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By Philippe Ladoux, Joseph Fabre, and Hervé Caron

By Philippe Ladoux, Joseph Fabre, and Hervé Caron Power-Quality Improvement in ac Railway Substations The concept

Power-Quality Improvement in ac Railway Substations

The concept of chopper-controlled impedance.

he 25-kV/50-hz ac single-phase supply is a widely used railway system in France with a length of 9,698 km. Overhead lines are sup- plied by substations drawing power from two

phases of a three-phase utility. They behave as nonlinear and time-varying loads and represent one of the most important sources of voltage unbalance for the electric- ity-transmission network. in the case of weak networks, rail- way operators are required to install compensation systems in substations to satisfy utility regulations and to avoid pen- alties regarding voltage unbalance and reactive power con- sumption. The limits are established by the energy provider with a view to guaranteeing an acceptable power quality to other customers. in three-phase networks, the most widely used solutions are the classical static var (volt ampere reactive) compensators (sVcs), based on thyristor-controlled reactors (TcRs), and the static synchronous compensator (sTaTcOM) based on voltage- source inverters (Vsis). The TcR allows the variation of funda- mental lagging current by phase control, counterbalancing large leading currents from associated fixed capacitors and allowing continuous compensation of the lagging line. however, this solution generates a high level of harmonics and requires oner- ous lc filters. On the other hand, Vsis offer several advantages over thyristor-based solutions in terms of compensation dynamics and reduced harmonic distortion. For the last ten

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Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/MELE.2014.2331792 Date of publication: 29 September 2014

6 IEEE Electrification Magazine / september 2014

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years, although it requires bulky capacitors on the dc bus, the Vsi approach has been widely used for avoiding system unbalance. however, in high-power applications, the semi- conductor losses bring forth significant costs both in terms of active energy and cooling system maintenance, which must be taken into consideration by the railway operator. The concept of the chopper-controlled impedance (cci), presented in this article, is based on series or parallel associ- ations of ac choppers using high-frequency pulsewidth mod- ulation (pWM) to vary reactances at the network frequency. This approach is a low-power-loss solution and requires a low volume of reactive elements, a fact that makes this solu- tion very attractive in high-power, single-phase systems such as railway networks.

Chopper-Controlled Impedance

Various converter topologies can be applied to provide ac/ac conversion. Direct converters provide a link between the

source and the load without additional storage elements, but the input and output frequencies are closely related. never- theless, passive filters are always required to filter out the high-frequency harmonics introduced at the input and out- put sides by the converter switching operation. among the ac/ac direct converters, cycloconverters and matrix converters are distinguished by their ability to adjust the output frequency and voltage of a specific ac input voltage source. They also provide bidirectional pow- er-transfer capabilities, allowing the use of active loads (e.g., motors in regenerative mode). On the other hand, the ac chopper topology, which is similar to the well- known dc chopper, provides direct ac/ac conversion between two ac sources at the same fundamental fre- quency (Figure 1). The ac chopper may be considered as an autotransformer whose turns-ratio can be electroni- cally controlled. nevertheless, although it can provide instantaneous bidirectional power transfer, it allows power flow in one direction only, according to the type of load. ac choppers are normally designed to transfer power between a fixed ac voltage source (e.g., the utility grid) and a passive ac load. The load voltage [i.e., its root- mean-square (RMs) value] can be adjusted via the duty cycle a to control the power flow, but the power exchange (either active or reactive) is determined purely by the load type (resistive, capacitive, or inductive). The ideal waveforms are illustrated in Figure 2 (sinusoi- dal input voltage and sinusoidal output current). in this example, the waveforms are given for the case of a 90° leading current. it can be easily demonstrated that the RMs value of the output voltage fundamental V 2 depends on the input voltage RMs value V 1 and can be adjusted with the duty cycle a :

V

2

=

a

V .

1

(1)

likewise, the relationship between current RMs values is given by

I

1

I

= a .

