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THE HYDROLOGIC BUDGET A water budget comprised of the components of the hydrologic cycle can be formulated. It is an

accounting of the inflow, outflow and storage of water in a designated hydrologic system.

In Malaysia, domestic used for every people is 280 litre per day. 62% loss of water through evapotranspiration and 32% Infiltrate to ground water.

The development of an equation for the water budget is straightforward. For a designated time period,

it provides for balancing the gains and losses of water with the quantities of water stored in the region (a continuity equation).

The variables in the water budget equation are: precipitation P, Runoff R, Interception I, Evaporation E, Transpiration T, Evapotranspiration ET, Groundwater G, and letting ΔS stand for change in storage, a hydrologic budget can be derived. Inflows to the region are denoted as positive quantities and outflows as negative ones. Subscripts s and g indicate surface and underground components respectively.

For surface flow, the hydrologic budget can be written as:

P + R1 - R2 + Rg - Es - Ts - I = ΔSs

Where;

Inflows are, precipitation, surface-water inflow, and groundwater appearing as surface water (Rg)

Outflow are, surface-water outflow, evaporation, and infiltration

and all variables can be depth or volumes per unit of time.

For underground flow, the hydrologic budget can be written as:

I + G1 - G2 - Rg - Eg - Tg = ΔSs

Where;

- Infiltration and groundwater inflow are inflows

- groundwater outflow, groundwater appearing as surface water, evaporation, and transpiration are outflows.

The combined hydrologic budget for a region is derived by summing the two previous equations:

P - (R2 - R1) - (Es + Eg) - (Ts +

Tg) - (G2 - G1) = Δ(Ss + Sg)

If the subscripts are dropped and the quantities in parentheses are taken as net changes, the equation reduces to:

P - R - E - T - G =

ΔS

This is the fundamental equation of hydrology. It is the basis for all hydrologic modeling. Various applications of this important equation are referred to in later chapters. One of its uses is in calculating the combined evaporation and transpiration, or evapotranspiration (ET), for a region when estimates of other variables in the equation can be reasonably made. For example, in large river basins, (measured in

thousands of square miles or kilometers), groundwater system boundaries often follow surface-water divides. In cases where this assumption can be considered valid, the groundwater flux into and out of the region can be assumed equal to zero (G = 0). In addition, over a long period of time (usually five or more years), seasonal excesses and deficits in storage often tend to balance out in large watersheds, and in such cases the average condition for ΔS may sometimes be assumed to be equal to zero. Under these two assumptions, the hydrologic equation becomes

P - R - ET = 0

and by knowing P and R, a rough estimate of ET can be obtained.

To solve the hydrologic budget equation in terms of any one of its variables, reasonable estimates of the other variables must be made. But this is not always possible or easily done. When data are lacking on variables of concern, simplifying assumptions can sometimes be made, but there is no substitute for a credible data base.

Hydrologic Budget Exercise

A. Write a hydrologic budget equation for each of the scenarios below, and calculate the change in storage. Also write whether the hydrologic budget is at a loss, a gain, or at steady state.

 I. 1. Precipitation = 72 in/yr 2. Evapotranspiration = 59 in/yr 3. Surface water Runoff = 9.6 in/yr 4. Groundwater pumping = 3.4 in/yr II. 1. Evapotranspiration = 55 in/yr 2. Surface water Runoff = 9.6 in/yr 3. Groundwater pumping = 3.4 in/yr 4. Precipitation = 60 in/yr III. 1. Surface water Runoff = 9.6 in/yr 2. Groundwater pumping = 3.4 in/yr 3. Precipitation = 60 in/yr 4. Evapotranspiration = 55 in/yr 5. Groundwater inflow = 8 in/yr IV. 1. Groundwater pumping = 0 in/yr

2. Surface water Runoff = 9.6 in/yr

3. Evapotranspiration = 55 in/yr

4. Precipitation = 60 in/yr

V.

1.

Groundwater pumping = 5 in/yr

2. Surface water Runoff = 9.6 in/yr

3. Evapotranspiration = 55 in/yr

4. Precipitation = 60 in/yr

5. Groundwater inflow = 8 in/yr

 VI. 1. Groundwater pumping = 5 in/yr 2. Surface water Runoff = 23 in/yr 3. Evapotranspiration = 50 in/yr 4. Precipitation = 80 in/yr 5. Groundwater inflow = 8 in/yr VII. 1. Groundwater pumping = 10 in/yr 2. Surface water Runoff = 23 in/yr 3. Evapotranspiration = 50 in/yr 4. Precipitation = 80 in/yr 5. Groundwater inflow = 8 in/yr VIII. 1. Groundwater pumping = 10 in/yr

2. Surface water Runoff = 23 in/yr

3. Evapotranspiration = 50 in/yr

4. Precipitation = 80 in/yr

5. Groundwater inflow = 8 in/yr

B. Re-write the water balance equation for each of the scenarios above with the units in terms of a

volume per time (m 3 /yr).

To report the water balance components in terms of a volume estimate, multiply each of the parameters by the square area of interest.

Our area of interest, which is about 2,000 mi 2 .

2,000 mi 2 = 5.5 x 10 10 ft 2

As and example: Precipitation = 60in/yr ÷ 12 in/ft = 5 ft/yr x 5.5 x 10 10 ft 2 = 2.75 x 10 11 ft 3 /yr ÷ 35.31 ft 3 /m 3 = 7.8 x 10 9 m 3 /yr.

C. Complete a water budget for the area with each of the components in units of million gallons per

day (MGD).

Precipitation is 65 in/yr

ET is 55 in/yr

Runoff from the canals is 1.023 x 10 6 acre-feet/yr

Groundwater withdrawals is 331 MGD (million gallons per day)

Wastewater discharge back to aquifer in the form of septic systems is 1 MGD

Wastewater outfall to the ocean is 216.5 MGD

Wastewater injected into the Floridan Aquifer (deep well injection) is 97 MGD

The watershed size of the County is about 2,000 mi 2 .

a. What are the inputs? What is their sum?

b. What are the outputs? What is their sum?

c.What is the difference between the inputs and outputs?

d. Is the water budget in a steady state?

e. What parameters are missing from this water budget?