QUESTION BANK
PHYSICS
Price
: ` 85.00
Published by :
Secretary
Gujarat Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board,
Gandhinagar
Contribution
1
Coordination
1
Shri B. K. Patel
Shri D. A.Vankar
Shri G. M. Rupareliya
Expert Teachers
1.
Shri J. M. Patel
2.
Shri K. D. Patel
3.
4.
Shri S. G. Patel
5.
Shri J. P. Joshi
6.
7.
8.
9.
Shri C. D. Patel
Retired Teacher
Bhavnagar
Bhavnagar
Anand
Surat
II
P R E FA C E
Uptil now , the Students had to appear in various entrance examinations for
engineering and medical courses after std12. The burden of examinations on the side of the
students was increasing daybyday. For alleviating this difficulty faced by the students,
from the current year, the Ministry of Human Resource Development , Government of India,
has Introduced a system of examination covering whole country. For entrance to engineering
colleges, JEE(Main) and JEE(Advanced) examinations will be held by the CBSE. The
Government of Gujarat has except the new system and has decided to follow the examinations
to be held by the CBSE.
Necessary information pertaining to the proposed JEE (Main) and
JEE(Advanced) examination is available on CBSE website www.cbse.nic.in and it is requested
that the parents and students may visit this website and obtain latest information guidance
and prepare for the proposed examination accordingly. The detailed information about the
syllabus of the proposed examination, method of entrances in the examination /centers/
places/cities of the examinations etc. is available on the said website. You are requested to
go through the same carefully. The information booklet in Gujarati for JEE( Main) examination
booklet has been brought out by the Board for Students and the beneficieries and a copy of
this has been already sent to all the schools of the state. You are requested to take full
advantage of the same also However, it is very essential to visit the above CBSE website
from time to time for the latest information guidance . An humble effort has been made by
the Gujarat secondary and Higher Secondary Education Boards, Gandhinagar for JEE and
NEET examinations considering the demands of the students and parents , a question bank
has been prepared by the expert teachers of the science stream in the state. The MCQ type
Objective questions in this Question Bank will provide best guidance to the students and we
hope that it will be helpful for the JEE and NEET examinations.
It may please be noted that this Question Bank is only for the guidance of the
Students and it is not a necessary to believe that questions given in it will be asked in the
examinations. This Question Bank is only for the guidance and practice of the Students. We
hope that this Question Bank will be useful and guiding for the Students appearing in JEE and
NEET entrance examinations. We have taken all the care to make this Question Bank error
free, however, if any error or omission is found, you are requested to refer to the text
books.
M.I. Joshi
Secretary
III
INDEX
Unit Unit Name
No.
GSEB
NEET
JEE
Page
No.
PART  I
1
Kinematics
21
Laws of Motion
51
78
Rotationl Motion
107
Gravitation
147
195
Thermodynamics
258
288
10
321
IV
Unit1
Important Formula
SUMMARY
where
where
= parallax angle.
b = distance between two place of observation.
Measurement of the size of a planet or a star.
equation
d
D
where
Measurement of mass
The gravitational force on an object, of mass m, is called the weight of the object.
1 amu = 1.66 1027 kg = 1u
Estimation of Error
Absolute Error  Suppose the values obtained in several measurement of physical quantity
a are a1, a2, ............... an If their arithmetic mean is a
then a
a1 a2 + .... an 1
n
n
i 1
a1 = a  a1, a2 = a  a2 , an = a  an
a2, a2  an are called absolute error
a1 a2 ... an
n
Fractional Error a =
Percentage Error
1 n
ai
n i 1
a
a
a
100 %
a
Combination of errors
Addition Z = A + B Z A B
Substraction Z = A B Z A B
Division Z =
A
Z A B
B
Z
A
B
Multiplication Z = A B
Power Z = An
Z A B
Z
A
B
Z
A
n
Z
A
All the zeros between two non zero digits are significant no matter where the decimal
point is it at all.
If the number is less then 1 then zeros on the right of decimal point but to the left of
the first non  zero digit are not significant.
In a number without decimal point the zeros on the right side of the last non zero digit
are not significant.
1 A 10 10 m
1 AU 1.496 1011 m
1 light year 9.46 1015 m
1 par sec 3.08 1016 m
MCQ Questions
For the answer of the following questions choose the correct alternative from among the
given ones.
Physics  scope and Excitement
 Physics, Technology and society.
 Fundamental sources of nature.
 Nature of Physical laws
1.
Physics is one of the basic disciplines in the category of ............... sciences.
(A) Astro
(B) Natural
(C) Space
(D) Genetic
2.
Physics comes from a ............... word meaning nature
(A) Hindi
(B) German
(C) Greek
(D) Sanskrit
3.
Mechanics and newtons motion laws as ............... laws dependad.
(a) liner momentum
(b) Energy conservation
(c) Gravitational
(d) Charge conservation
4.
What is the approximate value of the Radious of a nucleus ?
(d) 10 15 m
5.
(a) 10 14 m
(b) 10 31 m
(c) 10 19 m
The scope for ratio of length is in order to ...............
(d) 1030
6.
(a) 1040
(b) 1040
The range of time scale is about ...............
(c) 1020
8.
9.
10.
Birth, evolution and death of stars etc. are studid in branch of physics known as ...............
(a) Thermodynamics (c) Astro physics
(b) Quantam physics (d) Electronics
............... is a branch of physics in wich heat engine and refrigeratior efficiency is studied.
(a) optics
(b) Thermodynamics
(c) Mechanics
(d) Quantom physics
What is full name of LHC
(a) Large hadron collider
(c) Large heavy cullent
(b) Large hadron cullent
(d) Light heavy cullent
The range of mass varies from ...............
(a) 1015 kg to 1026 kg
11.
(b) 1036 m
(c) 1028 m
(d) 10 14 m
13.
12.
(b) 1015 c
(c) 10 38 c
(c) vaccum
4
(d) 1019 c
(d) matter and radiation
14.
15.
In the development of nenotechnology and biotechnology ............... have played a vital role.
(a) ECG
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
26.
(b) four
(d) five
(c) Amperes
(d) Faradays
(b) Electromagnetic
(c) Nuclear
(d) Gravitational
(c) Gravitational
28.
(c) two
(b) Newtons
(d) Mechanis
The ................ force is the force of mutual attraction between any two objects by virtue of their
masses.
(a) nuclear
25.
(c) Themodynamic
(a) Weak
24.
(a) coulombs
23.
(d) AFM
(a) six
22.
(c) NMR
(a) Dynamics
21.
(b) ESR
(b) long
(c) medium
Quarks  Quarks force is produced between (a) Proton  neutron (b) proton  proton
29.
30.
31.
Which partical are emitted during the decay from the nucleus ?
(a) neutron and proton
32.
(c) 1013
(d) 10 2
(b) 1013
(c) 1036
(d) 1036
(b) Maxwell
(c) Coulomb
(d) Faraday
(b) Maxwell
(c) Coulomb
(d) Farady
(b) 1014 km
(c) 1018 km
(d) 1020 km
(b) nuclear
(c) neutron
(d) electron
The force acting between two point charges kept at a certain distance is F1 Now magnitude
of charge are double and distance between them is double. The force acting between them is
F2 find out the ratio of F2/F1 = ...............
(a) 16 : 1
42.
(b) 102
41.
(d) 10 2
40.
(c) 1013
The weak nuclear force, Gravitational force and electromagnatic force are A, B and C Respectively
then ...............
(a) C > A > B
39.
(b) 102
Who has unified terrestrial and celestial domains under a common law of Gravitational
(a) Newton
38.
(d) volume
37.
(c) pressure
How much times is the electromagnatic force stronger then Gravitational force
(a) 1013
36.
(b) mass
How much times is the strong nuclear force stronger then electro magnatic force ?
(a) 1013
35.
(d) mass
How much times is the strong nuclear force stronger then weak nuclear force ?
(a) 1013
34.
(c) volume
33.
(b) pressure
(b) 1: 16
(c) 1: 1
(d) 1: 8
If the resulting external force acting on system is zero then ............... of the system is constant
and if the resultant external torque acting on a system is zero then ............... of the system is
constart.
(a) total energy, angularmomentum
43.
44.
Space is homogeneous and isotropic so ............... law of servation is the result of this
(a) linear and angular momentum
45.
(c) energy
(d) charge
The basic reason behind existance of which conseration of law is still not known ?
(a) angular momentum (c) energy
(b) linear momentum (d) charge
46.
The Gravitational force between any two body charges with distance as F r n where n = ..........
(a) 1
47.
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 2
Column  II
(P)
(Q)
conservation of energy
(R)
(S)
Units of physical quantities, system of units, SI system of units, fundamental or Base units. precision
in measurement. Error in measurement and significant figures.
48.
(b) fermi
(c) A
50.
(b) 7
(c) 6
(d) 4
(b) velocity
(c) force
(d) time
(b) velocity
(c) force
(d) time
53.
(d) derived, Bv
52.
(c) derived, Bq
51.
(d) becquerel
Which unit of physical quantity remains same for all unit system ?
(a) meter
(b) second
(c) ampere
7
(d) kilogram
54.
Which of the following system of unit is not based on only units of mass length and time.
(a) SI
55.
(b) MKS
(b) kg.
(b) Cd
(c) 6.67 10 8
then value of G in
(d) 6.67 10 5
(b) 30 m / s 2
(c) 18 m / s 2
(d) 20 m / s 2
(b) 95 10 5
(c) 950 10 7
(d) 9.5 10 4
(b) 10 7 m
(c) 10 106 m
(d) 10 10 8 m
(c) 36 105 J
(d) 36 106 J
(c) x2
(d) x1
1 Mev = ............... ev
(b) 104
(c) 105
(d) 106
(b) 3.14
180
(c)
10 = ...............
(b) 6.67 10 7
(b) x2
(a) 107
67.
dyn cm
gm 2
Nm 2
kg 2
66.
(d) 1024
65.
(c) 1024
64.
(b) 10 8
63.
(d) 1015
62.
(c) 1016
11
If value of gravitational constant in MKS is 6.67 10
(a) 6.67 10 9
61.
(d) CD
1 fem to m eter
1 0 0 n en o m eter = ...............
CGS = ...............
60.
(c) cd.
(b) 103
(a) 10 6
59.
(d) A
58.
(c) k
57.
(d) FPS
Which of the following symbol of unit does not follow practical norms for the use of SI system ?
(a) Kg
56.
(c) CGS
1 rad = ...............
(a) 180
(d)
180
69.
1 g = ............... amu
(a) 6.02 1023
70.
72.
(c) joule/second
(c) m/sec
(b) N m 1 sec
(c) N m2 kg 2
(b) w m2 k 3
(c) density
(d) Distance
(d) Energy
(b) kg m 2s 2
(c) kg m 1
(d) kg ms 1
(b) viscosity
(c) force
(d) momentum
(b)
N
m
(c)
dyne
cm2
(d)
dyne
cm
83.
(b) volume
(a)
82.
(d) Jule/second
(c) Jule
(a) Work
80.
(d) w m 2 k 4
(a) kg newton
79.
(c) w m 2 k 4
(a) Work
78.
(d) N m kg 1
(a) Mass
77.
(d) N/kg
(a) w 2 m 2 k 1
75.
(a) ampere/volt
(a) kg m sec 1
74.
Which of the following unit does not represent the unit of power ?
(a) N.Kg
73.
1 parsec = ...............
(a) 10 15 m
71.
(b) 6.02 10 23
(b) viscocity
(c) energy
(c) energy
9
(d) vescocity
84.
85.
(a) 10 4 m
(b) 105 m
What is the least count of screw gauge ?
86.
87.
(c) 10 2 m
(d) 103 m
(a) 10 4 m
(b) 105 m
(c) 10 2 m
(d) 10 6 m
For measurement of astronomical distance ............... is used.
(a) vernier callipers
(b) spherometer
(c) screwgauge
(d) indirect method
Which mictoscope is used to measure the dimension of particle having dimension less than
4000 A0 ?
88.
89.
90.
(a) electron microscope (b) simple microscope (c) optical microscope (d) none of above
In electron microscope electron behave like ...............
(a) charge
(b) mass
(c) particles
(d) wave
Which wave length of light is used in an optical microscope ?
(a) radiowave
(b) X  ray
(c) infrared
(d) visible
2
The intercepted area of the spherical surface about the center is 0.25m having diameter 50
cm what will be solid angle ?
(a) 4 10 1 sr
91.
(b) 1 103 sr
(c) 101 sr
(d) 5 101 sr
One planet is observed from two diametrically opposite point A and B on the earth the angle
subtended at the planet by the two directions of observations is 1.8o. Given the diameter of
the earth to be about 1.276 107 m . What will be distance of the planet from the earth ?
(a) 40.06 108 m
92.
(d) 11 108 m
Find the distance at which 4 AU would subtend an angle of exactly 1" of arc.
[1AU 1.496 1011 m,1" 4.85 1016 rad]
95.
96.
If P
(b)
(c) 4
b
b
(d) b
A2 B
where percentage error in A , B and C are respectively 2 % 3% and 5 % then
C3
(b) 14 %
(c) 21 %
10
(d) 12 %
97.
98.
(b) 1.2 %
(c) 2 %
(d) 4 %
GM
what is the equation of the fractional error g / g
R2
R
R
(b) 2
R
R
(c) 2
R
R
(d)
1 R
2 R
T
in measurement of period T ?
T
1
(a)
(b) 2
(c)
(d) 4
2
100. The length of a rod is (10.15 0.06) cm what is the length of two such rods ?
4
3
3
101. For a sphere having volume is given by V r What is the equation of the relative error
V
in measurement of the volume V ?
V
(a) 3
r
r
(b) 4
r
r
(c)
4 r
3 r
(a) p
(d)
1 r
3 r
p2
. What is the equation of the
2m
k
in measurement of the K ? (mass in constant)
k
p
(b) 2 p
(d) 4 p
(c) 2p
2
(a) a + b
(b) 2b + a
(c) 2a + b
11
(d) a  b
1
4 4
106. A physical quantity x is given by x = A3 B4 due to which physical quantgity produced the
CD3
(b) C
(c) A
(d) D
(b) 10 %
(c) 12 %
(d) 14 %
(b) 5
(c) 2
(d) 4
(b) 0.010
(c) 0.001
(d) 0.100
(b) 7
(c) 3
(d) 4
111. The mass of substance is 75.5 gm and its volume is 25 cm2. Its density up to the correct
significant figure is ...............
(a) 3.02 gm / cm3
112. The area of a rectangle of size 1.25 2.245 cm in significant figure is ...............
(a) 2.80625 cm 2
(b) 2.81 cm 2
(b) 3
(c) 7
(d) 6
114. Addition of measurement 15.225 cm, 7.21 cm and 3.0 cm in significant figure is ...............
(a) 25.43 cm
(b) 25.4 cm
(c) 25.435 cm
(d) 25.4350 cm
115. Substract 0.2 J from 7.36 J and express the result with correct number of significant figures.
(a) 7.160 J
(b) 7.016 J
(c) 7.16 J
(d) 7.2 J
116. After rounding of the number 9595 to 3 significant digits the value becomes ...............
(a) 9600
(b) 9000
(c) 9590
(d) 9500
117. How many significant numbers are there in (2.30 4.70) 105 ?
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 2
(d) 5
118. The radius of circle is 1.26 cm. According to the concept of significant figures area of it can
be represented as (a) 4.9850 cm2
(b) 4.985 cm 2
(c) 4.98 cm 2
(b) 6.31 cm
(c) 6.631 cm
12
(d) 6 cm
120. If the length of rod A is (2.35 0.01) cm and that of B is (5.68 0.01) cm then the rod B is
longer than rod A by ...............
(a) (2.43 0.00) cm
121. In acceleration, The dimensions for mass ............... for length .. and for time
(a) 0,1,2
(b) 1,0,2
(c) 2,0,1
(d) 2,1,0
1 2
(b) M2LT
(c) M1L2T 2
(d) M0L2T 2
(d) M2 L2T 2
1 2 1
(b) M1LT
K
(c) M1L0T 3K 1
(d) M1L1T 3K 1
1 0 1
(b) M1LT
A
(c) M1L2T 3A 2
(d) M1L0T 3A 1
(c) M1L2T3A2
(d) M 1L2T3A 2
(b) Resistance
(c) conductance
(d) conductivity
(b) Resistance
(c) conductance
(d) conductivity
(a) M0L2T 2
(b) M2 L0T 2
(c) M1L2T 1
(d) M1L2T 3
(d) M2 L2T 1
(a) M1L2T 1
1 1
(b) M 1LT
(d) M1L2T 2
(c) M1L1T 1
1 1
(d) M1LT
(c) M1L1T 2
(d) M1L2T 2
(c) M 1L2T3A1
(d) M3L1T 1A 2
(a) M 1L2T 4A 2
(b) M1L2T4A2
13
(d) M2L2T1K 2
1 1 3
(a) M2LT
(b) M1L2T 3K 1
(c) M1L1T 3K 1
(d) M1L2T3K 1
K
138. Which physical quantity has dimensional formula as CR where C  capisitance and R  Resistance ?
(a) Frequency
(b) current
(d) acceleration
139. Write the dimensional formula of the ratio of linear momentum to angular momentum.
1 0
(a) M0 L1T0
(b) M1L1T0
(c) M0LT
(d) M0L1T1
140. If L and R are respesented as the inductance and resistance respectively then the dimensional
R
will be ...............
L
formula of
(a) M 2L1T 2 A1
(b) M0L0T 1A0
(c) M1L1T0 A1
141. Write the dimensional formula of r.m.s (root mean square) speed.
(a) M1L2T 2
(b) M0L2T 2
1 1
(c) M0LT
(d) M1L3T1A0
(d) M1L0T 1
then quantity is ..
(a) length
(b) velocity
(c) Area
(d) volume
(b) Energy
(d) M 1L2T1A2
(c) M 0 L0 T1A 1
(d) M 0 L0 T1A1
x
146. The equation of a wave is given by Y A sin k where is the angular velocity and
v
(a) M0L0T1
(b) M1L0T 1
(c) M0L1T1
(d) M1L1T1
147. If P and q are diffrent physical quantities then which one of following is only possible dimensionally ?
p
(a) p + q
(b) q
(c) p q
(d) p = q
148. From p 2 v b constant equation is dimensionally correct find the dimensional formula
v
1 3
(c) M 0 LT
(b) M1L3T 0
14
1 1
(d) M1LT
149. Pressure P = A cosBx + c sinDt where xin meter and t in time then find dimensional formula
of
D
B
1 1
1 1
(a) M1LT
(b) M0LT
(c) M1L1T0
(d) M 1L0T1
150. Find the dimensional formula for energy per unit surface area per unit time
(a) M1L0T 2
1 1
(b) M0LT
(c) M1L0T 3
(d) M1L1T1
151. Equation of force F at bt 2 where F is force in Newton t is time in second, then write unit
of b.
(a) Nm 1
152. Pressure P
(b) Nm 2
(d) Nm 2
a
at 2
where x = distance, t= time find the dimensional formula for
b
bx
(a) M1L0T 4
153.
(c) Nm
1 1
(b) M1LT
(c) M1L0T 2
(d) M1L0T 2
(b) M0L1T 2
(c) M1L0T 2
(d) M1L2T 1
154. Equation of physical quantity v at bt 2 where v = velocity t = time so write the dimensional
formula of a in this equation
1 1
(a) M0LT
1 1
(b) M1LT
1 2
(c) M0 LT
(d) M1L2T0
155. Density of substance in CGS system is 3.125 gm / cm3 what is its magnitude is SI system ?
(a) 0.3125
(b) 3.125
(c) 31.25
(d) 3125
AR
where L = length of wire A = Area of wire and
L
R is resistance of wire find dimension formula of
(a) M1L3T 3A 2
(b) M1L2T 3A 2
(c) M2L3T1A2
(d) M2L3T 3A 2
157. A cube has numerically equal volume and surface area calculate the volume of such a cube.
(a) 2000 Unit
(b) p = h2g
(c) p = hg
(d) p = h2g
159. If energy E G p h q cr where G is the universal gravitational constant. h is the planks constant
and c is the velocity of light, then the values of p, q and r are respectively
1 1 5
2 2 2
(a) , ,
(b)
1 1 5
, ,
2 2 2
(c)
5 1 1
, ,
2 2 2
(d)
1 1 5
, ,
2 2 2
160. If the centripetel force is of the form mavbrc find the values of a, b and c
(a) 1,2,1
(b) 1,2,1
(c) 1,3,2
15
(d) 1,3,1
161. equation of t 0 [1 (T2 T1 )] find out the dimensions of the coefficient of linear expansion
suffix.
(a) M0L0T1K1
1 1 1
(b) M0LT
K
1 0 1
(c) M1LT
K
(d) M0L0T0K 1
162. Test if the following equation are dimensionally correct (S = surface tension = density
P = pressure v = volume n = coefficient of viscocity r = redious)
2Scos
(a) h rg
(b) v
(c) v
pr4 t
8n
List  II
(1) Joule
(2) Walt
(3) volt
(4) Resistivity
(a) b,d,c,a
(b) c,a,b,d
(c) b,d,a,c
(d) b,c,a,d
Column  II
(1) capacitance
(a) M1L1T 3A 1
(2) Electricfield
(b) M1L2T 1
(c) M 1L2T 4A 2
(d) M1L2T 1
(a) a,c,b,d
(b) c,a,d,b
(c) c,a,b,d
(d) a,b,d,c
kB
165. In the relation P
e , P is pressure, z is distance, k is boltz mann constant and is
(b) M1L0T1
1 1
(c) M1LT
16
(d) M1L1T0
KEY NOTE
1(B)
2(C)
3(C)
4(A)
5(B)
6(B)
7(C)
26(B)
27(B)
28(A)
29(C)
30(B)
31(A)
32(B)
51(D)
52(A)
53(B)
54(A)
55(B)
56(A)
57(A)
76(D)
77(B)
78(D)
79(C)
80(A)
81(B)
82(D)
101(A)
102(B)
103(D)
104(B)
105(C)
106(C)
107(A)
126(D)
127(A)
128(D)
129(C)
130(B)
131(A)
132(B)
151(D)
152(A)
153(B)
154(C)
155(D)
156(A)
157(B)
8(B)
9(A)
10(C)
11(A)
12(D)
13(D)
33(A)
34(B)
35(C)
36(B)
37(A)
38(A)
58(B)
59(C)
60(D)
61(A)
62(C)
63(A)
83(B)
84(A)
85(B)
86(D)
87(A)
88(D)
108(A)
109(A)
110(C)
111(D)
112(B)
113(C)
133(C)
134(C)
135(D)
136(A)
137(B)
138(C)
158(C)
159(A)
160(B)
161(D)
162(D)
163(C)
14(B)
15(D)
16(D)
17(B)
18(C)
19(A)
20(B)
39(C)
40(D)
41(C)
42(B)
43(A)
44(C)
45(D)
64(C)
65(D)
66(A)
67(B)
68(C)
69(A)
70(D)
89(D)
90(A)
91(B)
92(C)
93(A)
94(B)
95(C)
114(B)
115(D)
116(C)
117(A)
118(C)
119(A)
120(B)
139(A)
140(B)
141(C)
142(C)
143(A)
144(C)
145(D)
164(B)
165(B)
21(B)
22(C)
23(D)
24(A)
25(B)
46(D)
47(B)
48(D)
49(A)
50(B)
71(A)
72(B)
73(C)
74(D)
75(A)
96(C)
97(D)
98(B)
99(A)
100(D)
121(A)
122(B)
123(C)
124(D)
125(C)
146(A)
147(B)
148(A)
149(B)
150(C)
17
HINT
91
33
34
Electronmagnetic force
102
=
= 1036 94
Gravational force
1038
density ( ) =
35
41
F1
kq1q 2
r12
F2
10 10 6
104
9
10
58
10 15
108
9
100 10
60
km
72 1000
m
72
20
2
(min )
3600
(sec) 2
64
Area =
= [
96
A2 B
C3
= 21 %
97
A
1
2 x 2
2
x
x
24
l
g
gm
= 4 %
100
= (20.30 0.12) cm
103
p F
1
= 2(10.15 0.06)
F p 1 q 1
heat energy H = I2 RT
H
I R T
100 [2
] 100
H
I
R
T
F N(Neuton)
P
surface tension
(meter)
A 0.025 m
T 2
T
1 l 1 g
100 [ ] 100
T
2 l 2 g
1 amu = 1.66 10 27 kg
= 10 %
105
2r 0.5m
Solid angle =
M
l
+ 3 ] 100
M
l
P
A B
C
% [2
3
]
P
A
B
C
90
= 1.66 10
80
mass( m)
volume( l 3 )
= 1.75 %
A = x 2m2
69
b
4.06 108 m
kq1' q '2
r22
49
1 m2
b 1.27 107 m
g 4 2
l
T2
g l
T
2
g
l
T
A
0.4 Sr
r2
= b + 2q
= 4 10 1 Sr
18
107
Resis tan ce R
V
I
148
R V I
R
V
I
PV Pb
R
5
0.3
R 100 10
V b M 0 L3T 0
149
Bx M 0 L0 T 0
mass
75.5
density =
volume
25
Re sistivity
force
electric ch arg e
Electricfield
130
latent heat(Q) =
heat energy
mass
141
Urms
142
If p = q = c = L
then (p  q)c = L2 = Area
144
If F = nA
n =
146
D M 0 L0 T 1
151
F at bt 2
153
F N
t 2 m2
2
F A (1 e Bxt )
155
dv
dx
F
= pascal second
dv
A
dx
D
M 0 L1T 1
B
F bt 2 at
Force time
(length) 2
133
M 0 L0T 0
M 0 L1T 0
X
Same as
129
131
R
% 8%
R
a ab
constant
v v2
PV Pb
R
8
R 100
111
P 2 (v b) cons tan t
v
M 0 L0T 0
M 0 L1T 2
xt 2
Density = 3.125
gm
cm3
3.125 10 3 kg
10 6 m 3
= 3125 kg / m3
157
x
y A sin ( k)
v
volume of cube V a 3
total surface area of cube A = 6a 2
V A
x
k
v
a 3 6a 2
x
k M 0 L0 T1
v
a 6
19
159
E G P hqcr
E M1L2 T 2
z
M 0 L0 T 0
kB
G M 1L3T 2
kB uand P =
c M 0 L1T 1 take it
kB
p
pz
M0L2T0
165
h M1L2T 1
(M 0 L1T 1 ) c
= M pq L3p2qr T 2pqr
1
1
5
P , q , r
2
2
2
160
F ma v b r c
1 2
F M1LT
v M 0 L1T 1
1 0
r M 0 LT
m M1L0 T 0 take it
(M1L1T 2 ) (M1 )a (L1T 1 ) b (L1 )c
= Ma LbcT b
a 1, b 2, c 1
20
Unit  2
Kinematics
21
SUMMARY
speed =
distance x
time t
Average speed =
Total distance
Total time
t 0
x
t
displacement r
Velocity v =
time
t
r r
Ins tan eous velocity lim
t 0 t
dt
d
Ins tan tan eous acceleration a lim
t t
dt
Equation for Uniformally accelerated motion
1 2
at
2
(1) = 0 + at
(3) d = o t +
Vo V
(2) s
t
2
a
Distan ce covered in n th Second Sn Vo (2n 1)
2
About Vectors
A . B = AB cosq
B = AB sinq n
2
A . A =A
i . i = j . j = k . i = 1
i i = j j = k k = 0
i . j = j . k = k . k = 0
i j = K j k = i k i = j
cosq
.
=A B
AB
A A =0
j
i
k
Ax Ay Az
A B =
Bx By Bz
22
A ^ B then A . B = 0
A ^ B then  A B  = AB
A  B then A B = 0
 B then A . B = AB
 A + B  = 2A
(1)
=0
(2)
=180 then  A + B  = 0
(3)
=90 then  A + B  = 2 A
(4)
=60 then
(5)
=120 then  A + B  = A
 A + B  = 3A
For projectile
 Time to reach the highest point tm
 Maximum height H =
 Range R =
o sin
g
20 sin 2
2g
20 sin2
g
 Maximum Range R
 Flight time T
20
g
2 o sin
g
gx 2
2
2o cos 2
 R 4H cot
23
MCQ
For the answer of the following questions choose the correct alternative from among the given ones.
(1) A branch of physics dealing with motion without considering its causes is known as ....
(A) Kinematicas
(B) dynamics
(C) Hydrodynemics
(D) mechanics
(2) Mechanics is a branch of physics. This branch is ...
(A) Kinematics without dynamics
(B) dynamics without Kinematics
(C) Kinematics and dynamics
(D) Kinematics or dynamics
(3) To locate the position of the particle we need ...
(A) a frame of referance
(B) direction of the particle
(C) size of the particle
(D) mass of the particle
(4) Frame of reference is a ... and a ... from where an obeserver takes his observation,
(A) place, size
(B) size, situation
(C) situation, size
(D) place, situation
(5)
B
2 1
A
1
(m)
As shown in the figure a particle moves from 0 to A, and then A to B. Find pathlength and
displacement.
(A) 2m, 2m
(B) 8m, 2m
(C) 2m, 2m
(D) 8m, 8m
(6)
A particle moves from A to B and then it moves from B to C as shown in figure. Calculate
the ratio between path lenghth and displacement.
1
(D)
2
A particle moves from A to P and then it moves from P to B as shown in the figure. Find
path length and dispalcement.
(A) 2
(7)
(B) 1
(A)
2l
, l
(C)
600
(B)
l
3
, l
(C) 2l, l
24
(D) l,
2l
3
(8)
A car goes from one end to the other end of a semicircular path of diameter d. Find the
ratio between path legth and displacement.
(A)
(9)
3
2
(B)
(C) 2
(D)
x
.....
y
(A) > 1
(B) < 1
(C) 1
(D) 1
(10) As shown in the figure a partricle statrs its motion from 0 to A. And then it moves from
A to B. AB is an arc find the Path length
(C) r 1 +
(D) r 1
3
3
3
(11) Here is a cube made from twelve wire each of length l. An ant goes from A to G through
path ABCG. Calculate the displacement.
(B) r
(A) 2r
l
3
(12) As shown in the figure particle P moves from A to B and particle Q moves from C to D.
Desplacements for P and Q are x and y respectivey then
(A) 3l
(B) 2l
(C)
(B) x < y
(C) x = y
3l
(D)
5
4
3
2
1
O
1
(A) x > y
25
(D) x y
(13) Shape of the graph of position time given in the figure for a body shows that
x
o
t
0
12
(A)
ms 1 , 3 ms 1
6
(B)
3
ms 1 ,
ms 1
3
2
ms 1 , 3 ms 1
(D) ms 1 , 6 ms 1
3
(16) A particle is thrown in upward direction with initial velocity of 60 m/s. Find average speed and
average velocity after 10 seconds. [g = 10 ms2]
(A) 26ms1, 16ms1
(B) 26ms1, 10ms1
1
1
(C) 20ms , 10ms
(D) 15ms1, 25ms1
(C)
26
the same distance with constant speed of V2. If average speed of the car is 16ms1, then V2 = ....
(A) 30 ms1
(B) 20 ms1
(C) 40 ms1
(D) 25 ms1
(19) A bus travells between two points A ans B. V1 and V2 are it average speed and average
velocity then
(A) v1 > v2
(B) v1 < v2
(C) v1 = v2
(D) depends on situation
(20) A car covers one third part of its straight path with speed V1 and the rest with speed V2. What
is its average speed ?
3 v1v 2
(A) 2 v v
1
2
2 v1 v 2
(B) 3v v
1
2
3 v1 v 2
3v1v 2
(D)
v1 2 v 2
2 v1 2 v 2
(21) Rohit completes a semicirular path of radius R in 10 seconds. Calculate average speed and average
velocity in ms1.
(C)
R R
R 2R
2R R
2R 2R
(B)
(C)
(D)
,
,
,
,
10 10
10 10
10 10
10 10
(22) A particle moves 4m in the south direction. Then it moves 3m in the west direction. The time
taken by the particle is 2 second. What is the ratio between average speed and average velocity
?
(A)
5
7
14
5
(B)
(C)
(D)
7
5
5
14
1
(23) A particle is projected vertically upwards with velocity 30ms . Find the ratio of average speed
and instantaneous velocity after 6s. [g = 10ms1]
(A)
1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
2
(24) The motion of a particle along a straight line is described by the function x = (3t 2)2. Calculate
the acceleration after 10s.
(A) 9ms2
(B) 18mls
(C) 36ms
(D) 6ms
(25) Given figure shows a graph at acceleration time for a rectilinear motion. Find average
acceleration in first 10 seconds.
(A)
m
a 2
S
10
o
5
10
15
(A) 10ms2
(B) 15ms2
(C) 7.5ms2
(D) 30ms2
(26) A body starts its motion with zero velocity and its acceleration is 3m/s2. Find the distance travelled
by it in fifth second.
(A) 15.5m
(B) 17.5m
(C) 13.5m
(D) 14.5m
27
(27) A body is moving in x direction with constant acceleration . Find the difference of the
displacement covered by it in nth second and (n1)th second.
3
(C) 3
(D)
2
2
What does the speedometer measure kept in motorbike ?
(A) Average Velocity
(B) Average speed
(C) intantaneous speed (D) intantaneous Velocity
The displacement of a particle in x direction is given by x = 9 5t + 4t2. Find the Velocity
at timt t = 0
(A) 8 ms1
(B) 5 ms1
(C) 3 ms1
(D) 10 ms1
A freely falling particle covers a building of 45m height in one second. Find the height of the
point from where the particle was released. [g = 10ms2]
(A) 120m
(B) 125m
(C) 25m
(D) 80m
2
The distance travelled by a particle is given by s = 3 + 2t + 5t The initial velocity of the particle
is ...
(A) 2 unit
(B) 3 unit
(C) 10 unit
(D) 5 unit
A particle is thrown in upward direction with Velocity V0. It passes through a point p of height
h at time t1 and t2 so t1 + t2 = ....
(B)
(A)
(28)
(29)
(30)
(31)
(32)
2 v0
2h
h
v0
(B)
(C)
(D)
g
g
2g
g
(33) A particle is thrown in upward direction with initial velocity V0. It crosses point P at height h
at time t1 and t2 so t1t2 = _______
(A)
V0 2
(B)
2g
2h
(A)
g
2V0 2
(C)
g
(D)
h
2g
(D)
h
2g
(34) Ball A is thrown in upward from the top of a tower of height h. At the same time ball B starts
to fall from that point. When A comes to the top of the tower, B reaches the ground. Find the
the time to reach maximum height for A.
(A)
h
g
(B)
2h
g
(C)
4h
g
(35) In the figure Velocity (V) position graph is given. Find the true equation.
V
Vo
X
xo
(A) v
v0
x v0
x0
(B) v
v0
x v0
x0
28
(C) v
v
v0
x v 0 (D) v = 0 x + v 0
x0
x0
(36) In the figure there is a graph of a x for a moving particle. Hence da = .... V
dt
a
o
ao
xo
x 0
a 0
x0
a
(B)
(C)
(D) 0
a0
x0
a0
x0
1
(37) A particle is moving in a straight line with intial velocity of 10 ms . A graph of acceleration time of the
particle is given in the figure. Find velocity at t = 10 s.
(A)
a
5
10
1
(A) 25 ms
(B) 35 ms1
(C) 45 ms1
(D) 15 ms1
(38) A graph of moving body with constant acceleration is given in the figure. What is the velocity after time t
?