2

(2)

By considering the ideal waveforms, it is clear that the ac chopper topology requires input and output filtering

elements. in any case, capacitor C F and inductor L F will be designed to filter out the switching frequency from i 1 and

. Thus, as shown in Figure 3, the ac chopper can be used as a step-down or a step-up converter, depending on the connection of the network and the load. assuming a suffi-

v

2

the filtering

elements L F and C F can be chosen to have a negligible

ciently high switching frequency f ,

sw

IEEE Electrification Magazine / september 2014

7

influence at the network frequency. Thus, in terms of fun- damental RMs values and relationships of input and output (1) and (2), the structures behave as variable imped- ances controlled by the duty cycle a . The expressions for input impedance for step-down and step-up configura- tions are given by (3) and (4), respectively.

i i 1 2 ac v 1 ac α
i
i
1
2
ac
v
1
ac
α

v 2

Figure 1. The principle of direct ac/ac conversion.

v 1 i 1 v 2 i 2
v 1
i
1
v
2
i
2

Figure 2. The typical ac chopper current and voltage waveforms for duty cycle a = 0.5.

Z

in

.

Z .

in

V

in

I

V

in

in

I

in

Z

out

. a

2

,

.

Z

out

a

 

(3)

2

.

(4)

For example, if impedance Z out is capacitive at the grid frequency, then the converters act as variable capacitors. Thus, a reactive power compensator can be implemented using the controlled impedance concept. The supplied

reactive power can be expressed as (5) for step-down mode and (6) for step-up mode

Q =

Q =

V in

a

2

V in

2

a Z

2

Z

out

2

,

(5)

.

(6)

out

Application of the Controlled Impedance Concept to reactive power Compensation

currently, most of the main-line traffic is from locomotives

equipped with thyristor rectifiers. That is why (as traffic and load increase) reactive power compensation is required to reduce reactive power and to keep the voltage from sagging. Basic power-factor correction is realized by fixed capacitors. The problem of such configurations is that when the over-

head lines operate at no load, the voltage will rise but may not exceed the 29-kV standard limit. if an increase of com- pensation is required, then a variable reactive power com- pensator must be added to the fixed-capacitor banks. Today, French national Railways [société nationale des chemins de fer Français (sncF)] use some lines equipped

i L i i 2 = i out F in 1 ac L i n
i
L
i
i
2 = i out
F
in
1
ac
L
i
n
c
V
L
Z
V in = V 1
V
V
out
2
out
V
C
n
F
ac
Load
α
Network
(a)
L
L
i
i
F
n
out
1
i 2 = i in
ac
i
c
V
Z
L
V
out
V
n
2
V
V out = V 1
in
ac
Load
α
Network

(b)

Figure 3. The ccI with buck or boost ac/ac converter: (a) the step-down configuration and (b) the step-up configuration.

8 IEEE Electrification Magazine / september 2014

with thyristor-based sVcs. however, the TcR draws a nonsi- nusoidal current, and in single-phase systems, these have a high level of third harmonic (up to 34% of the fundamental). as a result, this topology requires a bulky lc shunt filter tuned to the third harmonic. To avoid this drawback, a new structure, based on ccis was proposed. The case study is a 60-MVa substation close to paris. The substation is phase-to- phase connected to a 225-kV three-phase transmission line. The initial circuit, presented in Figure 4, includes two fixed com- pensation banks with antiharmonic inductors (L 1 and L ).

2

Overhead Line L 2 L 1 V line c 2 c 1 60-MVA Substation Fixed
Overhead Line
L 2
L 1
V line
c 2
c 1
60-MVA
Substation
Fixed
Rails
Transformer
Compensation
225-kV

Tr ansmission

Line

i Load

(Trains)

Figure 4. a 25-kV, 50-Hz ac railway line power supply.

