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Consciousness - awareness of external stimuli and ones own mental activity

It is an aspect of many mental processes like memories

Analyzing Consciousness
Cognitive science or cognitive neuroscience are about consciousness
Mind-body problem- relationship between conscious mind and physical brain
Dualism (brain and mind are different, Rene Descartes). Materialism- mind and body are one and the same
Theater view- consciousness is a single phenomenon, a kind of stage where awareness converge as an audience of the mind
conscious level-The level at which mental activities that people are normally aware of occur
nonconscious level-A level of mental activity that is inaccessible to conscious awareness
preconscious level-A level of mental activity that is not currently conscious but of which we can easily become conscious.
unconscious level-A level of mental activity that influences consciousness but is not conscious.
Subliminal messages in music
Backward playing of music you can find secret lyrics and may have a effect in behavior. Vokey and Read conducted tests that
showed backward lyrics were not understood from bible verses. Underpercieved backward messages are also not shaping the
consciousness state-The characteristics of consciousness at any particular moment.
These states can be from deep sleep to alert wakefulness altered state of consciousness-A condition in which changes in
mental processes are extensive enough that person or others notice significant differences in psychological and behavioral
Sleeping and Dreaming
Stages of Sleep and REM Sleep
non-REM (NREM) sleep-Sleep stages 1, 2, 3, and 4, they are accompanied by gradually slower and deeper breathing. a calm
and regular heartbeat, reduced blood pressure, and slower brain waves. Stages 3 and 4 are called slow wave seen)
Rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep A stage of sleep in which brain activity and other functions resemble the waking state but
that is accompanied by rapid eye movements and virtual muscle paralysis.
Sleep as a Circadian Rhythm
circadian rhythm (human biological rhythm)-A cycle, such as waking and sleeping,that repeats about once a day
jet lag- a syndrome of fatigue, irritability, in attention and sleeping problems caused by air travel across several time zones
Biological clock- keeps track of time and is called suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)
SCN regulates the release of hormone melatonin
insomnia-A sleep disorder involving difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep at night.
narcolepsy- A daytime sleep disorder narco person s abruptly from an which a in active, often emotional waking state into
minutes several minutes of REM sleep

sleep apnea-A sleep disorder in which people briefly but stop during the night
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)-A disorder in which a sleeping baby stops breathing and suffocates. nightmare-A
frightening dream that takes place during REM sleep.
sleep terror disorder (night terrors)- The occurrence of horrific dream images during stage 4 sleep, followed by rapid
awakening in a state of intense fear.
sleepwalking-A phenomenon primarily occurring in non-REM sleep in which people walk while asleep.
REM behavior disorder- A sleep disorder in which a person does not lose muscle tone during REM sleep, allowing the person to
act out dreams.
dreaming-The experience of storylike sequel of images, sensations, and perceptions occurring mainly during REM sleep.
lucid dreaming-Awareness that a dream is a dream while it is happening.
hypnosis-A phenomenon brought hypnosis special induction techniques and characterized by varying degrees sponsiveness to
suggestions for of changes in experience and behavior.
hypnotic susceptibility-The degree to which a person responds to hypnotic suggestions.
state theories of hypnosis-Theories proposing that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.
nonstate theories of hypnosis-Theories, such as role theory, proposing that hypnosis does not create an altered state of
Psychoactive Drugs
psychoactive drug-A substance on the brain to cause some acts effect.
psychopharmacology-The study of psychoactive effects drugs and their effects b
lood-brain barrier-A feature of blood vessels supplying the brain that allows only certain to leave the blood and interact with
agonist-A drug that mimics the effects of the neurotransmitter that normally binds to a neural receptor. antagonist-A drug that
binds to a receptor and prevents the normal neurotransmitter from binding.
drug abuse-The self-administration of psychoactive drugs in ways that deviate from cultural norms and cause serious problems
for the user
addiction-Development of a physical need for a psychoactive drug.
drug withdrawal-Symptoms associated with discontinuing the use of a habit- forming substance.
drug tolerance-A condition in which increasingly larger drug doses are needed to produce a given effect.
Expecting to drink alcohol can create the same activity in the same brain areas effected by actually drinking it
CNS depressant drugs-Psychoactive drugs that inhibit the functioning of the central nervous system
CNS stimulating drugs-Psychoactive drugs that have the ability to increase behavioral and mental activity.
opiates- Psychoactive drugs, such um, morphine, and heroin, that produce sleep-inducing and pain- relieving effects.

hallucinogenic drugs-Psychoactive drugs that alter consciousness by producing a temporary loss of contact with reality and
changes in emotion, perception, and thought.
Marijuana is no more harmful than alcohol and tobacco