D
V
B
A
o
(A) 0A +
C
E
t1
DC
0E
BC
(B) 0A +
DC
BC
DE (C) AB +
0E
BC
DC
(D) 0A + DC AD
BC
(39) V
The graph given in the figure shows that the body is moving with .....
(A) increasing acceleration
(B) decreasing acceleration
(C) constant velocity
(D) increasing velocity
29
60
130
t
1
1
(B)
(C) 3
(D) 3
3
3
(43) Here is a velocity  time graph of a motorbike moving in one direction. Calculate the distance
covered by it in last two seconds.
(A)
V
C
10m
5
o
t
2 3 4 5
(A) 5 m
(B) 20 m
(C) 50 m
(D) 25 m
(44)
In the above figure acceleration (a) time (t) graph is given. Hence V .....
(A) a
(45)
(B)
(C) a2
(D) a3
X
A
o
The graph of displacent (x) time (t) for an object is given in the figure. In which part of
the graph the acceleration of the particle is positive ?
(A) OA
(B) AB
(C) 0  A  B
(D) acceleration is not positive at any part.
30
(46) In a uniformly accelerated motion the slope of velocity  time graph gives ....
(A) The instantaneous velocity (B) The acceleration
(C) The initial velocity
(D) The final velocity
(47) The area covered by the curve of V t graph and time axis is equal to magnitude of ....
(A) change in velocity
(B) change in acceleration
(C) displacement
(D) final velocity
(48) An object moves in a straight line. It starts from the rest and its acceleration is 2ms2. After reaching a certain point it comes back to the original point. In this movement its acceleration is 3ms2. till it comes to rest.
The total time taken for the movement is 5 second. Calculate the maximum velocity.
(A) 6 ms1
(B) 5 ms1
(C) 10 ms1
(D) 4 ms1
(49) The relation between time and displacement of a moving particle is given by t 2x 2 where is a
constant. The shape of the graph x y is ...
(A) parabola
(B) hyperbola
(C) ellips
(D) circle
(50) Here are the graphs of x t of a moving body. Which of them is not suitable ?
x
(A)
(B)
o
(D) x
(C) x
(51) Here are the graphs of v t of a moving body. Which of them is not suitable ?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
V
A
o
B
C
D
(52) Which area shows the displacement covered by the particle after time t
(A) closed fig AODCA
(B) closed fig. ABCA
(C) closed fig. AODCBA
(D) none of above
(53) Which part shows initial velocity of the particle ?
(A) OA
(B) AB
(C) AC
(D) AOA
(54) How will you calculate the acceleration of the particle ?
(A) taking length of AB
(B) taking magnitude of BC
(C) taking slope of AC
(D) taking slope of AB
X
(55)
o
Given graph shows relation between position and time. Find correct graph of acceleration time
(A)
(B) a
a
t
2
(C)
t
4
(D)
t
8
(56)
X
60
130
t
Here are displacement time graphs of particle A and B. If VA and VB are velocities of the particles
respectively, then
(A)
1
3
VA
= .....
VB
(B) 3
(C)
32
1
3
(D) 3
(57) X
t
Given graph shows relation between position (x) time (t) Find the correct graph of velocity
time.
V
(A)
(B)
t
4
(C) V
t
4
(D) V
t
2
(58) Particles A and B are released from the same height at an interval of 2 s. After some time t
the distance between A and B is 100m. Calculate time t.
(A) 8 s
(B) 6 s
(C) 3 s
(D) 12 s
(59) As shown in the figure a particle is released from P. It reachet at
point Q at time t1
and reaches at point R at time t2 so
t1
= ....
t2
2
4
1
1
(B)
(C)
(D)
1
1
3
2
(60) A particle moves in stright line. Its position is given by x = 2 + 5t 3t2.
Find the ratio of intial velocity and initial acceleration.
(A)
6
5
5
6
(B)
(C)
(D)
5
6
6
5
(61) A particle is moving in a circle of radius R with constant speed. It coveres an angle in some
time interval. Find displacement in this interval of time.
(A)
(B) 2Rsin
(C) 2Rcos
(D) 2Rsin
2
2
(62) A particle is moving in a straight line with initial velocity of 200 ms1 acceleration of the particle
is given by a = 3t2 2t. Find velocity of the particle at 10 second.
(A) 1100ms1
(B) 300ms1
(C) 900ms1
(D) 100ms1
(A) 2R cos
33
(63) Angle of projection, maximum height and time to reach the maximum height of a particle are , H and tm
respectivley. Find the true relation.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
H
4H
tm
tm =
2g
2H
g
tm =
tm =
H
4g
(64) Particle A is projected vertically upward from a top of a tower. At the same time particle B is dropped
from the same point. The graph of distance (s) between the two particle varies with time is.
(B) S
(A) S
P
t
(C)
h
Q
(D) S
3h
(65) A car is moving with speed 30m. Due to application of brakes it travells 30m before stopping.
Find its acceleration.
m
m
m
m
(B) 15 2
(C) 30 2
(D) 10 2
2
s
s
s
s
2
A particle moves with a constant acceleration 2m/s . Its intial velocity is 10m/s. Find velocity after t second.
(A) (10 + t) ms1
(B) 5(2 + t)ms1
(C) 2 (5 + t)ms1
(D) (10 + t2) ms1
A particle moves in a straight lime with constant acceleration. At t = 10s velocity and displacement
of the particle are 16ms1 and 39m respectively. What will be the velocity after 10 s ...
(A) 22 ms1
(B) 18 ms1
(C) 20 ms1
(D) 28 ms1
A particle moves with constant acceleration 2m/s2 in x direction. The distance travelled in fifth
second is 19 m. Calculate the distance travelled after 5 second.
(A) 50 m
(B) 75 m
(C) 80 m
(D) 70 m
Two bodies of masses m1 and m2 are dropped from heights H and 2H respectively. The ratio of time taken
by the bodies to touch the ground is ...
(A) 15
(66)
(67)
(68)
(69)
1
1
(B) 2
(C)
(D) 2
2
2
1
(70) A freely falling stone crashes through a horizontal glass plate at time t and losses half of its velocity. Af(A)
t
it falls on the ground. The glass plate is 60 m high from the ground. Find the total distance travelled
2
by the stone. [g = 10ms2]
(A) 120 m
(B) 80 m
(C) 100 m
(D) 140 m
(71) A freely falling object travells distance H. Its velocity is V. Hence, in travelling further distance of 4H its
velocity will become ....
ter time
(A)
3V
(B)
(C) 2V
5V
34
(D) 3V
(72) A ball is thrown vertically upward direction. Neglacting the air resistance velocity of the ball in
air will
(A) zero
(B) decrease when it is going up
(C) decrease when it is coming down
(D) remain constant
(73) Two particles P and Q get 5 m closer each second while travelling in opposite direction. They
get 1 m closer each second while travelling in same direction. The speeds of P and Q are
respectively ...
(A) 5 ms1, 1 ms1
(B) 3 ms1, 4 ms1 (C) 3 ms1, 2 ms1 (D) 10 ms1, 5 ms1
1
(A) 1 unit
(B) 2 unit
(C)
1
x
2
(76) A particle moves in one direction with acceleration 2 ms2 and initial velocity 3 ms1.After what
time its displacement will be 10 m ?
(A) 1 s
(B) 2 s
(C) 3 s
(D) 4 s
(77) A goods train is moving with constant acceleration. when engine passes through a signal its speed
is U. Midpoint of the train passes the signal with speed V. What will be the speed of the last
wagon ?
(A) 2x
(A)
(78)
(79)
(80)
(81)
(B) 4x
(C) 3x
V2 U2
2
(B)
(D)
V2 U2
2
2V 2 U 2
(C)
(D) 2V 2 U 2
2
Displacement of a particle in y direction is given by y = t2 5t + 5 where t is in second.
Calculate the time when its velocity is zero.
(A) 5 s
(B) 2.5 s
(C) 10 s
(D) 3 s
The area under acceleration versus time graph for any time interval represents...
(A) Intial velocity
(B) final velocity
(C) change invelocity in the time interval
(D) Distance covered by the particle
A ball is thrown vertically upward. What is the velocity and acceleration of the ball at the maximum
height ?
(A) gt ms1, 0
(B) 0, 9 ms2
(C) g ms1, 0
(D) 0, gt ms2
The relation between velocity and position of a particle is V = Ax + B where A and B are constants.
Acceleration of the particle is 10 ms2 when its velocity is V, How much is the acceleration when
its velocity is 2V.
(A) 20 ms2
(B) 10 ms1
(C) 5 ms2
(D) 0
35
(82) A particle moves on a plane along the path y = Ax3 + B in such a way that
dx
c . c, A,
dt
j ms 2
(83) The relation between velocity and position of a particle is given by V x . Its initial velocity
is zero. Find its velocity at time t
(84)
(85)
(86)
(87)
1
B
1 1
(D) e2 ms1
ms
e
An object moves in x  y plane. Equations for displacement in x and y direction are x = 3sin2t
and y = 3cos2t Speed of the particle is
(A) zero
(B) constant and nonzero
(C) increasing with time t
(D) decreasing with time t
Motion of a particle is decribed by x = (t 2)2 Find its velocity when it passes through origin.
(A) 0
(B) 2 ms1
(C) 4 ms1
(D) 8 ms1
To introduce a vector quantity ....
(A) it needs magnitude not direction
(B) it needs direction not magnitude
(C) it need both magnitude and direction (D) nothing is needed
Which pair of two vectors is antiparallel.
(A) e ms1
(B) 0 ms1
(C)
(A) A
(B)
(C)
A
B
(D)
A
B
A
B
(88) In the above figure P and Q are two vectors. What from followings is true
P
Q
(90) P and Q are equal vectors what from the followings is true.
36
(91) P = Q is true, if ...
(A) their magnitudes are equal
(B) they are in same direction
(C) their magnitudes are equal and they are in same direction
(D) their magnitudes are not equal and they are not in same direction
(A) sin 1
5
3
1
3
1
(B) sin
(C) sin 1
10
3
(D) cos 1
5
3
(94) A and B are nonzero vectors. Which from the followings is true ?
2 2
2 2
(A) A + B A B = 2 A 2 + B2
(B) A B A B 2 A 2 B2
2 2
2 2
(C) A B A B A 2 B2
(D) A B A B A 2 B2
2
(B)
(C)
(D) 0
3
6
3
(96) The resultant of two vectors is maximum when they.
(A) are at right angles to each other
(B) act in oppsite direction
(C) act in same direction
(D) are act 1200 to each other
(A)
(A) 4N
(B) 1N
(C) 2.5N
(D)
1
N
2
(100) Magnitudes of A, B and C are 41, 40 and 9 respectively, A B C Find the angle between A and B
(A) sin 1
9
40
(B) sin 1
9
41
(C) tan 1
9
41
(D) tan 1
41
40
(101) If A 3i 4j 9k is multiplied by 3, then the component of the new vector along z direction is ...
(A) 3
(B) + 3
(C) 27
(D) + 27
37
5
2
(B)
(C)
(D)
6
6
3
3
(103) Out of the following pairs of forces, the resultant of which can not be 18N
(A) 11 N, 7 N
(B) 11 N, 8 N
(C) 11 N, 29 N (D) 11 N, 5 N
(A)
(A)
(B) 42
(C) 39
(D) 2
(105) What is the angle between Q and the resultant of P Q and Q P
(A) 900
(B) 600
(C) 0
(D) 450
(A) 2i 7j k
(B) 2i 8j k
(C) 2i + 8j + k
(D) i + 7j + k
(A) 14
(B) 12
(C) 15
(D)
(A) A only
(B) B only
(C) either A 0, B 0 or 0
11
(D) either A = 0, B = 0 or =
2
(110) y component of A B is ....
(A) AB
(B)
A
B
(C)
1
AB
2
(D) 0
(A) 0
(B)
(C)
(D)
(B) A B = B A
(D) A B AB
AB
(B) sin
AB
AB
(D) cot
AB
(B) A2 + B2
(A) 0
(C)
A 2 B2
(D) A2B2
(120) A Pi 2Pj k and B 3i + 2j 14k are perependcular to each other. Then p = ...
(A) 3
(121)
(B) 4
(C) 2
(D) 1
(122) A l + j 2 k and B 2i j k Find the unit vectior in direction of A B
(A)
1
i 5j 2k
23
(B)
1
i + 5j 3k
35
(C)
1
i 5j 3k
29
(D)
1
i 5j 3k
35
39
(B)
i + j
2
(C)
i + j
3
(D)
i j
2
(124) Unit vector of A B is k . Unit vector of A is i Then what is the unit vector of B
(A) j
(B) j
(C) any unit vector in xy plane
(D) any unit vector in xz plane
(125) Find a unit vector in direction of i + 2j 3k
(A)
1
i + 2j 3k
7
(C)
1
i + 2j 3k
14
(B)
1
i + 2j 3k
2
1
i + 2 j 3k
5
B
(B)
(C)
(D) A B
ABcos
ABsin
ABsin
(D)
(A) j
A = U
B Now find the true option.
(128) A and B are two vectors U
(C) A and B are in same direction
(D) A B
A
A
(A) A
(B)
(C) A A
(D)
A
A
(130)
2 2
i + j + pk is a unit vector so p = .....
3
3
2
1
(B)
3
3
(131) Find a unit vector from the followings.
(A)
(C) 1
(D)
1
9
1 1
1 1
i j
(D)
i+
j
2
2
2
2
(132) Train A is 56 m long and train B 54 m long. They are travelling in opposite direction with velocity
(A) i + j
(B) i j
(C)
m
m
and 5
respectively. The time of crossing is.
s
s
(A) 12 s
(B) 6 s
(C) 3 s
15
40
(D) 18 s
(133) Graphs of velocity time for two cars A and B moving in a straight line are given in the fig.
The area covered by PQRS gives.
S
A
R
t1
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(134) V
t2
Graphs velocity
At time t = 0 they
(A) They will meet
(C) They will meet
time is given for cars A and B moving in a straight line in same direction.
are moving in the direction from A to B, then.
once
(B) They will never meet
twice
(D) none of above is true
(135) Velocity of particle A with respect to particle B is 4 m while they are moving in same direction.
s
m
while they are in opposite direction. What are the velocities of the particles with
s
respect to the stationary frame of reference.
(A) 7 ms1, 3 ms1
(B) 4 ms1, 5 ms1
(C) 7 ms1, 4 ms1
(D) 10 ms1, 4 ms1
(136) Stone A is thrown in horizontal direction with velocity of 10 ms1 at the same time stone B freely
falls vertically in downword direction. Calculate the velocity of B with respect to A after 10 second.
And it is 10
(A) 10 ms1
(B)
(C) 10 101ms1
101 ms 1
(D) 0
(137) A car moves horizontally with a speed of 3 ms1. A glass wind screen is kept on the front side
of the car. Rain drops strike the screen vertically. With the Velocity of 5 ms1 Calculate the velocity
of rain drops with respect to a ground.
(A) 6 ms1
(B) 4 ms1
(C) 3 ms1
(D) 1 ms1
41
(138) A man crosses a river through shortest distance D as given in the figure. VR is velocity of
water and V m is velocity of man in still river water. If VmR is relative velocity of man w.r.t.
river, then find the angle made by swimming man with the shortest distance AB
B
(A) tan 1
(C) tan 1
VR
Vm VR
VR
Vm2 VR2
(B) tan 1
Vm
VR2 Vm2
(D) tan 1
VR
VR2 Vm2
(139) A particle has initial velocity 2i + 3j ms 1 and has acceleration i + j ms 2 . Find the velocity
(B) 4i + 5j ms 1
(C)
3i + 2j ms
(D) 5i + 4j ms
144ms 1
(B)
(C)
148ms 1
150ms 1
(D)
260ms 1
(141) A particle moves in x  y plane. The position vector of the particle is given by r 3ti 2t 2 j m Find
the rate of change of at t = 1 second. Where is the anghe betheen direction of motion and x
(A)
16
25
(B)
12
25
(C)
12
25
(D)
16
9
(142) x and y coordinates of a particle moving in xy plane at some instant are x 2t 2 and y
Calculate y coordinate when its x coordinate is 8m.
(A) 3 m
(B) 6 m
(C) 8 m
(D) 9 m
(143) A particle in xy plane is governed by x = A cos t, y = A (1 sin t). A and
What is the speed of the particle.
(A) A t
(C) A cos t
(B) A 2t
42
2
(D) A sin
3 2
t
2
are constants.
t
2
(C)
A
A
A
2A
(B)
(C)
(D)
B
4B
2B
B
(147) Angle of projection of a projectile with horizonal line is at time t = 0, After what time the
angle will be again ?
(A)
(A)
V cos
g
(B)
Vsin
g
(C)
V0 sin
2g
(D)
2V0sin
g
(148) A particle is projected with initial speed of V0 and angle of . Find the horizontal displacement
when its velocity is perpendicular to initial velocity.
V02
(A)
gtan
(B)
V02
gsin
(C)
V0 sin
g
(D)
V02
tan
(149) Intial anlge of a projectile is and its initial velocity is V0. Find the angle of velocity with horizontal
line at time t.
g
(A) sin 1 1
t
V0 cos
g
(B) tan 1 1
t
V0 cos
g
(C) tan 1 tan
t
V0cos
g
(D) sin 1 tan
t
V0cos
(150) A stone is projected with an angle and velocity V0 from point P. It strikes the ground at point
Q. If the both P and Q are on same horizontal line, then find average velocity.
(C) V0 cos
(D) V0sin
2
2
1
(151) An object is projected with initial velocity of 100 ms and angle of 60. Find the verticle velocity
when its horizontal displacement is 500 m. (g = 10 ms1)
(A) 93.35 ms1
(B) 93.35 ms1 (C) 8.65 ms1
(D) 98 ms1
(152) Angle of projection of a projectile is changed, keeping initial velocity constant. Find the rate of
change of maximum height. Range of the projectile is R.
(A) V0cos
(B) V0sin
R
R
R
(B)
(C)
(D) R
4
3
2
(153) A cartasian equation of a projectile is given by y = 2x 5x2. Calculate its initial velocity.
(A)
(A)
10ms 1
(B)
(C)
5ms 1
43
2ms 1
(D) 4 ms1
(C) a f 3
(B) a f 2
(D) a
1
f
(A) If both Assertion  Reason are true, reason is correct explanation of Asserton.
(B) If both Assertion  Reason are true but reason is not correct explanation of Asserton. (C)
If
Asserton is true but Reason is false.
(D) If Reason is true but Asserton is false.
(157) Asserton :
At the highest point of projectile motion the velocity is not zero.
Reason : Only the verticle component of velocity is zero. Where as horizontal component still exists.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Match coloum type question.
(158) A balloon rise up with constant net acceleration of 10 ms2. After 2 second a particle drops from the
balloon. After further 2 s match the following (take g = 10 ms2)
Table  1
Table 2
(A) Hight of the particle from ground
(P) zero
(B) Speed of particle
(Q) 10 SI unit
(C) Displacement of particle
(R) 40 SI unit
(D) Accelereation of the particle
(S) 20 SI unit
(A) A  P, B  Q, C  R, D  S
(B) A  Q, B  R, C  S, D  P
(C) A  R, B  P, C  S, D  Q
(D) A  R, B  S, C  P, D  Q
Comprehensions type questions.
A particle is moving in a circle of radius R with constant speed. The time period of the particle is T Now
T
.
6
(159) Average speed of the particle is
after time t =
R
2R
(B)
6T
3T
(160) Average velocity of the particle is
(A)
(C)
2R
T
(D)
R
T
3R
6R
2R
4R
(B)
(C)
(D)
T
T
T
T
(161) Range of a projectile is R and maximum height is H. Find the area covered by the path of the projectile
and horizontal line.
(A)
(A)
2
RH
3
(B)
5
RH
3
(C)
44
3
RH
5
(D)
6
RH
5
KEY NOTE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
A
C
A
D
B
A
A
D
C
C
C
A
C
D
B
B
B
C
D
A
C
B
A
B
C
C
A
C
B
B
A
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
B
A
C
D
C
C
A
B
B
A
B
C
C
D
B
C
A
B
C
D
C
A
D
D
A
A
B
B
B
B
A
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
B
A
B
B
C
B
C
D
B
B
C
C
B
B
D
B
C
B
A
B
C
B
A
C
D
B
A
B
C
B
A
45
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
A
C
C
C
D
A
B
C
B
D
B
C
C
A
D
D
B
A
B
C
B
B
C
A
C
B
C
B
D
B
C
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
C
B
B
C
B
B
C
B
C
A
A
C
B
C
B
D
C
B
C
D
B
A
D
A
C
A
B
C
B
D
A
B
A
C
C
B
A
HINT
(9)
2V1V2
V1 + V2
(23) h =
V0 2
2V0 2
speed =
2g
2g 6
(24) V =
dx
dv
and a =
dt
dt
change in velocity
time
change in velocity is the area covered by the graph.
(25) Find
1
1
g (t + 1) 2 gt 2 = 45
2
2
(30) h 2 h1 =
(31) V =
ds
= 2 + 10t
dt
(32,33) h = V0 t
1 2
gt
2
1 2
gt V0 t + h = 0
2
t2 +
2V0 2h
+
=0
g
g
V0
x0
da
= constant
dt
da dv
=k
dv dt
da k
=
dv a
ada = kdv
a2
= kv
2
46
d2x
(45) a = 2
dt
(48) If maximum velocity is V.
V = a1t1 and V = a2t2
T = t1 + t 2 =
V=
(59) h =
v
v
+
a1 a 2
a1a 2 T
a1 + a 2
1 2
1
gt1 and (h + 3h) = gt 2 2
2
2
(61)
Q
R
S
s =
R 2 R 2 2R 2 cos
2R 2 2R 2 Cos
2R 2 (1Cos)
= 2Rsin
V0 2
2g
(66) V = V0 + at
d = V0 t +
1 2
at
2
1 2
gt H t 2
2
(70) At time t velocity V = gt
(69) H =
(70) y = V0 t +
1 2
gt
2
t 1 t
y = gt g
2 2 2
(73) V1 + V2 = 5
V1 V2 = 1 So 2V1 = 6
V1 = 3m/s
1
(74) V = (A + y) 2
47
a =
dv dv dy
dt dy dt
v2
2a
(81) V = Ax + B
a = Av
aV
(75) s =
dx
dx 2
= c and 2 = 0
(82)
dt
dt
3
y = Ax + B
dy
dx
= 3Ax 2
dt
dt
and
d2y
dx dx
= 6Ax
2
dt
dt dt
d2 y
2 = 6Axc 2
dt
d2 x ^ d2 y ^
Now a = 2 i + 2 j
at
dt
(95) C A B
C2 = A 2 + B2 + 2AB cos
(116) A B = ABcos
A B = ABsin
^
(127) A + B + C = j
4 4
+ + p2 = 1
9 9
(131) Velocity of A wrt ground
^
VAG = 10 l
(130)
VBG = gt j
VBA = VBG VGA
48
VB
(138)
V MB
V M
V MW + V WB = V MB
tan =
VWB
VMB
(141) r = 3ti 2t 2 j
dr
V = = 3i 4t j
dt
4
t
3
(142) x = 2t2 = 8
t = 2s
tan =
3 2 3 2
t = (2) = 6m
2
2
(143) x = Acoswt
y = A (i sinwt)
y=
V =
dx
= Asinwt Vy = A coswt
dv
V = Vx 2 + Vy 2
(145)
A
t1
t2
t1
t1
=
=
+
+
t (0A) = t (BC)
t (0B)
t2 = t (0A) + t (0B)
t2 = t (BC) + t (0B)
49
(146) y = Ax Bx2
dy
= A 2Bx
dx
At maximum height A 2Bx = 0
x =
A
2B
(147)
Q
V = V0 cosi + V0sm gt j
V0 V = 0
V0
Now find x
gsin
t =
tan =
Vy V0 sin gt
=
Vx
V0 cos
2
(150) Range R = V0 sin2
g
Flight time t f =
2V0sin
g
Average velocity =
R
tf
ar =
v 2 2r 1
2
2
=
= 4 rf
r T r
R
(161) A = ydx
0
gx 2
take y = xtan
2V0 xcos
50
Unit  3
Laws of Motion
51
SUMMARY
Important Points
The law of inertia given by Galileo was represented by Newton as the first law of motion :" If no external
force acts on a body, the body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion continues to move with the
same velocity."
This law gives us definition of force.
The momentum of a body p m v is a vector quantity.It gives more information than the velocity.It's
dP
ma is the vector relationship
F=
dt
The SI unit of force is newton (=N) . 1 N = 1 kg ms2 . This law gives the value of force.It is consistent
with the first law.( F =0 indicates that a =0). In this equation the acceleration of the body a is that
which it has when the force is acting on it.(Not of the Past!) . F is only the resultant external force.
The impulse of force is the product of force and the time for which it acts. when a large force acts for
a very small time, it is difficult to measure F and t but the change in momentum can be measured,
Forces always act in pairs, and, FAB= FBA. The action and the reaction act simultaneously.They act on
different bodies,hence they cannot be cancelled by adding. But the resultant of the forces between
different parts of the same body becomes zero.
The law of conservation of momentum is obtained from Newton's second law and the third law.It is
written as"The total momentum of an isolated system remains constant."
The concurrent forces are those forces of which the lines of action pass through the same point. For
equilibrium of the body, under the effect of such forces, F must be = 0 Moreover, the sum of the
corresponding components also should be zero. ( Fx = 0, Fy=o, Fz = 0)
Friction is produced due to the contact force between the surfaces in contact.It opposes the impending or
the real relative motion.
Static frictional force fs fs (max)
52
The reference frame , in which Newton's first law of motion is obeyed is called the inertial frame of
reference and the one in which it is not obeyed is called noninertial frame of reference. The frame of
reference with constant velocity is an inertial frame of reference and one which has acceleration is noninertial frame of reference.
On a body performing uniform circular motion a force equal to mv2 / r acts towards the centre of the
circular path. This is called the centripetal force.
The maximum safe speed on level curved road is vmax = s rg
The maximum safe speed on a banked curved road is vmax =
tan
rg s
1
tan
s
a g sin s cos
(2)
Body moves up : If body is moving upwards with acceleration a then a g sin s cos .
Pseudo Force : In noninertial frame of reference due to acceleration one more additional force acting on
a body in the opposite direction of acceleration of frame of reference is called pseudo force (FP) .
when a man of weight m climbs on the rope with acceleration a then tension in the rope is T = m(g + a).
When man sliding down with acceleration a then tension in the rope is T = m(g a).
53
acceleration a m m m
1
2
3
Force on m1 : F1 = F
Force on m2 : F2 = (m2 + m3) a
Force on m3 :
*
F3 m3a
m2 m3 F
m3
m2
F
m1 m2 m3
m1
m3 F
m1 m2 m3
in the string.
m2
54
TT
m1
MCQ
For the answer of the following questions choose the correct alternative from among the given ones.
1.
The velocity of a body of mass 20 kg decreases from 20 ms1 to 5 ms1 in a distance of 100 m. Force
on the body is
(A) 27.5 N
2.
(B) 47.5 N
(B) 20 N
(C) 22 N
(D) 4 N
4.
(D) 67.5 N
A ball of mass 0.2 kg is thrown vertically upwards by applying a force by hand. If the hand moves
0.2 m while applying the force and the ball goes upto 2 m height further, find the magnitude of the
force. (Consider g = 10 ms2)
(A) 16 N
3.
(C) 37.5 N
(C) F
d mv
(B) F m
dt
dv
dt
(D) F = m
d2x
dt 2
A particle moves in the XY plane under the influence of a force such that its linear momentum is
P (t) A[ i cos (kt) j sin(kt)] where A and k are constants. The angle between the force and
momentum is
(A) 00
5.
(C) 450
(D) 900
Force of 5 N acts on a body of weight 9.8 N. what is the acceleration produced in ms2
(A)49.00
6.
(B) 300
(B) 5.00
(C) 1.46
(D) 0.51
A lift is going up. The total mass of the lift and the passenger is 1000 kg The variation in the speed of
the lift is as given in the graph. The tension in the rope pulling the lift at t= 10.5 sec will be
(B) Zero
(A) 8000 N
3.6
(C) 12000 N
(D) 17400 N
7.
10
12
Same force acts on two bodies of different masses 2 kg and 4 kg initially at rest. The ratio of times
required to acquire same final velocity is
(A) 2:1
8.
t (sec)
2
(B) 1:2
(C) 1:1
(D) 4:16
Which of the following quantities measured from different inertial reference frames are same
(A) Force
(B) Velocity
(C) Displacement
55
9.
10,000 small balls, each weighing 1 g strike one square cm of area per second with a velocity
100 ms1 in a normal direction and rebound with the same velocity. The value of pressure on the surface
will be
(A) 2 103 Nm 2
(B) 2 105 Nm 2
(D) 2 107 Nm 2
13. A body of mass 5 kg starts from the origin with an initial velocity u=30 i +40 j ms1 . If a constant
Force F= i +5 j N acts on the body, the time in which the ycomponent of the velocity becomes
zero is
(A) 5 s
(B) 20 s
(C) 40 s
(D) 80 s
56
(A) 2.5 km h 1
(B) 20 km h 1
(C) 40 km h 1
(D) 50 km h 1
17. The Figure shows the Positiontime (xt) graph of one dimensional motion of a body of mass 0.4 kg .
(A) 0.2 Ns
(C) 0.8 Ns
(B) 0.4 Ns
(D) 1.6 Ns
0
10
12
14
16
t (s)
Equllibrium of Forces
18. Three Forces F1, F2 and F3 together keep a body in equilibrium. If F1 = 3 N along the positive X axis,
F2 = 4N along the positive Yaxis ,then the third force F3 is
4 3 with negative yaxis
3 4 with negative yaxis
4 3 with negative yaxis
19. A solid sphere of mass 2 kg is resting inside a cube as shown in the figure. The cube is moving with
^
^
1
a velocity v = 5t i+ 2t j ms Here t is the time in second. All surfaces are smooth. The sphere
is at rest with respect to the cube. what is the total force exerted by the sphere on the cube
(g = 10 ms2)
y
A
B
(A) 29 N
(B) 29 N
(C) 26 N
(D) 89 N
57
20. A particle of mass 2 kg is initially at rest. A force acts on it whose magnitude changes with time. The
F (N)
(C) 2 N
(D) 8 N
^
^
^ ^
22. A 7 kg object is subjected to two forces (in newton) F1 = 20i+30 j and F2 = 8i5 j The magnitude of
1
2 n2
(B) 1 1 n 2
(C) 1 1 n 2
(D)
1
1  n2
25. Two bodies of equal masses revolve in circular orbits of radii R1 and R2 with the same period Their
(B)
M
R1
R
(C) 1 R
R2
(D) R 1R2
frictionless pulley as shown in fig. When the bigger mass is released, the small one will ascend with an
acceleration
3g
2
(A) g 3
(B)
(C) g
(D) g 2
2
M
58
27. A 0.5 kg ball moving with a speed of 12 ms1 strikes a hard wall at an angle of 300 with the wall.
It is reflected with the same speed and at the same angle. If the ball is in contact with the wall for
0.025 S the average force acting on the wall is
(A) 96 N
(B) 48 N
(C) 24 N
(D) 12 N
28 A shell of mass 200g is ejected from a gun of mass 4 kg by an explosion that generates 1.05 KJ of
energy. The initial velocity of the shell is
(A) 100 ms1
(B) 80 ms1
(C) 40 ms1
(D) 120 ms1
29. A gramophone record is revolving with an anguler velocity A coin is placed at a distance r from the
centre of the record. The coefficient of static friction is . The coin will revolve with the record if
2
(B) r g
(A) r = g2
(C) r
g
2
(D) r
g
2
30. A stone of mass 2 k g is tied to a string of length 0.5 m It the breaking tension of the string is 900N,
then the maximum angular velocity the stone can have in uniform circular motion is
(A) 30 rad/s
(B) 20 rad/s
(C) 10 rad/s
(D) 25 rad/s
31. A body of mass 6 kg is hanging from another body of mass 10 kg as shown in fig. This conbination is
being pulled up by a string with an acceleration of 2 ms2. the tension T1 is (g = 10 ms2 )
(A) 240 N
(B) 150 N
(C) 220 N
(D) 192 N
T1
10 kg
T2
6 kg
32. A sparrow flying in air sits on a stretched telegraph wire. If the weight of the sparrow is W ,which of the
Displacement
D
A
X
Time
59
34. A Force (F) varies with time (t) as shown in fig. Average force over a complete cycle isF
F0
(A) Zero
(B)
(C) F0
(D) 2F0
F0
2
0
35. A body of mass 0.05 kg is falling with acceleration 9.4 ms2 . The force exerted by air opposite to
motion is
N (g=9.8 ms2)
(A) 0.02
(B) 0.20
(C) 0.030
(D) Zero
36. The average force necessary to stop a hammer with 25 NS momentun in 0.04 sec is ___________N
(A) 625
(B) 125
(C) 50
(D) 25
37. Newton's third law of motion leads to the law of consrevation of
(A) Angular momentum
(B) Energy
(C) mass
(D) momentum
38. A ball falls on surface from 10 m height and rebounds to 2.5 m. If duration of contact with floor is
0.01 sec. then average aceleration during contact is _______________ms 2
(A) 2100
(B) 1400
(C) 700
(D) 400
39. A vehicle of 100 kg is moving with a velocity of 5 m s . To stop it in 110 sec, the required force
42. A body of 2 kg has an initial speed 5 m/s. A force act on it for some time in the directine of motion.
The force ( F ) time (t) graph is shown in figure. The final speed of the body is _________
F (N)
(B) 5 ms1
(D) 4.25 ms1
4
2.5
60
4.5
6.5
t (s)
46. A plate of mass M is placed on a horizontal frictionless surface and a body of mass m is placed on this
plate, The coefficient of dynamic friction between this body and the plate is . If a force 2 mg. is
applied to the body of mass m along the horizonal direction the acceleration of the plate will be
________________
(A)
(C)
m
g
M
(B) M m g
2m
g
M
(D) M m g
m
M
2mg
2m
accelerating at the rale of 5 m / s 2 then frictional force on the block will be_____________N
(A) 5
(B) 6
(C) 5.88
(D) 8
48. Two blocks of nass 8 kg and 4 kg are connected a heavy string Placed on rough horizontal Plane, The
4 kg block is Pulled with a constant force F.The coefficient of friction between the blocks and the
ground is 0.5, what is the value of F, So that the tension in the spring is constant throughout during
the motion of the blocks ? (g=10 ms2)
(A) 40 N
(B) 60 N
8 kg
F
4 kg
(C) 50 N
(D) 30 N
61
49. Seven blocks, each of mass 1 kg are arranged one above the other as
shown in figure. what are the values of the contact forces exerted on
the third block by the forth and the second block respectively ?
( g = 10 ms2 )
(A) 40 N, 50 N
(B) 50 N, 40 N
(C) 40 N, 20 N
(D) 50 N, 30 N
50. A man is standing on a spring balance. Reading of spring balance is 60 kgf. If man jumps outside
(B) Decreses
(C) Increases
51. A car turns a corner on a slippery road at a constant speed of 10 m/s. If the coefficient of friction is
0.5, the minimum radius of the arc at which the car turns is_____________meter.