Overhead Line

L L 1 2 Already-Existing Compensation Banks C C 1 2 L L F 1
L
L
1
2
Already-Existing
Compensation Banks
C
C
1
2
L
L
F 1
F 2
i
i
i
i
out1.1
out2.1
in1
in2
ac
ac
C
C
o 1
o 2
V
V
V
V
in1.1
out1.1
in2.1
out2.1
L
3
ac
ac
V
line
α
α
i
C
i
out2.2
3
out1.2
ac
ac
C
C
o 1
o 2
V
V
V
V
V
in1.2
out1.2
N
V
in2.2
out2.2
1
1
2
N
2
ac
ac
α
α
i
i
out1. N 1
out1. N 2
ac
ac
C
C
o 1
o 2
V
V
V
V
in1. N 1
out1. N 1
in2. N 2
out2. N 2
ac
ac
α
α
Rails

New

Compensation Bank

N 1 Step-Up ac Choppers

N 2 Step-Up ac Choppers

Figure 5. a new topology of a reactive power compensator.

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 19 20 21 22
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0 19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
ac Chopper Duty Cycle α

V line (kV)

(a)

18 16 14 12 ∆ Q = 3 Mvar 10 8 Initial Circuit With ac
18
16
14
12
Q =
3 Mvar
10
8
Initial Circuit
With
ac Chopper
6
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Reactive Power (Mvar)

V line (kV)

(b)

Figure 6. The (a) duty cycle and (b) reactive power are plotted versus the line voltage.

IEEE Electrification Magazine / september 2014

9

at the substation, a study of active and reactive energy con- sumption was performed over a five-month period. it was thus demonstrated that the invoiced reactive energy could

Peak Value of i in (A)Peak

Peak Value of v out (V)

Value of i in (A)

4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Peak
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Peak Value of v out (V)

V line (kV)

320 300 280 260 240 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
320
300
280
260
240
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

V line (kV)

(a)

4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
19 20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

V line (kV)

240 220 200 180 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
240
220
200
180
19 20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

V line (kV)

(b)

Figure 7. The ac chopper output voltages and input currents versus line voltage for (a) bank 1 and (b) bank 2.

be reduced from 5,000 Mvarh to 1,500 Mvarh by adding vari- able compensation of 3 Mvar. The new compensation circuit is presented in Figure 5. ac choppers are connected in series with the existing fixed compensators. a filtered shunt capacitor bank

is added and sized to provide an additional reac-

(L

-

3

C )

3

tive power of 3 Mvar at 22 kV (for a total maximum of 13 Mvar). The controlled impedance part allows reactive power control by variation of the duty cycle according to Figure 6 as a function of the line voltage and the maxi- mum compensated reactive power, limited to 13 Mvar.

The peak voltage on each ac chopper is limited to 3.6 kV for a line voltage of 27.5 kV (no-load operation). as a result, four series-connected ac choppers are required. The advantage of the voltage divider with regard to semicon- ductor stress is shown in Figure 7, where the maximum input current is reached when the output voltage is close

to 1 kV.

experimental results: reactive power Compensation with step-Up AC Chopper

a

prototype was developed to demonstrate the feasibility

of

the solution presented in Figure 5. The maximum reac-

tive power level was set to 1.2 Mvar. The ac chopper was built at the plasma and conversion of energy Research laboratory (laplace) in Toulouse, France, and tested on the sncF test platform in Vitry (paris), France. The experi- mental setup, shown in Figure 8, is based on the series connection of an ac chopper and an lc filter, which has a

capacitive response at 50 hz. For safety reasons, resistors R dis 1 and R dis 2 are installed to discharge the capacitors when the circuit is turned off. The RMs value of the ac supply used during the test is 2,450 V. The semiconductor devices used for the ac chopper converter are 3.3-kV/1,500-a insulated-gate bipolar transis- tors (igBTs) switching at 1 khz. The maximal reactive power provided is about 1.2 Mvar, and the reactive power variation, Q, is 320 kvar. an air-cooled

system based on heat pipes is used. The control part and the generation of igBT

switching patterns are achieved by using

a mixed-environment digital signal

processor and field-programmable gate

array. The experimental setup is shown

in Figure 9, and the waveforms are pre-

sented in Figure 10. it can be seen that

the current i in is sinusoidal; voltage v cell

corresponds to the voltage across capac-

itor C 0 when V out is positive. The current

in

switch k1_c is chopped with a polari-

ty

opposite to i in , and the voltage across

C 0 increases with duty cycle a . all

experimental measurements match well

to the previously calculated values. The

reactive power variation Q ^ a h is plotted

in Figure 11.

