should be regularly cleaned and local
lighting should be provided where
required.
9. Shuttle Kissing : Suction shuttles
of ordinary (non-auto) looms need
thread (weft) sucking by mouth
through shuttle eye (small hole) and
pirn bobbin many times during a day.
Dirt, dust or broken fibre ends are
drawn into the throat. The same
shuttle may be used by different
workers in different shifts. Therefore

this is unhygenic and infectious


method. Non-suction shuttle or pirn
bobbin battery requiring no kissing
by mouth is the only remedy.
10. Overtime work : Legal limit of 8
hours a shift is hardly followed in
thousands of small and medium
scale textile industries. 12 hours a
shift has become a routine working.
This certainly causes health hazards.
This causes more harm to women
and child workers. More working
hours cause physical, mental and
nervous strain and result in more
accidents and sickness rates. Full cooperation
of
employers
and
employees can solve this problem.
11. Welfare provisions : Large scale
factories have lunch room, rest
room, canteen, ambulance room,
creche,
washing
facilities,
free
medical
examinations,
transport
facilities etc. But majority of small
and medium scale factories do not
have such facilities. This affects the
health and general well being of the
workers.
12. Fire and Explosion hazards :
Cotton
is
easily
combustible
material. Solvents used in processing
department can cause fire and
explosion both. For details see part
just following.

10.2 Health Hazards in other


Textile Industry :
1. Manmade fibres (mmf) : Fire and
explosion is the main risk from
solvents
and
nitrocellulosic
materials. All flammable materials
should be stored in specially
designed separate building and its
flow should be through closed
system. All sources of ignition
including static charge should be
eliminated. Electric fitting should be
flameproof.
Toxic effects due to H 2S, CS2,
C6H6, acetic acid etc. should be
reduced
by
local
exhaust
ventilation. Workers should be given
respirators.

Spillage of water and other


solutions
may
cause
slipping
hazards. Protective
clothing is
necessary
for
wet
processes.
Machine guarding to machineries is
similar to cotton industry.
Glass
wool
manufacturing
induces infrared emissions from
molten glass. Heat absorbing screen
is required. Flying or breaking glass
particles
may
cause
skin
penetration. Resins, hardeners and
accelerators
may
cause
skin
irritation. Protective clothing, good
hygienic practices and medical
advice are necessary. Dust fumes
need local exhaust ventilation.
Synthetic fibres are made
from chemicals or petrochemicals.
Nylon,
polyester,
polyolefins,
polypropylene, polyurethane etc.
are welknown. Machine guarding is
required as in case of other textile
machines. The large quantities of
solvent vapours given off during
spinning and extrusion pose fire,
explosion and poisoning hazard and
need local exhaust with safe
discharge
and
respiratory
protection. Delivery of toxic and
flammable
substances
through
pumps and pipes reduces hazards of
manual
handling
and
direct
exposure. TLV, LEL and other safe
limits must be maintained. Sparks
should
be
eliminated.
Electric
equipment should be flameproof.
Effective earthing to machines and
vessels shall prevent dangerous
spark. Static charge eliminators to
machines are necessary. Workers
should wear footwear with rubber
soles.
2. Flax & Linen industry : The fibres
of flax plants are used to make linen
cloth, towels, nets and ropes. The
fibre is light, strong and absorbent.
Its strength increases on wetting.
Machine guarding on rollers,
pulley-drives and other moving
parts is essential. Flax dust may
cause Mill fever and Weavers
cough,
chronic
bronchitis
and
byssionosis. An ILO report (1965)

gives following figures for flax dust


levels and byssionosis prevalance :