(A) 20
(B) 10
(C) 5
(D) 4
52. A person standing on the floor of a lift drops a coin. The coin reaches the floor of the lift in time to if
the lift is stationary and the time t2 if it is accelerated in upward direction. Than
(A) t1 t 2
(C) t1 t 2
(B) t1 > t2
53. A lift of mass 1000 kg is moving with an acceleration of 1 ms2 in upward direction Tension developed
(B) 10,000
(C) 10,800
(D) 11,000
54. Three blocks of masses m 1,m2 and m3 are connected by massless strings as shown in figure, on a
(A) 20
(B) 40
(C) 10
(D) 32
T1
m1
m2
T2
m3
T3 = 40 N
55. If the surfaccs shown in figure are frictionless, the ratio of T1 and T2 is __________
(A) 3 : 2
(B) 1 : 3
(C) 1 : 5
(D) 5 : 1
F
T2
3kg
62
T1
12kg
15kg
300
T1
T1
1 kg
6 kg
T2
T2
3 kg
(A) zero
(B) 1
(C) 2
(D) 3
57. A rope which can withstand a maximum tension of 400 N hangs from a tree. If a monkey of mass 30 kg
climbs on the rope in which of the following caseswill the rope break?
(take g =10 ms2 and neglect the mass of rope)
(A) When the monkey climbs with constant speed of 5 ms1
(B) When the monkey climbs with constant acceleration of 2 ms2
(C) When the monkey climbs with constant acceleration of 5 ms2
(D) When the monkey climbs with the constant speed of 12 ms1
58. An object of mass 3 kg is moving with a velocity of 5 m/s along a straight path. If a force of 12 N is
applied for 3 sec on the object in a perpendicuiar to its direction of motion.The magnitude of velocity
of the particle at the end of 3 sec is____________m/s.
(A) 5
(B) 12
(C) 13
(D) 4
59. Same forces act on two bodies of different mass 2 kg and 5 kg initialy at rest. The ratio of times
required to acquire same final velocity is ____________
(A) 5:3
(B) 25:4
(C) 4:25
(D) 2:5
^
^
60. A body of mass 5 kg starts motion form the origine with an initial veiocily 0 =30 i +40 j m/s If a
constant force F = ( i +5 j)N acts on the body, than the time in which the Ycomponent of the
velocity becomes zero is __________________
(A) 5 s
(B) 20 s
(C) 40 s
(D) 80 s
61. A Block of mass 300 kg is set into motion on a frictionless
horizontal surface with the help of frictionless pulley and
a=1 ms2
F
a rope system as shown in figure. What horizontal force
F should be applied to produce in the block an aeceleration
of 1 ms2 ?
(A) 150 N
(B) 100 N
(C) 300 N
(D) 50 N
63
62. A body of mass m rests on horizontal surface. The coefficient of friction between the body and the
surface is . If the body is Pulled by a force P as shown in figure, the limiting friction between body
(B) mg 2
A) mg
(C) mg 2
3P
(D) mg 2
63. Three blocks A , B, and C of equal mass m are placed one over
A
B
C
m
is fired at it with a velocity
30
and gets emmbedded into it. The velocity of the bag finally is _________
(A)
31
30
(B)
30
31
(C)
31
(D) 30
66. Three blocks having equal mass of 2 kg are hanging on a string passing over a
pulley as shown in figure. what will be the tension produced in a string connecting
the blocks B and C
T2
A
(A) zero
(B) 13.1 N
T1
C
(C) 3.3 N
(D) 19.6 N
67. A partly hanging uniform chain of length L is resting on a rough horizontal table. is the maximum
possible length that can hang in equilibrium The coefficient of friction between the chain and table is
____________
(A)
lL
L+l
(B)
L
l
(C)
64
l
L
(D)
l
Ll
68. As shown in figure,the block of 2 kg at one end and the other of 3 kg at the other end of a light string
are connected. It the system remains stationary find the magnitude and direction of the frictional force
(g = 10 ms2 )
(A) 20 N, downward on slope
(C) 10 N Downward on slope
kg
3 kg
30
69. A particle is resting over a smooth horizontal floor, At t = 0, a horizontal force starts acting on it.
Magnitude of the force increses with time according to law F = t , where = is constant Match the
(ii)
Column2
(I)
(p) velocity against time
(q) velocity against acceleration
(r) acceleration against time
x
(A) (i)p (ii)q
(B) (i)q, (ii)r
(C) (i)r, (ii)p
(D) (i)q, (ii)p
70. A car of mass 1000 kg travelling at 32 m/s clashes into a rear of a truck of mass 8000 kg moving in the
same direction with a velocity of 4 m/s. After the collision the car bounces with a velocity of
8 ms1. The velocity of truck after the impact is ____________m/s
(A) 8
(B) 4
(C) 6
(D) 9
71. A Block of mass m = 2 kg is resting on a rough inclined plane of inclination 300 as shown in fignre.
The coefficient of friction between the block and the plane is =0.5 . What minimum force F shuld
be applied perpendicular to the plane of block so that block does not slip on the plane ? (g=10ms2)
N = F + mg cos 30
(A) zero
(B) 6.24N
(C) 2.68 N
(D) 4.3 N
0
30 0
72. The upper half of an inclined plane of inclination is perfectly smooth while the lower half is rough A
body starting from the rest at top come back to rest at the bottom, then the coefficient of friction for the
lower half is given by____________
(A) s sin
(B) s cot
(C) s 2cos
(D) s 2 tan
73. A Block of mass m = 4 kg is placed over a rough inclined plane as shown in figure, The coefficient of
friction between the block and plane is s = 0.6. A force F = 10 N is applied on the block of an
angle at 300. The contact force between the block and the plane is ___________
F
(A) 27.15 N
(C) 10.65 N
(B) 16.32 N
(D) 32.16 N
45 0
65
30 0
1 2
gt . Find the force acting on the
2
particle.
(A) F = ma
(B) F = mg
(C) F = 0
(D) None of these
75. A balloon has a mass of 10 g in air, The air escapes from the balloon at a uniform rate with a velocity
of 5 cm s and the balloon shrinks completely in 2.5 sec. calculate the average force acting on the
balloon.
(A) 20 dyne
(B) 5 dyne
(C) 0 dyne
(D) 10 dyne
76. Two bodies A and B each of mass m are fixed together by a massless spring A force F acts on the mass
B as shown in figure. At the instant shown, a body A has an acceleration a. what is the accelaration of
B?
F
(A) m a
A
m
(B) FT
(C) a m
B
m
(D) a
77. With what acceleration (a) should a box descend so that a block of mass M placed in it exerts a force
Mg
on the floor of the box?
4
(A)
4g
3
(B)
3g
4
(C) g 4
(D) 3g
P of the rope as shown in figure. what is the angle the rope makes
with the vertical in equilibrium ? (g = 10 ms2) Neglect mass of the
rope.
(A) 400
(B) 300
(C) 350
(D) 450
T1
P
50 N
1m T2
w
60 N
79. The minimum force required to start pushing a body up a rough (cofficient of ) inclined plane is F1.
While the minimum force needed to prevent it from sliding down is F2. If the inclined plane makes an
F1
angle from the horizontal. such that tan 2 than the ratio F is
2
(A) 4
(B) 1
(C) 2
66
(D) 3
80. When forces F1, F2, F3 are acting on a particle of mass m such that F2 and F3 are mutually perpendicular,
then the particle remains stationary. If the force F1 is now removed than the acceleration of the
particle is
(A)
Fb
0
m
(B)
FF
1 2
m
(C)
F2  F3
m
(D)
F2
m
81.
82.
83.
84.
Asseration and reason are given in following question. Each question have four options. One of them is
correct select it.
(a) Asseration is true. Reason is true and reason is correct explanatin for Assertion.
(b) Asseration is true. Reason is ture but reason is not the correct explanatin of assertion.
(c) Asseration is ture. Reason is false.
(d) Asseration is false. Reason is true.
Asseration : Frictional forces are conservative forces.
Reason : Potential energy can be associated with frictional forces.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Asseration : A body of mass 1 kg is moving with an accelaration of 1ms1. The rate of change of its
momentum is 1 N.
Reason : The rate of change of momentum of body = force applied on the body.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Asseration : A body falling freely under gravity becomes weightless.
Reason : R = m(g a) = m(g g) = 0
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Asseration : It is difficult to move bike with its breaks on.
Reason : Rolling friction is converted into sliding friction, which is comparatively larger.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Comprehension :According to newton's second low of mation, F= ma, where F is the force required to produce an
accelaration a in a body of mass m. If a = 0 than F = 0. If a force acts on a body for t seconds, the effect of
the force is given by impulse = F t = change in linear momentum of the body.
67
with the help of the passage given above, choose the most appropriate alternative for each of the
following questions.
85 A cricket ball of mass 150 g. is moving with a velocity of 12 m/s and is hit by a bat so that the ball
is turned back with a velocity of 20 m/s. If duration of contact between the ball and the bat is
0.01 sec. The impulse of the force is
(A) 7.4 NS
(B) 4.8 NS
(C) 1.2 NS
(D) 4.7 NS
86. Average force exerted by the bat is
(A) 480 N
(B) 120 N
(C) 1200 N
(D) 840 N
87. The force acting on a body whose linear momentum changes by 20 kgms1 in 10 sec is
(A) 2 N
(B) 20 N
(C) 200 N
(D) 0.2 N
88. An impulsive force of 100 N acts on a body for 1 sec What is the change in its linear momentum ?
(A) 10 NS
(B) 100 NS
(C) 1000 NS
(D) 1 NS
89. Match the column
Column  I
Column  II
(a) Body lying on a horizontal surface
(p) is a self adjusting force
(b) Static friction
(q) is a maximum value of static friction
(c) Limiting friction
(r) is less than limiting friction
(d) Dynamic friction
(s) force of friction = 0
(A) as, bp, cq, dr
(B) ap, bq, cr, ds
(C) as, br, cq, dp
(D) ar, bq, cp, ds
90. A block B, placed on a horizontal surface is pulled with initial velocity V. If the coefficient of kinetic
friction between surface and block is , than after how much time, block will come to rest ?
v
(A) g
(B)
g
v
(C)
g
v
(D) g
91. As shown in figure a block of mass m is attached with a cart. If the coefficient of static friction between
the surface of cart and block is than what would be acceleration of cart to prevent the falling of
block ?
mg
(A)
g
(C)
(B) m
g
(D)
68
92. A particle of mass m is at rest at t = 0. The force exerting on it in xdirection is F(t) = Foebt . Which one
(B)
F0 b
m
vt
vt
(C)
F0 b
m
(D)
F0 b
m
vt
F0 b
m
vt
KEY NOTE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
C
C
C
D
B
A
B
A
D
B
A
B
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
D
D
A
D
B
B
A
C
A
C
A
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
D
D
A
A
A
A
D
A
C
A
C
C
C
B
D
A
A
B
B
A
A
C
C
D
D
C
C
C
D
C
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
69
A
C
A
B
C
B
D
A
C
D
C
D
A
B
A
A
B
A
D
A
D
A
A
A
B
A
A
B
A
A
91
92
C
B
HINT
1.
v2 u2
F = ma = m 2S
2.
H max
u2
2g
u 2g H max
This velocity is supplied to the ball by hand and initially the hand was at rest. It acquires this velocity
in distance of 0.2 meter.
a
3.
u2
2S
4.
^
^
P t A i cos kt j sin kt
d
P( t )
dt
^
^
i
sin
kt
j cos kt
= Ak
F. P 0
5.
As weight W = mg = 9.8 N
m = 1 Kg
a Fm
6.
0 3.6
1.8 ms 2
2
70
7.
V
1
t
a
a
(V is constant)
t1 a 2 m1 2 1
t 2 a1 m 2 4 2
9.
P= F
11.
n mv  mv
A
[ a
=
1
as F is constant]
m
2nmv
A
P Px i Py j , F dp
dt
Now F . P 0
90o
dv
12. Force exerted by ball, F m
dt
13. vy = 40 ms1 Fy = 5 N
So ay =
Fy
m
m = 5 kg
1 ms 1
as v y u y at
0 = 40 1t t = 40s
14. Swimming is a result of pushing water in the opposite direction of the motion
15. Gas will cane out with sufficient speed in forward direction, So recetion of this forward force wil change
ay
19. As 5t i 2t j
^
^
a 5i 2 j
ax
^
F ma x i m g a y i
1F 1 m ax 2 g a y
max
m(g+ay)
= 26 N
71
1
(Area enclosed between F  t graph) = 50 ms1
2
applied force at t = 2S is
F = kt2 = 2(2)2 = 8 N
The body fails to move. Hence the force of friction at t = 2s = applied force = 8 N
22.
F F1 F 2
a Fm
1
2S
S ut at 2 as u = 0 t
2
a
t1
2S
g sin  cos
t1 nt n
25.
1 1
mv 2 m R
42 mR
2
F
mR
R
R
T2
T
m1 m 2 g
m1 m 2
MM
2 g g
MM 3
72
n2
2S
g sin
28.
Ft = 2mvsin300
m1v1 +m2v2 = 0
v2 =
Now E =
2msin30
t
m1
v
v1 =  1
m2
20
1
1
2
2
m1v1 + m2 v2
2
2
r<
30.
g
2
F mr 2 F
mr
30 rad
T1 mg a
33. dt graph AB is linier
Velocity is uniforce
a = 0 F = 0
35.
Fair mg a
36.
38.
P
25
625 N
t 0.04
madt m v2 v1
v2 v1
dt
dp
0 2bt Ft
dt
40.
42.
F .t m v2 v1 and
F.t Area of lower part of graph F t
73
44.
F F1 F2
and a F M
accleration in plate a F m
48.
a 0
51.
v rg
52.
T 8g
r v
F T 4g
2
1 2
1
gt1 and d g a t 22
2
2
t1 t 2
53. Tensile force T = m(g+a)
T3 m1 m 2
54. Tensile force T2 m m m
1
2
3
F
55. acceleration a m m m
1
2
3
T2 m1a
T1 m1 m2 a
3 1
10
56. acceleration a
1 3 6
P F t
m (vyv0y ) = F t
v y 12 j
t1 m1
t2 m2
74
Vy V0
60. Fy = m
t
61. Tension T = 2 F
ma
62. N + P sin = mg
=2F
N = mg  P sin
= ma 2
= mg  P 2
limiting friction Fs = s N
63.
a max
Fs (max) s M A g
m g
D
and a max 3m m
D
OR
Fmax g
2
mA
M D 3m
T1 T2 T3 W
1
M D 6 m 6 m 3 m
2
mg 2 mg 3 mg M D .g
64. ma = mg sin
a = 10 sin 4o
a = 0.7 ms2
v m v
30
30
v
31
T2 2g = 2a ....(1)
for block B
T1 +2gT2= 2a ....(2)
for block C
2g  T1= 2a ....(3)
Adding (1) & (2) T1 = 4a ....(4)
from (3) & (4)
m
m
v m v a g
3
30
30
2g4a = 2a
g
T1 4a 4 3 13.1 N
67.
M
L
g s . L g
75
T m1g m1a......(1)
T m2a
m2 g
......(2)
2
F t
dp
t P tdt
dt
v t 2
now
t 2
2
mv
dv 1
dt 2
m
(2t )
1
v2 9 m s
v 2 gl sin
73.
2 2 tan
N F sin 30 mg cos 45
dp d
dm
mv
.v
dt dt
dt
dm 10 4gram
cm
sec and v 5
s
dt 2.5
76.
ma' F T
ma' F ma
a' F m a
mg
mg ma
4
3g
4
76
78.
79.
400
F1 mgsin cos
F2 mgsin cos
F1 tan 2
F tan  2  3
2
80. Here F1 F2 F3 a F1 a
90.
v v0 at as v 0 and v0 v
a
V
t
V
t
mg ma
f ma
t
V
g
force of friction f = N m
when f W, bolck will not tall
m mg
a =
F0 bt
e
m
dv
Fo bt
e dt
dt
m
dv
Integrating
t
Fo bt
v
e dt
m
0
Fo e bt
v
m b 0
77
Fo
1 ebt
mb
Fo bt
e dt
m
Unit  4
Work Energy
And Power
78
SUMMARY
The product of the magnitude of the displacement during the action of a force and
the magnitude of the component of the force in the direction of displacement is
known as work. Its unit in joule and its dimensional formula is M 1L2T2.
If angle between force and displacement is
(i) for = 0 W = Fd
(ii) for =
If is an acute, work is positive and work is done by the force on the body. If
is an obtuse angle, work is negative and work is done by the body aganist the force.
Work on a body lying on rough horizontal
surface acted by force. As there is no
displacement along Yaxis
N + Fsin = Mg
N = Mg  F sin
Responsible resultant force for displacement
along Xdirection
= F cos  N = F cos  (Mg  Fsin)
Work W = [F cos  (Mg  Fsin]d = [F(cos  sin )  Mg] d
F
. dl
f
If a variable force and displacement due to it are in the same direction the area
below the F  x graph gives value of work.
The ability of a body to do work by virtue of its motion is known as its Kinetic
energy. If the velocity of a body of mass `m' is `v' its kinetic energy is
K=
1
mv 2 p 2 / 2m . It is scalar quantity..
2
1
2
2
2
the change in its kinetic energy. W mv mv0 K 0
When a body has the ability to do work due to its position in a force field or its
configuration. It is known as potential energy. It is scalar quantity.
If the gravitational potential energy, due to the gravitational field of Earth, is
randomly taken to be zero on its surface the potential energy of a body of mass
m, at height h is mgh, where g is the gravitational acceleration. The value of `h' is
negligible compared to the radius of the earth.
The sum of the potential energy (U) and the kinetic energy (K) of a substance is
called the mechanical energy. E = K + U.
79
Considering potential energy of a spring as zero in its normal state, if its langth is changed
by x, the potential energy of the spring is U =
1 2
kx . Here k is the spring constant. Unit
2
dU
.
dx
The relation between the conservative force and the potential energy is F =
The timerate of doing work is called power. Its unit is watt (J/s). Its dimensional formula
is M1L2T3.
The power P = W / t or P = F . v
1 horse power 746 watt
Unit of electric energy for domestic use is 1 unit = 1 kWh = 3.6 106 J
If during collision of two bodies the kinetic energy is conserved the collision said to be
elestic.
A body of mass m1 moving with velocity v1 undergoes elastic collision with a body of mass m2
moving with velocity v2 in the direction of v1 If after collision their velocities are v1' and v '2 .
m1 m2
2m2
2m1
m m1
v1 2
v2
v1' = m m v1 m m v2 and v '2 =
1
2
1
2
m1 m 2
m1 m 2
In case of complete inelastic collision bodies colliding move together after collision with a
common velocity v. In this case
v
m1v1 m2v2
m1 m2
A body of mass m1 moving with velocity v1 collides with a stationary body of mass m2
elastically. They move with velocities v1' and v '2 making angles 1 and 2 with direction of v1
then m1v1 m1v1 ' cos1 m2v2 ' cos2
0 m1v1 ' sin 1 m2 v1 ' sin 2 and m1v12 m1v1 ' 2 m2 v2 '2
v2 ' v1 '
, ' e ' depends on the types of materials of bodies colliding.
v1 v2
(1 e)m1
(m e m 2 )
(m1 m2e)
(1 e)m2
v1
v2 and v'2
v1 1
v2
m1 m2
m1 m2
m1 m 2
m1 + m 2
80
MCQ
For the answer of the following questions choose the correct alternative from among the given ones.
1.
How much is the work done in pulling up a block of wood weighing 2KN for a
length of 10m on a smooth plane inclined at an angle of 30 o with the horizontal ?
(A) 1.732 KJ
2.
(D) 100 KJ
(B) 4 N
(C) 1 N
(D) 14 N
A 60 kg JATAN with 10 kg load on his head climbs 25 steps of 0.20m height each.
what is the work done in climbing ? (g = 10 m/s 2)
(A) 5 J
4.
(C) 10 KJ
A force of 7N, making an angle with the horizantal, acting on an object displaces
it by 0.5m along the horizontal direction. If the object gains K.E. of 2J, what is the
horizontal component of the force ?
(A) 2N
3.
(B) 17.32 KJ
(B) 350 J
(C) 100J
(D) 3500J
A ball of mass 5 kg is stiding on a plane with intial velocity of 10 m/s. If coefficient of friction between surface and ball is 1 2 , then before stopping it will
describe...... (g = 10 m/s 2)
5.
(B) 5 m
(C) 7.5 m
(B) 70 ergs
(C) 20 ergs
(D) 60 ergs
(D) 10 m
20
Force (Dyne)
(A) 12.5 m
10
10
4 5
6
x (cm)
20
6.
The force constant of a wire is K and that of the another wire is 3k when both the
wires are stretched through same distance, if work done are W 1 and W2, then...
(A) w 2 3w12
7.
(B) W2 = 0.33W1
(C) W2 = W1
(D) W2 = 3W1
A ball is released from the top of a tower. what is the ratio of work done by force
of gravity in first, second and third second of the motion of the ball ?
[hn (2n 1)]
(A) 1 : 2 : 3
(B) 1 : 4 : 9
(C) 1 : 3 : 5
81
(D) 1: 5 : 3
8.
9.
(B) 2.5 NM
(C) 3.25 NM
(D) 6.75 NM
The mass of a car is 1000 kg. How much work is required to be done on it to make
it move with a speed of 36 km/h ?
(A) 2.5 104 J
(B) 5 103 J
(D) 5 104 J
(C) 500 J
(in m). Find the work done by the force in first one seconds.
(A) 2 J
(B) 3.8 J
(C) 5.2 J
20
15
10
05
00
(D) 24 J
x (m)
Force (N)
(A) 48 103 J
(C) 4.8 103 J
a (cm / sec2)
S=
(B) 75 J
(D) 25 J
(B) 3 m/s
(C) 90 m/s
(D) 30 m/s
14. A uniform chain of length 2m is kept on a table such that a length of 50cm hangs
freely from the edge of the table. The total mass of the chain is 5kg. What is the
work done in pulling the entire chain on the table. (g = 10 m\s 2)
(A) 7.2 J
(B) 3 J
(C) 4.6 J
82
(D) 120 J
15. A uniform chain of length L ans mass M is lying on a smooth table and one third
of its is hanging vertically down over the edge of the table. If g is acceleration due
to gravity, the work required to pull the hanging part on to the table is
(A) MgL
(B) MgL / 3
(C) MgL/9
(D) MgL / 18
16. A cord is used to lower vertically a block of mass M by a distance d with constant
downword acceleration 9 2 .work done by the cord on the block is
(A)  Mgd/2
(B) Mgd/4
(C) 3Mgd/4
(D) Mgd
17. A block of mass 5 kg is resting on a smooth surface. At what angle a force of 20N
be acted on the body so that it will acquired a kinetic energy of 40J after moving
4m
(A) 300
(B) 450
(C) 600
(D) 1200
18. Natural length of a spring is 60 cm, and its spring constant is 2000N/m. A mass
of 20kg is hung from it. The extension produced in the spring is..... (g = 9.8 m/s 2)
(A) 4.9 cm
(B) 0.49 cm
(C) 9.8 cm
(D) 0.98 cm
(B) proportional to x
(C) proportional to x2
20. A uniform chain of length L and mass M is lying on a smooth table and ( 1 4 )th of
its length is hanging vertically down over the edge of the table. If g is acceleration
due to gravity, the work required to pull the hanging part on to the table is
(A) MgL
(B) MgL/9
(C) MgL/18
(D) MgL/ 32
(D) Wa = Wb = Wc
22. An open knife edge of mass m is dropped from a height h on a wooden floor. If
the blade penetrates upto the depth d into the wood, the average resistance offered
by the wood to the knife edge is,
(A) mg
(B) mg (1+ h d )
83
(C) mg (1 h d ) 2
(D) mg (1 
(A) Mg / 3
(B) Mg . 2
27. Given below is a graph between a
variable force (F) (along yaxis)
and the displaement (X) (along xaxis) of a particle in one
dimension. The work done by the
force in the displacement interval
between 0m and 30m is
(A) 275 J
(B) 325 J
(C) 400 J
(D) 300 J
(C) Mg / 2
84
(D) Mg . 3
2Aa 3
3
(B)
2Aa 3 Ba 2
ca
(C)
3
2
2Aa 3
2ca
3
(B) 3U
(C) 9U
(D) 18U
31. If linear momentum of body is increased by 1.5%, its kinetic energy increases
by.......%
(A) 0%
(B) 10%
(C) 2.25%
(D) 3%
32. With what velocity should a student of mass 40 kg run so that his kinetic energy
becomes 160 J ?
(A) 4 m/s
(B)
8 m/s
(C) 16 m/s
(D) 8 m/s
(B) 30 J
(C) 40 J
(D) 10 J
34. Two bodies of masses m 1 and m2 have equal kinetic energies. If P 1 and P2 are
their respective momentum, what is ratio of P 2 : P1 ?
(A) m1: m2
(B)
(C)
m2 : m1
85
m1 : m2
0.5 Kg
R = 20cm
(B) 2 m/s
2 m/s
(C) 2 2 m / s
(D) 4 m/s
36. Two bodies of masses m and 3m have same momentum. their respective kinetic
energies E1 and E2 are in the ratio.....
(A) 1 : 3
(B) 3 : 1
(C) 1 :
(D) 1 : 6
(B) 4 m/s
(C) 6 m/s
18 cm
U(x)
U(x)
(A)
(B)
U(x)
Y
U(x)
(C)
(D)
86
Force (N)
+2
(B) 0 NS
(D) 6 NS
t(s)
40. A particle is dropped from a heighth. A constant horizontal velocity is given to the
particle. Taking g to be constant everywhere kinetic energy E of the particle with
respect to time t is correctly shown in....
E
(A)
(B)
E
E
(C)
(D)
41. Which of the following graph is correct between kinetic energy (E), potential
energy (U) and height (h) from the ground of the particle.
(B)
Energy
Energy
(A)
Height
Height
U
(D)
Energy
Energy
(C)
Height
Height
87
1
A V3
2
(B)
1
A V2
2
(C)
1
AV
2
(D) A V
43. The velocity of a body of mass 400 gm is 3i 4j m/s. So its kinetic energy
is ......
(A) 5 J
(B) 10 J
(C) 8 J
(D) 16 J
44. A particle is moving under the influence of a force given by F = kx, where k
is a constant and x is the distance moved. What energy (in joule) gained by the
particle in moving from x = 1m to x = 3m ?
(A) 2 k
(B) 3 k
(C) 4 k
(D) 9 k
(B) 0.2J
(C) 20 J
(D) 200 J
46. when 2kg mass hangs to a spring of length 50 cm, the spring stretches by 2 cm.
The mass is pulled down until the length of the spring becomes 60 cm. What is the
amount of elastic energy stored in the spring in this condition, if g = 10 m/s 2
(A) 10 J
(B) 2 J
(C) 2.5 J
(D) 5 J
(B) 450
(C) 600
th
(D) 750
48. Two bodies P and Q have masses 5 kg and 20 kg respectively. Each one is acted
upon by a force of 4 N. If they acquire the same kinetic energy in times t P and tQ
then the ratio tp tq = ..........
(A)
(B) 2
(C)
(D)
F(N)
x(m)
50. The potential energy of 2kg particle, free to move along x axis is given by
x4 x2
U ( X ) J . If its mechanical energy is 2 J, its maximum speed is.... m/s
2
4
(A)
(B)
(C)
1
2
(D) 2
51. If the K.E. of a body is increased by 44%, its momentum will increase by.......
(A) 20 %
(B) 22 %
(C) 2 %
(D) 120 %
52. A bullet of mass 0.10 kg moving with a speed of 100 m/s enters a wooden block
and is stopped after a distance of 0.20m. what is the average resistive force exerted
by the block on the bullet ?
(A) 2.5 x 102 N
(C) 25 x 102 N
(B) 25 N
A
60
(B) 5 102 J
(D) 0.5 103 J
1
10
th
(B) 10
(C) 11
(D) 20
55. A sphere of mass m moving the velocity v enters a hanging bag of sand and stops.
If the mass of the bag is M and it is raised by height h, then the velocity of the
sphere was
(A)
mm
29h
m
(B)
M
29 h
m
29 h
10
5
F(N)
0
5
10
(B) 30 J
(D) 135 J
89
x(m)
(B)
15
(C)
(D)
12
12
cm
4
5
cm
cm
58. If the water falls from a dam into a turbine wheel 19.6m below, then the velocity
of water at the turbine is ...... ( g = 9.8 m/s 2)
(A) 9.8 m/s
59. A bomb of 12 kg divedes in two parts whose ratio of masses is 1:4. If kinetic
energy of smaller part is 288 J, then momentum of bigger part in kgm/sec will be
(A) 48
(B) 72
(C) 108
(B) 10 30 m/s
62. A bomb of mass 10 kg explodes into 2 pieces of mass 4 kg and 6 kg. The
velocity of mass 4 kg is 1.5 m/s, the K.E. of mass 6 kg is .......
(A) 3.84 J
(B) 9.6 J
(C) 3.00 J
(D) 2.5 J
63. A bomb of mass 3.0 kg explodes in air into two pieces of masses 2.0 kg and 1.0
kg. The smaller mass goes at a speed of 80m/s. The total energy imparted to the
two fragments is
(A) 1.07 KJ
(B) 2.14 KJ
(C) 2.4 KJ
(D) 4.8 KJ
64. The bob of simple pendulum (mass m and length l) dropped from a horizontal
position strike a block of the same mass elastically placed on a horizontal
frictionless table. The K.E. of the block will be
(A) 2 mgl
(B) mgl /2
(C) mgl
90
(D) zero
65. A gun fires a bullet of mass 40 g with a velocity of 50 m/s. Because of this the
gun is pushed back with a velocity of 1 m/s. The mass of the gun is
(A) 1.5 kg
(B) 3 kg
(C) 2 kg
(D) 2.5 kg
66. The decreases in the potential energy of a ball of mass 25 kg which falls from
a height of 40 cm is
(A) 968 J
(B) 100 J
(C) 1980 J
(D) 200 J
67. If a man increase his speed by 2 m/s, his K.E. is doubled, the original speed of
the man is
(A) (2+2 2 ) m/s
(B) (2 +
2 ) m/s
(C) 4 m/s
(B) x = 2m
(C) x = 2.5 m
(B) B
(C) B and C
(D) A and D
(D) x = 5 m
W( x)
C
x
70. A nucleus at rest splits into two nuclear parts having same density and radii in
the ratio 1:2. Their velocites are in the ratio
(B) 4:1
(C) 6:1
(D) 8:1
0.75m
0.75m
(A) 2:1
is ..... ( g = 10 m/s 2)
(A) 3. 87 m/s
(B) 2 m/s
72. A single conservative force F(x) acts on a 2.5 kg particle that moves along the xaxis. The potential energy U(x) is given by U(x) = (10 + (x  4) 2) where x is in
meter. At x = 6.0m the particle has kinetic energy of 20J. what is the mechanical
energy of the system ?
(A) 34 J
(B) 45 J
(C) 48 J
91
(D) 49 J
POWER
73. A body initially at rest undergoes one dimensonal motion with constant
acceleration. The power delivered to it at time t is proportional to.....
(A) t
(B) t
(C) t
(D) t2
74. An electric motor develops 5KW of power. How much time will it take to lift
a water of mass 100 kg to a height of 20 m ? ( g = 10 m/s 2 )
(A) 4 sec
(B) 5 sec
(C) 8 sec
(D) 10 sec
75. Bansi does a given amount of work in 30 sec. Jaimeen does the same amount
of work... in 15 sec. The ratio of the output power of Bansi to the Jaimeen is....
(A) 1:1
(B) 1:2
(C) 2:1
(D) 5:3
76. A ropeway trolly of mass 1200kg uniformly from rest to a velocity of 72 km/
h in 6s. What is the average power of the engine during this period in watt ?
(Neglect friction)
(A) 400 W
(B) 40,000 W
(C) 24000 W
(D) 4000 W
77. A body of mass m is accelarated uniformly from rest to a speed v in time T. The
instantaneous power delivered to the body in terms of time is given by.....
mv 2
(A) 2 . t
T
mv 2 2
(B) 2 . t
T
(C)
mv 2
2T
.t
(D)
mv 2
2T
.t2
78. 1 kg apple gives 25 KJ energy to a monkey. How much height he can climb by
using this energy if his efficiency is 40%. (mass of monkey = 25 kg and g = 10
m/s2)
(A) 20m
(B) 4m
(C) 30m
(D) 40m
79. A force of
(B)
(C)
2
V
(D) Fv 2
81. From an automatic gun a man fires 240 bullet per minute with a speed of 360 km/
h. If each weighs 20 g, the power of the gun is
(A) 400 W
(B) 300 W
(C) 150 W
(D) 600 W
92
(B) 10 ( F1 F2 ) M
(C) ( F1 F2 ) M
(D) Zero
83. A coolie 2.0m tall raises a load of 75 kg in 25 from the ground to his head and
then walks a distance to 40m in another 25. The power developled by the coolie
is ( g = 10 m/s2)
(A)0.25 kw
(B) 0.50 kw
(C) 0.75 kw
(D) 1.00 kw
84. A body is moved along a straight line by a machine delivering a constant
power. The velocity gained by the body in time t is proportional to.....
(A) t
(B) t
(C) t
(D) t
(B)
(C)
25
(D)
89. Three objects A, B and C are kept in a straight line on a frictionless horizontal
surface. These have masses m, 2m and m respectivelly. The object A moves
towards B with a speed 9 m/s and makes an elastic collision with it. Thereafter,
B makes compelety inelastic collision with C. All motion occur on the same
straight line. Find final speed of the object C
93
(A) 3 m/s
(B) 4 m/s
(C) 5 m/s
(D) 1 m/s
90. Two solid rubber balls P and Q having masses 200 g and 400 g respectively are
moving in opposite directions with velocity of P equal to 0.3 m/s. After
collision the two balls come to rest, then the velocity of Q is
(A) 0.15 m/s
(B) 1.5 m/s
(C) 0.15 m/s
(D) Zero
91. A sphere collides with another sphere of identical mass. After collision, the two
sphere move. The collision is inelastic. Then the angle between the directions
of the two spheres is
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97. Three identical sperical balls A, B and C are placed on a table as shown in the
figure along a straight line. B and C are at rest initially. The ball A hits B head on
with a speed of 10 m/s. Then after all collision A and B are brought to rest and C
takes off with velocity of...... (elastic collision)
(A) 20 m/s
(B) 2.5 m/s
(C) 10 m/s
(D) 7.5 m/s
98. A ball dropped from a height of 4m rebounds to a height of 2.4m after hitting
the ground. Then the percentage of energy lost is
(A) 40
(B) 50
(C) 30
(D) 600
99. A billiard ball moving with a speed of 8 m/s collides with an identical ball
originally at rest. If the first ball stops after collision, then the second ball will
move forward with a speed of..... (elastic collision)
(A) 8 m/s
(B) 4 m/s
(C) 16 m/s
(D) 1.0 m/s
100. A bullet of mass m moving with velocity v strikes a block of mass M at rest and
gets embedded into it. The kinetic energy of the composite block will be
1
2
(A) 2 mv (m m)
2
(C) 2 MV (m M)
(B)
1 2 (m m)
mv
2
M
2
(D) 2 mv (m M)
103. Four identical balls are lined in a straight grove made on a horizontal
frictionless surface as shown. Two similar balls each moving with a velocity v
collide elastically with the row of 4 balls from left. What will happen
(A) One ball from the right rolls out with a speed 2v and the remaining balls will
remain at rest.
(B) Two balls from the right roll out speed v each and the remaining balls will
remain statinary.
(C) All the four balls in the row will roll out with speed v 4 each and the two
colliding balls will come to rest.
(D) The colliding balls will come to rest and no ball rolls out from right.