power variation Q ^ a h is plotted in Figure 11. L Discharge Discharge Contactor Contactor
L Discharge Discharge Contactor Contactor R dis1 v C R dis2 i out C o
L
Discharge
Discharge
Contactor
Contactor
R dis1
v
C
R dis2
i out
C
o
i in
v out
v in
T 1
D 1
T 2
D 2
v cell
C 1
D 1 C
C 2
T 1 C
T 2 C
D 2 C
i K1_ C
Figure 8. The reactive power compensator based on a step-up ac chopper.

10 IEEE Electrification Magazine / september 2014

Chopper-Controlled steinmetz Circuit for Voltage balancing in railway substations

Chopper-Controlled Steinmetz Circuit for Voltage Balancing

Figure 12 shows a classical railway substation supplied by a three-phase network. at the point of common coupling, to avoid penalties from the utility, the railway company is forced to meet a maximum voltage unbalance factor (uF) averaged over 10 min. The uF is defined as the ratio of the negative sequence component V - and the positive sequence component V + of the line voltages (v , v , and v ). Figure 13 shows the basic principle of the active stein- metz compensator with ac choppers realizing controlled impedance, both capacitive and inductive, as required. These impedances, connected across two lines of the three-phase network, draw currents with a negative sequence, which compensates the current unbalance and, consequently, the voltage unbalance produced by two-line loading. Only the real part of the negative sequence component drawn by the substation is compensated, which is the main drawback of the active steinmetz circuit. neverthe- less, modern locomotives are equipped with active front- end rectifiers, which draw a sinusoidal current in phase with the line voltage. in the future, locomotives using thy- ristor rectifiers will no longer be used; therefore, it will not be necessary to consider low-power-factor operation dur- ing development. Moreover, the railway operator is not interested in an instantaneous compensation since penal- ties are applied on the basis of a 10-min average. in this case, a very simple control strategy can be implemented:

the duty cycle of the ac choppers will be controlled as a function of the active power consumed by the substation.

a

b

c

Chopper-Controlled Steinmetz Circuit Design in a Typical Substation of the French National Railways

The case study is a 16-MVa substation located in Évron, pays de la loire, France. The primary of the transformer is connected across two of the three 90-kV/50-hz transmis- sion lines, and a 2.7-Mvar reactive power compensation bank is connected on the 25-kV side. The rating of the compensator was chosen to guarantee a uF of 1.5% when the substation is loaded at 10 MW and for the lower short-

The power rating of the

circuit power S 295 MVA .

unbalance compensator is given by

cc =

S

=

comp

S

-

L

UF S .

cc

(7)

Thus, the power of each cci is equal to S comp divided by 3 and set to 3.3 Mvar. The converter is designed with standard 3.3-kV/1.5-ka igBT modules with a switching

frequency f 1 KHz . For the design, the following speci-

fications were developed. xxTransformer ratio: N T1 and N T2 limit the semiconduc- tor voltage to 1,800 V.

N T 2 limit the semiconduc- tor voltage to 1,800 V. sw = Control System ac

sw =

Control System ac Chopper ac Power-Supply Connection Capacitor C 0 Capacitor C Inductor L
Control System
ac Chopper
ac Power-Supply
Connection
Capacitor C 0
Capacitor C
Inductor L

Figure 9. The reactive power compensator under test.