Process

Prepreparers
Prepares
Wetfinishers
other
finishers

Mean total
dust
concentration
mg/m3
6.7

Byssionosis
prevalence
(% all
grades)
44.0

2.7
0.6

30.0
3.6

1.4

0.7

Dust measurement at 6 months


interval by a trained industrial
hygienist is useful. Fine dust is
removed by passing air through
canvas
filter.
Coarse
dust is
extracted by a cyclone extractor.
Hackling machines and carding
engines need hood enclosure and
exhaust system at the sources of
generation.
For noise reduction, sound
absorption treatment to walls,
ceiling and floors and isolating
mounts to machines are necessary.
Process segregation by separate
rooms of heavy partition walls and
ear muffs to workers reduce noise
problem.
3. Jute industry : See Part 5.2
4. Silk industry : Silkworms were
reared
in
homes
where
CO
poisoning was noticed in Japan. In
reeling raw silk, dermatitis was
noticed. Handling raw silk may
produce skin and respiratory allergy.
Very good lighting is required in
the weaving of coloured silk yarn.
Temperature,
ventilation
and
humidity control are important at all
stages. Reeling bath temperature
should be lowered to control skin
effect. Exhaust ventilation on bath
and frequent replacement of water
are necessary. Machine guarding is
required as in case of textile
industry.
See also Part 33 of Chapter-23.

5. Wool industry : Like cotton textile


machines, wool textile machinery
also
needs
effective
machine
guarding and spacing. Anthrax is
possible to wool sorters. Chemicals
used may cause poisoning, eye
burning, gassing etc. Selection of
less
harmful
chemicals,
local
exhaust ventilation, good washing
facility, PPE and strict personal
hygiene
are
necessary.
Dust,
temperature and noise control are
also necessary.

11EFFLUENT TREATMENT
AND WASTE DISPOSAL
IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY
Textile
effluents
are
generally
coloured and contain soluble (organic
and
inorganic)
and
insoluble
(suspended) impurities and possess
high BOD and COD. Therefore their
treatment and safe disposal are
necessary and statutory.

(1) On Water courses :


1 Colour

Dyes

2 Suspended
impurities
3 pH
4 Oils
Grease
5 Dissolved
minerals
6 Toxic
chemicals

7 Oxygen

Content

&

Colloidal &
suspended
particles
Alkalis
Mineral oils

Inorganic
sodium
salts
Chromium,
sulphide,
chlorine
and aniline
dyes
Starch,

dextrin,
sulphide,
nitrite etc.

from
water
and
affects
aquatic life.

(2) On Land :
The excess content of sodium and
boron of textile wastes adversely
affects crops. High sodium alkalinity
combined with salinity impairs the
growth of plants. Suspended solids and
sodium prevent root penetration in land
and soil texture is spoiled.
(3) On Air :
Continuous
addition of CO2 and
other particles due to fuel (coal, LDO,
gas) burning in boilers and stenters,
and toxic fumes of chlorine, acids, H 2O2
and flammable vapours from volatile
solvents pollute the air and surrounding
environment.
Effluent Flowchart :
A flowchart of effluent generation
during cotton textile processing is
shown in Fig 21.10.

Effects of textile effluents :

Impurity

depletion

Effluent
Effect
Colourificatio
n.
Photosynthesi
s is affected.
Turbidity
of
receiving
water.
Alkalinity
disturbs
aquatic
life.
Effluent
Form blanket
and prevent
O2 entry in
water.
Increase
salinity
of
water.
Toxic effect to
fishEffluent and
microbial
organisms.
Effluent
Demand
Effluent O2

Raw Cotton

Cotton
opening

Carding

Combing

Spinning

Sizing

Weaving

Gray Cloth

Desizing

Scouring

Bleaching

Mercerizing

Printing

Acidic wastes

Dyeing

Finishing

Effluent

Effluent

Finished goods

1. Colour removal.
2. Recovery and reuse of waste water.
3. Conservation and reuse of water.

Reduction of Pollution Load :


To reduce costs and complexity of
treatment, it is first necessary to
reduce pollution load of the effluents. It
also results in saving of costly
materials.
Good
housekeeping,
controlled and efficient use of dyes and
chemicals and closer process controls
are essential for this purpose. Some
important methods are as under :

4.
5.
6.