Assertion and Reason are given in following questions. Each question have
four option. One of them is correct it.
(1) If both assertion and reason and the reason is the correct explanation of the
Assertion.
(2) If bothe assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct
explanation of the assertion.
(3) If the assertion is true but reason is false.
(4) If the assertion and reason both are fare.
104. Assertion : In the elastic collision between two bodies, the relative speed of the
bodies after collision is equal to the relative speed before the collision.
Reason : In the elastic collision the linear momentum of the system is
conserved.
(A)1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
105. Assertion : When a gas is allowed to expand, work done by gas is positive.
Reason : Force due to gaseous pressure and displacement (of position) on in
the same direction.
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
96
106. Assertion : A light body and heavy body have same momemtum. Then they also
have same kinetic energy.
Reason : Kinetic energy does not depend on mass of the body.
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
107. Assertion : Mountain roads rarely go straight up the slope.
Reason : slope of mountains are large, therefore, more chances of vehicle to
slip from roads.
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
108. Assertion : The change in kinetic energy of a particle is equal to the work done
on it by the net force.
Reason : Change in kinetic energy of particle is equal to the work done only
in case of a system of one particle.
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
109. Assertion : Work done in moving a body over a closed loop is zero for every
force in nature.
Reason : Work done does not depend on nature of force.
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
110. Assertion : A weight lifter does no work in holding the weight up.
Reason : Work done is zero because distance moved is zero.
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
Kinetic energy
1 2
mv
2
(B) 2
(C) 3
97
(D) 4
(COLUMN)
117. A force F = kx (where k is positive constant) is acting on a particle. Match
columnI and columnII, regarding work done in displacing the particle.
Column  I
Column  ii
(a) From x = 4 to x = 2
(P) Positive
(b) From x = 2 to x = 4
(Q) zero
(c) From x = 2 to x = +2
(R) negative
(A) a  R, b  P, c  Q
(B) a  P, b  Q, c  R
(C) a  R, b  Q, c  P
(D) a  Q, b  P, c  R
118. A body falls freely under the action of gravity from a height h above the
ground.
Column  i
Column  ii
(a) P.E. = 2(K.E.)
(P) constant at every point
(b) P.E. = K.E.
(Q) at height h 3
(c) P.E. =
1
(K.E.)
2
(R) at height
2h
Column  ii
(P) faster body stop in larger distance
(Q) larger body stops in larger distance.
(R) heavier body stops in larger distance.
(S) stopped in same distance.
(A) a  P, b  Q, c  R, d  S
(C) a  S, b  R, c  Q, d  p
(B) a  Q, b  P, c  S, d  R
(D) a  R, b  S, c  Q, d  P
98
KEY NOTE
1
26
51
76
101
27
52
77
102
28
53
78
103
29
54
79
104
30
55
80
105
31
56
81
106
32
57
82
107
33
58
83
108
34
59
84
109
10
35
60
85
110
11
36
61
86
111
12
37
62
87
112
13
38
63
88
113
14
39
64
89
114
15
40
65
90
115
16
41
66
91
116
17
42
67
92
117
18
43
68
93
118
19
44
69
94
119
20
45
70
95
21
46
71
96
22
47
72
97
23
48
73
98
24
49
74
99
25
50
75
100
99
HINT
1.
W Fd cos
2.
K Fd cos = w
3.
W F d ( Mg ) ( d ) ; where M = m1 + m2
4.
a g and v v 2gd d
5.
6.
2
According W kx
7.
hn (2n 1)
8.
9.
10.
2
0
vo 2
2g
v 0
1
2
1
k x 22 x12
2
l
l
2t 3
d 2s
acceleration a 2 4t , work W F ds mads
3
dt
0
0
W=
mgl
, where n is, fraction of length of the chain hanging from the table.
2n 2
mgl
( n = 3 Given)
2n 2
15. W =
g
mg
mgd
)=
. Work done by cord = Td = 2
2
2
1
1
mv2  mu2
2
2
F mg
K k
du
dx
100
20.
mgl
( n = 4 given)
2n 2
21. Gravitational force is a conservative force and work done against it is a point function
i.e. does not depends on the path.
22.
2gh
2(g a)d a
23. Work done = gain in potential energy Area under curve = mgh
24. Intial velocity at x = 0; v1 = 0
Final velocity at x = 2; v2= 5 2 3 2
Work done =
1
m ( v 22 v12 )
2
26.
W Fl sin
U mgl(1 cos )
W U; ( 600 )
W Fdy
2
Ay
By C dy
Ay3 By 2
cy
2
3
a
2Aa 3
2Ca
3
101
31.
32.
P2
2m
K P 2 ( m constant)
dk
dp
2
k
p
1
k mv 2
2
2k
m
34.
P m
35. mgR =
1
mv2  mgh
2
m1
p1
p2
m2
1 2
mv
2
p2
2m
36.
37.
V 2gh
38.
1
m
kx 2
2
1 mv 2 1 Al V 2
1
Av 2
2 t
2
t
2
1
mv 2
2
44.
U kx dx.
1
F
1
, U kx 2
x
2
F
1
, U kx 2
x
2
102
v2o Sin 20
mv02 sin 2 0 1
,
U
mg
H
max
Ko
47. Hmax =
2g
2
2
1
1
2
2
mp v p mQ vQ Vp VQ ,
2
2
m v
Ft
p p
P
Using impulse momentum, FT = m v
Q
Q Q
49.
1 2
mv area covered by curve of F x , graph
2
du
0 0
dx
OR
1
4
For x 4 U ( x ) U min .
51.
52. F d =
1
m v 22 v12 .
2
9
v0
10
Now
v0 2
100
v2
n 0
2as
19
2as
1
(m+M) v2 sys = (m+M) gh
2
1 2
mv
2
1
59. The bomb into two masses m1 + m 2 =12kg and m 4 , K.E.
2
1
m1 v12
2
103
4200
kwh
3.6106
700 4200
kwh
3.6 10 6
mg (h1 h 2 ) mv
62.
63.
m1v2 , = m2 v2 ,
1
m 2 v 22
2
1
1
m1 v12 m 2 v 22
2
2
64. The collision between bob and block is elastic P.E. K.E.
65.
mG vG mB vB
66.
U mgh
1 2
mv
2
1
2
2
Final kinetic energy, 2E = m( v 2)
du
,
dx
At equilibrium position, F = 0
69.
du
it is clear that slope of U  x curve is zero at point B and C.
dx
3
M1
R1
70. Given 1 = 2 M =
2
R2
V1 2
According to low conservation of linear momentum,
V2 1
1 2
71. Conservation of energy, mgh = mv
2
104
mgh
t
75. Power, P
1
t
76.
EP
77.
P 2mE ; P E
78.
P 2mE ; P E
2m
79.
P Wt
F.d
t
80. .............
81. Power of gun =
2
Total K.E.of fired bullet
1
n mv
t
time
2
p
t
mgh (75)(10)(2)
0.75 KW
t
2
83.
84.
1
mv 2 kt (K, Cons tan t) ,
2
2k 12
2k 12
t , dx
t dt.
m
m
Take integration.
85. ............
86. ............
87.
m m2
2m2 u 2
u1
v1 1
m1 m2
m1 m2
88.
v
v2
h
2 ; i.e. fractional loss in velocity 1 2
v1
v1
h1
89.
v2
2m1u1
6m / s
m1 m 2
i.e. After elastic collision B strike to C with velocity of 6 m/s, Now for B and C
2m
6m/s
m
3m Vsys
Rest
(2m) (6) + 0 = (3m) (V sys)
90.
m p v p m Q vQ 0
105
93. Loss in K.E. = (initial K.E.  Final K.E.) of system m1u12 m 2 u 22 (m1 m 2 )v 2
2
2
2
94. By low of conservation of momentum
2 10 = (2+3) v v 4 m s
Loss in K.E. =
1
1
(2)(10)2  (5)(4)2
2
2
P
F
t
U1 U 2
100
U1
1
(M m) v 2
2
101. By conservation of momentum, m1V m2 (0) (m1 m2 )v
Unit  5
Rotational Motion
107
SUMMARY
*
1.
R cm
n
m1 r1 m1 r 2 m n r n
m rn
n
m1 m 2 m n
n 1 m n
m1 r1 m 2 r 2
r1
m2
+1
OR +1=
m1
r2
r m +m
= 1 2
m1
r2
2.
OR
r2 =
r1 +r2 m 2 +m1
=
m1
r2
rm1
m1 +m 2
OR
rm 2
r1 =
m1 +m 2
m1 v1 + m2 v 2 + .........+ mn v n
V cm =
M
P M vcm p1 p 2 ......... p n
similarly
a cm
m1 a1 m 2 a 2 m n a n
M
F M a cm F1 F 2 Fn
3.
Torque = T = r F = I
Angular momentum = L r P I
 L  = rpsin = product of linear momentum and perpendicular distance between point of
rotation and line of action.
2
m r
n n
n 1
108
4.
dL
d
I
I p
dt
dt
As L I
dL
when = then L remains constant
dt
Its geometrical representation in planetary motion
dA
is an areal velocity
dt
Let
Then
5.
dA L
=
dt 2
OR
dA L
=
dt 2m
= m r12 r2 2 rn 2
r
I nm
r2 rn
n
Here (nm = M)
mk 2
2
6.
(r1 r2 rn )
n
v w r
Here
w =
d w d 2
2
dt
dt
where
a a r aT
d
dt
ar wv aT r
a ar 2 at 2 2v 2 2 r 2 2 r 2 2 2 r 2 r 4 2
7.
8.
IZ IX IY
I I cm Md 2
9.
2 gh
V
2
,
K
1
R 2
2 sin
1 K 2
R 2
tan
,
2
1 R 2
K
For ring s
disc
1
tan
2
(K = R)
1
R
s tan K
3
2
2
solid sphere s 7 tan
10.
2
K
R
2
1
2V
MK 2
2
R
2
I MK &
R
L2
2I
Total kinetic Energy
Now
(1)
K2
1
V2 1
1
MK 2 2 MV 2 MV 2 2 1
2
2
2
R
R
2
R.K.E
K 2
R
LinearK .E
K2
Rotational K .E
K2
R2
2
(2)
2
2
Total K .E
R K
1 K 2
R
K2 R 2
Percentage rotational K.E. = K 2 100%
1 R2
110
(3)
2
2
Total K.E
R K
1 K R2
Rotational motion
Angular displacement,
Linear velocity, V
Linear acceleration, a
Angular velocity, w
dv
dt
Angular acceleration,
dw
dt
Mass, m
Moment of inertia, I
Linear Momentum, P m v
Angular momentum, L I w
Force,
Torque,
F ma
dP
dt
1
2
Translational kinetic energy K = mv
2
dL
dt
dL
dt
p2
2m
1 2
I
2
L2
2I
Work, W = F d
Work, W =
Power, P = Fv
Equations of linear motion taking place
with constant linear acceleration
Power, P = w
Equations of rotational motion taking place
with constant angular acceleration :
v = VO + at
d = v O t+
w = WO t
1 2
at
2
1
W0 t at 2
2
2ad = v 2 v 0 2
2a = W 2 W0 2
rotational t L 2 L1
Value of
Shape of Body
velocity
velocity
acceleration
1
2
Ring/Hollow cylinder
gh
gl sin
Disc/Solid cylinder
4
gh
3
gl sin 2
3
Solid Sphere
10
gh
7
10
gl sin 2
7
Shell/Hollow spher
6
gh
5
gl sin 2
5
g sin
3
g sin
g sin
14
g sin
g sin
10
g sin
1
3
R2
g sin
g sin
1
2
K2
Time
Axis
Thin rod of
Length L
Ring of
radius R
Any diameter
Ring of
radius R
Circular disc
radius R
Circular disc
Any diameter
of radius R
Figure
For rolling
body K 2 R 2
1
ML2
12
2 3
1
MR 2
2
R
2
MR 2
1
MR 2
2
R
2
1
2
1
MR 2
4
R
2
Body
Axis
Figure
Hollow
cylinder of
radius R
Geometrical
axis of the
cylinder
Any diameter
of radius R
Hollow
sphere
of radius R
Any diameter
For rolling
body K 2 R 2
MR 2
1
MR 2
2
R
2
1
2
2
MR 2
5
2
R
5
2
5
2
MR 2
3
2
R
3
2
3
MCQ
For the answer of the following questions choose the correct alternative from among the given ones.
1.
2.
2 cm
{C} 3 cm
3.
{D} 4 cm
Three particles of the same mass lie in the (X, Y) plane, The (X, Y) coordinates of their
positions are (1, 1), (2, 2) and (3, 3) respectively. The (X,Y) coordinates of the centre of
mass are
{A} (1, 2)
{B} (2, 2)
{C} (1.5, 2)
113
4.
Consider a twoparticle system with the particles having masses M1 , and M 2 . If the first
particle is pushed towards the centre of mass through a distance d, by what distance should
the second particle be moved so as to keep the centre of mass at the same position?
{A}
5.
M 2d
{B} M M
1
2
{C}
M1d
M2
M2d
{D} M
1
{C}
6.
M1d
M1 M 2
7x
2x ,
10
x 10x
,
2 7
{B}
10 x
2 x,
{D}
x 7x
,
2 10
From a uniform circular disc of radius R, a circular disc of radius R 6 and having centre at a
distance + R 2 from the centre of the disc is removed. Determine the centre of mass of remaining
portion of the disc.
R
R
R
R
{B}
{C}
{D}
70
70
7
7
A circular plate of uniform thickness has a diameter of 56 cm. A circular portion of diameter
42 cm. is removed from +ve x edge of the plate. Find the position of centre of mass of the
remaining portion with respect to centre of mass of whole plate.
{A}  7 cm
{B} + 9 cm
{C}  9 cm
{D} + 7 cm
Two blocks of masses 10 kg an 4 kg are connected by a spring of negligible mass and placed
on a frictionless horizontal surface. An impulse gives velocity of 14 m/s to the heavier block in
the direction of the lighter block. The velocity of the centre of mass is :
{A} 30 m/s
{B} 20 m/s
{C} 10 m./s
{D} 5 m/s
A particle performing uniform circular motion has angular momentum L., its angular frequency is
doubled and its K.E. halved, then the new angular momentum is :
{A}
{B}
{C} 2L
{D} 4L
A circular disc of radius R is removed from a bigger disc of radius 2R. such that the circumferences
of the disc coincide. The centre of mass of the remaining portion is R from the centre of mass
of the bigger disc. The value of is.
{A}
{B} 1/6
{C}
{D} 1/3
Three point masses M1, M2 and M3 are located at the vertices of an equilateral triangle of
side 'a'. what is the moment of inertia of the system about an axis along the attitude of the triangle
passing through M1, ?
{A}
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
{A} M1 M 2 a 4
{B} M 2 M 3 a 4
114
{C} M1 M 3 a 4 {D} M1 M 2 M 3 a 4
12.
13.
A body of mass m is tied to one end of spring and whirled round in a horizontal plane
with a anstant angular velocity. The elongation in the spring is one centimeter. If the angular
velocity is doubted, the elongation in the spring is 5 cm. The original length of spring is
{A} 16 cm
{B} 15 cm
{C} 14 cm
{D} 13 cm
A cylinder of mass 5 kg and radius 30 cm, and free to rotate about its axis, receives an angular
impulse of 3 kg M2S1 initially followed by a similar impulse after every 4 sec. what is the angular
speed of the cylinder 30 sec after initial imulse ? The cylinder is at rest initially.
{A} 106.7 rad S1
14.
15.
16.
then
rb
Ra is equal to
ra
{A} 2
{B} 4
{C} 6
{D} 8
If the earth were to suddenly contract so that its radius become half of it present radius, without
any change in its mass, the duration of the new day will be
{A} 6 hr
{B} 12 hr
{C} 18 hr
{D} 30 hr
In HC1 molecule the separation between the nuclei of the two atoms is about 1.27 A 1A 10 10 m .
The approximate location of the centre of mass of the molecule is A i with respect of Hydrogen
atom ( mass of CL is 35.5 times of mass of Hydrogen)
{A} 1
{B} 2.5
{C} 1.24
{D} 1.5
17.
18.
19.
Two bodies of mass 1kg and 3 kg have position vector i 2j k and (3i2j+k) respectively
the center of mass of this system has a position vector
{A} 2i 2k
{B} 2i j k
{C} 2i j k
{D} i j k
Identify the correct statement for the rotational motion of a rigid body
{A} Individual particles of the body do not undergo accelerated motion
{B} The center of mass of the body remains unchanged.
{C} The center of mass of the body moves uniformly in a circular path
{D} Individual particle and centre of mass of the body undergo an accelerated motion.
A car is moving at a speed of 72 km/hr the radius of its wheel is 0.25m. If the wheels are
stopped in 20 rotations after applying breaks then angular retardation produced by the breaks
is
{A} 25.5 rad s 2
20.
A wheel rotates with a constant acceleration of 2.0 rad sec 2 If the wheel start from rest. The
21.
22. A wheel of mass 10 kg has a moment of inertia of 160 kg m 2 about its own axis. The
radius of gyration will be _______ m.
{A} 10
{B} 8
{C} 6
{D} 4
23. One circular rig and one circular disc both are having the same mass and radius. The ratio of
their moment of inertia about the axes passing through their centres and perpendicular to their
planes, will be
{A} 1 : 1
{B} 2 : 1
{C} 1 : 2
{D} 4 : 1
24. One solid sphere A and another hollow sphere B are of the same mass and same outer radii.
The moment of inertia about their diameters are respectively I A and I B such that
{A} I A I B
25.
26.
{B} I A I B
A ring of mass M and radius r is melted and then molded in to a sphere then the moment of
inertia of the sphere will be..
{A} more than that of the ring
{B} Less than that of the ring
{C} Equal to that of the ring
{D} None of these
A circular disc of radius R and thickness R/6 has moment of inertia I about an axis passing through
its centre and perpendicular to its plane. It is melted and recasted in to a solid sphere. The moment
of inertia of the sphere about its diameter as axis of rotation is
2I
I
{C}
8
5
One quater sector is cut from a uniform circular disc of radius R. This
sector has mass M. It is made to rotate about a line perpendicular to
its plane and passing through the centre of the original disc. Its moment
of inertia about the axis of rotation is
{A} I
27.
{B}
{A} 1 2 MR
28.
I A dA
{C} I A I B {D} I dB (radio of their densities)
B
{D}
I
10
2
{B} 1 4 MR
2
{C} 18 MR
{D} 2MR 2
A thin wire of length L and uniform linear mass density is bent
in to a circular loop with centre at O as shown in figure. The moment
of inertia of the loop about the axis xx' is .
2
{A} L
3
{B} L
{C} 5 L
16 2
3
{D} 3 L
16
8 2
29. Two disc of same thickness but of different radii are made of two different materials such that
their masses are same. The densities of the materials are in the ratio 1:3. The moment of inertia
of these disc about the respective axes passing through their centres and perpendicular to their
planes will be in the ratio.
{A} 1 : 3
{B} 3 : 1
{C} 1 : 9
{D} 9 : 1
116
30.
Let I be the moment of inertia of a uniform square plate about an axis AB that passes
through its centre and is parallel to two of its sides CD is a line in the plane of the plate
that passes through the centre of the plate and makes an angle of Q with AB. The moment
of inertia of the plate about the axis CD is then equal to.
2
A small disc of radius 2 cm is cut from a disc of radius 6 cm. If the distance between their
centres is 3.2 cm, what is the shift in the centre of mass of the disc
{A} 0.4 cm
{B} 2.4 cm
{C} 1.8 cm
{D} 1.2 cm
A straight rod of length L has one of its ends at the origin and the other end at x=L If the mass
per unit length of rod is given by Ax where A is constant where is its center of mass.
{A} L/3
{B} L/2
{C} 2L / 3
{D} 3L / 4
A uniform rod of length 2L is placed with one end in contact with horizontal and is then inclined
at an angle to the horizontal and allowed to fall without slipping at contact point. When it becomes
horizontal, its angular velocity will be..
{A} I
31.
32.
33.
{A} w =
34.
3 g sin
2L
36.
38.
2L
{B} w = 3 g sin
{C} w =
6 g sin
L
{D}
I cos 2
{D} w =
L
g sin
{B} 3v 2a
{C}
3v
{D} zero
2a
Consider a body as shown in figure, consisting of two identical
bulls, each of mass M connected by a light rigid rod. If an
impulse J = MV is imparted to the body at one of its ends,
what would be its angular velocity. What is V ?
{A} V / L
{B} 2V / L
{C} V / 3L
{D} V / 4L
A thin circular ring of mass M and radius r is rotating about its axis with a constant angular velocity
w. Two objects each of mass m are attached gently to the opposite ends of a diameter of the
ring. The ring will now rotate with an angular velocity.
M
M 2m
M 2m
M
A smooth sphere A is moving on a frictionless horizontal plane with angular speed and centre
of mass velocity v. It collides elastically and head on with an identical sphere B at rest. Neglect
friction everywhere. After the collision, their angular speeds are A and B respectively, Then
{A} A < B
{B} A = B
{C} A =
{D} = B
Two point masses of 0.3 kg and 0.7 kg are fixed at the ends of a rod of length 1.4 m and
of negligible mass. The rod is set rotating about an axis perpendicular to its length with a uniform
angular speed. The point on the rod through which the axis should pass in order that the work
required for rotation of the rod is minimum, is located at a distance of ..
{A} 0.4 m from mass of 0.3 kg
{B} 0.98 m from mass of 0.3 kg
{C} 0.7 m from mass of 0.7 kg
{D} 0.98 m from mass of 0.7 kg
{A}
37.
{C} I cos 2
35.
{B} I sin 2
( M 2m)
M 2m
{B}
{C}
117
M
M m
{D}
39.
40.
In a bicycle the radius of rear wheel is twice the radius of front wheel. If rF and rr are
the radius, vF and vr are speed of top most points of wheel respectively then...
{A} vr = 2vF
{B} vF = 2vr
{C} vF = vr
{D} vF > vr
From a circular disc of radius R and mass 9M, a small disc of radius
R/3 is removed from the disc. The moment of inertia of the remaining
portion about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the disc and passing
through O is.
40
37
MR 2 {C} 10 MR 2 {D}
MR 2
9
9
A child is standing with folded hands at the centre of a platform rotating about its central axis
the kinetic energy of the system is K. The child now stretches his arms so that the moment of
inertia of the system doubles. The kinetic energy of the system now is
{A} 2 K
{B} K/2
{C} K/4
{D} 4K
If the earth is treated as a sphere of radius R and mass M. Its angular momentum about the
axis of rotation with period T is..
{A} 4 MR 2
41.
42.
{B}
MR 3
MR 2
2MR 2
4MR 2
{B}
{C}
{D}
T
T
5T
5T
If the angular momentum of any rotating body increases by 200%, then the increase in its kinetic
energy will be..
{A} 400%
{B} 800%
{C} 200%
{D} 100%
The M.I. of a body about the given axis is 1.2 kgm2 initially the body is at rest. In order to
{A}
43.
44.
45.
46.
produce a rotational kinetic energy of 1500 J. an angular acceleration of 25 rad sec 2 must be
applied about that axis for duration of .
{A} 4 sec
{B} 2 sec
{C} 8 sec
{D} 10 sec
An automobile engine develops 100kw when rotating at a speed of 1800 r.p.m. what torque does
it deliver ?
{A} 350 Nm
{B} 440 Nm
{C} 531 Nm
{D} 628 Nm
The moment of inertia of two rotating bodies A and B are I A and I B . I A I B and their angular
momentum are equal. If their K.E. be K A and K B respectively then.
{C} KA KB 1
{D} KB KA 1 2
The centre of mass of the disc undergoes S.H.M. with angular frequency equal to..
{A} KA, KB
47.
{A}
48.
k
m
{B} KB KA 1
{B}
2k
m
{C}
2k
3m
Three rings, each of mass P and radius are arranged as shown in the
figure the moment of inertia of the arrangement about YY' axis will be.
2
2
2
2
{A} 7 2 P {B} 2 7 P {C} 2 5 P {D} 5 2 P
118
{D}
4k
3m
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
If distance of the earth becomes three times that of the present distance from the sun then
number of days in one year will be .
{A} 365 3
{B} 365 27
{A} 2
{B}
55.
57.
365
1
2
{C}
{D} 2
A player caught a cricket ball of mass 150 gm moving at a rate of 20 m/s If the catching process
is Comlitad in 0.1 sec the force of the flow exerted by the ball on the hand of the
player .. N
{A} 3
{B} 30
{C} 150
{D} 300
Two disc one of the density 7.2 gm/cc and other of density 8.9 gm/cc are of the same mass
and thickness their moment of inertia are in the ratio of
1
{C} 8.9 7.2
8.9 7.2
Two identical hollow spheres of mass M and radius R are joined
together and the combination is rotated about an axis tangential to
one sphere and perpendicular to the line connecting their centers.
The moment of inertia of the combination is ________.
{B}
2
2
2
{A} 10 MR 2
{B} 4 3 MR
{C} 32 3 MR
{D} 34 3 MR
A rod of length L rotate about an axis passing through its centre and normal to its length with
an angular velocity . If A is the crosssection and D is the density of material of rod. Find
its rotational K.E.
{A}
56.
{D}
365 3 3
3 3
A solid sphere and a solid cylinder having same mass and radius roll down the same incline the
ratio of their acceleration will be.
{A} 15 : 14
{B} 14 : 15
{C} 5 : 3
{D} 3 : 5
The ratio of angular momentum of the electron in the first allowed orbit to that in the second
allowed orbit of hydrogen atom is
{C}
1
2
AL3D
{B}
1
6
AL3 D
{C}
1
24
AL3 D
{D}
1
12
AL3 D
Initial angular velocity of a circular disc of mass M is w1 Then two spheres of mass m are attached
gently two diametrically oppsite points on the edge of the disc what is the final angular velocity
of the disc?
Mm
M 4m
M
M
w1
w1
w1
w1
{A}
{B}
{C}
{D}
M
M
M 4m
M 2m
A circular disc x of radius R is made from an iron plate of thickness t. and another disc Y of
radius 4R is made from an iron plate of thickness t/4 then the rotation between the moment of
{B} I y 32 I x
{C} I y 16 I x
{D} I y I x
59.
the number of rotations made by the pulley before its direction of motion is reversed is :
{A} more than 3 but less then 6
{B}more than 6 but less then 9
{C} more than 9
{D} Less then 3
Two spheres each of mass M and radius R/2 are connected with
a mass less rod of length 2R as shown in figure. What will be
moment of inertia of the system about an axis passing through
centre of one of the spheres and perpendicular to the rod?
21
2
5
5
2
2
2
MR 2
{B} MR
{C} MR
{D} MR
5
5
2
21
Four particles each of mass 'm' are lying symmetrically on the
rim of the disc of mass M and radius R moment of inertia
of this system about an axis passing through one of the particles
and perpendicular to plane of disc is _____
R2
{A} 16 MR 2
{B} 3M 16M
2
R2
{C} 3M 12M
{D} Zero
2
A mass M is supported by a mass less string wound around
a uniform cylinder of mass M and radius R as in figure. With
what acceleration will the mass fall on release?
{A} 2/3g
{B} g/2
{C} g
{D} 4g/3
Calculate rotational K.E. of earth due to its rotation about its own axis.
{A}
60.
61.
62.
M e =610 24 kg Re=6400 Km
63.
{A} 6.2 1029 Joule {B} 2.6 10 29 Joule {C} 62 1029 Joule
{D} 26 1029 Joule
A cord is wound round the circumference of wheel of radius r. the axis of the wheel is horizontal
and moment of inertia about it is I A weight mg is attached to the end of the cord and falls
from the rest. After falling through the distance h. the angular velocity of the wheel will be.
{A}
64.
65.
66.
2 gh
I mr
1
2mgh 2
{B}
2
I mr
1
2mgh 2
{C}
2
I 2mr
{D}
2gh
{D}
3
120
67.
68.
2g
{B}
18g
{C}
7
4g
{D}
3
8g
3
A gramophone record of mass M and radius R is rotating with angular speed W. If two pieces
of wax each of mass M are kept on it at a distance of R/2 from the centre on opposite side
then the new angular velocity will be..
m
M
M m
{B}
{C}
{D}
2
M m
M m
M
A solid cylinder rolls down a smooth inclined plane 4.8m high without slipping what is its
linear speed at the bottom of the plane, if it starts rolling from the top of the plane?
(take g = 10 m/S2)
{A} 4 m/S
{B} 2 m/S
{C} 10 m/S
{D} 8 m/S
The M.I of a disc of mass M and radius R about an axis passing
{A}
69.
70.
MR 2
through the centre O and perpendicular to the plane of disc is
.
2
If one quarter of the disc is removed the new moment of inertia
of disc will be..
{A}
71.
MR 2
3
MR 2
4
{C}
{A}
3
I1
I 2 is.
4 2
{B}
3
82
{C}
3
74.
{D}
3
MR 2
2
162
{D}
3
A molecule consist of two atoms each of mass 'm' and separated by a distance of 'd' If 'K' is
the average rotational K.E. of the molecule at particular temperature then its angular frequency is.
2 k
d m
{B} d 2 k m
{C} 2d m k
{D}
m
k
d
4
A car is moving with a constant speed the wheels of the car make 120 rotations per minute
the breaks are applied and the car comes to rest in 8 sec how many rotation are completed
by the wheels before the car is brought to rest.
{A} 4
{B}
6
{C} 8
{D} 10
The angular momentum of a wheel changes from 2L to 5L in 3 seconds what is the magnitudes
of torque acting on it?
{A} L
{B}
L/2
{C} L/3
{D} L/5
{A}
73.
3
MR 2
8
The moment of inertia of a uniform rod about a perpendicular axis passing through one of its
ends is I1. The same rod is bent in to a ring and its moment of inertia about a diameter is
I2, Then
72.
{B}
121
75.
76.
77.
A uniform disc of mass 500kg and radius 2 m is rotating at the rate of 600 r.p.m. what is
the torque required to rotate the disc in the opposite direction with the same angular speed in
a time of 100 sec ?
{A} 600 Nm
{B} 500 Nm
{C} 400 Nm
{D} 300 Nm
The moment of inertia of a meter scale of mass 0.6kg about an axis perpendicular to the scale
and passing through 30 cm position on the scale is given by (Breath of scale is negligible). ________
{A} 0.104 kg m 2
{B} 0.208 kg m 2
{C} 0.074 kg m 2
{D} 0.148 kg m 2
How much constant force should be applied tangential to equator of the earth to stop its rotation
in one day ?
{A} 1.3 10 22 N
78.
79.
80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
{C} 1.3 10 23 N
{B} 8.26 10 28 N
A constant torque of 1500 Nm turns a wheel of moment of inertia 300 kg m 2 about an axis
passing through its centre the angular velocity of the wheel after 3 sec will be.... rad/sec
{A} 5
{B} 10
{C} 15
{D} 20
A disc of mass M and radius R is rolling with angular
speed w on a horizontal plane, as shown in figure. The
magnitude of angular momentum of the disc about the
origin O is ______
2
2
{A} 1 2 MR
{B} MR 2
{C} 3 2 MR
{D} 2 MR2
A mass m is moving with a constant velocity along the line parallel to the xaxis, away from the
origin. Its angular momentum with respect to the origin
{A} Zero
{B} remains constant {C} goes on increasing {D} goes on decreasing
A body is rolling down an incline plane. If the rotational K.E. of the body is 40% of its translational
K.E. then the body is .
{A} ring
{B} Cylinder
{C} solid sphere
{D} hollow sphere
A spherical ball rolls on a table without slipping, then the fraction of its total energy associated
with rotation is .
{A} 2/5
{B} 3/5
{C} 2/7
{D} 3/7
A binary star consist of two stars A (2.2 Ms) and B(mass 11Ms) where Ms is the mass of sun.
They are separated by distance d and are rotating about their centre of mass, which is stationary.
The ratio of the total angular momentum of the binary star to the angular momentum of star B.
about the centre of mass is _____.
{A} 6
{B}
{C} 12
{D}
A small object of uniform density rolls up a curved surface with initial
85.
{B}
{C}
2V
122
V
2
{D} 2V
GRAPHICAL QUESTIONS.
86.
{A}
87.
{B}
{C}
{D}
{B}
{C}
{D}
The graphs between loge L and loge P is ____ where L is angular momentum and P is
linear momentum
{A}
90.
{D}
The graphs between angular momentum L and angular velocity w will be.
{A}
89.
{C}
{A}
88.
{B}
{B}
{C}
{D}
Let Er is the rotational kinetic energy and L is angular momentum then the graph between
LogeEr and log e L can be
{A}
{B}
{C}
123
{D}
List  II
Moment of inertia
System
(x) A ring about it axis
(1)
MR 2
2
( 2)
2
MR 2
5
(3)
7
MR 2
5
(4) MR 2 s
(5)
9
MR 2
5
92.
Option?
{A}
{B}
{C}
{D}
{P}
{Q}
{R}
{A}
{B}
{C}
{D}
S
124
{S}
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
3g
L
Statement 2 The angular momentum of the rod about the hinge remains constant through out
its fall to the floor.
100 .Statement 1 If the cylinder rolling with angular speed w. suddenly breaks up in to two equal
halves of the same radius. The angular speed of each piece becomes 2w.
Statement 2If no external torque outs, the angular momentum of the system is conserved.
125
2
3
[C]
5
7
[D]
[C]
[D]
7
3
103. The ratio of time taken by the sphere to reach the bottom in case (a) to that in case (b) as
[A]
[A] 1
[B]
[B]
3
2
Passage  II
A uniform disc of mass M and radius R rolls without slipping down a plane inclined at an angle
with the horizontal.
104. The acceleration of the centre of mass of the disc is
2g sin
3
105. The frictional force on the disc is
[A] g sin
[B]
[C]
g sin
3
Mg sin
2 Mg sin
[B]
[C] Mg sin
3
3
106. The magnitude of torque acting on the disc is
[A]
[D]
2g cos
3
[D] None
2MgR sin
MgR sin
[D]
3
3
107. If the disc is replaced by a ring of the same mass M and the same radius R, the ratio of the
frictional force on the ring to that on the disc will be
[A] MgR
[A] 3/2
[C]
[B] 2
[C] 2
Passage  III
A solid cylinder of mass M and R is mounted on a frictionless horizontal
axle so that it can freely rotate about this axis. A string of negligible mass
is wrapped round the cylinder and a body of mass m is hung from the
string as shown in figure the mass is released from rest then___
[D] 1
[B]
mg
[C]
Mm
mg
M
126
[D]
2Mng
M 2m
[B]
Mmg
M m
[C]
2Mmg
M 2m
[D]
Mg
M 2m
110. The angular speed of cylinder is proportional to hn, where h is the height through which mass
falls, Then the value of n is___
[A] zero
[B] 1[C]
[D] 2
111. The moment of inertia of a uniform circular disc of mass M and radius R about any of its diameter
is MR 2 , what is the moment of inertia of the disc about an axis passing through its centre
and normal to the disc?
1
3
2
MR 2
[C] MR
[D] 2MR 2
2
2
112. A solid cylinder of mass M and radius R rolls down an inclined plane of height h. The angular
velocity of the cylinder when it reaches the bottom of the plane will be.