T V cell 4 ms 500 V/div 1 V in 500 V/div 2 i in
T
V cell
4 ms
500 V/div
1
V in
500 V/div
2
i in
500 A/div
4
1) [Tek TDS3014B].CH1 500 V 4 ms
2) [Tek TDS3014B].CH2 500 V 4 ms
3) [Tek TDS3014B].CH3 500 V 4 ms
4) [Tek TDS3014B].CH4 500 V 4 ms
i K1_C
500 A/div
Figure 10. The ac chopper waveforms (V = 2450 ; V - a = 0.
Figure 10. The ac chopper waveforms (V
= 2450 ; V
- a =
0. 5) .
RMS
–900
–950
–1,000
–1,050
–1,100
–1,150
–1,200
–1,250
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4 0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Duty Cycle α
Q (kvar)

Figure 11. The experimental results: leading reactive power versus duty cycle a.

PCC e a Z cc i a v a e b Substation Z cc i
PCC
e a
Z cc
i a
v a
e b
Substation
Z cc
i b
v b
i l
i train
e c
Z cc
i c
v c

Figure 12. a single-phase substation connection.

IEEE Electrification Magazine / september 2014

11

v a

ac Chopper 2.N2

L V 2 α 2 ac Chopper 2.2 L V 2 Inductive Controlled Impedance α
L V 2
α
2
ac Chopper 2.2
L V 2
Inductive
Controlled
Impedance
α
2
ac Chopper 2.1
I
AB
L F 2
v
b
V
C
in2
L V 2
F 2
N T 2
I
in2
α
2
ac Chopper 1.1
I
L F 1
in1
L V 1
I
C
V
CA
F 1
in1
v
C V 1
c
N
T 1
Capacitive
α
1
Controlled
Impedance
ac Chopper 1.2
L V 1
C V 1
α
1
ac-Chopper 1.N1
L V 1
C V 1
α
1

V out2. N 2

V out2.2

V out2.1

V out1.1

V out1.2

V out1. N 1

Figure 13. an active Steinmetz compensator.

Power Converter Input Voltage 4 1,850 Capacitive CCI 1,800 Inductive CC I 3 1,750 2
Power
Converter Input Voltage
4
1,850
Capacitive CCI
1,800
Inductive CC
I
3
1,750
2
1,700
1,650
1
Capacitive CCI
1,600
Inductive CCI
0
1,550
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
α
α
(a)
(b)
Mvar
V
peak

Figure 14. The (a) reactive powers and (b) input ac choppers’ peak voltage are plotted versus duty cycle

12 IEEE Electrification Magazine / september 2014

a 1, 2

.

xxInput filter: To balance the substation even when it is not loaded, the already existing 2.7-Mvar reactive power compensator was replaced with one that was 900 kvar, and the input filter capacitor of the cci was

chosen to provide a reactive power Q F = 900 kvar . in

this way, when no trains are supplied by the substa- tions, the circuit is seen from the three-phase network as a balanced load. Moreover, L F 1 , 2 is simply the leak- age inductance of the 3.3-MVa transformer.

xxMaximum ac chopper output current: The number of

was chosen according

to the thermal limits of the igBTs (case temperature:

100 c C, and junction temperature: T J =

with a maximum RMs current I MA X of 735 a. xxMaximum power: Output impedance parameters obtain 3.3 Mvar at the maximum duty cycle (0.9). More- over, a 10% maximum current ripple at the switching frequency was chosen to determine the output imped- ance of the capacitive ac choppers.

The reactive powers and peak input voltages (V in 1 and

modules in parallel (N 1 or N )

2

T

C =

125 C)

c

) of the controlled impedances versus duty cycles

V

and a are shown in Figure 14.

in 2

2

a

1

Comparison of VSI Versus Active Steinmetz

On the basis of the design presented in the previous sec-

tions, Figure 15 summarizes the power losses for different voltage-balancer topologies. losses are referred to a working condition for the compensators when the load

z = 0 c . comparing the two solutions based on

phase is

Vsi converters, the three-level neutral point clamped (npc) solution is characterized by lower losses. in addition,

if the active steinmetz compensator is compared with the three-level npc topology, a reduction in the power losses of about 60% is achieved. The energy stored in the reactive elements is used as a qualitative index of the components space volume. The