Waste segregation.
Recovery and reuse.
Substitution of low pollution load
substances.
Judicious use of chemicals.
Process changes.
Economical water use.

Treatment Methods :
Three stage treatment methods of
textile effluents is as tabulated below :
Treatment Methods
Primary
Screenin
g
Sedime
n
tation
Equalisation
Neutralisation

Secondary
(Biological)

Tertiary

Activated sludge
process
Trickling filteration

Multimedi
a
filteration

Aerated lagoons
Secondary
sedimentation
Oxidation ponds
Anaerobic digestion

Chemical
coagulatio
n
Chemical
precipitatio
n
Reverse
osmosis
Dialysis

Sludge disposal
Removal of interfering
substances in
secondary
biological treatments

Coagulation
Floatation

Other methods are -

Fig 21.10 Effluent Flowchart

1.
2.
3.

Alkaline wastes

carbon
adsorption
Chlorinatio
n

Activated

For details of these methods, books


on pollution control methods should be
referred. Please see reference No.7 at
the end of this chapter.
Tolerance Limits :
IS 2490 (Part 1 to 10) and Schedule
I & VI u/r 3 & 3A of the Environment
(Protection) Rules, 1986, prescribe
tolerance limits applicable to textile
effluents.
Characteristics of raw (untreated)
effluent and required parameters of
process houses are shown in the table.
Process
House
Characteristics

Effluent

No
.

Paramete
r

Before
Treatmen
t

1
2

pH
Color

Suspended
Solids
Total
Dissolved
Solids
Oil
&
Grease
BOD

6.6-8.0
1000-1500
unit
600-900
ppm
1000014000 ppm

Required
after
Treatmen
t
6.5-8.5
100 unit

COD

Ammonical
Nitrogen

4
5

100 ppm
2100 ppm

20-25 ppm

10 ppm

500-600
ppm
1600-2200
ppm
0-5 ppm

30 ppm
100 ppm
50 ppm

Flow diagram of effluent treatment plant in textile processing industry is given in Fig.
21.11.

FeSO4/Alum
Lime
Polyelectrolite

Recycle

Effluent

Oil & Grease Trap

Collection Tank

Flocculator

Lammella
(Solid Separation)

Aeration Tank

Lammella
(Secondary)

Sand bed

Carbon bed

Final disposal

Primary Treatment

Secondary Treatment

Tertiary Treatment

Fig 21.11 Effluent Treatment diagram for textile processing industry

Exercise
1. Explain,
Discuss :
1.

State,

Mention

or

Need of safety in textile


industry.
2. Statutory provisions for safety
in textile machinery.
3. Flow chart of a composite
textile processes.
4. Flow chart of spinning and
weaving
OR
Finishing
processes.
5. Flow chart of long staple
finishing processes.
6. Flow chart of synthetic fibre
manufacture.
7. Flow chart of Filament yarn
(Nylon 6)
8. Flow chart of Oriented yarn
(LOY, POY etc.)
9. Manufacturing process of span
(oriented) Yarn ( POY, FOY etc.)
10. The merits and demerits of
rotor spinning.

11. Hazards and safety precautions


of Blow room machinery.
12. Hazards and safety precautions
of Carding machines.
13. Hazards and safety precautions
of Sliver and Ribbon lap
machines.
14. Hazards and safety precautions
of Combers and Draw frames.
15. Hazards and safety precautions
of Speed frames.
16. Hazards and safety precautions
of Ring frames.
17. Hazards and safety precautions
of Doubling machines.
18. Hazards and safety precautions
of Winding machines.
19. Hazards and safety precautions
of Warping machines.
20. Hazards and safety precautions
of Sizing machines.
21. Hazards and safety precautions
of power looms.