[A] MR 2
[A]
2
gh
R
[B]
[B]
2 gh
R 2
[C]
2 gh
R 3
[D]
1
gh
2R
113. A cylinder of mass m and radius r is rotating about its axis with constant speed v Its kinetic
energy is _____
[A] 2mv2
[B] mv2
[C]
1
2
mv2
[D] mv2
114. A circular disc of mass m and radius r is rolling on a smooth horizontal surface with a constant
speed v. Its kinetic energy is _____
[A]
1
4
mv2
[B]
1
2
mv2
[C]
3
4
mv2
[D] mv2
115. A solid sphere is rotating about a diameter at an angular velocity w. if it cools so that its radius
reduces to 1/n of its original value. Its angular velocity becomes_____
[A] n
[B] n 2
[C] n
[D] n2
116. In above question (115)
If the original rotational K.E. of the sphere is K, Its new value will be_____
[A] K n 2
[B] K n 4
[C] n 2 K
[D] n 4 K
117. A solid sphere is rotating about a diameter due to increase in room temperature, its volume increases
by 5%, If no external torque acts. The angular speed of the sphere will.
[A] increase by nearly 1/3 %
[B] decrease by nearly 1/3 %
[C] increase by nearly %
[D] decrease nearly by %
118. A cylinder of mass M has length L that is
[B]
1
3
[C]
127
[D]
3
2
119. A uniform rod of length L is suspended from one end such that it is free to rotate about an
axis passing through that end and perpendicular to the length, what maximum speed must be imparted
to the lower end so that the rod completes one full revolution?
[A]
2gL
[B] 2 gL
[C]
6gL
[D] 2 2gL
120. The height of a solid cylinder is four times that of its radius. It is kept vertically at time t=o on
a belt which is moving in the horizontal direction with a velocity v = 2.45t 2 where v in m/s
and t is in second. If the cylinder does not slip, it will topple over a time t = ____
[A] 1 second
[B] 2 sec.
[C] 3 sec.
[D] 4 sec.
121. The moment of inertia of a thin rod of mass M and length L about an axis passing through the
point at a distance L/4 from one of its ends and perpendicular to the rod is _____
7 ML2
ML2
ML2
ML2
[B]
[C]
[D]
48
12
9
3
122. A thin uniform rod AB of mass M and length L is hinged at one end A to the horizontal floor.
Initially it stands vertically. It is allowed to fall freely on the floor in the vertical plane. The angular
velocity of the rod when its end B strikes the floor is ____
[A]
[A]
g
L
[B]
2g
L
[C]
3g
L
[D] 2
g
L
123. A circular disc of radius R is free to oscillate about an axis passing through a point on its rim
and perpendicular to its plane. The disc is turned through an angle of 60? and released. Its angular
velocity when it reaches the equilibrium position will be__
[A]
g
3R
[B]
2g
3R
[C]
2g
R
[D] 2
2g
R
124. The moment of inertia of a hollow sphere of mass M and inner and outer radii R and 2R about
the axis passing through its centre and perpendicular to its plane is
3
13
31
62
MR 2
MR 2
MR 2
MR 2
[B]
[C]
[D]
2
32
35
35
125. If a is aerial velocity of a planet of mass M its angular momentum is
[A] M
[B] 2 MA
[C] A 2 M
[D] AM 2
126. A wheel having moment of inertia 2 kg M 2 about its vertical axis, rotates at the rate of 60 rpm
about this axis. The torque which can stop the wheels rotation in one minute will be..
[A]
Nm
Nm
Nm
Nm
[B]
[C]
[D]
15
18
15
12
127. A wheel is rotating at 900 rpm about its axis. When power is cut off it comes to rest in 1 minute,
the angular retardation in rad / sec is ___
[A]
[B]
[C]
[D]
2
4
6
8
128. What is the moment of inertia of a solid sphere of density and radius R about its diameter?
[A]
[A]
105 5
R
176
[B]
176 5
R
105
[C]
128
105 2
R
176
[D]
176 2
R
105
129. A wheel is subjected to uniform angular acceleration about its axis. Initially its angular velocity
is zero. In the first two second it rotate through an angle 1, in the next 2 sec. it rotates through
an angle 2, find the ratio
2
= ____
1
[A] 1
[B] 2
[C] 3
[D] 4
130. A gramophone record of mass M and radius R is rotating at an angular velocity w. A win of
mass M is gently placed on the record at a distance R/2. from its centre. The new angular velocity
of the system is
[A]
2 wM
2M m
[B]
2 wM
M 2m
[C]
[D]
wm
M
KEYNOTE
Q.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Ans
C
A
B
C
D
A
C
C
B
D
B
B
A
A
A
C
B
B
A
B
A
D
B
C
B
C
A
D
B
A
Q.No.
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
Ans
A
C
A
A
A
B
C
B
C
A
B
D
B
B
C
B
D
A
C
A
C
B
C
D
C
D
A
A
A
B
Q.No.
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
Ans
A
B
B
B
D
D
D
C
D
C
C
A
C
A
C
C
A
C
C
B
C
C
A
C
C
D
C
A
B
B
129
Q.No.
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
Ans
D
B
D
A
A
D
D
D
C
A
C
C
D
B
A
D
A
D
D
C
B
C
D
C
D
C
B
A
C
A
Q.No.
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
Ans
A
C
B
D
B
A
A
B
C
A
Hints
1.
M R cm m1 r1 m 2 r2
O = m1 r1 + m 2 r2
m1 r1 m 2 r2
r1
m
= 2
r2
m1
2.
m1
r1
^
^
rA = 0 i + 6 J
Here
^
^
rB = 6 i + 6 J
^
^
rC = 6 i + 0 J
^
^
rD = 0 i + 0 J
M = 1 + 1 + 2 + 2 = 6 gm
M R cm m A rA m B rB m C rC m D rD
3.
m1x1 + m 2 x 2 + m3 x 3
m1 + m 2 + m3
1
(x1 +x2 +x3) =2
3
as m1 = m2 = m3
similtaraly for y = 2
(x, y) = (2, 2)
4.
m1x1 = m2x2
and m1(x1 d) = m2 (x2 d)
m1d = m 2 d '
5.
d' =
m2
m1d
m2
y cm =
130
r2
6.
R 2 m
R
Mass of removed disc = M ' = m =
36
6
R
2
R
+ (M M')x
2
R
+ Mx
2
R
M'
x=
2
M M'
7.
56
Mass of whole Plote = M = m
2
2
42
Mass of removed part = M1 = m
2
M O = Mi ri + M2r2
8.
9.
10.
m1v1 + m 2 v2
m1 + m 2
1 2 1
1
I = I = L
2
2
2
2E
2E'
L=
L' =
'
E=
Let m is the mass of unit area then mass of big disc = (2R)2 m = M
Let m is the mass of unit area then mass of small disc = R2m = M1 =
Mass of remaining Portion = M2 = M M1
M2 =
3M
4
131
M
4
11.
9
9
0 + m 2 + m3
2
2
12.
a2
(m 2 + m3 )
4
Let L is original length & K spring anstant then
m (L + x1) w12 = kx1
&
M (L + x2) w22 = kx2
Taking ratio
2
L + x1
1
x1
= 2
x
L + x2
2
13.
MR 2
1
I = 24 here I =
=
5 (0.3)2 = 0.225kgm 2
2
2
24
24
=
= 106.7 rad s1
I
0.225
2
IA = ma ra , IB = mb rb2
=
14.
r
I
m
B = b b
IA
ma
ra
m r
r
I
B =8= b b = b
IA
m a ra
ra
132
rb
=2
ra
15.
Let M be the mass and R1 the initial radius of the earth 1 is the angular veloalty of the rotation
of the earth, the duration T1 of the day is T1 =
2
2
and T2 =
1
2
16.
17.
m1 = 1
m2 = 35.5
m r + m r
1 1
2 2
rcm =
m1 + m 2
r1 = 0 r2 = 1.27 i
m r + m r
2 2
rcm = 1 1
m1 + m 2
18.
19.
Go
72 1000/3600
=
= 80rad/sec
r
0.25
As 2 = w 2 w o 2
= O, = 2n = 2 20 = 40 rad
20.
= wot +
21.
I=
1
1
MR 2 = ( R 2 t )R 2
2
2
IR 4
22.
1 2
t = 100 rad
2
R
I
1 = 1
I2
R2
As t are same
I = MK2 = 160
K2 =
160 160
=
= 16
m
10
23.
I ring
MR 2
2
=
=
1
I Disc
1
MR 2
2
24.
I A = ISolid =
K=4
2:1
2
MR 2 = 0.4MR 2
5
2
IA < IB
MR 2 = 0.66MR 2
3
As Volume and Mass remain same
and I B = I hollow =
25.
Iring = MR12
ISolid =
2
MR 22
5
R2 <<< R1
133
26.
2
Volume of disc = V1 = R1 t =
Volume of Sphere = V2 =
I1 = M.I of disc = I =
27.
R13
6
4
R 32
3
R 13
4
= R 32
6
3
R13 = 8R 32
R 1 = 2R 2
1
MR 12
2
2
MR 12
I
2
MR 2 =
=
I2 = M.I of sphere =
5
5 2 5
Mass of the ontire disc would be AM and its moment of inertia about the given axis would
be 12 (AM)R 2 . For the given section the moment of inertia about the since axis be one qvarter
28.
of this is 12 (AM)R 2 .
Mass per unit length of the wire =
Mass of L length M = L
When it is lent in form of circularring
2r = L
R=
L
2
3
MR 2
2
1
1 M 1 M2
2
MR
=
M
M.I of disc =
=
2
2 t 2 t
As their mass & thickness are some
M
M
R2 =
=
2
R t
t
Let IZ be the M.I of square plote about the axis passing through the centre and perpendicular
to the plane of square, hence according to Perfendicular axis theorm.
IZ = IAB + IA'B' Also IZ = ICD + IC'D'
I
30.
IZ
2
IZ
2
So we can say that IAB = IA'B' = ICD = IC'D' = I
31.
Let the radius of complete disc is a & that of small disc is b After small disc is cut from complete
disc let the C.M. shift to O2 at distance x2 flem original centre O.
The Position of new C.M. is givenly let 6 is mass percunitarea.
X cm
6b 2 1
=
6a 2 6b 2
134
32.
Let the mass of an element of length dx of the rod located at a distance X away from left
M
dx . the x cordinate of the C.M. is given by..
L
and is
x cm
33.
1
1
=
xdm =
M
AL2
x (Ax dx)
0
1
1
1 mL2 2
2
=
34.
AL2
2
3g sin
L
As here l = 2L
3g sin
2L
O = MV
a
Ma 2
Ma 2 = 3 v
MV = I
+
4v
2
2
6
here I is the M.I of block about the axis perpendicular to the plane passing through O.
35.
36.
Given system of two purtides will rotate about its centre of mass.
L
initial angular momentum = Mv
2
2
L
Final angular momentum 2I = 2M
2
By law of conservation of angular momentum
2
L
V
MV = 2M L =
2
L
2
Initial angular momentum of ring L = I = MR2
Final angular momentum of ring and particles = (MR2 + 2mR2) '
As No external forque so According to Law of conservation of angular momentum.
MR2 = (MR2 + 2mR2) '
' =
wM
(M + 2m)
135
37.
As it is headon elastic collision between two idential balls there fore they will exchange their
linear vecocity is A comes to rest and B starts moving with linear velocity V.
As there is no friction any where, forque on both the spheres about their centre of mass is
zero and their angular velocities remains unchanged.
Therefore A = and B = 0
38.
39.
40.
dI
= 0 = 03 2x 0.7 2 (1.4 x) = 0
dx
x = 0.98 m [B] 0.98 m from mass of 0.3 kg
Angular speed for both wheels are different but lincar speed for both same so VF = Vr
M.I of complete disc about O point
I Total = 12 (gM) R 2
Radius of removed disc =
R
3
i.e. M R 2
As M = R 2
gM
M
g
2
1 R
MR 2
M.I of removed disc about it own axis = M =
2 3
18
2
MR 2
MR 2
2R
+ Mx =
+ M
=
18
2
3
2
E=
L2
= K given K 1 If L is constant when child stretches his arms the moment of inertia
2I
I
2
MR 2 about its axis
5
L = I
L2
2I
43.
E=
44.
Rotational K.E. =
According to
E L2
1 2
I = 1500
2
w = wo + t
136
K
2
45.
= 1800 rpm
2 1800
= 60 rad/sec
60
P =
I2
2I
KA =
J2
2IA
As K =
47.
As M is the mass of disc, the force is producing angular accoration in the disc, therefore
48.
4kx
= m(2 x ) =
3
and
KB =
J2
2IB
46.
4k
3m
3
1
MR 2 and for Ring 3. I3 about YY ' = MR 2
2
2
M.I. of system I = I1 + I 2 + I3
49.
T2 2
r23
=
T12
r13
50.
a=
51.
52.
g sin
(1 + k 2 / R 2 )
a1 =
5g sin
7
and
a2 =
2g sin
3
nh
2
Impulse = Change in momentum = F t
L=
F=
L
t
53.
1
M1R 12
I1
R 12
2
=
= 2
1
I2
R2
M 2R 2 2
2
54.
55.
Rotational K.E. =
56.
If = 0
57.
M ass = Volume = M = R 2t
1 2
I
2
I1w1 = I2w2
1
m1R 12
2
Here direction of Motion will be reversed when force F = 0 or 20 t 5r2 = 0 or t = 4sec.
M.I of x is I x =
58.
137
4t 3
t4
4 64
64
64 =
3
3
which is 3 < 3.4 < 6
n = 3.4
= 2n =
59.
60.
2
2
21
R
R
I = M + M(2R) 2 + M
MR 2
5
2
5
2
5
According to the Parallel axis theorm M.I of disc about an axis passing through particle (3)
1
3
MR 2 + MR 2 = MR 2
2
2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2
mv + I = mv +
mr
2
2
2
2 2
I=
3
m 2ah
4
2
2
MR 2 =
6 1024 (6.4 106 ) 2 = 9.83 1037kgm 2
5
5
Angularvelocity of earth
2
T
1 2
I
2
V
2gh
=
2
2 r + k2
2mgh
mr 2 + mk 2
63.
We know v =
64.
kr = 50% kT
65.
Centre of mass of stick is at midpoint when it is displaced by 600 Its c.m. rises up to height
h from figure h =
l
l
l
cos = (1 cos)
2 2
2
l
(1 cos)
2
1
(1 cos60o ) = 1 Joule
2
138
66.
67.
Mg
l
l
2l
+ mg + mgl = Iw2
3
2
3
14
l
2l
M + m ml 2 =
ml 2
9
3
3
1 14 2 2
ml =
2 9
36g
2 36 g
As V r l
=
14l
3 14l
I = I''
MR 2
R 2
MR 2
=
+ 2m
'
2
4
2
M = (M + m) '
2gh
k2
1+ 2
r
69.
V =
70.
New Mass
3
M
4
M.I of disc =
MR 2
2
1 3 2 3
[C]
M R = MR 2
2 4
8
For a rod of mass M and length L., the MI about a perpendicular axis passing through one
New MI = I ' =
71.
and is I1 =
ML2
3
R=
MR 2
ML2
ML2
=
=
The M.I of the ring about its diameter is I2 =
2
4 2 2
82
2
72.
89l
7
d
d
The M.I of the molecule = M + m
2
2
2
2
d md
I = 2m =
2
4
1 2
The Rotational K.E. of the moldule ( K ) = I
2
2K
=
I
139
73.
2 120
= 4 rad/sec
60
Now = 0 + t
o =
1 2
t
2
dL
5L 2L
3L
=
=
=L
dt
3
3
74.
75.
For disc I =
MR 2
500 4
=
2
2
so angular momentum L = I
angular speed = =
2 600
60
kgm 2
sec
76.
dL
2 1000 20
=
= 400 N.m.
dt
100
By Parallel axis therom solved problem.
77.
w 2 w1
t
Forque required to stop the earth = T = I = F.R.
=
F=
78.
79.
80.
81.
I.
R
d
dt
The disc have two types of motion translational and rotational so there will be two types of
angularmotion there fore total angular momentum should be total of both
= I = I
L = LT + LR
L = Momentum x perpenlicular distance between
point of rotation and line of action
= m.V.y all remain constant
L = remaing constant
R.K.E. =
40
T.K.E
100
1 2
4
1
1
I =
mv 2 = mv 2
2
10
2
5
1
V2
2
mk 2 2 = mv 2
2
r
5
140
82.
83.
1 2 1 2 1
2
1
I + mv =
mr 2 2 + mr 2 2
2
2
2
5
2
Here C.M. wrt A.
Total energy E =
11M5
5d
d=
6
11M5 + 2.2M5
2
d2
5d
LA = 2.2 M 5 w = 55M 5 w
36
6
2
d2
d
LB = 11 M 5 = 11M 5
36
6
84.
At the highest point the whole energy is conserted to P.E. of the object.
P.E. = mgh,
3v 2
h=
4g
PE = mg
3v 2
3mv 2
=
4g
4
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 IV 2
mv + Iw = mv +
2
2
2
2 r2
1
mg 2 = mvh
2
v = 2gh
2gh 2
2
R
87.
88.
89.
90.
v ' = gh
2
MR 2
I R2
5
This relation shows that the graph between I and R will be paracola symatric to I axis
I=
Graph should be paracola symmetric to I  axis, but it should not pass from origin because
there is a constant value Icm plesent for d = 0
L = Iw
L w If I constant so graph between L and w will be straight line with constant
stop and passing from origin.
Er =
L2
so Log Er = 2 log L log (2I)
2I
So the graph log E r log L will be straightline with constant stop and when Log L = 0.
Log Er = log (2I)
141
93.
94.
The correct choice is [D] since the centrifetal force is radial. Forque is zero so L = constant.
The correct choice is [A] If a body slides down an indined plane its acaleration is
a = g (sin cos ) which depends only on g, and .
98.
a=
99.
Icm of hollow cylinder is loss, so it will have more accderation and will take less time to reach
bottom.
Loss in P.E. is equal to gain in rotational K.E. As the centre of mass of the rod falls through
g sin
I
1 + cm 2
mR
the distance
L
2
L 2 ML2 2
Mg I
=
2 2
3
100.
3g
L
If I is the M.I. of the complete cylinder, The M.I of each Riece becomes
the angular speed of each Piece becomes 2.
101.
g sin
5
= g sin
I
7
1 +
2
MR
a1
5
=
a2
7
So
v1
a
= 1
2
a2
v2
v1
=
v2
5
7
d1
1 2
=
at , we find that
d2
2
103.
From d =
104.
Mg sin f = Ma
7
5
a
1
and = fR
MR 2 , =
R
2
1
a
1
Hence fR = MR 2
= MRa
2
R
2
= I .
1
Ma
2
105.
f =
106.
fR =
As I =
f=
Mg sin
3
MgR sin
3
142
I
since L = I,
2
107.
108.
= MR 2 2 = Ma
R
R
2
2
a=
109.
110.
2mg
(M + 2m)
[D]
MMg
M + 2M
From conservation of energy we have
T=
[D]
1
1
MV 2 + I2
2
2
Mgh =
1
11
1
MR 2 2 + MR 2 2 (2m + M) 2 R 2
2
22
4
2
4mgh
=
2
(M + 2m) R
1
As h 2
111.
1
MR 2
4
So Ix I y = Ic =
112.
113.
1
1
1
MR 2 + MR 2 = MR 2
4
4
2
1
MR 2
2
1
1
MV 2 + I2
2
2
V
1
K.E. in Rotation 1 Iw2 Here I mr 2 and =
r
2
2
2
therefore K.E =
114.
1
1
1
v
MR 2 = mr 2
2
2
4
r
Rotational K.E =
K.E =
1 2
1 2
I & Translational K.E = mv
2
2
1
1
Mv 2 + I2
2
2
143
115.
2 2
mr
5
2
2 r
As Iw = I11 = mr 2 1 = m 1
5
5 n
116.
1
n2
K=
1 2
1
I and K1 = I112
2
2
1 = n 2
117.
K1 =
1
2 r
1
2
1
2
m 1 =
mr 2 2 (n 2) 2
2
5 n
2
5
n
K1 =
1
I 2 n 2 kn 2
2
V=
dv
dr
4
=3
log V = log + 3 log r differentiating we have
v
r
3
4 3
r
3
dr
1 dv 1
1
=
=
0.5% = %
r
3 v
3
6
2 2
mr = constant
5
dr
d
d
dr
1
1
+
=0
= 2
= 2 % = %
r
dt
6
3
ve sign for decrensing
2
118.
R2
1
L2
2
I1 = MR , I 2 = M
+
2
12
4
119.
In one full revolution the incrase in P.E = MgL, where M is the mass of rod.
MgL =
120.
1 2 1 ML2 2
I =
2
2 3
The cylinder will topple when the forque mgr equals the forque ma
2gr
g
=
h
2
dV
Now V = 2.45t2 and a =
dt
d
a = [2.45(t) 2 ] = 4.gt
dt
so ma
h
= mgr
2
a=
144
h
2
121.
L L
L
ML2
=
and Icm =
2
4
4
12
d=
ML2
ML2
7ML2
I=
+
=
12
16
48
122.
P.E =
123.
MgL
2
1 2 1 1 ML2 2
I =
2
22 3
Gain in R.E =
MgL
ML22
=
2
6
L
.
2
3g
L
Eqvillibrium at K.E = I 2
2
Here
124.
1
3
MR 2 + MR 2 = MR 2
2
2
1 2
I = Mgh (1 cos 60o )
2
We can obtain hollow sphere as it solid sphere of radius R is removed from a solid sphere
of 2R mass of hollow sphere M = M1 M2 It is density M1 =
4
4
(2R )3 and M 2 = R 3
3
3
28 2
R
3
Moment of inertia of hollow sphere
M =
I=
125.
2
2
M1 (2R) 2 M 2R 2 By substituting the values of M1 and M2
5
5
Areal Velocity A =
A=
R 2 R 2
=
2
2
2
R 2
and T =
2A
R2
L = I
145
126.
I (2 1 )
t
2 1
t
127.
Angular retardation =
128.
For sphere I =
2
2 4 3 2
MR 2 =
R R
5
5 3
129.
From = wt +
1 2
t
2
1 = 0 +
1
(2) 2 = 2
2
1 + 2 = 0 +
130.
1
(4) 2 = 8
2
Where I =
1
MR 2
2
Let w' be the angular velocity after putting coin of mass m at distance R2 from centre the angular
2
momentum of system L' ( I + mr2) ' since T = 0 so L' = L (I + mr ) ' I
' =
1 MR 2
R
I
2
r=
but
=
=
2
2
2
2
1 MR + mr
2
I + mr
2mr
2
1 +
2
MR
2 M
' =
2M + m
146
Unit  6
Gravitational
147
SUMMARY
1.
2.
Gm1 m2
r2
Acceleration due to Gravity
(I)
(II)
GM
9.81ms 2
R2
At a height h from surface of earth
g1
1 R
(III)
g (1
2h
) if h << R
R
d
)
R
g1 = g if d = R i. e. on the surface of earth
(IV) Effect of rotation of earth at latitude
g1 = g R2 cos2
 at the equator = 0
g1 = g R2 = minimum value
 At the pole = 900
g1 = g R2 = maximum value
 At the equator effect of rotation of earth is maximum and value of g is minimum.
 At the pole effect of rotation of earth is zero and value of g is maximum.
Field Strength
Gravitational field strength at a point in gravirtational field is defined as,
g 1 g /(1
3.
F
= gravitational force per unit mass
m
Due to point mass
GM
1
(towards the mass) E 2
2
r
r
Due to solid sphere
E
GM
r
R3
At r = 0, E = 0 at the center
inside points Ei
At r = R, E
GM
i.e. on the surface
R2
GM
1
or E o 2
2
r
r
148
At r , E 0
Due to a sphericell shell inside points E=0
GM
r2
outside points E0 =
GM
R2
on the surface E r graph is discontinuous
on the axis of a ring
Er
GMr
(R2 r 2 )
4.
GM
, i.e. ring behaves as a points mass
r2
As r E 0
Gravitational potential :(i) Gravitational potential at a point in a gravitational field is defined as the negative of work
done in moving a unit mass from infinity to that point per unit mass, thus
Vp
w wp
m
(ii) Due to point mass
V
Gm
rm
v as r 0 and v 0 as r
(iii) Due to solid sphere
inside points Vi
GM
(1.5 R2 0.5r 2 )
R
GM
i.e. on the surface
R
V  r graph is parabola for inside points
as r = R V
GM
r
Due to sphercal shell
inside points Vi
GM
R
outside points Vi
GM
R
149
(v)
GM
R2 r 2
GM
i.e. at center
R
Gravitational potential Energy
(i) This is the work done by gravitational forces in arranging the system from infinite sepration
in the present position
(ii) Gravitational potential energy of two point massess is
at r = 0, V
5.
Gm1m2
r
(iii)
To find the gravitational points energy of more than two points masses we have to make
pairs of masses. Neighter of the pair should be repeated. For example in case of four point
masses.
U
m4 m3 m4 m2 m4 m1 m3 m2 m3 m1 m2 m1
U G
r23
r41
r32
r31
r21
r43
(iv)
n( n 1)
2
If a point mass m is plaled on the surface of earth the potential energy here is Uo
Uo
GMm
R
Uh
GMm
(R h)
v v v
E i j k
x y z
150
7.
Escape velocity
(i)
From the surface of earth
Ve 2 gR
8.
2GM
GM
as g 2
R
R
=11.2 km / sec
(ii) Escape velocity does not depend upon the angle which particle is projected form the surface
and the mass of body
Motion of satellites
GM
r
2
r 3/ 2 T 2 r 3
GM
GMm
2r
GMm
...
r
GMm
r
Keplers laws
 First law :
Each planet moves in an elliptical orbit with the sun at one focus of ellipse
 Second law :
The radius vectors drawn form the sun to a planet, sweeps out equal area in equal time interval
i.e. areal Velocity is constant.
this law is derived from the law of conservation of angular momentum
dA
L
dt
2m = constant here L is the angular momentum and m is mass of planet
 Third law
T 2 r3
where r is semimajor axis of elliptical path
The gravitational force acting between two bodies is always attractive. It is independent of medium
between bodies. It holds good over a wide range of distance. It is an action and reaction pair.
It is conservative force. It is a central force and obey inverse square law as F 1/ r 2
The value of G is never zero any where but the value of g is zero at the center of earth.
the acceleration due to gravity is independent of mass, shape, size etc of falling body.
the rate of decrease of the acceteration due to gravity with height is twice as compared to that
with depth.
It the rate of rotation of earth increases the value of acceleration due to gravity decreases at
all points on the surface of earth except at poles.
151
If the radius of planet decreasees by n% keeping its mas unchanged, the accelreotion due to
gravity on its surface increases by 2n%.
If the mass of a planet increases by n% keeping its radius unchanged the acceleration due to
gravity on its surface increases by n%.
The value of g at a location gives the value of intensity of gravitational field at the location.
The orbital velocity of a satellite is independent of mass of the satellite but depends upon the
mass and radius of planet around which the rotation is taking place
The value of orbital velocity for a satellite near the surface of earth is 7.92 kms1.
The direction of orbital velocity of satellite at an instant is along the tangent to the orbital path
at that instant.
The work done by a satellite in a complete orbit is zero.
For a satellite orbiting close to the surface of earth (h << R), the time period of revolution
2
g / R 0.001237rad / sec
T
A geostationary satellite revolves around the earth from west to east. Its period of revoluton
is one day i.e. 24 hours. The orbital velocity of geostationary satellite is 3.08 kms1. Its height
above the surface of earth is about 36000 km. The relative angular velocity of geostationary
satellite w.r.t earth is zero.
When a satelilte is orbiting in its orbit, no energy is required to keep it in its orbit.
When the total energy of a satellite is negative, it will be moving in either a circular or an elliptical
orbit.
When the total energy of a satellite is zero, it will escape away from its orbit and its path becomes
parabolic.
When the height of satellites is increased its potential energy will increase and K.E. will decrease.
When the velocity of satellite is increased, its total energy will increase and it will start orbiting
in a circular path of larger radius.
For a satellite orbiting in a circular orbit, the value of potenial energy is always greater than
its K.E.
If the velocity of a satellite orbiting the earth is increased by 41.4% or its K.E. is doubled,
then it will escape away from the gravitational field of earth
Escape velocity =.
2 orbital velocity
If the gravitational force is inversely proportional to the nth power of distance r, then the orbital
velocity of a satellite
V0 r
n/ 2
( n 2)
2
When a body is projected horizontally with velocity v, from any height from the surface of earth,
then the following possibilities are there.
(i) If v < v0, the body fails to revolve around the earth and finally falls to the surface of earth.
(ii) If v = v0, the body will revolve around the earth in circular orbit.
(iii) If v < ve the body will revolve around the earth in elliptical orbit.
(iv) If v = ve, the body will escape from the gravitational field of earth.
(v) If v > ve the body will escape, following a hyperbolic path.
152
1
th of its present size without any change in mass, the duration
n
of the day will be nearly 24/n2 hours.
Force function F(r) is related with potential energy function U(r) by a relaion
dU
dr
A given planet will have atmosphere if the root mean square velocity of molecules in its atmosphere
(i.e. Vrms =

In the weightlessness state, the bodies donot have weight but they do possess inertia on account
of their mass. the bodies floating inside the space craft may collide with each other and crash.
If a body is released from a height aqual to n times the radius of earth, then its striking velocity
on the surface of earth is
3RT
) is smaller than escape velocity for that planet.
M
2ngR
n 1
If polar ice caps melt then moment of inertia, Angular velocity will decrease and period of rotaiton
of earth increase.
The, line joining the places on earth having same value of g are called isogams.
Gravity meter and Etvos gravity balance are used to measure changes in accelaration due to
gravity.
153
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Two identical solid copper spheres of radius R are placed in contact with each other. The
gravitational force between them is proportional to
(A) R2
(B) R2
(C) R4
(D) R4
The gravitational force Fg between two objects does not depend on
(A) sum of the masses
(B) product of masses
(C) Gravitational constant
(D) Distance between the masses
The atmosphere is held to the earth by
(A) clouds
(B) Gravity
(C) Winds
(D) None of the above
Two sphere of mass m1 and m2 are situated in air and the gravitational force between them
is F. The space around the masses is now filled with liquid of specific gravity 3. The gravitational
force will now be
(A) F
(B) 3F
(C) F/3
(D) F/9.
A satellite of the earth is revolveing in a circular orbit with a uniform speed v. If the gravitational
force suddennly disappears, the satellite will
(A) Contineue to move with velocity v along the original orbit.
(B) Move with a Velocity v, tangentially to the original orbit.
(C) Fall down with increasing velocity.
(D) Ultimately come to rest somewhere on the original orbit.
Correct form of gravitational law is
Gm1m 2
Gm1m 2
Gm1m 2
Gm1m 2
F
=
F
=
r
F
=
r
(A) F =
(B)
(C)
(D)
2
2
3
r
r
r
r3
Mass M is divided into two parts xM and (1  x) M. For a given separation, the value of
x for which the gravitational force between the two pieces becomes maximum is
(A) 1
(B) 2
(D) 1/2
(D) 4/5
24
The earth (mass = 6 x 10 kg) revolves around the sun with angular velocity 2 107 rad/
sec in a circular orbit of radius 1.5 x 108 km. The force exerted by the sun on the earth is
= ................... N
(A) 18 1025
(b) zero
(C) 27 1039 (D) 36 1021
Two particle of equal mass go round a circle of radius r. Under the action of their mutual
gravitational force.
The speed of each particle is =..................
(A)
10.
11.
1
1
2r Gm
(B)
Gm
2r
(C)
1 Gm
2 r
(D)
4Gm
r
The distance of the moon and earth is D the mass of earth is 81 times the mass of moon.
At what distance from the center of the earth, the gravitational force will be zero
(A) D/2
(B) 12D/3
(C) 4D/3
(D) 9D/10
One can easily Weight the earth by calculating the mass of earth using the formula
(in usual notation)
(A)
g
Re
G
(C)
154
G 2
Re
g
(D)
G 3
Re
g
12.
Three equal masses of m kg each are plced the vertices of an equilateral triangle PQR and
a mass of 2m kg is placed at the centroid 0 of the triangle which is at a distance of 2 m
from each of vertices of triangle. The force in newton. acting on the mass 2m is = ............
13.
14.
15.
(A) 2
(B) 1
(C) 2
(D) zero
Which of the follwing statement about the gravitational constant is true
(A) It is a force
(B) It has no unit
(C) It has same value in all system of unit
(D) It depends on the value of the masses.
Two point masses A and B having masses in the ratio 4 : 3 are seprated by a distance of
lm. When another point mass c of mass M is placed in between A and B the forces A and
C is 1/3rd of the force between band C, Then the distance C form A is = ............... m
(A) 23
(B) 1/3
(C) 1/4
(D) 2/7
The gravitational force between two point masses m1 ans m2 at separation r is given by
mm
F G 1 2 2 The constant k ...............
r
(A) Depends on system of units only.
(B) Depends on medium between masses only.
(C) Depends on both (a) and (b)
(D) is independent of both (a) and (b)
17.
If R is the radius of the earth and g the acceleration due to gravity on the earths surface,
the mean density of the earth is = ...............
(A) 4 G / 3gR
18.
19.
20.
22.
(B) 3 R / 4 gG
(C) 3g / 4 RG
(D) RG / 12 g
g=10ms2.
21.
(B) 4mGMo / Do 2
(C) 4GMo / Do 2
(D) GmMo / Do 2
A body weights 700 g wt on the surface of earth How much it weight on the surface of planet
whose mass is 1/7 and radius is half that of the earth
(A) 200g wt
(B) 1400g wt
(C) 50 g wt
(D) 300g wt.
2
The value of g on he earth surface is 980 cm/sec . Its value at a height of 64 km from the
earth surface is ............... cm52
(a) 960.40
(B) 984.90
(C) 982.45
(D) 977.55
155
23.
24.
25.
If earth rotates faster than its present speed the weight of an object will.
(A) increases at the equator but remain unchanged of the poles.
(B) Decreases at the equator but remain unchanged at poles.
(C) Remain unchanged at the equator but decreases at poles.
(D) Remain unchanged at the equator but increases at the poles.
The moons radius is 1/4 that of earth and its mass is 1/80 times that of the earth. If g represents
the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of earth, that on the surface of the moon is
..............
(A) g/4
(B) g/5
(c) g/6
(D) g/8
The depth of at which the value of acceleration due to gravity becomes 1/n the time the value
of at the surface is (R = radius of earth)
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
( n 1)
n
n
(D) R
n 1
If the density of smalll planet is that of the same as that of the earth while the radius of the
planet is 0.2 times that of lthe earth, the gravitational acceleration on the surface of the planet
is ...............
(A) 0.2g
(B) 0.4g
(c) 2g
(D) 4g
If mass of a body is M on the earth surface, than the mass of the same body on the moon
surfae is
(A) M/6
(B) 56
(C) M
(D) None of these
An object weights 72 N on the earth. Its weight at a height R/2 from earth is = .............. N
(A) 32
(B) 56
(C) 72
(D) zero
If the radius of earth is R then height h at which value of g becomes one  fourth is
(A) R/4
(B) 3R/4
(C) R
(D) R/8
If the mass of earth is 80 times of that of a planet and diameter is double that of planet and
g on the earth is 9.8 ms2 , then the value of g on that planet is = ............... ms2
(A) 4.9
(B) 0.98
(c) 0.49
(D) 49
Assuming earth to be a sphere of a uniform density, what is value of gravitational acceleration
in mine 100 km below the earth surface = ............... ms2
(A) 9.66
(B) 7.64
(C) 5.00
(D) 3.1
Let g be the acceleration due to gravity at earths surface and k be the rotational K.E. of earth
suppose the earths radius decreases by 2% keeping alt other quantities same then
(A) g decreases by 2% and K decreases by 4 %
(B) g decreases by 4% and K increases by 2%
(C) g increases by 4% and K increases by 4%
(D) g decreases by 4% and K increases by 4%
A body weight 500 N on the surface of the earth. How much would it weight half way below
the surface of earth
(A) 125N
(B) 1250N
(C) 500N
(D) 1000N
The radii of two planets are respectively R1 and R2 and their densities are respectively 1 and
2 the ratio of the accelerations due to gravity at their surface is ...............