L

|

|

peak values for current I

and voltage V

in the inductors

223 250 200 141 128.2 150 80.6 100 61.3 33.6 50 0 2 - L
223
250
200
141
128.2
150
80.6
100
61.3
33.6
50
0
2 - L VSI
NPC 3-L VSI
Active
Power Losses (kW)

Steinmetz

S c o m p = 5.7 MVA (UF = 1.5% at S L = 10 comp = 5.7 MVA (UF = 1.5% at S L = 10 MVA)

S c o m p = 10 MVA (UF = 0% at S L = 10 comp = 10 MVA (UF = 0% at S L = 10 MVA)

Figure 15. a comparison between voltage-balancer topologies in terms of power losses.

400,000 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 Energy Energy Total Capacitor Inductors
400,000
350,000
300,000
250,000
200,000
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
Energy
Energy
Total
Capacitor
Inductors
VSI-2L
VSI NPC-3L
Active Steinmetz
Energy (J)
181,116
340,200
10,472
19,186
18,628
21,160
200,302
358,828
31,631

Figure 16. a comparison in terms of energy stored in reactive elements

^

S

=

comp

h

5 .7 MVA .

i L

100 0 –100 1 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.08 1.1 Time (s) (a) P Q load
100
0
–100
1 1.02
1.04
1.06
1.08
1.1
Time (s)
(a)
P
Q
load
load
6,000 K
4,000 K
2,000 K
0 K
1 1.02
1.04
1.06
1.08
1.1
(W) (var)
(A)

Time (s)

(b)

Figure 17. (a) The substation current waveform and (b) active and reactive power.

IEEE Electrification Magazine / september 2014

13

i a i b i c 150 100 50 0 –50 –100 –150 0.8 1
i a
i b i c
150
100
50
0
–50
–100
–150
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
Time (s)
(a)
Substation
Load On
Load On
3
Without Load
Compensation Off
Compensation On
2
1.5%
1
0
0.8 1
1.2
1.4
1.6
(A)UF%

Time (s)

(b)

Figure 18. (a) The line currents and (b) the voltage UF%.

and capacitors of the three studied topologies are evaluat-

ed and used in

E

cap

=

1

2

CV |

2

E

ind

=

1

2

LI | .

2

(8)

a third harmonic of about 20 a. Resulting line currents and uF% are presented in Figure 18, in which three working periods can be distinguished in the simulation

corresponding to three modes of operation:

xxThe substation is not loaded and appears as a bal-

anced load to the power network. xxThe substation is loaded, and the uF reaches 2%. xxThe chopper-controlled steinmetz circuit is turned on and uF is close to zero, well under the limit of 1.5%. Figure 19 shows a zoom on the three-phase line-currents and the

currents drawn by the compensator. it can be seen that currents i ca and i cb are quasi-sinusoidal, which confirms that harmonic interactions are avoid- ed, as expected, with the frequency analysis presented above. Further- more, the line voltage drop corre- sponding to the negative current sequence is strongly reduced, and the substation voltage is boosted by 1.7 %.

Figure 16 shows a comparison of the total energies for

the three solutions. comparing the energy stored in the reactive elements for the three topologies, a huge difference exists between the proposed compensator and the classical solutions based on Vsi converters. particularly for the size of

the dc-link capacitors, the capacitive stored energy in these conversion structures is significant. in fact, as the converter is injecting a purely negative sequence three-phase cur- rent, the fluctuating power makes it necessary to install large capacitors

The semiconductor power losses and energy-storage requirements compared to the widely used VSI topology make the proposed solution very attractive for railway operators.

to

limit the voltage ripple at the

dc

side.

