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Research Projects Composite Structures & Processes Team 2013 Cenaero is an applied research center focused

Research Projects

Composite Structures & Processes Team

2013

Cenaero is an applied research center focused on the development of advanced simulation technologies, primarily for aeronautics. Located at the Aerop´ oleˆ de Gosselies (Belgium), it employs about 50 highly skilled researchers working in the fields of turbomachinery, opti- mization, composite and metallic structures and processes, biomedical applications, energy and building as well as high performance computing.

In the field of composites, Cenaero primarily focuses on the development of cutting edge numerical tools capable of predicting the response of composite structures and simulating their manufacturing processes. Five researchers and one technician are currently working on composite activities at Cenaero, making up a young and dynamic team.

Cenaero has both a numerical and an experimental approach to composite materials. The composites lab is used to:

Test and/or develop new materials, processes and equipment

CENAERO A.S.B.L. Batimentˆ Rue des Freres` Eole Wright 29 B-6041 Gosselies Tel: +32.71.91.09.30 Fax:
CENAERO A.S.B.L.
Batimentˆ
Rue des Freres`
Eole
Wright 29
B-6041 Gosselies
Tel: +32.71.91.09.30
Fax: +32.71.91.09.31
http://www.cenaero.be

Generate validation data for the development of accurate numerical tools

Thanks to this unique combination of numerical simulation and experimental capabilities, Cenaero is proud to help its partners and customers face tomorrow’s challenges by devel- oping more competitive composite structures and processes.

Cenaero offers to highly skilled and motivated students with background in engineering, computer science and mathematics to join its research projects for training and/or to perform their master’s graduation thesis. The positions are open to students attending a Belgian university as well as students from EU countries. Interested candidates should send a cover letter and a resume via email to rh@cenaero.be with mention to the reference number.

TR-CSP-2013-01: Development of a Finite Element impact model for an automotive application using hybrid composite-metallic materials

TR-CSP-2013-02: Multi-level optimization of composite structures in order to improve manufacturability, improve compliance to design rules and reduce mass

TR-CSP-2013-03: Adaptation and benchmark of mold compensation techniques in order to reduce cure-induced distortions.

TR-CSP-2013-04: Determination of the mechanical properties of composite materials as a function of the degree of cure and application to curing simulations

TR-CSP-2013-05: Non destructive inspection of composite structures using matrix phased array ultrasonic probes

TR-CSP-2013-06: Design and analysis of crack stopping features in adhesively-bonded composite structures

TR-CSP-2013-07: Modeling three dimensional carbon fiber reinforcements in structures through finite element analysis

TR-CSP-2013-08: Structural optimization of a carbon fiber reinforced cargo frame

Research Project Composite Structres & Processes

Research Project

Composite Structres & Processes

Title:

hybrid composite-metallic materials

Development of a Finite Element impact model for an automotive application using

Description:

In the framework of a current European FP7 project, a finite element model to predict the crash behavior of a car side door needs to be generated in the Abaqus finite element code. The model will have to be generated such that the geometry is parametrized and ready for optimization.

Objective:

For this study, an existing CAD geometry will be provided from which the student will need to perform clean-up operations followed by a full generation of the required finite element model. The student will start with a simple case of impact simulation (from literature) to familiarize himself/herself with Abaqus, meshing of complex geometries and simulation of impact. This model will then evolve to the real industrial geometry and the industrial finite element model. The objective of this internship is to obtain a robust finite element model that can predict the impact behavior of the structure. This model should be parametrized such that the geometry can be modified easily.

Profile:

The candidate should possess a good understanding of finite elements and numerical methods as well as a good knowledge in English. A general awareness of optimization techniques would be an asset. Working knowledge of python and the Linux environment are valuable assets.