(A) R/n
(A) g1 : g 2
(B) R
1 2
. 2
2
R1 R2
(C) g1 : g2 R1 2 : R21
(C) R/n2
(B) g1 : g2 R1 R2 : 12
(D) g1 : g2 R1 1 : R22
156
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
At what height over the earths pole, the free fall acceleration decreases by one percent
= .................. km (Re = 6400 km).
(A) 32
(B) 80
(C) 1.253
(D) 64
Weight of a body is maximum at
(A) moon
(B) poles of earth
(C) Equator of earth (D) Center of earth
At what distance from the center of earth, the value of aceeleration due to gravity g will be
half that of the surfaces (R = Radius of earth)
(A) 2R
(B) R
(C) 1.414 R
(D) o.414 R
The acceleration due to gravity near the surface of a planet of radius R and density d is proportional
to
(A) d/R2
(B) dR2
(C) dR
(D) d/R
The acceleration due to gravity is g at a point distance r from the center of earth R. if r < R
then
(A) g r
(B) g r2
(c) g r2
(D) g r1
The density of a newly discoverd planet is twice that of earth. The acceleration due to gravity
at the surface of the planet is equal to that at the surface of earth. If the radius of the earth
is R, the radius of planet would be .....................
(A) 2R
(B) 4R
(C) 1/4 R
(D) .......
Density of the earth is doubled keeping its radius constant then acceleration, due to gravity will
be .................. ms2(g = 9.8 ms2)
(A) 19.6
(B) 9.8
(C) 4.9
(D) 2.45
Weight of body of mass m decreases by 1% when it is raised to height h above the earths
surface. If the body is taken to a depth h in a mine. change in its weight is
(A) 2% decreases
(B) 0.5% decreases
(C) 1% increases
(D) 0.5% increases
If density of earth increased 4 times and its radius becomes half of then out weight will be...
(A) Four times it present calue
(B) doubled
(C) Remain same
(D) halved
A man can jump to a height of 1.5 m on a planet A what is the height ne may be able to
jump on another planet whose density and radius are respectively one quater and one third
that of planet A
(A) 1.5 m
(B) 15 m
(C) 18 m
(D) 28 m
If the value of g acceleration due to gravity, at earth surface fis 10ms2. its value in ms2
at the center of earth, which is assumed to be a sphere of Radius R meter and uniform density is
(A) 5
(B) 10/R
(C) 10/2R
(D) zero
A research satellite of mass 200 kg. circles the earth in an orbit of avrage radius 3R/2 where
R is radius of earth. Assuming the gravitational pull 10 N, the pull on the satellite will be =..........N
(A) 880
(B) 889
(C) 890
(D) 892
Acceleration due to gravity on moon is 1/6 of the acceleration due to gravity on earth. If the
e
ratio of densities of earth e and moon m is 5 3 then radius of moon Rm in terms
m
of Re will be ...............
(A)
5
Re
18
(B)
1
Re
6
(C)
157
3
Re
16
(D)
1
2 3
Re
48.
49.
50.
The acceleration of a body due to the attraction of the earth (radius R) at a distance 2R from
the surface of the earth is = ...............
(g = acceleration due to gravity at the surface of earth)
(A) g/9
(B) g/3
(C) g/4
(D) 9
The height at which the weight of a body becomes 1/16 th its weight on the surface of
(radius R) is
(A) 3R
(B) 4R
(C) 5R
(D) 15R
A spherical planet has a mass Mp and diameter Dp A particle of mass m falling freely near
the surface of this planet will experience an acceleration due to gravity, equal to
(A)
51.
4 GMp
Dp 2
(B)
GMpm
Dp 2
(C)
GMp
Dp 2
(D)
4GMpm
Dp 2
Assuming the earth to have a constant density, point out which of following curves show the
variation acceleration due to gravity from center of earth to points far away from the surface
of earth ...............
53.
54.
G
(M1 M 2 )
d
(B) 2
(C) 2
Gm
( M1 M 2 )
d
(D) 2
2G
(M1 M 2 )
d
Gm (M 1 M 2 )
d ( R1 R2 )
158
55.
A rocket is launched with velocity 10 kms1. If radius of earth is R then maximum height attained
56.
by it will be = ..............
(A) 2R
(B) 3R
(C) 4R
(D) 5R
What is the intensity of gravitational field at the center of spherical shell
Gm
(B) g
(C) zero
(D) None of these
r2
Escape velocity of a body of 1 kg. on a planet is 100 ms1. Gravitational potential energy of
the body at the planet is =............... J
(A) 5000
(B) 1000
(C) 2400
(D) 5000
A body of mass m kg starts falling from a point 2R above the earths surface. Its K.E. when
it has fallen to a point R above the Earths surface = .....................
[R  Radius of Earth, Mmass of Earth GGravitational constant]
(A)
57.
58.
1 GMm
1 GMm
2 GMm
1 GMm
(B)
(C)
(D)
2 R
6 R
3 R
3 R
The Gravitational P.E. of a body of mas m at the earths surface is mgRe. Its gravitational
potential energy at a height Re from the earths surface will be = ............ here
(Re is the radius of the earth)
(A)
59.
1
1
mg Re
(D) mg Re
2
2
A body is projected vertically upwards from the surface of a planet of radius R with a velocity
equal to half the escape velocity for that planet. The maximum height attained by the body is
..........
(A) R/3
(B) R/2
(C) R/4
(D) R/5
Energy required to move a body of mass m from an orbit of radius 2R to 3R is ................
(A)
60.
61.
2 mgRe
(B) 2 mgRe
(C)
GMm
G m
G m
G m
(B)
(C)
(D)
2
2
12R
3R
8R
6R
Radius of orbit of satellite of earth is R. Its K.E. is proportional to
(A)
62.
1
1
1
(B)
(C) R
(D)
R
R
R 3 /2
A particle falls towards earth from infinity. Its velocity reaching the earth would be.............
(A)
63.
(A) infinity
64.
66.
(C) 2 gR
2gR
(D) zero
The escape velocity of a sphere of mass m from earth having mass M and Radius R is given by
(A)
65.
(B)
2GM
R
(B) 2
GM
R
(C)
2GMm
R
(D)
GM
R
The escape velocity for a rocket from earth is 11.2 kms1 value on a planet where acceleration
due to gravity is double that on earth and diameter of the planet is twice that of earth will be
= ........... kms1
(A) 11.2
(B) 22.4
(C) 5.6
(D) 53.6
1
The escape velocity from the earth is about 11 kms . The escape velocity from a planet having
twice the radius and the same mean density as the earth is =............ kms1.
(A) 22
(B) 11
(C) 5.5
(C)15.5
159
67.
If g is the acceleration due to gravity at the earths surface and r is the radius of the earth,
the escape velocity for the body to escape out of earths gravitational field is.................
(A) gr
68.
69.
(B)
(B)
GM
r
(C)
Ve
2
(B)
Ve
2
(C)
(B) 12800
2GM
r
Ve
2 2
(D)
(D)
(C) 3200
2GM
R2
4GM
r
Ve
4
(D) 1600
The escape velocity of a planet having mass 6 times and radius 2 times as that of earth is..........
3 Ve
(B) 3 Ve
(C)
2 Ve
(D) 2Ve
There are two planets, the ratio of radius of two planets is k but the acceleration due to gravity
of both planets are g what will be the ratio of their escape velocity.
1/ 2
kg
(B) kg
1/ 2
(C)
kg
(D)
kg
The escape velocity of a body on the surface of the earth is 11.2 km/sec. If the mass of the
earth is increases to twice its present value and the radius of the earth becomes half, the escape
velocity becomes = ............... kms1
(A) 5.6
77.
(D)
An artificial satellite is revolving round the earth in a circular orbit. its velocity is half the escape
velocity. Its height from the earth surface is = ............... km
(A)
76.
(C) 2GMR
The escape velocity of a body from earths surface is Ve. The escape velocity of the same
body from a height equal to 7 R from earths surface will be
(A)
75.
8
8
GR
G (B) M
3
3
Two small and heavy sphere, each of mass M, are placed distance r apart on a horizontal surface
the gravitational potential at a mid point on the line joining the center of spheres is
(A) 6400
74.
(D) m1
The escape velocity of an object from the earth depends upon the mass of earth (M), its mean
density (), its radius (R) and gravitational constant (G), thus the formula for escape veloctiy is
(A)
73.
(C) m0
(B) m
(A) zero
72.
(A) R
71.
(D) r/g
70.
(C) g/r
2gr
(B) 11.2
(C) 22.4
(D) 494.8
1
1
Given mass of the moon is
of the mass of the earth and corresponding radius is
of
81
4
1
the earth, If escape velocity on the earth surface is 11.2 kms the value of same on the surface
of moon is = ....... kms1.
(A) 0.14
(B) 0.5
(C) 12.5
(D) 5
160
78.
3 particle each of mass m are kept at vertices of an equilateral triangle of side L. The gravitational
field at center due to these particies is ................
(A) zero
79.
3GM
L2
(C)
9Gm
L2
12 Gm
(D) 3 L2
Escape velocity on the surface of earth is 11.2 kms1 Escape velocity from a planet whose masses
the same as that of earth and radius 1/4 that of earth is = ....... kms1
(A) 2.8
80.
(B)
(B) 15.6
(C) 22.4
(D) 44.8
The velocity with which a projectile must be fired so that it escapes earths gravitational does
not depend on ..................
(A) mass of earth
(B) Mass of the projectile
(C) Radius of the projectiless orbit
(D) Gravitational constant
81.
The escape velocity for a body projected vertically upwards from the surface of earth is 11
kms1. If the body is projected at an angle of 450 with the vertical, the escape velocity will
be ............kms1.
(A)
82.
11
2
84.
(B) 2 Ve
(C) 4 Ve
(D) Ve/2
(B)
GM
a
(C)
2GM
a
(D)
3GM
a
The mass and radius of the sun are 1.99 x 1030 kg and R = 6.96 x 108 m. The escape
velocity of rocket from the sun is =.......... km/sec
(A) 11.2
86.
(D) 11
A particle of mass 10g is kept on the surface of a uniform sphere of mass 100 kg and radiius
10 cm. Find the work to be done aginst the gravitational force between them to take the particle
is away from the sphere (G = 6.67 1011 SI unit)
(A)
85.
(C) 22
The acceleration due to gravity on a planet is same as that on earth and its radius is four times
that of earth. What will be the value of escape velocity on that planet if it is Ve on the earth
(A) Ve
83.
(B) 11 2
(B) 12.38
(C) 59.5
(D) 618
The mass of a space ship is 1000 kg. It is to be lauched from earths surface out into free
space the value of g and R (radius of earth) are 10ms2 and 6400 km respectively the required
energy for this work will be = ................. J
(A) 6.4 1011
87.
88.
The diagram showing th variation of gravitational potential of earth with distance from the center
of earth is
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
A shpere of mass M and Radius R2 has a concentric cavity of Radius R1as shown in figure.
The force F exerted by the shpere on a particle of mass m located at a distance r from the
center of shhere varies as (O r )
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
162
89.
90.
91.
Which one of the following graphs represents correctly the variation of the gravitational field
with the distance (r) from the center of spherical shell of mass M and radius a
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
Which of the following graphs represents the motion of a planet moving about the sun.
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
The curves for P.E. (U) K.E. (Ek) of two particle system ae shown in figure . At what points
systemwill be bound.
(A) Only at point D
Ek
(B) Only at point A
(C) At point D and A
(D) At points A, B and C
163
Energy
The correct graph representing the variation of total energy (E) kinetic energy (K) and potential
energy (U) of a satellite with its distance from the centre of earth is...........
Energy
92.
Energy
(B)
Energy
(A)
(C)
93.
94.
(D)
A shell of mass M and radius R has a point mass m placed at a distance r from its center.
The gravitational potential energy U(r) v will be
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
Motion of satellite
If Ve and Vo are represent the escape velocity and orbital velocity of satelllite correspoinding
to a circular orbit of radius r, then
(A) Ve = Vo
(B) 2 Vo Ve
95.
If r represents the radius of the orbit of a saltellite of mass m moving around a planet of mas
M, the velocity of the satellite is given by
(A) 2
96.
gM
r
99.
100.
101
102
103.
(C)
GM
r
(D) 2
GM
r
(B) V1 < V2
V1 V2
(D) r r
1
2
(C) V1 > V2
A satellite which is geostationary in a particular orbit is taken to another orbit. Its distance from
the centere of earth in new orbit is two times of the earlier orbit. The time period in second
orbit is .........hours.
(a) 4.8
98.
GMm
r
Two satellites of mass m1 and m2 (m1 > m2 ) are revolving round the earth in cirular orbits
of r1 and r2 ( r1 > r2) respectively. Which of the following statement is true regarding their
speeds V1 and V2
(A) V1 = V2
97.
(B) 2
(B) 48 2
(C) 24
(D) 24 2
As astronaut orbiting the earth in a circular orbit 120 km above the surface of earth,gently drops
a spoon out of spaceship. The spoon will
(A) Fall vertically down to the earth
(B) move towards the moon
(C) Will move along with sapace  ship
(D) Will move in an irregualr way then fall down to earth
The period of a satellite in cirular orbit around a planet is independent of
(A) the mass of the planet
(B) the radius of the planet
(C) mass of the satellite
(D) all the three parameters (A), (B) and (C)
Two satellites A and B go round a planet p in circular orbits having radii 4 R and R respectively
if the speed of the satellite A is 3V, the speed if satellite B will be
(A) 12V
(B) 6V
(C) 4/3 V
(D) 3/2 V
A small satellite is revolveing near earths surface. Its orbital velocity will be nearly
= .......... kms1.
(A) 8
(B) 4
(C) 6
(D) 11.2
A satellite revolves around the earth in an elliptical orbit. Its speed
(A) is the same at all points in the orbit
(B) is greatest when it is closest to the earth
(C) is greatest when it is farthest to the earth
(D) goes on increasing or decresing continuously
depending upon the mass of the satellite
If the height of a satellite from the earth is negligible in comparison of the radius of the earth
R, the orbital velocity of the stellite is ............
(A) gR
(B) gR/2
(C)
165
g/R
(D)
gR
104
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
A satellite is moving around the earth with speed v in a circular orbit of radius r. If the orbit
radius is decreasd by 1% its speed will
(A) increase by 1%
(B) increase by 0.5%
(C) decrrease by 1%
(C) Decrrease by 0.5%
orbital velocity of an artifiicial satellite does not depend upon
(A) mass of earth
(B) mass of satellite
(C) radius of earth
(D) acceleration due to gravity
orbital velocity of eaths satellite near the surface is 7 kms1. when the radius of orbit is 4 times
that of earths radius, then orbital velocity in that orbit is =........kms1
(A) 3.5
(B) 17
(C) 14
(D) 35
Two identical satellites are at R and 7R away from each surface, the wrong statement is
(R  Radius of earth)
(A) ratio of total energy will be 4
(B) ratio of kinetic energes will be 4
(C) ratio of potential energies will be 4
(D) ratio of total energy will be 4 but ratio of potential and kinetic energies will be 2
Which one of follwoing sttements regarding artificial satellite of earth is incorrect
(A) The orbital velocity depends on the mass of the satellite
(B) A minimum velocity of 8kms1 is required by a satellite to orbit quite close to the earth.
(C) The period of revolution is large if the radius of its orbit is large
(D) The height of geostationary satellite is about 36000 km from earth
The weight of an astronuat, in an artificial satellite revolving around the earth is
(A) zero
(B) Equal to that on the earth
(C) more than that on earth
(D) less than that on the earth
The distance of a geostationary satellite from the center of the earth (Radius R= 6400km)
is nearest to
(A) 5R
(B) 7R
(C) 10R
(D) 18R
A geostationary satellite is orbiting the earth of a height of 6R above the surface of earth, R
being the radius of earth. The time period of another satellite at a height of 2.5 R from the
surface fo earth is = ...............hr
(A) 6
112.
(B) 6 2
(C) 10
(D) 6 / 2
1
1
(and not as 2 )where
R
R
R is separation between them, then a particle in circular orbit under such a force would have
its orbital speed v proportional to
1
1
(B) R0
(C) R1
(D)
2
R
R
A satellite moves around the earth in a circular orbit of radius r with speed v, If mass of the
satellite is M , its total energy is
(A)
113.
(A)
1
MV 2
2
(B)
1
MV 2
2
(C)
166
3
MV 2
2
(D) MV2
114.
A satellite with K.E. Ek is revolving round the earth in a circular orbit. How much more K.E.
should be given to it so that it may just escape into outerspace ?
(A) Ek
115.
116.
117.
118.
119.
120.
121.
(B) 2 Ek
(D) 3 Ek
Potential energy of a satellite having mass m and rotating at a height of 6.4 x 106 m from
the surface of earth
(A) 0.5 mg Re
(B) mg Re
(C) 2mgRe
(D) 4 mgRe
When a satellite going round the earth in a circular obrit of radius r and speed v loses some
of its energy, then r and v changes as
(A) r and v bothe will increase
(B) r and v both will decease
(C) r will decrease and v will increase
(D) r will increase and v will decrease
The time period of a satellite of earth is 5 hours If the sepration between the earth and the
satellite is increased to four times the previous value, the new time period will become ...... hours
(A) 10
(B) 120
(C) 40
(D) 80
A person sitting in a chair in a satellite feels weightless because
(A) the earth does not attract the objects in a satellite
(B) the normal force by the chair on the person balances the earths attraction
(C) the normal force is zero
(D) the person in satellite is not accelerated
Two satellites A and B go round a planet in cirular orbits having radii 4R and R respectively
If the speed of satellite A is 3v, then speed of satellite B is
(A) 3v/2
(B) 4v/2
(C) 6v
(D) 12v
A satellite moves in a circle around the earth, the radius of this circlr is equal to one half of
the radius of the moons orbit the satellite completes one revolution in .........lunar month
(A) 1/2
(B) 2/3
(C) 23/2
(D) 123/2
The additional K.E. to be provided to a satellite of mass m revolving around a planet of mass
M, to transfer it from a circular orbit of radius R1 to another radius R2 (R2 > R1) is
1
1
2
2
R2
R1
(A) G M m
1
1
R2
R1
(C) 2 G M m
122.
1
Ek
2
(C)
1
1
R2
R1
(B) G M m
(D)
1
1
1
GMm
2
R2
R1
123.
124.
A satellite of mass m is orbiting close to the surface of the earth (Radius R = 6400 km) has
a K.E. K. The corresponding K.E. of satellite to escape from the earths gravitational field is
(A) k
(B) 2 k
(C) mg R
(D) m k
A planet moving along an elliptical orbit is closest to the sun at a distance r 1 and farthest away
at a distance of r2. If v1 and v2 are the liner velocities at these points respectively, then the
v1
ratio v is ............
2
r1
(A) r
2
125.
r1
(B)
r2
r2
(C) r
1
r1
(D)
r2
The time period T of the moon of planet Mars(Mm) is related to its orbital radius R as
(G = Gravitational constant)
4 2GR 2
(B) T
Mm
4 R 2
(A) T
GMm
2 R 2G
(d) T2 = 4 Mm GR2
Mm
A geostationary satellite is orbiting the earth at a height of 5 R above that of surface of the
earth. R being the radius of the earth. The time period of another satellite in hours at a height
of 2R from the surface of earth is ............ hr
(C) T 2
126.
127.
128.
129.
130.
(A) 5
(B) 10
(C) 6 2
(D) 6 / 2
The figure shows ellipticall orbit of a planet m about the sun s. the shaded area SCD is twice
the saded area SAB. If t1 is the time for the planet to move from C and D and t2 is the time
to move from A to B then
(A) t1 > t2
(B) t1 > 4t2
(C) t1 = 2t2
(D) t1 = t2
The period of a satellite in a circular orbit of radius R is T. the period of another satellite
in a circular orbit of radius 4R is
(A) 4T
(B) T/4
(C) 8T
(D) T/8
If the earth is at one fourth of its present distance from the sun the duration of year will be
(A) half the pesent Year
(B) oneeight the present year
(C) onefourth the present year
(D) onesixth the present year
The orbital speed of jupiter is
(A) greater than the orbital speed of earth
(B) less than the orbital speed of earth
(C) equal to the orbital speed of earth
(D) zero
168
131.
132.
133.
134.
Keplers second law regarding constancy of aerial velocity of a palnet is consequence of the
law of conservation of
(A) energy
(B) angular Momentum
(C) linear momentum
(D) None of these
The largest and shortest distance of the earth from the sun are r1 and r2 its distance from
the sun when it is at the perpendicular to the major axis of the orbit drawn from the sun
r1 r2
2r1 r2
r1 r2
r1 r2
(A)
(B) r r
(C) r r
(D)
4
3
1
2
1
2
According to keplar, the period of revolution of a planet (T) and its mean distance from the
sun (r) are related by the equation
(A) T 3 r 3 cons tan t
A satellite of mass m is circulating around the earth with constant angular velocity. If radius of
the orbit is Ro and mass of earth M , the angular momentum about the center of earth is
(A) m GMRo
(C) m
135.
136.
137.
138.
139
(B) M GMRo
GM
Ro
(D) M
GM
Ro
The earth E moves in an elliptical orbit with the sun s at one of the foci as shown in figure.
Its speed of motion will be maximum at a point ..........
(A) C
(B) A
(C) B
(D) D
The period of revolution of planet A around the sun is 8 times that of B. The distance of A
from the sun is how many times greater than that of B from the sun.
(A) 2
(B) 3
(C) 4
(D) 5
The earth revolves round the sun in one year. If distace between then becomes double the new
period will be .......... years.
(A) 0.5
(B) 2 2
(C) 4
(D) 8
The maximum and minimum distance of a comet from the sun are 8 x 1012m and 1.6 x 1012
m. If its velocity when nearest to the sun is 60 ms1, What will be its velocity in ms1 when
it is farthest ?
(A) 6
(B) 12
(C) 60
(D) 112
The period of moons rotation around th earth is nearly 29 days. If moons mass were 2 fold
its present value and all other things remained unchanged the period of moonss rotation would
be nearly .....days
(A) 29 2
(B) 29 / 2
(C) 29 2
169
(D) 29
140.
141.
142.
143.
144.
145.
2GM
(4 2 5)
7R
(B)
2GM
(4 2 5)
7R
(C)
GM
4R
(D)
2GM
( 2 1)
5R
Suppose the gravitational force varies inversely as the nth power of distance the time period
of planet in circular orbit of radius R around the sun will be proportional to
n 1
146.
147.
Rn
n 2
(D) R
(A) R
(B) R
(C)
If the radius of the earth were to shrink by 1% its mass remaing the same, the accelration due
to gravity on the earths surface would
(A) decrease by 2%
(B) remain Unchanged
(C) increase by 2%
(D) increases by 1%
A body of mass m is taken from earth surface to the height h equal to radius of earth, the
increase in potential energy will be
(A) mg R
148.
n 1
1
(B) 2 mgR
(C) 2 mgR
1
(D) 4 mgR
An artificial satellite moving in a circular orbit around earth has a total (kinetic + potential lenergy)
Eo, its potential energy is
(A) Eo
(B) 1.5 Eo
(C) 2 Eo
(D) Eo
170
149.
Two bodies of masses m1 and m2 are initially at rest at infinite distance apart. They are then
allowed to move towards each other under mutual agravitational attraction Their relative velocity
of apporach at sepration distance r between them is
2 G ( m1 m 2 )
(A)
1
2
2
r
(C)
2 G m1 m 2
150.
2 G ( m1 m 2 ) 2
(B)
(D)
2 G m1 m 2 2
r
A geostationary satellite orbits around the earth in a circular orbit of radus 3600 km the time
period of a satellite orbiting a few hundred kilometers above the earths surface (Rearth = 6400
km) will approximately be = ...... h
(A) 1/2
(B) 1
(C) 2
(D) 4
KEY NOTE
1.C
2.A
3. B
4. A
5. B
6. C
7. A
8. D
9. C
10. D
11. B
12. D
13. A
14. A
15. A
16. C
17. C
18. C
19. D
20. C
21. B
22. A
23. B
24. B
1.C
25. B
2 . A 25. B
26. A
3. B
27. C
26. A
4. A
28. A
27.
C
5. B
29. C
6. C 28. A
30. C
7. A 29. C
31. A
8. D
32. C
9. C 30. C
33. B
10. D 31. A
34. D
11. B 32. C
35. A
12. D
26. B
33.
B
13. A
27. C
14. A 34. D
38. C
15. A 35. A
39. A
16. C
40. D
17. C 26. B
41. A
18. C 27. C
42. B
19. D 38. C
43. B
20. C
44. C
39.
A
21. B
45. D
40.
D
22. A
46. B
23. B 41. A
47. A
24. B
48. A
42. B
43. B
44. C
45. D
46. B
47. A
48. A
49. C
50.C
A
49.
51. C
50.
A
52. A
51.
53.C
A
54.A
A
52.
55.
53. AC
56. C
54.
57.A
A
58.CB
55.
59.CD
56.
60. A
57.
61.A
D
58.
62.B
A
63.
59. DB
64. A
60.
A
65.B
61.
66.D
A
67.A
B
62.
68. C
63.
69.BC
64.
70.A
A
71.
65.BD
72. C
66. A
67. B
68. C
69. C
70. A
71. D
72. C
73. A
74.73.
A A
75. A
74. A
76. C
77.75.
C A
78.76.
A C
79.77.
C C
80. B
81.78.
D A
82.79.
B C
83.80.
B B
84. D
85.81.
D D
86.82.
D B
87.83.
C B
88. B
89.84.
D D
90.85.
C D
91.86.
D D
92. C
93.87.
C C
94.88.
B B
95.89.
D D
96. B
90. C
91. D
92. C
93. C
94. B
95. D
96. B
171
97. B
121 D
98. C97. B122. C
99. C
98. C123 B
100. B
124. C
99.
C
101. A
125. A
102. B100.126.
B C
103. D
127.
101. A C
104. B
128. C
B B
105. B102.129.
106. A103.130.
D B
107. D
104.131.
B B
108. A
132. C
B B
109. A105.133.
110. B106.134.
A A
111. D107.135.
D B
112. B
136. C
A B
113. A108.137.
A A
114. A109.138.
115. A110.139.
B D
116. C
140. B
D C
117. D111.141.
B C
118. C112.142.
119. C113.143.
A D
120. C
144.A
114. A
115. A
116. C
117. D
118. C
119. C
120. C
145. A
146.DC
121
147. B
122.
C
148. C
123
149.BB
150.CC
124.
125. A
126. C
127. C
128. C
129. B
130. B
131. B
132. C
133. B
134. A
135. B
136. C
137. B
138. A
139. D
140. B
141. C
142. C
143. D
144.A
145. A
146. C
147. B
148. C
149. B
150. C
HINT
4
G ( R 3. )2
4
3
2 2 R4
2
4R
3
(1)
)
(c) F G (m)(m
2
(2 R)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
F xm ( x 1) m m 2 x ( x 1)
for maximum force
dF
0
dx
dF
m2 2 m2 x 0 x 1/ 2
dx
(C) cenripetal force provided by the gravitational force of attraction between two particites
(9)
m 2 G ( m )( m )
r
(2 r ) 2
Gm
r
1
2
(D  X)
(10)
(D)
For will be zero at the point of zero intensity
x
11.
12.
m1
m1
m2
81m
9
D
D
10
81m m
B mg
GM e m
where Me and Re is the mass and radius of the earth respectivel
Re 2
Me
g
Re 2
G
F FOA FOB FOC
G (m) (2m)
r2
172
14.
= 0
(A) let a point mass C is placed at a distance of x m from the point mass A as show in figure
mA
here
m
C
(1x)
mB
ma 4
3
mb
G (m)(mA)
.........(i )
x2
G (m)(mB)
FBC
.........(ii)
(1 x )2
FAC
1
FBC
4
G (m)(mA) 1 G (m)(mB )
x2
3 (1 x) 2
mA
x2
4
x2
x2
mB 3(1 x) 2
3 3(1 x) 2
(1 x) 2
x
2 2x x
1 x
3x 2
17.
(c) g
x 23 m
GM
4
and M R 3
2
R
3
G 4
3g
. R3
2
R 3
4 RG
(c) for condition of weight lessness at equator
g
18.
19.
10
1
rad sec
3
6400 10
800
l g'
20.
GM
GMo
4GMo
(C) g R 2 ( Do 2) 2 Do 2
21.
GM
R2
GM 7
4 7g
R2 4
4
= 400 gm t
7
22.
g ' R 6400
2
g ' 960.400 ms
g ( R h) 6400 64
23.
g 1 g 2 R Cos 2
Rotation of the earth results in the decreased weight apparently.this decrease in weight is not
felt at the poles as the angle of latitude is 90
24.
GM
(B) using g R 2
25.
1
(B) g g (1
26.
4
(A) g GR
3
we get gm = g/5
d
(n 1)
)d
R
R
n
g' R'
27.
28.
R 4
R
(a) g ' g
g
g
Rh
R R2 9
4
W' 4/9 w (72) 32 N
9
2
29.
R
9 / 4 by solving h R
(c) g ' g
Rh
30.
Mp Re
1 2 9.8
0.49ms 2
(c) g p g e
9.8 (2)
Me
Rp
80
20
31.
d
100
2
(A) g' g 1 9.8 1
9.66 ms
R
6400
174
32.
(C) g
GM
2
and k = L 2I
2
R
1
1
k 2
2 and
R
R
i.e. if radius of earth decreases by 2% then g and k both increase by 4%
(B) Weight on surface of earth, mg = 500N and weight below the surface of earth at
If mass of the earth and its angular momentum ramains constant then g
33.
d =
R
mg
d
250N
, mg1 = mg 1 mg 1 1/2
2
2
R
34.
4
(D) g GR
3
35.
(A) g
g1
g2
R1 1
R 2 2
GM g 1 or r 1
r2
g
r2
1
6400 32 km
2 100
37.
1
R
R
R h 2 R h
(C) g ' g
2 Rh
Rh
38.
(C) g
39.
40.
(D) g
4
Gr g ' r
3
Rp g p
4
GR
Re g e
3
Rp
41.
(A) g
42.
Re R
2
2
g
24
100%
100 %
g
4
For depth
43.
e
1
(1)
2
p
g
d h
100% 1/2 0.5
g
R R
(B) g R
175
2 1 R 0.414 R
44.
(C) H
V2
1
H
g
H
B A
2g
g
HA gB
Now g B
gA
as g R
12
HB g A
12 HB 12 HA 12 1.5 18 m
HA gB
46.
2
R
R
2
47.
4
g e e Re
(A) g 3 GR g R g . Rm
m
m
6 5 Re
.
1 3 Rm
Rm
5
Re
18
48.
R
R
(A) g ' g
g
g /9
R 2R
R 2R
49.
(C) g '
g
(1 h / R) 2
g
g
16 (1 h / R ) 2
2
h
1 16
R
1
h
4
R
h
3
R
h 3R
50.
Fg
GMpm
(Dp / 2) 2
176
Fg 4GMp
m
Dp 2
51.
52.
(A) I
53.
(A) U
1
(it r R)
r2
dv
dx
GMm
r
6.67 10 11 7 10 22 6 10 24
r
7.79 10 28
r 3.8 108 m
54.
(A) V
GM 1
GM 2
d /2
d /2
Now P.E mv
2GM
(m1 m2 ) (m mass of particie)
d
K.E = P.E
1 2 2GM
m
(m1 m2 )
2
d
2
55.
(C) If the body is projected with velocity ( Ve) then height up to where it rises
57.
G(M1 M 2 )
d
R
2
Ve
1
V2
11.2
10
(A) Ve 2GM
R
100
58.
4 R(approx)
P.E. U
GMm
5000 J
R
GM
R
GM
5000
R
(B) P.E. U
Uinitial =
GMm GMm
r
Rh
GMm
GMm
and Ufinal =
3R
2R
GMm
GMm
GMm
=
2R
3R
6R
177
59.
(D) U U 2 U1
mgh
mgRe mgRe
1 h/Re 1 Re
2
Re
U 2 ( mg Re)
60.
mg Re
2
(A) If body is projected with velocity ( Ve) then height up to which it will rise
R
but u ve/2 h
Ve
1
Ve/2
61.
1
U 2 mgRe
2
R
R/3
4 1
6R
2 R 3 R
r1 r2
GMm
1
K.E.
2R
R
62.
(A) K.E =
63.
64.
(A) A Escape velocity does not depend on the mass of the projectile
65
(B) Ve
Vp
g p Rp
.
22 2
g e Re
2GM
R
R
66.
(A) Ve
69.
since the planet is having double radius incomparision to earth therefore the escape velocity
becomes twice i.e. 22 kms1
(C) Because it does not depend on the mass of projetile
71.
(D)
Ve R if constant
Gravitational potential of A at 0
GM
2GM
r /2
r
of B at 0
GM
2GM
r /2
r
Total potential at 0
4GM
r
178
72.
V1
V2
73.
1
where r is the position of body from the surface
r
(C) Ve
r2
r1
(A) V
R 7R
V
2 2 V2 1
R
2 2
GM
1 2GM
R h 2
R
4R 2(R h)
h R 6400 km
Vp
Ve
Mp Re
1
6 3 Ve 3 Ve
Me Rp
2
74.
(A)
75.
(A)
76.
(C) Ve
77.
(C)
78.
2.5 kms1
R R 9
R
9
(A) Due to three particles net intensity at the center
2gR
V1
V2
g1 R1
.
gk (kg)1/2
g2 R2
2GM
M
Ve
R
R
If M becomes double and R becomes half then escape velocity; becomes two times
on earth Ve =
2GM
11.2 kms 1
R
on moon Vm
I I A IB I C 0
80.
1
1
if R becomes
then Ve will be 2 times
4
R
(D) Escape velocity does not depends upon the angle of projection
82.
(B)
83.
Ve = 2Ve
(B) potential energy of system of two mass
79.
(C)
Ve
2gR
g Rp
Vp
p.
1 4 2
Ve
g e Re
6.67 10 10 J
2
R
10 10
so, the amount of work done to take the particle up to infinte will be 6.67 1010 J
179
84.
Vp = Vsphere + Vpartical
(D)
85.
(D) Ve =
86.
(D)
2GM
=
R
GM GM 3GM
a
a/2
a
m
GMm GMm
W 0 gR 2 mgR
R
R
R
1000 10 6400 103
64 109
6.4 1010 J
GM
R
87.
(C)
Vin
88.
(B)
F 0 When 0 r R1
Vsurface
GM
R
Vout
GM
r
89.
(D)
1
when r R 2
R
1
when r > a
r2
90.
91.
92.
(C)
93.
U
GMm
GMm
GMm
K
and E
r
2r
2r
For satellite U, K, and E varies with r and also U and E remains negativw where K reamin
always positive
(C) Gravitational P.E. = m x gravitational potential U = mv so the graph of U will be same
as that of V for a spherical shell
94.
(B) Ve 2gR
96.