22. Hazards and safety precautions


of Bleaching process.
23. Hazards and safety precautions
of Washing machines.
24. Hazards and safety precautions
of Jigger machines.
25. Hazards and safety precautions
of Calendar machines.
26. Hazards and safety precautions
of Jet dyeing machines.
27. Hazards and safety precautions
of Stenter machine.
28. Hazards and safety precautions
of Drum washer machine.
29. Hazards and safety precautions
of Printing machine.
30. Hazards and safety precautions
of Carbonising machine.
31. Health hazards and controls in
Cotton textile industry.
32. Health hazards and controls in
Silk and Wool industry.
33. Fire and Explosion hazards in
Textile industry.
34. Effluent treatment flow chart of
a textile mill. Explain by a
diagram.
35. Types of effluent treatment
methods in a textile mill.
2. Write short Notes on :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Inference of accident case


studies in a textile mill.
Types of fibres and their use.
Spinning
preparatory
OR
Weaving preparatory process.
Spinning processes OR Finishing
processes.
Jute Manufacture.
Rotor Spinning.
General Safety Precautions of
textile processing (finishing)
machines OR Safety devices on
a Singeing machine.
Hazards and controls of flying
shuttles.
Picking stick assembly.
Hazards and safety aspects of a
Washing tank.
Kiers and Agers.
Byssionosis
OR
Weavers
Cough.
Heat and Humidity problems in
a textile mill.

14. Fire hazards in cotton godowns.


15. Methods to reduce pollution
load in a textile mill.
3. Explain the difference between
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Cotton and Man made fibres.


Thermic fluid heater and Drier.
Ginning and Pressing.
Ring frame and Doubling frame.
Pirn winding machine and a
Warping machine.
Bleaching and Dyeing.
Spinning and Weaving.
Fibre and Fabric.
Short staple fibre and Long
staple fibre.
Gilling and Carding.
Ring
spinning
and
Rotor
Spinning.
Singeing machine and Curing
machine.
Stitching machine and Folding
machine.
Fire hazards and Explosion
hazards in a cotton textile mill.
Primary and Secondary effluent
treatment methods.

4. Comment
on
the
following
explaining whether it is true or
false ?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Women or children can be


employed toward delivery end
side of a cotton opener.
Section
30
(F.A)
is
not
applicable to hydro extractor.
Rule 61 (GFR) is applicable to
drum washers.
Copper sizing cylinder is a thin
wall pressure vessel.
PET fibres pose no health
hazards.
PET fibres pose environmental
hazards.
Beaters are most dangerous
parts in below room machinery.
Rotor spinning machine cannot
spin combed yarn.
Bleaching and dyeing of jute is
not possible.
Trip cum distance guard is
required on a Warping machine.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

Rule 61 (8) for thin wall


pressure vessels is applicable
to sizing cylinders.
Vertical picking stick is less
dangerous
than
horizontal
picking stick of a loom.
Hydro-extractor does not need
interlocked top lid.
Jigger machine needs splash
guards.
Calendar machine needs safety
valve.
Stenter machine needs exhaust
fans.
Jet dyeing machine needs depressure device.
Drum washer needs PRV and
safety valve.
Sanforizing needs steam line
safety.
Towel cutting machine needs
guard on delivery end of towel.
High noise area in a textile mill
is its cloth department.
Jacquard
(design)
weaving
requires
better
lighting
condition.
Mmf manufacture has toxic
hazards.
In silk industry dermatitis is not
possible.
Glass wool processing has dust
hazard but no infrared radiation
hazard.
Flax
dust
cannot
cause
Byssionosis.
Employment
of
Industrial
hygienist is justified in a textile
mill.
Explosion is possible in a
polymerising machine.
Cotton mixing room does not
pose fire hazards.
Solenoid valve is essential on
fuel supply line of a singeing
machine.
Flameproof electric fitting is
required in a fuel fired singeing
machine room.
Electric heaters should be
interlocked with exhaust fan
drive and cloth drive of a curing
machine.

5. Explain the following terms from


safety point of view
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

Fibres from Animal origin.