Simulation Results of the Chopper-Controlled Steinmetz Circuit

The worst-case condition, i.e., at lowest short-circuit power,

S CC =

295 MVA , is considered. The

Conclusion

in this article, reactive power and voltage unbalance compensators based on pWM ac choppers were pro- posed. in multilevel structures, cur- rent or voltage sharing is naturally

ensured by the choice of impedance values. a very simple control of reac- tive power can be achieved by varying only the duty cycle; no control loops for internal variables are required. com- pared to a TcR solution, the ac chopper does not generate any low-order harmonics, thanks to its pWM operation.

chopper-controlled steinmetz circuit

is connected in parallel to the sub-

station. in the circuit, the substation and the trains were replaced by a controlled current source. Then, simulations with psiM software were car- ried out using measured current waveforms. The substa- tion current waveform is given in Figure 17 and presents

14 IEEE Electrification Magazine / september 2014

i a i b i c 100 50 0 –50 –100 1.52 1.54 1.56 1.58
i a
i b
i c
100
50
0
–50
–100
1.52 1.54
1.56
1.58
1.6
Time (s)
(a)
i ac
i ab
60
40
20
0
–20
–40
–60
1.52 1.54
1.56
1.58
1.6
Time (s)
(b)
(A)
(A)

Figure 19. (a) The line currents and (b) the injected currents i ab and i .

ca

nevertheless, to avoid over-voltages, it is necessary to choose the filtering elements with regard to preexisting harmonics in the network. as far as the application in ac trac- tion lines is concerned, simulation results validated the operation of this novel topology, and a 1.2-Mvar prototype of the compensator was built and tested

at the sncF’s test platform, confirming the analytical study and system perfor- mance. although a sTaTcOM solution using cascaded Vsis could be considered, the ac chopper topology, presented in Figure 5, exhibits lower semiconductor losses. Furthermore, a low-loss voltage-unbalance compensa- tor based on the cci concept was proposed, and the case study of a real French substation was undertaken. Despite the limited compensation domain of the presented topology, the study highlights its feasibility in railway substations. in fact, in this kind of application, average compensation is sufficient to respect the utility’s requirements. The semiconductor power losses and energy-storage requirements compared to the widely used Vsi topology make the proposed solution very attractive for railway operators. a very simple control can be achieved by varying only the chopper duty cycles, without the need for control loops for other variables. The simulation results confirmed the operation of the novel topology under real conditions. at present, an industrial solution of the chop- per-controlled steinmetz circuit is under development and will be tested in 2016.

Direct converters provide a link between the source and the load without additional storage elements.

compensators based on pWM ac choppers,” Eur. Power Electron. J., vol. 21–23, pp. 22–32, sept. 2011. g. Raimondo, p. ladoux, a. lowin- sky, h. caron, and p. Marino, “Reactive power compensation in railways based on acboost choppers,” IET J. Electr. Syst. Transport., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 169177, Dec. 2012. p. ladoux, g. Raimondo, h. caron, and p. Marino, “chopper-controlled steinmetz circuit for voltage balanc-

ing in railway substations,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 5813–5822, Dec. 2013. g. Raimondo. (2012, Feb.). power quality improvements in 25 kV 50 hz railways substation based on chopper con- trolled impedances. ph.D. thesis, institut national poly- technique de Toulouse, France. [Online]. available:

http://ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr/archive/00001820/01/rai-

mondo.pdf

biographies

Philippe Ladoux (philippe.ladoux@laplace.univ-tlse.fr) is a full professor at the plasma and conversion of energy Research laboratory, university of Toulouse, France. Joseph Fabre (joseph.fabre@laplace.univ-tlse.fr) is a post- doctoral researcher at the plasma and conversion of energy Research laboratory, university of Toulouse, France. Hervé Caron (herve.caron@sncf.fr) is an engineer at the Department of Fixed installations for Traction power sup- ply in the French national Railways company.

For Further reading

p. ladoux, y. chéron, a. lowinsky, g. Raimondo, and p. Marino, “new topologies for static reactive power

g. Raimondo, and p. Marino, “new topologies for static reactive power IEEE Electrification Magazine / september

IEEE Electrification Magazine / september 2014

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