(B)
and V0 gR
Ve
GM
it r1 r2 then V1 V2
r
180
2 V0
97.
(B) T r
if r becomes double then time period will become (2)3/2 times so new time period
will be 24 x 2 2 hr i.e. = 48
98.
(C)
The velocity of the spoon will be equal to the orbital velocity when dropped out of the
space ship
100.
(B)
VA 3V
VB VA
104.
(B)
GM
V
A
R
VB
RB
RA
R
1
4R 2
VB 6V
1
r
% increase in speed =
=
1
% decrease in radius
2
1
(1%) = 0.5 %
2
105.
(B)
GM
r
106.
(A)
1
it orbital radius becomes 4 times then orbital velocity will becomes halt
r
107.
(D)
U1
K1
110.
111.
(B)
(D)
r1 = R+R = 2R
r2 = R+7R = 8R
GMm
GMm
and U 2
r1
r2
GMm
2r1
and K2
GMm
2r2
U1 K 1 E 1
4
U2 K 2 E2
3/2
T2 r2
3.5R
T2 24
T1 r1
7R
112.
(B
6 24 hr
Gravitational force provides the required centripetal force for orbiting the satellite
m 2 K
R
R
becuse F
1
R
Ro
181
1
2
2 m
113.
(A)
114.
(A)
B.E. = K.E.
And it this amount of energy(Ek) given to satellite it will escape into outer space
1
GMm
g Re 2 m
GMm
GMm
P.E. =
=
=
=
= mg Re = 0.5 mg Re
2
Re h
2 Re
2R e
r
115.
(A)
116.
(C) B. E. =
117.
R
(D) T2 T1 2
R1
118.
B
(C) V
A
120.
GMm
1
if B.E. decreases the r also decreases and V increases as
r
r
3/2
r
Te
e
Tm rm
121
rA
rB
3 /2
T1 (4)3/2 8T1 40 hr
4R
2
R
1
2
3 /2
Te 2 2 /3 lunar month
GMm
GMm
(D) 2R K.E. 2R
1
2
K .E
GMm 1
1
2 R1 R2
122.
123.
(B) k
124.
125.
GMm
2R
(C) v1 r1 = v2r2 (angular momentum is constant)
T 2
3/ 2
4 2 R 3
GMm
2
126.
2R
2R
GMm
GM
R
T1
R1
(6R ) 3
8
(C)
2
3
(3R ) 3
T2
R2
2
T2
24 24
72
8
T2 6 2
182
127.
(C)
A
L
At
t 2m
ASCD t1 2A
t1 2t 2
ASAS t 2 A
R
T1
1
T2
R2
4R
128.
(C)
129.
T1 1
1
1
2
3
(B) since T r
T 4 T 8 T
130.
VJ re
(B) orbital radius of Jupiter > orbital radius of Earth V r As rj < re there fore Vj < Vee
e
j
131.
dA L
(B) dt 2m = constant
132.
(C) The earth moves around the sun in elliptical path, so by using the properties of ellipse
T2 8T1
r1 r2
2
r1r2 (1 e 2 ) a 2
where a= semi major axis
b= semi minor axis
e= eccentircity
Now required distance = sem latysrectum = b2/9
a2
133.
134.
135.
(1 e 2 )
r1r2
2r r
12
a
(r1 r2 )/2 r1 r2
GM
R0
R0
GMR 0
(B) speed at the earth will be maximum when its distance from the sun is minimum because
m r = constant
3
136
(C)
TA rA
TB rB
(B)
T2 r2
T1 r1
137.
4
8 A
4B
(2)
rA 4B 8
4rB
2 2 T2 2 2 years
183
138.
60 1.6 1012 60
12 ms1
12
8 10
5
(D) Time period does not depends upon the mass of satellite
Vmin
139.
1
1
1
GM
G 2 M 2R 2
R
140.
(B)
141.
R2
(B) T2 T1
R1
142.
1 2 2 2.8 yar
GMS
r
ME
.r M E .GMS .r
ME = mass of earth
MS = mass of Sun
r = Distance between sun and the earth
143.
L r
(D)
For central force toraqe is zero
144.
dL
0 L Constant
dt
(A) Wext U U F
Gdm
0
(1)
x
M
7R 2
2 r dr
16R 2 r 2
2 GM
7R2
GM
7R2
2 GM
7R2
r2
2 GM
4 2R 5R
7R
2 GM
4 2 5
7R
rdr
16 R2 r2
d2 GM
2
a
7R
16R
(2)
4R
3R
184
145.
(A)
m 2 R
T R
(C) g
147.
(B) U
1
T 2 R n 1
Rn
n+1
2
GM
R2
146.
148.
4 2
1
m
2 R
Rn
T
mgh
1
mgR
2
1 h
R
(C) P.E. = 2. total energy = 2E0
GMM
GMM
and Eo =
r
2r
(B) let velocities of these masses at r distance from each other be v1 and v2 respectively
By conservation of momentum
Because we know U =
149.
m 1 V1 m 2 V2 ____________ 1
m 1 V1 m 2 V2 0
By conservation of energy
change in P.E. = change in K.E.
Gm1m 2 1
1
2
2
m1V1 m 2 V2
r
2
2
2
m1V1 m 2 V2
2 Gm1m 2
_______ ii
m1
m2
r
2Gm 2
r m1 m2
and
V ap p V1 V 2
3
150.
1
R2
T2 r2
(C)
T1 r1
2Gm 1
r m1 m 2
2G m 1 m 2
r
3
6400 2
T2 24
2 hours
3600
185
1.
2.
Force N kg.m/sec 2
ms 2
mass kg
kg
3.
4.
5.
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D
Assertion : The time period of a geostationary satellite is 24 hours
Reason : Such a satellite must have the same time period as the time taken by the earth to
complete one revolution about its axis
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D
Assertion : Even when orbit of a satellite is elliptical, its plane of rotaiion passes through the
center of earth
Reason : This is in accordance with the principle of conservation of angular momentum
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D
Assertion : The time Period of pendulum, on a satlellite orbiting the earth is infinity
Reason :
(a) A
6.
(c) C
g
(d) D
Assertion : The escape velocity on the surface of a planet of the same mass but
1
times the
4
7.
8.
9.
Reason :
(a) A
Assertion :
Reason :
(a) A
Assertion :
10
187
Both the asseration and reason are true and the latter is correct expalnation of the former.
Both the asseration and reason are true and the latter is correct expalnation of the former.
As the satellite is to be stationary over a particular place, its time period of revolution = 24
hours= time peroid of revolution of earth about its axis.
4. A
5. A
6. D
Ve
2 GM
R
Ve' = Ve
i.e.
Ve
1
R
188
If a smooth tunnel is dug across a diameter of earth and a particle is related from the surface
of earth, the particle oscillates simple harmonically along it.
(1) Time period of the particle is not equal to
3
2
R 2
GM
(C) 84.0 min
(D) Nome of these
(2) Maximum speed of the these
(A) 2 R g
(B)
2 GM
R
(B)
(A)
2.
3.
GM
R
(C)
3 GM
2R
(D)
GM
2R
When a paricle is projected from the surface of earth, it mechanincal energy and angular momentum
about center of earth at all time is constant
(i) A particle of mass m is projected from the surface of earth with velocity vo at angle
with horizontal suppose h be the maximum height of particle from surface of earth and v
its speed at that point them v is
(A) v0coso
(B) >v0coso
(C) <v0coso
(D) zero
(ii) Maximum height h of the paritcle is
(A)
Vo 2 sin 2
2g
(C)
Vo 2 sin 2
2g
(B)
Vo 2 sin 2
2g
Vo 2 sin 2
(D) can be greater than or less than
2g
(A)
2 hR 2
GM
(C)
(B)
2hR 2
GM
(B)
R2
(C)
GMh
R2
R2
GMh
GMh
189
4.
5.
(A)
2 GM
R
(C)
GM
2R
(B)
3 GM
2R
(D)
GM
R
A planet is revolving round the sun in elliptical orbit. Velocity at perigee position (nearest) is
v1 and at apogee position (farthest) is v2 Both these velocities are perpendicular to the joinging
center of sun and planet r is the minimum distance and r2 the maximum distance.
(i) when the planet is at perigee position, it wants to revolve in a circular orbit by itself. For
this value of G
(A) Should increase
(B) Should decrease
(C) data is in sufficeint
(D) will not depend on the value of G
(ii) At apogee position suppose speed of planer is slightly decreased from v2, then what will
happen to minimum distance r1 in the subsequent motion
(A) r1 and r2 bothe will dicreases
(B) r1 and r2 bothe will increases
(C) r2 will remain as it is while r1 will increase
(D) r2 will remain as it is while r1 will decrease
Garvitational potential at any point inside a spherical shall is uniform
GM
and is given by
where M is the mass of shell and R its
R
3GM
radius. At the center solid sphere, potential is
2R
(i)
There is a concentric hole of radius R in a solid sphere of radius 2R Mass of the remaining
portion is M What is the gravitation potential at center?
(A)
3GM
7R
(B)
5GM
7R
(C)
7GM
14
(D)
9GM
14 R
190
Solution
(1)
(i) T 2
R
g
putting g
GM
we have
R2
3
2
R2
Gm
2(vi vf )
GM 3 GM
2
12
R
(2)
(i)
GM
R
mVocos m R h
R
V0 cos
R h
Vo cos
(ii)
1
2
m V0 V 2
2
V0 V 2
2 gh
1 h
R
mgh
1 h
R
but here V V0cos
V0 V 2 V0 sin 2 so let V0 V 2 x
here x V0
x
sin 2
2gh
1 h
R
x
2g x
2
x
O sin 2
i.e. h >
i.e. h >
2g
2g
191
(3)
(i)
Acceleration due to gravity near the surface of shell can be assumed to be uiform
G(2M) GM
(2R) 2
2R 2
From h
t =
(ii)
2h
hR 2
2
g
GM
GMh
GM
VA 2 gh 2 2 h
R2
2R
From A to B field due to shell is zero, but field due to sphere is notzero
hence tAB
(iii)
1 2
gt
2
R
R2
VA
GMh
VB
(4)
2(VA VB ) =
GM
R
At perigee position v1 > v0 where v0 is the orbital velocity for circular motion
V0
GM
G
r
so value of G should incease , so that v0 will increase for this position and which
will become equal to v1
(5)
(ii)
path will becomemore elliptical , keeping r2 constant and r1 to decrease
Density of given material
M
3M
3
3
4
28R 3
3 [(2R) R ]
3 GM1 GM2
2 2R
R
192
4
8
3
here M1 (2R) M
3
7
4
M
M 2 ( ) R 3
3
7
Vremaining
9GM
14R
(2)
on the surface of earth acceleration due to gravity is g and gravitational potential is V match
the following
Table  1
Table 2
(A)
At height h = R value of g
(P)
decreases by a factor
1
4
(B)
(Q)
decreases by a factor
1
2
(C)
(D)
At height h = R value of v
At depth h = R/2 value of V
(R)
increases by a factor 11/8
(S)
increases by a factor 2
(T) None
Density of planet is two times the density of earth Radius of this planet is half (As compared
to earth)
Match the following
Table1
Table2
(A)
Acceleration due to gravity on
(P)
Half
this planets surface
(B)
Gravitational potential
(Q) same
on the surface
(C)
(3)
Gravitational potential
(R)
Two times
at centre
(D)
Gravitational field strength
(S)
four times
at centre
let V and E denote the gravitational potential and gravitational field at a point. Then the match
the follwing
Table1
Table2
(A)
E = 0, V = 0
(P)
At center of Spherical shell
(B)
E 0, V= o
(Q)
At centre of solid sphere
(C)
V 0, E 0
(R)
At centre of circular ring
(D)
V 0, E 0
(S)
At centre of two point masses of equal magnitude
(T)
None
193
(4)
(5)
kinetic energy
(P)
GMm
2r
(B)
potential energy
(Q)
GM
r
(C)
Total energy
(R)
(D)
orbital velocity
(S)
GMm
2r
GMm
r
solution :
(1)
Ap, BQ, Cs Dt
(2)
AQ, Bp, Cp Do
(3)
At, Bt, Cp,q,r,s, Dt
(4)
Aq, Bt, Cr, Ds
(5)
As, sB, cp, Dq
194
Table 2
(P) Independent of mas of satellite
(Q) independent of radius of orbit
(R) independent of mass of earth
(S) none
Unit  7
Proporties of
Liquid a Solid
195
SUMMARY
Surface tension of a liquid is measured by the force
acting per unit length on either side of an imaginary line
drawn on the free surface of liquid, the direction of this
force being perpendicular to the line and tangential to
the free surface of liquid. So if F is the force acting on
one side of imaginary line of length l. then T = Fl.
1.
2.
It depends only on the nature of liquid and is independent of the area of surface or length of line
considered.
It is a scalar as it has a unique direction which is not to be specified.
3.
Dimension M1 L0 T 2
4.
Unit :
5.
N
SI
m
Needle (length l)
F 2 T w
2.
F 2 r1 r2 T w
3.
F 4 rT w
4.
F 2 rT w
5.
F 8T w
6.
Square plate
F 4T w
1.
196
2.
3.
Rain drops are spherical in shape because each drop tends to acquire minimum surface area due to
surface tension, and for a given volume, the surface area of sphere is minimum.
Oil drop spreads on cold water. Whereas it may remain as a drop on hot water. This is due to the
fact that the surface tension of oil is less than that of cold water and is more than that of hot water.
If a small irregular piece of camphor is floated on the surface of pure water, it does not remain steady
but dances about on the surface. This is because, irregular shaped camphor dissolves unequally and
decreases the surface tension of the water locally. The unbalanced forces make it to move haphazardly
in different directions.
Take a frame of wire and dip it in soap solution
and take it out, a soap film will be formed in the
frame. Place a loop of wet thread gently on the
film. It will remain in the form, we place it on the
film according to figure.
Now, piercing the film with a pin at any point
inside the loop, It immediately takes the circular
from as shown in figure.
When a greased iron needle is placed genetly on the surface of
water at rest, so that it does not prick the water surface, the needle
floats on the surface of water despite it being heavier because the
weight of needle is balanced by the vertical components of the forces
of surface tension. If the water surface is pricked by one end of the
needle, the needle sinks down.
Hair of shaving brush / painting brush when dipped in
water spread out, but as soon as it is taken out, its hair
stick together.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
1.
Tt T0 1 t
Where Tt and TO are the surface tensions at tOc and 0OC respectively and is the temperature
coefficient of surface tension.
Examples :
(i)
Hot soup tastes better than the cold soup.
(ii)
2.
Impurities :
The presence of impurities either on the liquid surface or dissolved in it, considerably affect the
surface tension, depending upon the degree of contamination. A highly soluble substance like sodium
chloride when dissolved in water, increases the surface tension of water. But the sparingly soluble
substances like phenol when dissolved in water, decreases the surface tension of water.
Applications of Surface Tension
1.
2.
The oil and grease spots on cloths cannot be removed be pure water. On the other hand, when
detergents (like soap) are added in water, the surface tension of water decreases. As a result of this,
wetting power of soap solution increases. Also the force of adhesion between soap solution and oil
or grease on the clothes increases. Thus, Oil, grease and dirt particles get mixed with soap solution
easily. Hence, clothes are washed easily.
Surface tension of all lubricating oils and paints is kept low so that they spread over a large area.
3.
4.
In soldering, addition of 'flux' reduces the surface tension of molten tin, hence, it spreads.
Molecular Theory of Surface Tension
The maximum distance upto which the force of attraction between
two molecules is appriciable is called molecular range 109 m .
A sphere with a molecule as centre and radius equal to molecular
range is called the sphere of influence. The liquid enclosed between
free surface (PQ) of the liquid and an imaginary plane (RS) at a
distance r (equal to molecular range) from the free surface of the
liquid form a liquid film.
To understand the concept of tension acting on the free surface of a liquid, let us consider four liquid
molecules like A, B, C and D. Their sphere of influence are shown in the figure.
Molecule A is well within the liquid, so it is attracted equally in all directions. Hence the net force on
this molecule is zero and it moves freely inside the liquid.
Molecule B is little below the free surface of the liquid and it is also attracted equally in all directions.
Hence the resultant force acting on it is also zero.
Molecule C is just below the upper surface of the liquid film and the part of its sphere of influence is
outside the free liquid surface. So the number of molecules in the upper half (attracting the molecules
upward) is less than the number of molecule in the lower half (attracting the molecule downward).
Thus the molecule C experiences a net downward force.
Molecule D is just on the free surface of the liquid. The upper half of the sphere of influence has no
liquid molecule. Hence the molecule D experiences a maximum downward force.
1.
2
3.
4.
198
Thus all molecules lying on surface film experiences a net downward force. Therefore, free surface
of the liquid behaves like a stretched membrane.
Surface Energy :
The potential energy of surface molecules per unit area of the surface is called surface energy.
Unit :
J
Dimension : ML2
m2
W fx T 2 x T 2x T A
T
1.
W
A
i.e. Surface tension may be defined as the amount of work done in increasing the area of the liquid
surface by unity against the force of surface tension at constant temperature.
Work done in Blowing a liquid drop or soapbubble
If the intial radius of liquid drop is r1 and the final radius of liquid drop is r2 then,
W T increment in Area
T 4 r22 r12
2.
In case of soapbubble,
R 3 nr 3
E 4 r 2 T n 4R 2T
Excess Pressure :
Due to the property of surface tension a drop or bubble tends to contract and so compresses the
matter enclosed. This in turn increases the internal pressure which prevents further contraction and
199
equilibrium is achieved. So in equilibrium the pressure inside a bubble or drop is greater than outside
and the difference of pressure between two sides of the liquid surface is called excess pressure.
Excess pressure in different cases is given in the following table :
Plane surface
Concave surface
P =
2T
R
P =
2T
R
4T
R
P =
2T
R
P = 0
Convex surface
Drop
P =
2T
R
Bubble in air
Bubble in liquid
P =
1
1
P 2T
R1 R 2
I
R
Fa FC cos 135o
FC
2 Fa FC
Example :
Pure water in silver coated capillary tube.
200
Angle of contact :
Angle of contact between a liquid and a solid is defined as the angle enclosed between the tangents
to the liquid surface and the solid surface inside the liquid, both the tangents being drawn at the point
of contact of the liquid with the solid.
Capillarity :
If a tube of very narrow bore is dipped in a liquid, it is found that the liquid in the capillary either
ascends or descends relative to the surrounding liquid. This phenomenon is called capillarity.
The root cause of capillarity is the difference in pressure on two sides of (concave and convex)
curved surface of liquid.
Examples :
(i)
Ink rises in the fine pores of bloting paper leaving the paper dry.
(ii) A towel soaks water.
(iii) Oil rises in the long narrow spaces between the threads of wick.
Ascent Formula :
hg
(1)
2T
R
rhg
Rhg
2cos
2
1 1
and P 4T
r1 r2
(2)
...1
...2
4T
4T
4T
, Pb P0
, PC P0
a
b
C
4 3
a
3
4 3
c
3
a b c
Vc
4 3
c
3
Pa Va
P V
PV
b b c c
RTa
RTb
RTc
201
Temp is constant,
Ta Tb Tc
4T 4 3
4T
4T 4 3
P0
a P0
P0
c
a 3
b
C 3
P0 c 3 a 3 b 3
T
4 a 2 b2 c 2
Stress
= E = constant
Strain
longitudin al strain
A
L
Force constant of wire,
K
mgL
r 2
F YA
Bulk Modulus :
When a solid or fluid (liquid or gas) is subjected to a uniform pressure all over the surface, such that
the shape remains the same, then there is a change in volume.
Then the ratio of normal stress to the volumetric strain within the elastic limits is called as Bulk
modulus. This is denoted by K.
K
Normal stress
Volumetric strain
F
pV
A
v
v
V
202
Modulus of Rigidity :
Within limits of proportionality, the ratio of tangential stress to the shearing strain is called modulus of
rigidity of the material of the body and is denoted by ,
Tangential stress
Shearing strain
In this case the shape of a body changes but its volume remains unchanged.
F
F
A
A
Pascal's Law :
It states that if gravity effect is neglected, the pressure at every point of liquid in equilibrium of rest is
same.
Working of hydraulic lift, hydraulic press and hydroulic breaks :
It is used to lift the heavy loads. If a small force f is
applied on pistion of C then the pressure exerted on
the liquid
f
a
[a = Area of cross section of the pistion in C]
This pressure is transmitted equally to piston of cylinder D.
P
F PA
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
f
A
Af
a
As A >> a, F << f
Thermal Expansion :
When matter is heated without any change in its state it usually expands. According to atomic theory
of matter, a symmetry in potential energy curve is responsible for thermal expansion. As energy of
atoms increases, hence the average distance between the atoms increases. So the matter as a whole
expands.
Thermal expansion is minimum in case of solids but maximum in case of gases because intermolecular
force is maximum in solids but minimum in gases.
Solids can expand in one dimension (linear expansion) two dimensions (superficial expansion) and
three dimensions (volume expansion) While liquids and gases usually suffer change in volume only.
Heat :
The form of energy which is exchanged among various bodies or system on account of temperature
difference is defined as heat.
We can change the temperature of a body by giving heat (temperature rises) or by removing heat
(temperature falls) from body.
Heat is a scalar quantity. It's units are joule, erg, cal, kcal etc.
1 kcal = 1000 cal = 4186 J and 1 cal = 4.18 J
203
(1)
Specific Heat :
The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of unit mass of a body through (or K)
is called specific heat of the material of the body.
(2)
MQ
M Q
1 Q
M
m
Unit : M1 L2 T 2 1
(3)
Latent Heat :
The amount of heat required to change the state of the mass m of the substance while its temperature
remaining constant is written as : Q = mL, where L is the latent heat Latent heat is also called as
cal
J
Heat of Transformation, It's unit is
or
and dimension : L2 T 2
gm
kg
Elastic behaviour :
The propertory of matter by virture of which a body
tends to regain its original shape and size after the removal of
deforming force is called elasticity.
In solids, atoms and molecules are arranged in such a
way that each molecule is acted upon by the forces due to
heighbouring molecules. These forces are known as
intermolecular forces.
For simplicity, the two molecules in their equilibrium positions (at intermolecular distance
r = r0) are shown by connecting them with a spring.
In fact, the spring connecting the two molecules represents the intermolecular force between
them on applying the deforming forces, the molecules either come closer or go far apart from each
other and restoring forces are developed. When the deforming force is removed, these restoring
forces bring the molecules of the solid to their respective equilibrium position (r = r0) and hence the
body regains its original form.
Thermal Capacity :
It is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the remperature of the whole body (mass m)
through 10C or 1K.
Q
The value of thermal capacity of a body depends upon the nature of the body and its mass.
Thermal capacity mc c
Dimensions M1 L2 T 2 1 Units :
Cal J
,
o
C k
204
Principle of Calorimetry :
Calorimetry means 'measuring heat'.
When two bodies (one being solid and other liquid or both being liquid) at different temperatures are
mixed, heat will be transfered from body at higher temperature to a body at lowe temperature till
both acquire same temeprature. The body at higher temperature releases heat while body at lower
temeprature absorbs it, so that
Heat lost = Heat gained
i.e., Principle of calorimetry represents the law of conservation of heat energy.
Thermometry :
A branch of science which deals with the measurement of temperature of a substance is known as
thermometry.
Phase change :
We use the term phase to describe a specific state of matter, such as solid, liquid or gas. A
transtion from one phase to another is called a phase change.
For any given pressure a phase change takes place at a definite temperature, usually
accompanied by absorption or emission of heat and a change of volume and density.
In phase change 10ce at 00C melts into water at 00C. Water at 1000C boils to form steam at
1000C.
Streamline flow :
Stream line flow of a liquid is that flow in which each element of the liquid passing through a
point travels along the same path and with the same velocity as the preceding element passes through
that point.
A streamline may be defined as the path, straight or
curved, the tangent to which at any point gives the direction
of the flow of liquid at that point.
The two streamlines cannot cross each other and
the greater is the crowding of streamlines at a place, the
greater is the velocity of liquid particles at that place.
Laminar Flow :
If a liquid is flowing over a horizontal surface with a steady flow and moves in the form of
layers of different velocities which do not mix with each other, then the flow of liquid is called laminar
flow.
In this flow, the velocity of liquid flow is always less than the critical velocity of the liquid. The
laminar flow is generally used synonymously with streamlined flow.
Turbulent flow :
When a liquid, moves with a velocity greater than
its critical velocity, the motion of the particles of liquid
become disordered or irregular. Such a flow is called a
turbulent flow.
In a turbulent flow, the path and the velocity of the particles of the liquid change continuously
and haphazardly with time from point to point. In a turbulent flow, most of the external energy
205
maintaining the flow is spent in producint eddies in the liquid and only a small fraction of energy is
available for forward flow.
Critical velocity :
The critical velocity is that velocity of liquid flow upto which its flow is streamlined and above
which its flow becomes turbulent.
Reynold's number :
Reynold's number is a pure number whichdetermines the nature of flow of liquid through a
pipe.
NR
Now
dm
AV 3
dt
d V dm
dt V AV V 2
dt
Inertial force per unit area
A
A
A
Viscous force per unit area
F nv
A
r
If 0 N R 2000,
If 2000 N R 3000
NR
Vr
a1 v1 1 a 2 v 2 2
a1 v1 a 2 v 2
206
If N R 3000
definitely turbulent flow
MCQ
For the answer of the following questions choose the correct alternative from among
the given ones.
1.
2.
Two wires are made of the same material and have the same volume. However, wire 1 has crosssectional area A and wire 2 has crosssectional Area 3A. If the length of wire 1 increases by on
appling force F. How much force is needed to stretch wire 2 by same amount.
(A) F
(B) 4F
(C) 6F
(D) 9F
The increases in length in l of a wire of length L by longitudinal stress. Then the stress is propotional
to..............
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
2 L
3.
The dimensions of four wires of the same material are given below, in which wire the increase in
length will be maximum when the same strain is applied.
(A) Length 100 cm, Diameter 1 mm
(B) Length 200 cm, Diameter 2 mm
(C) Length 300 cm, Diameter 3 mm
(D) Length 50 cm, Diameter 0.5 mm
4.
N
. If the length and radius are
m2
L
r
and . Then what will be its young's modulus ?
2
2
Y
(B) Y
(C) 2Y
(D) 4Y
2
A beam of metal supported at the two ends is loaded at the centre. The depression at the centre is
propotional to..............
(A)
5.
1
1
(D)
Y
Y2
A wire is loaded by 6 kg at its one end, the increase in length is 12 mm. If the radius of the wire is
doubled and all other magnitudes are unchanged, then increase in length will be.............
(A) 6 mm
(B) 3 mm
(C) 24 mm
(D) 48 mm
On increasing the length by 0.5 mm in a steel wire of length 2 m and area of crosssection 2 mm2 the
force required is................
(A)
6.
7.
Y2
(B)
11
[Y for steel 2.2 10
(A)
8.
1.1 105 N
(C)
1.1 10 4 N
(C)
N
]
m
(B)
1.1 103 N
(D)
1.1 10 2 N
A stress of 3.18 108 Nm 2 is applied to steel rod of length 1 m along its length. Its young's
11
modulus is 2 10
(A)
3.18
N
. Then what is the elongation produced in the rod in mm ?
m2
(B) 6.36
(C) 5.18
(D) 1.59
207
9.
KP
(A)
10.
(B)
2E
(C)
F
F
(B) 2F
(C) 4F
(D)
2
4
A rubber cord 10m long is suspended vertically. How much does it stretch under its own weight.
(A)
11.
13.
(B)
yx2
(B)
(C)
12 10 4 m
(D)
25 10 4 m
2yx2
(C)
1 2
y x
2
(D)
1
yx 2
2
A steel wire of crosssectional area 3 10 6 m 2 can with stand a maximum strain of 103 Young's
11
modulus of steel is 2 10
(A)
15.
7.5 104 m
14.
15 10 4 m
kg
N
m
, Y 5 108 2 , g 10 2 )
3
m
m
s
40 kg
(B)
N
.
g 10 2
2 The maximum mass the wire can hold is.............
s
m
60 kg
(C)
80 kg
(D)
100 kg
kg
N
5 108 2 . What will
3 is
m
m
16.
17.
(A)
9.6 105 m
(B)
9.6 10 11 m
(C)
9.6 103 m
(D)
9.6 m
A and B are two wires. The radius of A is twice that of B. They are stretched by the same load. Then
what is the stress on B ?
(A) Equal to that on A
(B) Four times that on A
(C) Two times that on A
(D) Half that on A
If the length of wire is reduced to half then it can hold the .............load.
(A) Half
(B) Same
(C) Double
(D) One fourth
208
18.
There are two wires of same material and same length. While the diameter of second wire is 2 times,
the diameter of first wire. Then what will be the ratio of extension produced in the wire by applying
same load ?
(A)
19.
1:1
(B)
2:1
(C)
1:2
(D)
4:1
When the length of a wire having crosssection area 10 6 m 2 is stretched by 0.1% then tension in
21.
N
m2
(B)
10 2
N
m2
(C)
1010
N
m2
(D)
1011
N
m2
Two wires of equal lengths are made of the same material wire A has a diameter that is twice as that
of wire B. If identical weights are suspended from the ends of these wires the increase in length
is............
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
Steel and copper wires of same length are stretched by the same weight one after the other. Young's
modulus of steel the ratio increase in length ?
(A)
22.
1012
2
5
(B)
3
5
(C)
5
4
(D)
5
2
An area of a crosssection of rubber string is 2 cm3. Its length is doubled when stretched with a
linear force of 2 105 dynes. What will be young's modulus of the rubber in dynes ?
(A)
23.
24.
4 105
(B)
1 105
(C)
2 105
(D)
1 10 4
A substance breaks down by a stress of If the density of the material of the wire is then the length of
wire of the substance which will break under its own weight when suspended vertically is.............
(A) 66.6 m
(B) 60.0 m
(C) 33.3 m
(D) 30.0 m
The temperature of a wire of length 1 meter and area of crosssectional section 1 cm2 is increased
from to If the rod is not allowed to increase in length. What will be the force required ?
5 o
11 N
10 / C, Y 10
m2
25.
(A) 103 N
(B) 104 N
(C) 105 N
(D) 109 N
If longitudinal strain for a wire is 0.03 and its poisson's ratio is 0.5, then what is its lateral strain ?
(A) 0.003
(B) 0.0075
(C) 0.015
(D) 0.4
26.
9
An aluminium rod (Young's modulus 7 10
N
) has a breaking strain of 0.2 % what is the
m2
minimum crosssectional area of the rod in order to support a load of 104 Newtons ?
(A)
1 10 2 m 2
(B)
1.4 10 3 m 2
(C)
3.5 10 3 m 2
(D)
7.1 10 4 m 2
209
27.
28.
Two wires of copper having the length in the ratio 4 : 1 and their are as 1 : 4 are stretched by the
same force. What will be the ratio of longitudinal strain in the two wires ?
(A) 1 : 16
(B) 16 : 1
(C) 1 : 64
(D) 64 : 1
A wire elongates by 1 mm when a load W is hanged from it. If the wire goes ever a pulley and two
weight W each are hang at the two ends. What will be the elongation of the wire ? (in mm)
(D)
2
200 kg weight hanged at a free edge of vertical wire of length 600.5 cm when removed the weight,
length reduced by 0.5 cm and it gets original status then what is the young moduluse of wire ?
(A) 2.35 1012 N/m2
(B) 1.35 1010 N/m2
(C) 13.5 1011 N/m2
(D) 23.5 109 N/m2
The ratio of diameter of two wires of same material is n : 1 the length of wires are 4 m each. On
applying the same load. What will be the increase in length of their wire ?
(A) n2 times
(B) n times
(C) 2n times (D) None of the above
(A)
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
35.
(B)
zero
(C)
N
4 N
Y 10
(A) 0.002
(B) 0.001
(C) 0.003
(D) 0.01
A steel wire is stretched with a definate load of If the young's modulus of the wire is Y. For decreasing
the value of Y............
(A) Radius is to be decreased
(B) Radius is to be increased
(C) Length is to be increased
(D) None of the above
Longitudinal stress of 1
11 N
is 0.1 cm2, what will be the force
The area of crosssection of a steel wire is Y 2 10
m2
(A)
34.
2 1012 N
(B)
2 1011 N
(C)
2 1010 N
(D)
2 106 N
Two wires A & B are of same materials. Their lengths in the ratio 1 : 2 and diameters are in the ratio
2 : 1 when stretched by force FA and FB respectively, they get equal increase in lengths Then the
ratio
FA
should be...........
FB
(A)
1:2
(B)
1:1
(C)
2:1
(D)
8:1
The mean distance between the atoms of iron is 3 10 10 and interatomic force constant for iron is
7
N
. What is the young's modulus of elasticity for iron ?
m
(A)
2.33 10 5
N
m2
(B)
23.3 1010
N
m2
(C)
233 1010
N
m2
(D)
2.33 1010
N
m2
210
36.
A force of 200 N is applied at one end of a wire of length 2 m and having area of crosssection
10 2 cm 2 , the other end of the wire is rigidly fixed. If of linear expansion of the wire
N
and its temperature is increased by
m2
50C then the increase in the tension of the wire will be..........
11
8 10 6 / o C and young's modulus Y 2.2 10
(A)
37.
39.
F
AY
2.4 N
(D)
(B)
2F
AY
(C)
1
2
AY
(D)
2.0 1010
N
m2
(B)
4.0 1010
N
m2
(C)
2.0 1011
N
m2
(D)
4.0 1011
N
m2
8.8 N
3F
AY
A rubber cord catapult has crosssectional area 25 mm2 and initial length of cord is 10 cm. It is
stretched to 5 cm and then released to project a missile of mass 5 gm. Taking
20
N
velocity of projected missile is............
m2
m
s
(B)
100
m
s 1
(C)
250
m
s 1
(D)
200
m
s 1
A wire of crosssection 4 mm2 is stretched by 0.1 mm by a certain weight. How far (length) will be
wire of same material and length but of area 8 mm2 stretched under the action of same force.
(A)
42.
(C)
(A)
(A)
41.
4.4 N
The length of a wire is 1.0 m and the area of crosssection is 1.0 10 2 cm 2 . If the work done for
increase in length by 0.2 cm is 0.4 joule. Then what is the young's modulus ? Of material of the wire
?
Yrubber 5 108
40.
(B)
A uniform plank of young's modulus Y is moved over a smooth horizontal surface by a constant
horizontal force F, The area of crosssection of the plank is A. What is the compressive strain on its
plank in the direction by the force ?
(A)
38.
4.2 N
0.05 mm
(B)
0.10 mm
(C)
0.15 mm
(D)
0.20 mm
According to Hooke's law of elasticity stress is increased the ratio of stress toi strain.........
(A)
increases
(B)
Decreases
(C)
becomes zero
(D)
Remains constant
N
and area of cross section is 2 cm2 if force of 2 105 dyne is
m2
applied along its length then its initial length L becomes .............
(A)
3L
(B)
4L
(C)
2L
(D)
211
43.
A copper wire of length 4 m and area of crosssection 1.2 cm2 is stretched with a force of 4.8 103 N.
11
1.33 mm
(B)
N
What will be the length increase of the wire ?
m2
1.33 cm
(C)
2.66 mm
(D)
2.66 cm
N
. the force constant =
m2
45.