Card OR Comber.
Kier.
In-running nip.
Head stock gearing.
Drying range.
Artificial humidification.
Byssionosis.
Cotton opener.
Polymerising machine.
Yarn singeing machine.
Sanforizing.
Texturising.
Bobbin shield.
Knee brake.
Duck bill and Hitter.
Weavers cough
Shuttle kissing.
Tolerance limits of effluent.
Padding mangle.
Scouring process
Hinged swing door.
Micro switch.
Lap rod.
Beam flange.
Drafting zone.
Etching of copper roller.
Dust chamber.
Flutted roller.
Licker in.

6. Match the words in column A


with appropriate words from
column B from safety point of
view
A
Fibres from
Vegetable origin
Natural polymer
Petrochemical
origin
Polyvinyl
derivatives
Carding machine
Roving frame
Ring frame
Pirn winding
machine
Warping machine
Draw frame

B
Acrylic fibres
Synthetic fibres
Viscose rayon
Cotton
Wool
Asbestos
Dyeing of cloth
Gray cloth
Weft for shuttle
Drawn warp
Combed yarn
Cone of yarn
Sliver

Loom
Jigger machine
Cotton opener
Carding machine
Sliver lap m/c
Comber m/c
Slubber frame
Inter frame
Ring frame
Rotor spinning
Warping machine
Sizing machine
Loom
Bleaching machine
Washing Tank
Hydro extractor
Calendar machine
Jigger machine
Drying Range
Ager machine
Stenter machine
Jet
dyeing
machine
Drum washer
Stitching machine
Shearing machine
Carbonising unit
Folding machine

Twisted yarn
Rove yarn
Warpers beam
Cylinder doors
Beater
Coiler and draw
box gears
Nip guard
Rotating flyers
Bevel wheel guard
Knot-free yarn
Knee brakes
Ring travellers
Nip guards
Photo
electric
device
Fume exhaust
Shuttle guard
Doffer wheel
Chemical goggles
Heavy rolls
Railing
on
hot
water
t
ank
Brake
Use of chain pulley
bloc
k
Chain drive guard
Rupture disc
Exhaust hood and
chi
mney
Crank-wheel guard

Cotton dust
Noise
Weavers cough
Humidity
Bleaching process
Shuttle kissing
12 hours shift
Anthrax
Yarn singeing
machine
Storage of cotton
bales

Locking device
Acid proof flooring
Metal detector
ELCB
Repeat
setting
device
To reduce thread
breakage
Sizing material
H 2 O2
Byssionosis
Explosion hazard
Loom shed
Pirn bobbin battery
Fire hydrant
Wool industry
LPG safety
Illegal

7. Give
probable
causes
and
controls of the following
1. Accidents in below room OR
Loom shed
2. Accidents in Sizing OR Carding
3. Accidents
in
Dyeing
OR
Bleaching.
4. Accidents in Printing.
5. Bursting of drying cylinder.
6. Broken shields of bobbins.
7. Processing chemicals.
8. Stentering machines.
9. Ring spinning OR Winding.
10. Carbonising of polyester.

Reference and Recommended Reading :


1. The Factories Act and Rules.
2. BIS Handbook.
3. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health
and Safety, ILO, Geneva.
4. The Course Material of the Central
Labour Institute, Sion, Mumbai-22.
5. Synopsis of the Gujarat Factories
(Amendment) Rules, 1995, by K.U.
Mistry,
Siddarth
Prakashan,
Ahmedabad.
6. Gujarati Booklet : Byssionosis Control,
Unnati
Vikas Shikshan Sansthan,

G1/200, Azad Society, Ahmedabad 380014, or PRIA, New Delhi - 110062.


7. Treatment
of
Textile
Processing
Effluents by N Manivasakam, Sakthi
Publications, Coimbatore-21.
8. Rotor Spinning - by Dr. Eric Dyson, The
Textile Trade Press, Stockport, England.
9. An Introduction to Spinning by Morton
& Wray.