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ABSTRACT

In this experiment, the topic revolves in using two types of mirrors which are
the plane and spherical mirrors. Plane mirrors produce virtual, unmagnified images while
spherical mirrors the segment of a sphere. These types of mirrors can be used to prove the
properties of reflection. This experiment aims to determine the number of images to be
formed when plane mirrors are placed at certain angles, to determine and describe the formed
images of using plane and spherical mirrors, and to determine and compute the focal length
of spherical mirrors.

SAMPLE COMPUTATIONS:

Table II.
Trial 1
no . of images=

=10

no . of images=

360
1

%error=

3531
100=11.4
35

360
1=35
10

No. of images counted=31

ERROR ANALYSIS and SOURCE OF ERROR:


In this part of the experiment, the first trials experimental number of images is less
than the actual value of images formed at a certain angle which is computed by 360/ 1.
The source of error is a human error in which the number of images is inaccurately
counted due to the angle is too small to be able to see the images clearly.

Table III.
Convex Mirror
f =5.3 cm

%error=

1210.6
100=11.67
12

%error=

1212
100=0
12

Rexp=10.6 cm
Ractual =12 cm

Concave Mirror
f =6 cm
Rexp=12 cm
Ractual =12 cm

ERROR ANALYSIS and SOURCE OF ERROR:

In this part of the experiment, there is only a small error in which the radius of the
convex mirror was less than the accepted value.
The possible source of error is the way the members traced and measured the rays of
light that is reflected in the mirror.

Table IV.
4.a.

Trial 1
q=31 cm
p=17.5 cm

q=

pf
pf

Average focal length


(11.19+11.77+12.72+14.12)/4 = 15.98 cm
Actual = 18.25 cm
difference=

18,2515.98
100=13.54
18.25+15.98
2

f =11.19

4.b.

Trial 1
q=45 cm

p=29 cm
pf
q=
pf

Average focal length


(17.64+17.67+18.84+19.88)/4 = 18.51 cm
Actual = 18.25 cm
%difference=

18,2518.51
100=1.09
18.25+18.52
2

f =17.64 cm

4.c.

Trial 1
q=36.5 cm
p=36.5 cm

pf
q=
pf
f =18.25 cm

Average focal length


(18.25+20.50+21.00+22.00)/4 = 20.44 cm
Actual = 18.25 cm
%difference=

18,2520.44
100=11.31
18.25+20.44
2

CONCLUSION:

In this experiment, the group has done an application of Reflection which is a


property of a Light. The law of reflection states that the angle of reflection is equal to the
angle of incidence this means that when we have an angle of incidence equal to 30 the
angle of reflection is also 30 . The apparatus used were plane and spherical mirrors and
light sources. It was then found out that the number of images is inversely proportional to the
angle where two plane mirrors are placed. This means that the greater the angle the less
number of images will be seen. The result obtained was in accordance with the statement in
which as the angle 10 increases to 120 the number of images formed decreased from
35 to 2 formed images. It is also found out that the image formed by a plane mirror is always
virtual, upright, same size and distance as the object. And then the image produced by a
convex mirror is always virtual, reduced, and upright while the image produced by a concave
mirror can be real, enlarged, and inverted if object is between the center C and the focus F. It
can also be real, reduced, and inverted if object is beyond the center C. And it can be virtual,
enlarged, and upright if object is between the focus F and mirror. The group was also able to
compute the focal length of spherical mirror by getting the sum of the reciprocal of the object
distance and the image distance.