Duration: 6 months (1 student)

Contact:

Please send your CV and cover letter (quoting Ref. TR-CSP-2013-01) to the attention of V. Madhavan, to: rh@cenaero.be

Reference: TR-CSP-2013-01

Last updated December 7, 2012

Research Project Composite Structres & Processes

Research Project

Composite Structres & Processes

Title: Multi-level optimization of composite structures in order to improve manufacturability, improve compliance to design rules and reduce mass

Description:

In the framework of developing Cenaero’s expertise in optimization of composite structures, the Composite Structures and Processes team would like to compare its in-house stacking sequence generator tool, SkillTools, against results obtained from commercial tools. The geometry will be a section of an aircraft fuselage and the mechanical behavior will be simulated using finite elements.

Objective:

For the study, an existing finite element model will be used in the study which will be chained to Cenaero’s in-house stacking sequence generator (SkillTools), as well as Cenaero’s com- mercial optimization tool (Minamo). The student will initially familiarize himself/herself with the individual tools on simple cases and gradually progress to the optimization of the full structure. He/she will need to work towards improving the overall robustness and efficiency of the optimization chain by implementing improvements in SkillTools (written in python programming language). The student may also be involved in introducing structural failure and structural stability constraints into the optimization. The final results will then be com- pared to results obtained from a commercially available stacking sequence generator tool. This internship can be combined with reference TR-CSP-2013-08 to form a longer 9 to 12 months internship if desirable.

Profile:

The candidate should possess a good understanding of finite elements and numerical methods as well as a good knowledge in English. A general awareness of optimization techniques would be an asset. Working knowledge of python and the Linux environment are valuable assets.

Duration: 6 months (1 student)

Contact:

Please send your CV and cover letter (quoting Ref. TR-CSP-2013-02) to the attention of V. Madhavan, to: rh@cenaero.be

Reference: TR-CSP-2013-02

Last updated December 7, 2012

Research Project Composite Structres & Processes

Research Project

Composite Structres & Processes

Title:

cure-induced distortions.

Adaptation and benchmark of mold compensation techniques in order to reduce

Description:

One of the research topics of Cenaero’s Composites Team is the modeling of cure-induced distortions, consequence of the thermal and chemical shrinkage during the curing cycle. These simulations are introduced in an optimization chain, whose purpose is to alter the shape of the mold in order to get closer to the desired shape.

Objective:

The existing optimization chain uses the Abaqus/Standard finite element software pack- age. The student will develop the tools (mainly post-processing) necessary to its adapta- tion to Samcef/Mecano, and compare the two software on simple geometries. He/she will then perform numerous mold compensation optimizations in order to benchmark the sev- eral strategies that have been investigated. Based on his/her capabilities, the student will have the possibility to propose and implement new strategies. He/she will work with sev- eral software (CAD, finite element, draping simulation), learn about advanced optimization techniques, develop python subroutines and work in a Linux environment.

Profile:

The candidate should possess a strong interest in computational mechanics and the finite element method. A general interest in computer programming is mandatory. The candidate should be curious, proactive and independent.

Duration: 6 months (1 student)

Contact:

Please send your CV and cover letter (quoting Ref. TR-CSP-2013-03) to the attention of B. Wucher, to: rh@cenaero.be

Reference: TR-CSP-2013-03

Last updated December 7, 2012

Research Project Composite Structres & Processes

Research Project

Composite Structres & Processes

Title: Determination of the mechanical properties of composite materials as a function of the degree of cure and application to curing simulations

Description:

Typical aerospace composite materials can potentially show significant deformations as they cure, due to thermal expansion and chemical shrinkage phenomena. These deforma- tions are generally undesirable since they can prevent the parts from meeting the required geometrical tolerances. They must hence be compensated for by modifying the geometry of the mold. This can of course be done experimentally by trial and error. However, it can be done numerically much faster and at a far lower cost. This requires curing process simulations which themselves rely on a large amount of material data including the me- chanical properties of the composite material as a function of the degree of cure X, the temperature T and the strain rate ˙. These data cannot always be obtained experimentally either because it would be too costly or because there is no suitable test protocol available. The goal of the present project is therefore to obtain some of these properties numerically through finite element calculations and to demonstrate that these properties can be used in curing simulations.

Objective:

The different tasks that will have to be carried out within the present project are (i) short review of the relevant literature, (ii) development of a suitable material model for a par- ticular aerospace resin, (iii) finite element calculations on a representative volume of a typical composite material made of that resin, (iv) validation of the resulting properties of the composite against experimental data, and, (v) demonstration of the usefulness of the methodology on a typical curing simulation.

Profile:

Fourth or fifth year student in engineering (mechanics or materials science). Some experi- ence in finite element calculations with Abaqus or Samcef as well as a good basic knowl- edge in English. Pre-existing knowledge in composites science and technology and/or in materials behavior and models are an asset.

Duration: 1 student for 4 to 9 months, the scope being adapted to the actual duration

Contact:

Please send your CV and cover letter (quoting Ref. TR-CSP-2013-04) to the attention of B. Wucher, to: rh@cenaero.be

Reference: TR-CSP-2013-04

Last updated December 7, 2012

Research Project Composite Structres & Processes

Research Project

Composite Structres & Processes

Title: Non destructive inspection of composite structures using matrix phased array ultra- sonic probes

Description:

The ultrasonic inspection of composite structures is an important part of the quality as-

surance steps in the manufacturing of structural parts in an aircraft. Ultrasonic waves can penetrate through the thickness of structures to detect the presence of defects such as

Phased array ultrasonic inspection is a relatively new

technology that improves conventional ultrasonic inspection by using multiple adjacent ac- tuators and sensors to generate and record the ultrasonic wave which allows to either:

delaminations, voids, porosity,

cover a greater area in the same amount of time

focus the energy of the wave at a given location in the part

use different “angles of attack” to detect defects that create echoes bouncing in a different direction.

Objective:

In order to take full advantage of the ultrasonic phased array technology, it is necessary to create the right signal (input) and post process the data in such a way that it will lead to easily comprehensible results. The purpose of this internship is to define several test cases to test the possibilities of ma- trix and linear and phased array probes in composites, perform simulations to analyze the influence of different parameters on the quality of the signal and develop the right tools to detect damage or manufacturing defaults in composites. To conclude the internship, an evaluation of damage detection methodologies will be performed by the trainee on manu- factured parts and compared to conventional techniques.

Profile:

The candidate should possess a good knowledge of composite materials and material science in general. A good understanding of non destructive techniques and in particular ultrasonic inspection are valuable assets. The candidate should be curious, proactive and have a general interest in computer programming.

Duration: 4 to 6 months (1 student)

Contact:

Please send your CV and cover letter (quoting Ref. TR-CSP-2013-05) to the attention of D. Dumas, to: rh@cenaero.be

Reference: TR-CSP-2013-05

Last updated December 7, 2012

Research Project Composite Structres & Processes

Research Project

Composite Structres & Processes

Title:

structures

Design and analysis of crack stopping features in adhesively-bonded composite

Description:

Adhesive bonding shows a great potential in composite applications for the aeronautics industry thanks to a reduced weight and an increased fatigue life. However, as of today, adhesive bonding is not used to its full potential since so-called ”chicken” rivets capable of withstanding the design loads by themselves are still added to meet the requirements of the airworthiness authorities. However, the latter make it possible to get rid of these chicken rivets providing crack stopping features are included in the design to prevent cracks from propagating in the adhesive joints to an extent that would cause a loss of the aircraft. The goal of the present project is therefore to develop a numerical model capable of predicting the failure of adhesive joints in composite structures and to use that model to analyze and to improve the design of a crack stopping feature.

Objective:

The different tasks that will have to be carried out within the present project are: (i) short review of the relevant literature, (ii) development of a suitable model in the commercial finite element (FE) code Abaqus or in Cenaero in house FE code Morfeo, (iii) parameter iden- tification and validation against experimental data taken from the literature, (iv) numerical analysis of the preliminary design of a crack stopping feature, and, (v) improvement of the preliminary design through numerical simulations.

Profile:

Fourth- or fifth-year student in mechanical engineering. Some experience in finite element calculations and in C++ or Fortran programming as well as a good basic knowledge in English. Pre-existing knowledge in composites science and technology and/or fracture mechanics are an asset.

Duration: 1 student for 4 to 9 months, the scope being adapted to the actual duration

Contact:

Please send your CV and cover letter (quoting Ref. TR-CSP-2013-06) to the attention of P. Martiny, to: rh@cenaero.be

Reference: TR-CSP-2013-06

Last updated December 7, 2012

Research Project Composite Structres & Processes

Research Project

Composite Structres & Processes

Title:

element analysis

Modeling three dimensional carbon fiber reinforcements in structures through finite

Description:

Carbon fiber reinforcements for structural components can come in various shapes and forms. The textile industry in western Europe has undergone major transformation in order to focus on new high added value applications involving weaving of fibers in new fields of construction and transportation. Over the past years, some 3D woven carbon fiber techniques have emerged and are now available at a pre-industrial level for specific structural reinforcement applications. 3D woven CFRP composites try to improve the out of plane properties of carbon fiber rein- forced composite structures in order to better transfer out of plane loads or improve impact damage and overall strength of a composite part. To predict the behavior of these textiles impregnated in polymer resin proves to be quite a challenge that needs to be addressed in order to widely introduce these new solutions in the aerospace and transportation industry in general.

Objective:

Modeling of such materials brings new challenges to predict the overall behavior (elastic response) and the damage mechanisms (failure) of the composite structure. The trainee will first perform some research to get acquainted with the current state of the art in the field of 3D woven textiles and their finite element modeling. Then, different techniques will be used and compared to predict the elastic response of these composites to see how efficiently they can be used in large structural models and optimization activities. Finally, the trainee will also explore some failure models for 3D woven CFRP and evaluate them based on the experimental data that will be available through a research project ongoing at Cenaero.

Profile:

The candidate should possess a strong interest in computational mechanics and the finite element method. A general interest in computer programming is mandatory. The candidate should be curious, proactive and independent.

Duration: 6 months (1 student)

Contact:

Please send your CV and cover letter (quoting Ref. TR-CSP-2013-07) to the attention of D. Dumas, to: rh@cenaero.be

Reference: TR-CSP-2013-07

Last updated December 7, 2012

Research Project Composite Structres & Processes

Research Project

Composite Structres & Processes

Title: Structural optimization of a carbon fiber reinforced cargo frame

Description:

Composite materials are being increasingly used in the aeronautic industry and are being placed in primary structures such as fuselage and cargo frame elements and reinforcement profiles. In the IMAC-Pro project, Cenaero has worked on the parametrization of a com- posite cargo frame model in order to use it in an optimization workflow that can be used to

perform design iterations to reduce the mass and improve the strength of the structure. In order to have a realistic optimized structure, it is important to take different constraints

or mechan-

Cenaero also uses

ical (maximum strain, stress criteria, load transfer through bolts,

into account that can be of geometric nature (total height, minimum radius,

)

).

a stacking sequence generator to create realistic composite layup sequences that take into account different manufacturing constraints. Cenaero wishes to continue investigating potential improvements based on material and geometric optimization.

Objective:

Using the available engineering software, finite element models and tools at Cenaero de- veloped during the course of the project, the intern will first get familiar with the model and optimization workflow before defining appropriate load cases, parameters, objectives and constraints for a structural optimization. Work will also focus on the CAD-CAE link that has to be ensured to update the cargo frame model at each optimization iteration. A full parametrization and evalution of robustness with respect to geometrical parameters will be performed. After updating the model to allow a robust optimization workflow and implementing new post-processing features to correctly include mechanical constraints, the trainee will evaluate the potential weight reduction of a carbon fiber reinforced cargo frame structure. This internship can be performed in conjuction with ref. TR-CSP-2012-02 that also focuses on optimization in composite structure to form a combined 9 to 12 months internship.

Profile:

The candidate should possess a strong interest in computational mechanics and the finite element method. A general interest in computer programming is mandatory. The candidate should be curious, proactive and independent.

Duration: 4 to 6 months (1 student)

Contact:

Please send your CV and cover letter (quoting Ref. TR-CSP-2013-08) to the attention of D. Dumas, to: rh@cenaero.be

Reference: TR-CSP-2013-08

Last updated December 7, 2012