9
(B) 6 10
N
A
(C)
6 10 5
N
A
(D)
6 10 5
N
A
0.8 cm
(B)
1.6 cm
(C)
2.4 cm
(D)
3.2 cm
A wire of length L and radius r is rigidly fixed at one end on stretching the other end of the wire a
force F the increase in its lengths is L. If another wire of same material but of length 2L and radius 2r
is stretched with a force of 2F, the increase in its length will be ..........
(A)
47.
N
A
A wire of length 2 m is made from 10cm3 of copper. A force F is applied so that its length increases
by 2mm. Another wire of length 8 m is made from the same volume of copper. If the force F is
applied to it, its length will increase by............
(A)
46.
6 10 2
(B)
(C)
(D)
11
In steel the young's modulus and the strain at the breaking point are 2 10
4
N
and 0.15
m2
respectively the stress at the breaking point for steel is therefore ...........
48.
49.
(A)
1.33 1011
N
m2
(B)
1.33 1012
(C)
7.5 10 13
N
m2
(D)
3 1010
N
m2
N
m2
(B)
(C)
(D)
The force required to stretch a steel wire of 1 cm 2 crosssection to 1.1 times its length would be
11 N
Y 2 10
m2
(A)
2 10 6 N
(B)
2 103 N
(C)
212
2 10 6 N
(D)
2 10 7 N
50.
51.
52.
Which one of the following quantities does not have unit of force per unit area..........
(A)
stress
(B)
strain
(C)
(D)
pressure
A copper wire and a steel wire of same diameter and length are connected end to end a force is
applied, which stretches their combined length by 1 cm, the two wires will have.......
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
A steel ring of radius r and crosssection area 'A' is fitted on to a wooden disc of radius R(R > r )
If young's modulus be E then what is force with which the steel ring is expanded ?
(A)
53.
55.
56.
R
r
(B)
R r
AE
(C)
E R r
A R
(D)
Er
AR
A wire of diameter 1 mm breaks under a tension of 100 N. Another wire of same material as that of
the first one, but of diameter 2 mm breaks under a tension of.........
(A)
54.
AE
500 N
(B)
1000 N
(C)
10,000 N
(D)
4000 N
A fixed volume of iron is drawn into a wire of length L. The extension x produced in this wire be a
constant force F is propotional to..........
1
1
(A)
(B)
(C) L2
(D) L
2
L
L
8 N
On applying a stress of 20 10
the length of a perfect elastic wire is doubled. What will be its
m2
Young's modulus ?
(A)
40 108
N
m2
(B)
20 108
(C)
10 108
N
m2
(D)
5 108
N
m2
N
m2
To keep constant time, watches are fitted with balance wheel made of........
(A)
invar
(B)
stainless steel
(C)
Tungsten
(D)
platinum
57.
A wire is stretched by 0.01 m by a certain force F. Another wire of same material whose diameter
and length are double to the original wire is stretched by the same force ? Then what will be its
elongation ?
(A) 0.005 m
(B) 0.01 m
(C) 0.02 m
(D) 0.002 m
58.
The Coefficient of linear expansion of brass & steel are 1 & 2 If we take a brass rod of length 1
& steel rod of length 2 at 0 o C , their difference in length 2 1 will remain the same at a
temperature if.................
(A)
1 2 2 1
(B)
2 1 2 1
(C)
22 1 22 2
(D)
1 1 2 2
213
59.
A rod is fixed between two points at 20 o C The Coefficient of linear expansion of material of rad is
11
N
. Find the stress developed in the rod if
m2
61.
1.32 10 7
N
m2
15
(B) 1.10 10
N
N
N
1.32 108 2 (D) 1.10 10 6 2
2 (C)
m
m
m
How much force is required to produce an increase of 0.2% in the length of a bross wire of diameter
11
0.6 mm (Young's modulus for brass 0.9 10
N
).
m2
(A)
(C)
Nearly 17 N
(B)
Nearly 34 N
Nearly 51 N
(D)
Nearly 68 N
10 N
of diameter 3mm supports a 40 kg mass. In order
A 5m long aluminium wire Y 7 10
m2
10
to have the same elongation in a copper wire Y 12 10
N
of the same length under the same
m2
(A) 1.75
(B) 1.5
(C) 2.5
(D) 5.0
Two similar wires under the same load yield elongation of 0.1 mm and 0.05 mm respectively. If the
area of Cross  section of the first wire is 4mm2. Then what is the area of cross  section of the
second wire ?
(A)
63.
64.
(B)
8 mm 2
(C)
10 mm 2
(D)
12 mm 2
An iron rod of length 2m and crosssection area of 50 mm 2 stretched by 0.5 mm, when a mass of
250 kg is hung from its lower end. What is young's modulus of the iron rod ?
(A)
19.6 1010
N
m2
(B)
19.6 1015
N
m2
(C)
19.6 1018
N
m2
(D)
19.6 10 20
N
m2
A load W produces an extension of 1mm in a thread of radius r. Now if the load is made 4 w and
radius is made 2r all other things remaining same the extension will becomes..............
(A)
65.
6 mm 2
4 mm
(B)
16 mm
(C)
1 mm
(D)
0.25 mm
A steel wire of 1m long and 1 mm 2 cross sectional area is hung from rigid end when weight of 1 kg
11 N
(A)
0.5 mm
(B)
0.25 mm
(C)
214
0.05 mm
(D)
5 mm
66.
Calculate the work done, if wire is loaded by 'M g' weight and the increase in length is 'l' ?
(A)
67.
69.
1:2
(B)
1:4
(C)
2:1
Zero
(B)
0.05 Joule
(C)
100 Joule
(D)
500 Joule
(D)
2mgl
(D)
1:1
If the force constant of a wire is k. What is the work done in increasing the length of the wire by ?
k
2
(B)
k 2
2
(C)
(D)
k 2
Wire A and B are made from the same material. A has twice the diameter and three times the length
of B. If the elastic limits are not reached when each is stretched by the same tension, what is the ratio
of energy stored in A to that in B ?
2:3
(B)
3:4
(C)
3:2
(D)
6:1
A wire suspended vertically from one of its ends is stretched by attaching a weight of 200 N to the
lower and. The weight stretches the wire by 1 mm. Then what is the elastic energy stored in the wire
?
(A)
72.
mg
(C)
(A)
(A)
71.
Zero
A 5 meter long wire is fixed to the ceiling. A weight of 10 kg is hung at the lower end and is 1 meter
above the four. The wire was elongated by 1 mm. What is the stored in the wire due to stretching ?
(A)
70.
(B)
Two wires of same diameter of the same material having the length and 2 . If the force F is
applied on each, what will be the ratio of the work done in the two wires ?
(A)
68.
mg l
0.1 J
(B)
0.2 J
(C)
10 J
(D)
20 J
A brass rod of cross sectional area 1 cm2 and length 0.2 m is compressed length wise by a weight of
11
N
m
g 10 2 Then what will be
2 and
m
s
(B)
2.5 10 5 J
(C)
5 10 5 J
(D)
2. 5 104 J
Young's modulus of the material of a wire is Y. On pulling the wire by a force F the increase in its
length is x, what is the potential energy of the stretched wire ?
(A)
74.
10 5 J
1
Fx
2
(B)
1
Yx
2
(C)
1
Fx 2
2
(D)
None of these
The work per unit volume to stretch the length by 1% of a wire with cross  sectional area 1 mm2 will
11 N
be............ Y 9 10
m2
(A)
9 1011 J
(B)
4.5 107 J
(C)
215
9 10 7 J
(D)
4.5 1011 J
75.
A wire of length 50 cm and cross  sectional area of 1 mm2 is extended by 1mm what will be the
2 10 2 J
(C)
4 10 2 J
(D)
1 10 2 J
T2
2x
(B)
T2
2k
(C)
2x
T2
(D)
2T 2
k
(D)
FL
2
On stretching a wire what is the elastic energy stored per unit volume ?
(A)
78.
(B)
If a spring extends by x cm loading then what is the energy stored by the spring ? (If T is tension in
the spring & K is spring constant)
(A)
77.
6 102 J
F
2AL
(B)
FA
2L
(C)
FL
2A
When a force is applied on a wire of uniform crosssectional area 3 10 6 m 2 and length 4m, the
11 N
(A)
79.
62. 50 J
(B)
0.177 J
(C)
0.075 J
(D)
0.150 J
k is the force constant of a spring what will be the work done in increasing its extension form
1 to 2 be ?
(A)
80.
(B)
k
2 1
2
(C)
k 2 1
(D)
k
2
2
2 1
2
4.900 Joule
(B)
2.450 Joule
(C)
0.495 Joule
(D)
0.245 Joule
Pressure
(D)
Specific heat
82.
When a 4 kg mass is hung vertically on a light spring that obeys Hook's law, the spring stretches by
2 cm what will be the work required to be done by an external agent in stretching this spring by
5 cm ?
(A)
81.
Density
(B)
Volume
(C)
If the volume of a block of aluminium is decreased, by the pressure (stress) on its surface is increased
by.................(Bulk modulus of A 7.5 1010 Nm 2 )
(A)
83.
7.5 1010
N
m2
(B)
7.5 108
N
m2
(C)
7.5 106
N
m2
(D)
7.5 10 4
N
m2
The specific heat at constant pressure and at constant volume for an ideal gas are C p and C v and
isothermal elasticities are E and E respectively. What is the ratio of E and E .
(A)
Cv
Cp
(B)
Cp
(C)
Cv
216
Cp C v
(D)
1
Cp C v
84.
85.
3
4
(B)
4
3
due to gravity 10
(A)
kg
N
9 108 2 ,acceleration
3 Bulk modulus of rubber
m
m
9m
(B)
18 m
(C)
4 10 5 CC
(B)
4 10 5 CC
(C)
108
90 m
0.025 CC
(D)
0.004 CC
kg
m
N
& g 10 2 . Then waht will be the volume elasticity in 2 ?
3
m
s
m
(B)
2 108
(C)
0.01
(B)
0.06
(C)
109
(D)
2 109
0.02
(D)
0.03
When a pressure of 100 atmosphere is applied on a spherical ball then its volume reduces to 0.01%
What is the bulk moduls of the material of the rubber in
(A)
10 1012
(B)
1 1012
(C)
dyne
.
cm 2
100 1012
(D)
20 1012
The pressure applied from all directions on a cube is p. How much its temperature should be raised
to maintain the orginal volume ? The volume elasticity. of the cube is B and the coefficient of volume
expansion is .
(A)
91.
(D)
For a constant hydraulic stress on an object, the fractional change in the object volume and
its bulk modulus (B) are related as...............
(A)
90.
180 m
If a rubber ball is taken at the depth of 200m in a pool, Its volume decreases by 0.1% . If the density
(A)
89.
5
3
m
)
s2
of the water is 1 10
88.
(D)
The compressibility of water 4 10 5 per unit atmospheric pressure. The decrease in volume of
100 cubic centimeter of water under a pressure of 100 atmosphere will be................
(A)
87.
To what depth below the surface of sea should a rubber ball be taken as to decrease its volume by
0.1% (Take : density of sea water 1000
86.
(C)
(B)
(C)
(D)
A uniform cube is subjected to volume compression. If each side is decreased by 1% Then what is
bulk strain ?
(A)
0.01
(B)
0.06
(C)
217
0.02
(D)
0.03
92.
Cp
Cv
elasticity of Argon at pressure p is E. Adiabatic elasticity of hydrogen will also be equal to E at the
pressure.
(A)
93.
(B)
7
P
8
(C)
8
P
7
(D)
1.4 P
1.013 105
N
m2
(D)
2.026 105
N
m2
94.
95.
A material has poisson's ratio 0.50. If uniform rod of it suffers a longitudinal strain of 2 10 3 . Then
what is percentage change in volume ?
(A) 0.6
(B) 0.4
(C) 0.2
(D) 0
There is no change in the volume of a wire due to change in its length on stretching. What is the
possion's ratio of the material of the wire....
(A) +0.5
(B) 0.50
(C) 0.25
(D) 0.25
Which statement is true for a metal......
96.
97.
(A)
98.
99.
(B)
(C)
(D)
3Y k 1 6
(B)
gny
yn
(C)
6 6k n Y
(D)
0.5 Y n
n
Two wires A & B of same length and of the same material have the respective radius r, & r2 their one
end is fixed with a rigid support and at the other end equal twisting couple is applied. Then what will
we be the ratio of the angle of twist at the end of A and the angle of twist at the end of B.
2
(A)
r1
r22
(B)
r2
r12
(C)
r2
r14
(D)
r1
r24
0.1
(D)
0.5
1 to
1
2
(B)
3
1
to
4
2
(C)
1
to 1
2
(D)
1 to 2
102. If the young's modulus of the material is 3 times its modulus of rigidity. Then what will be its volume
elasticity ?
(A)
zero
(B)
infinity
(C)
2 1010
N
m2
(D)
3 1010
N
m2
103. For a given material the Young's modulus is 2.4 times that of rigidity modulus. What is its poisson's
ratio ?
(A) 2.4
(B) 1.2
(C) 0.4
(D) 0.2
104. The lower surface of a cube is fixed. On its upper surface is applied at an angle of 300 from its
surface. What will be the change of the type ?
(A) shape
(B) size
(C) none
(D) shape & size
105. The upper end of a wire of radius 4 mm and length 100 cm is clamped and its other end is twisted
through an angle of 300. Then what is the angle of shear ?
(A) 120
(B) 0.120
(C) 1.20
(D) 0.0120
106. Mark the wrong statement.
(A) Sliding of moleculawr layer is much easier than compression or expansion.
(B) Receiprocal of bulk modulus is called compressibility.
(C) Twist is difficult in big rod as compared to small rod.
(D) Which is more strong out of hollow and solid cylinder having equal length and mass ?
107. A 2m long rod of radius 1 cm which is fixed from one end is gien a twist of 0.8 radians. What will be
the shear strain developed ?
(A) 0.002
(B) 0.004
(C) 0.008
(D) 0.016
108. Shearing stress causes change in
(A) length
(B) breadth
(C) shape
(D) volume
109. What is the relationship between Young's modulus Y, Bulk modulus k and modulus of rigidity ?
(A)
9 k
3k
(B)
9y k
y 3k
(C)
9 k
3 k
(D)
(D)
0.4
3 k
9 k
220
(D)
I only
2 1011
(C)
3 10 12
N
m2
N
m2
(B)
2 10 11
N
m2
(D)
2 10 12
N
m2
118. The graph is drawn between the applied force F and the
strain (x) for a thin uniform wire the wire behaves as a
liquid in the part.
(A) ab
(B) bc
(C) cd
(D) oa
119. The graph shows the behaviour of a length of wire in the
region for which the substance obey's Hooke's law. P &
Q represent.
(A) p = applied force, Q = extension
(B) p = extension, Q = applied force
(C) p = extension, Q = stored elastic energy
(D) p = stored elastic energy, Q = extension
120. The potential energy U between two nmolecules as a
function of the distance x between them has been shown
in the figure. The two molecules are.
(A) Attracted when x lies between A & B
and are repelled when x lies between B & C.
(B) Attracted when x lies between B and
C and are repelled when x lies between A and B.
(C) Attracted when they reach B.
(D) Repelled when they reach B.
121. The value of force constant between the applied elastic
force F and displacement will be
(A)
(C)
3
1
2
(B)
1
3
(D)
3
2
221
24 1011
(B)
8.0 1011
(C)
10 1011
(D)
2.0 1011
T1 T2
(B)
T1 T2
(C)
T1 T2
(D)
None of these
222
M1 L1 T 2
(B)
M1 L1 T 2
(C)
M1 L2 T 1
(D)
M1 L2 T 2
133. When more than 20 kg mass is tied to the end of wire it breaks what is maximum mass that can be
tied to the end of a wire of same material with half the radius ?
(A) 20 kg
(B) 5 kg
(C) 80 kg
(D) 160 kg
134. When 100 N tensile force is applied to a rod of 106 m2 crosssectional area, its length increases by
1% so young's modulus of material is..........
(A) 1012 Pa
(B) 1011 Pa
(C) 1010 Pa
(D) 102 Pa
135. A composite wire is made by joining ends of two wires of equal dimensions, one of copper and the
other of steel. When a weight is sttached to its end the ratio of increase in their length is .........
YSteel
20
YCopper
7
(A) 20.7
(B) 10.7
(C) 7:20
(D) 1:7
136. A rubber ball when taken to the bottom of a 100 m deep take decrease in volume by 1% Hence, the
bulk modulus of rubber is............
m
g 10 2
s
(A)
106 Pa
(B)
108 Pa
(C)
223
107 Pa
(D)
109 Pa
(C)
(D)
0.5
138. Pressure on an object increases from 1.01 105 Pa to 1.165 10 5 Pa. He volume decrease by
10% at constant temperature. Bulk modulus of material is........
(A)
1.55 105 Pa
(B)
51.2 105 Pa
(C)
102.4 105 Pa
(D)
204.8 105 Pa
139. Crosssectional area oif wire of length L is A. Young's modulus of material is Y. If this wire acts as a
spring what is the value of force constant ?
(A)
YA
L
YA
2L
(B)
(C)
2YA
L
(D)
YL
A
Surface Tension
140. Writing on black board with a pieace of chalk is possible by the property of
(A)
Adhesive force
(B)
Cohesive force
(C)
Surface force
(D)
Viscosity
141. When there is no external force, the shape of liquid drop is determined by
(A)
(B)
Density of Liquid
(C)
Viscosity of liquid
(D)
(B)
(C)
(D)
143. A beaker of radius 15 cm is filled with liquid of surface tension 0.075 N/m. Force across an imaginary
diameter on the surface ofliquid is
(A)
0.075 N
(B)
1.5 102 N
(C)
0.225 N
(D)
2.25 10 2 N
144. A square frame of side L is dipped in a liquid on taking out a membrance is fomed if the surface
tension of the liquid is T, the force acting on the frame will be.
(A)
2 TL
(B)
4 TL
(C)
8 TL
(D)
10 TL
145. The force required to separate two glass plates of area 102 m2 with a film of water 0.05 mm thick
between them is (surface tension of water is 70 10
(A)
28 N
(B)
14 N
(C)
224
N
)
m
50 N
(D)
38 N
(B)
(C)
(D)
147. A thm metal disc of radius r floats on water surface B and bends the surface down wards along the
perimeter making an angle Q with vertical edge of the disc. If the disc displaces a weight of water W
and surface tension of water is T, then the weight at metal dis
(A)
2rT w
(B)
2rT cos w
(C)
2rT cos w
(D)
w 2rT cos
0.0125 N m 1
(B)
0.1 N m 1
(C)
0.05 N m 1
(D)
0.025 N m 1
Surface Energy
149. Radius of a soap bubble is 'r', surface tension of soap solution is T. Then without incresing the
temprature how much energy will be needed to double its radius.
(A)
4 r2 T
(B)
2 r2 T
(C)
12 r 2 T
(D)
24 r 2 T
150. The amount of work done in blowing a soap bubble such that its diameter increases from d to D is
(T = Surface tension of solution)
(A)
4 D 2 d 2 T
(B)
(C)
D2 d 2 T
(D)
2 D
8 D 2 d 2 T
2
d2
151. A soap bubble of radius r is blown up to form a bubble of radius 2r under isothermal conditions if the
T is the surface tension of soap solution the energy spent in the slowing is.
(A)
(B) 6Tr 2
(C) 12Tr 2
(D) 24Tr 2
3Tr 2
152. The surface tension of a liquid is 5 N/m. If a thin film of the area 0.02 m2 is formed on a loop, then
its surface energy will be
(A)
5 10 2 J
(B)
2.5 10 2 J
225
(C)
2 10 1 J
(D)
5 10 1 J
153. A frame made of a metalic wire enclosing O surface area A is covered with a soap film. If the area
of the frame metalic wire is reduced by 50% the energy of the soap film will be changed by
(A) 100%
(B) 75%
(C) 50%
(D) 25%
154. Two small drops mercury, each of radius R, coaless the form a single large drop. The ratio of the
total surface energies before and after the change is.
(A)
1: 2
1
2
(B)
1
2
(C)
2 :1
2:1
(D)
1:2
3
N/m)
100
(A)
75. 36 10 4 Joule
(B)
37. 68 10 4 Joule
(C)
150. 72 10 4 Joule
(D)
75. 36 Joule
156. The work done increasing the size of a soap film drom 10 cm 11 cm is 3 104 Joule . The
surface tension of the film is
(A)
1.5 10 2
N
m
(B)
3.0 10 2
N
m
(C)
6.0 10 2
N
m
2
(D) 11.0 10
N
m
157. A big drop of radius R is formed by 1000 small droplets of coater then the radius of small drop is
(A)
R
2
(B)
R
5
(C)
R
6
(D)
R
10
158. 8000 identioal water drops are combined to form a bigdrop. Then the ration of the final surface
energy to the intilial surface energy of all the drops together is
(A) 1 : 10
(B) 1 : 15
(C) 1 : 20
(D) 1 : 25
159. The relation between surface tension T. Surface area A and surface energy E is given by.
(A)
E
A
(B)
(C)
T EA
T
A
Angle of Contact
160. If a coater drop is kept between two glasses plates then its shape is
(A)
(D)
(B)
(C)
None of these
226
(D)
A
E
161. A liquid wets a solid completely. The menisions of the liquid in a surfficently long tube is
(A) Flat
(B) Concave
(C) Convex
(D) Cylindrical
Pressure Difference
162. When two soap bubbles of radius r1 and r2 (r2 > r1) coalesce, the radius of curvature of common
surface is...........
r2 r1
r1 r2
(A) r2 r1
(B)
(C)
(D) r2 r1
r1 r2
r2 r1
163. The excess of pressure inside a soap bubble than that of the other pressure is
2T
4T
T
T
(B)
(C)
(D)
r
r
2r
r
164. The radill of two soap bubbles are r1 and r2. In isothermal conditions two meet together is vacum
Then the radius of the resultant bubble is given by
(A)
(A)
R r1 r2 / 2
(B)
R r1 r1 r2 r3
(C)
R 2 r1 r2
(D)
R r1 r2
165. A spherical drop of coater has radius 1 mm if surface tension of contex is 70 10 3 N / m difference
of pressures between inside and outside of the spherical drop is
N
N
N
(B) 70 2
(C) 140 2
(D) zero
2
m
m
m
166. In capilley pressure below the curved surface at water will be
(A) Equal to atomospheric
(B) Equal to upper side pressure
(C) More than upper side pressure
(D) Lesser than upper side pressure
167. Two bubbles A and B (A>B) are joined through a narrow tube than
(A) The size of a will increase
(B) The size of B will increase
(C) The size of B will increase untill thenpressure equals
(D) None of these
168. If the excess pressure inside a soap bubble is balanced by oil column of height 2 mm then the surface
tension of soap solution will be.
Cr = 1 and density d = 0.8 gm/cc)
N
2 N
3 N
1 N
(A) 3.9
(B) 3.9 10
(C) 3.9 10
(D) 3.9 10
m
m
m
m
(A)
35
Capillarity
169. A capillary tube at radius R is immersed in water and water rises in it to a height H. Mass of water
in the capillary tube is M. If the radius of the tube is doubled. Mass of water that will rise in the
capillary tube will now be
(A) M
(B) 2M
(C)
(D) 4M
227
170. A vesel whose bottom has round holes with diametre of 0.1 mm is filled with water. The maximum
height to which the water can be filled without leakage is
75 dyne
m
g 1000 2 )
cm
s
(A) 100 cm
(B) 75 cm
(C) 50 cm
(D) 30 cm
The correct relation is
2T cos
T cos
hdg
2T dgh
(A) r
(B) r
(C) r
(D) r
hdg
2hdg
2T cos
cos
In a capillary tube water rises by 1.2 mm. The height of water that will rise in another capillary tube
having half the radius of the first is
(A) 1.2 mm
(B) 2.4 mm
(C) 0.6 mm
(D) 0.4 mm
Water rises in a vertical capillary tube upto a beight of 2.0 cm. If tube is inclined at an angle of 600
with the vertical then the what length the water will rise in the tube.
4
cm
(A) 2.0 cm
(B) 4.0 cm
(C)
(D) 2 2 cm
3
The lower end of a glass capillary tube is dipped in water rises to a height of 8 cm the tube is then
broken at a height of 6 cm. The height of water column and engled as contact will be
(S.T. of water =
171.
172.
173.
174.
(A)
6 cm . sin 1
3
4
(B)
6 cm . sin 1
4
5
3
1
(D) 6 cm . sin 1
4
2
175. A large number of water drops each of rdius r combine to have a drop of radius R. If the surface
tension is T and the mechanical equllvalent at heat is J then the rise in tempreature will be
3J 1 1
2T 1 1
2T
3T
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
J r R
J r R
rJ
RJ
(C)
6 cm . cos 1
Caraphical Question
176. The correct curve between the height or depression h of liquid in a capillary tube and its radius is
228
177. A soap bubble is blown with the help of a mechanical pump at the mouthof a tube the pump
produces a certion increase per minit in the volume of the bubble irrespective of its internal pressure
the graph between the pressure inside the soap bubble and time t will be
178. Which graph present the variation of surface tension with temperature over small temperature ranges
for coater.
2rT
(B)
(C)
2R T
2 r2 T
R
(D)
2R2 T
r
1.4 10 3 m
(B)
3.3 10 3 m
229
(C)
2.0 10 3 m
(D)
4.1 10 3 m
1.4 10 6 J
(B)
2.7 10 6 J
(C)
5.4 10 6 J
(D)
8.1 10 6 J
189. A trangular lamind of area A and, height h is immersed in a liquid of density S in a vertical plane with
its base on the surface of the liquid. The thrust on lamina is
(A)
1
Agh
2
(B)
1
Agh
3
(C)
1
Agh
6
(D)
2
Agh
3
190. The density S of coater of bulk modulus B at a depth y in the ocean is related to the density at
surface so by the relation.
(A)
gy
0 1 0
B
(B)
gy
0 1 0
B
(C)
gyh
0 1 0
B
(D)
B
0 1
0gy
191. By sucking through a straw, a student can reduce the pressure in his lungs to 750 mm of Hg (density
13.6
gm
) using the straw, he can drink water from a glass up to a maximum depth of
cm 3
(A) 10 cm
(B) 75 cm
(C) 13.6 cm
(D)
192. The pressure on a swimmer 20 m below the surface of coater at sea level is
(A) 1.0 atm
(B) 2.0 atm
(C) 2.5 atm
(D)
1.36 cm
3.0 atm
vg
K
vg
K
(B)
(C)
vg 1 2
K
vg 1 2
(D)
194. The fraction of floating object of volume VO and density do above the surface of a Liquid as density
d will be
(A)
d0
d
(B)
d d0
d d0
(C)
d d0
d
(D)
d d0
d d0
195. A body floats in water with onethired od its volume above the surface of water. It is placed in oil it
floats with half of : Its volume above the surface of the oil. The specific gravity od the oil is.
(A)
5
3
(B)
4
3
(C)
3
2
(D)
196. If there were no gravity which of the following will not be there for a fluid.
(A)
Viscosity
(B)
Surface tension
(C)
pressure
(D)
231
197. A piece of solid weighs 120 g in air, 80 g in water and 60 g in liquid the relative density of the solid
and that of the solid and that of the liquid are respectively.
(A)
3, 2
(B)
2,
3
4
(C)
3
,2
4
(D)
3,
3
2
198. Ice pieces are floating in a beaker A containing watre and also in a beakre B containing miscible
liquid of specific gravity 1.2 Ice melts the level of
(A) water increases in A
(B) water decreases in A
(C) Liquid in B decrease B
(D) Liquid in B increase
Fluid Flow
199. An engine pumps water continuously through a hose water leares the hose with a velocity V and m
is the mass per unit length of the watre Jet what is the rate at which kinetic energy is imperted to
water.
(A)
1
mv 3
2
(B)
mv 3
(C)
1
mv 2
2
(D)
1
mv v 2
2
200. The height of the dam in an hydro electric power station is 10 m. In order to generate 1 MW of
electric power, the mass of water (in kg) that must full per second on the brades of turbine is
(A) 106
(B) 105
(C) 103
(D) 104
201. Eight drops of a liquid of density 3 and each of radius a are fallingt through air with a constant
velocity 3.75 cm S1 when the eight drops coalesce to form a single drop the terminal velocity of the
new drop will be
(A)
15 10 2 ms 1
(B)
2.4 10 2 m / s
(C)
0.75 10 2 ms 1 (D) 25 10 2 m / s
202. A cylinder of height 2.0 m is completely filled with water. The velocity of efflux of water cim m/s
through a small hole on the side will of the cylinder mear its bottom is
(A) 10
(B) 20
(C) 25.5
(D) 5
203. There is a hole in the bottom of tank having water. If total pressure at bottom 3 atm (1 atm ) then the
velocity of water flowig drom hole is
(A)
400
m
s
(B)
60
m
s
(C)
600
m
s
(D)
None of these
204. Two drops of the same radius are falling through air with a steady velocity for 5 cm per sec. If the
two drops coakesce the terminal velocity would be
(A) 10 cm per sec
(B) 2.5 cm per sec
(C)
5 43 cm per sec
(D)
5 2 cm per sec
232
D H D
2
(A)
x D H D
(B)
(C)
x 2 D H D
(D)
x 4 D H D
208. An incomepressible fluid flows steadily through a cylinderical pipe which has radius 2r at point A and
radius r at B further along the flow direction. It the velocity at point A is V, its velocity at point B.
(A)
2v
(B)
v
2
(C)
(D)
4v
kg
209. If the terminal speed of a sphere of gold density 19.5 3 is 2.0 m/s in a viscous liquid
m
kg
kg
density 1.5 3 find the terminal speed of a sphere of siher density 10.5 3 of the
m
m
kg
with the same uniform speed
m3
kg
kg
11 103 3 respectively. The
3 and
m
m
11
8
(B)
11
8
(C)
233
3
2
(D)
3
2
212. Water is flowing continuously dram a temp having an internal diameter 8 103 m . The water velocity
as it leaves the tap is 0.4 m/s. The diameter of the water stream at a distance 2 101 m below the
tap is close to
(A)
5.0 10 3 m
(B)
7.5 10 3 m
(C)
9.6 10 3 m
(D)
3.6 10 3 m
213. A large open tank has two holes in the wall one is a square hole of side L ata depth y froam the top
and the other is a circular hole of radius R at a depth ay from the top. When the tank is completely
filled with water the quantities of water following out per second from both the holes are the some
then R is equal to
(A)
(B)
2L
L
2
(C)
(D)
L
2
214. A block of ice floats on a liquid of density 1.2 in a beaker then level of liquid when ice completely
melt.
(A) Remains same
(B) Rises
(C) Lowers
(D) (A) (B) or (C)
Ordinary Thinking
Thermometary
218. Oxygen boils at 1830C. This temperature is approximately.
(A) 2150 F
(B) 2970 F
(C) 3290 F
234
(D)
3610 F
219. The resistance of a rasistance thermometer has values 2.71 and 3.70 ohm at 100C and 1000C. The
temprature at which the resistance is 3.26 ohm is
(A) 400 C
(B) 500 C
(C) 600 C
(D) 700 C
220. Maximum density of H2O is at the temprature.
(A) 320 F
(B) 39.20 F
(C) 420 F
(D) 40 F
221. At what temprature the centigrade (celsius) and Fahrenheit readings at the same.
(A) 400
(B) +400 C
(C) 36.60
(D) 370 C
222. Mercury thermometers can be used to measure tempratures up to
(A) 1000 C
(B) 2120 C
(C) 3600 C
(D) 5000 C
223. If temperature of an object is 1400 F then its temperature in centigratde is
(A) 1050 C
(B) 320 C
(C) 1400 C
(D) 600 C
224. When the room temprature becomes equal to the dew point the relative humidity of the room is
(A) 100 %
(B) 0 %
(C) 70 %
(D) 85 %
225. If the length of a cylinder on heating increases by 2% the area of its base will increase by.
(A) 0.5 %
(B) 2 %
(C) 1 %
(D) 4 %
0
0
226. Density of substance at 0 C is 10 gm/cc and at 100 Cits density is 9.7 gm/CC. The coefficient of
linear expansion of the substance will be
(A) 102
(B) 102
(C) 103
(D) 104
227. A beaker is completely filled with water at 40C It will overflow if
(A) Heated above 40C
(B) Cooled below 40C
(C) Both heated and cooled above and below 40C respectively
(D) None of these
228. An iron bar of length 10m is heated from 00C to 1000C. If the coefficient of linear thermal expansion
10 106
of iron is
the increase in the length of bar is
C
(A) 0.5 cm
(B) 1.0 cm
(C) 1.5 cm
(D) 2.0 cm
Calorimetry
229. Melting point of ice.....
(A) Increases with increasing pressure
(B) Decreases with increasing pressure
(C) Is independent of pressure
(D) is proportional of pressure
230. Amount of heat required to raise the temprature of a body through 1k is called it is
(A) Water equivalent
(B) Thermal capacity
(C) Entropy
(D) Specific heat
231. A vessel contains 110 g of water the heat capacity of the vessel is equal to 10 g of water The initical
temprature of water in vessel is 100C If 220 g of hot water at 700C is poured in the vessel the Final
temperature meglecting radiation loss will be
(A) 700 C
(B) 800 C
(C) 600 C
(D) 500 C
235
232. In a water fall the water falls from a height of 100 cm. If the entire K.E. of water is converted in to
heat the rise in temperature of water will be
(A) 0.230 C
(B) 0.460 C
(C) 2.30 C
(D) 0.0230 C
233. The temprature at which the vapour pressure of a liquid becomes equals of the external pressure is
its.
(A) Melting point
(B) sublimation point
(C) Critical temprature
(D) Boiling point
0
234. 10 g of ice at 0 C is mixed with 100 g of water at 500 C what is the resultant temprature of mixture.
(A) 31.20 C
(B) 32.80 C
(C) 36.70 C
(D) 38.20 C
Critical Thinking
235. Two metal strips that constituate a thermostant must necessarily in their
(A) Mass
(B) Length
(C) Resistivity
(D) Coefficient of liner expansion
0
236. 2 kg of Ice at 20 C is mixed with 5 kg of water at 200 C in an insulating vessel having a megligible
heat capacity calculate the final mass of water remaining in the container. It is given that the specific
heats of water and ice care 1 keal/kg per0C and 0.5 Keal/kg 10C while the latent heat of fusion of
ice is 80 kcoil/kg.
(A) 7 kg
(B) 6 kg
(C) 4 kg
(D) 2 kg
0
237. A lead bullet at 27 C just melts when stopped by an obstancle Assuming that 25% of heat is
obsorbed by the obstacle then the velocity of the bullet at the time of striking.
[M.P. of lead = 3270 C, specific heat of lead = 0.03 cal/x latent heat of fusion of lead = 6 cal/g and
J = 4.2 Jute / cal]
(A) 410 m/s
(B) 1230 m/s
(C) 307.5 m/s
(D) None of these
238. An electric kettle takes 4A current at 220V How much time will it take to boil 1 kg of water from
temprature 20C ? The temprature of boiling water is 100 C.
(A) 12.6 min
(B) 4.2 min
(C) 6.3 min
(D) 8.4 min
Graphical options
0
239. Ablock of ice at 10 C is slowly heated and covered to steam at 1000 C which of the following
curves represents the phenomenon qualitatively.
236
241.
242.
243.
244.
245.
246.
Read the assertion and reason carefully to mark the correct option out of the option given below.
(a) If both asseration and reason are true and the reason is the correct explanation of the reason.
(b) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not the correct explanation of the assertion.
(c) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(d) If the assertion and reason both are false.
(e) If assertion is false but reason is true.
Assertion : The melting point of the ice decreases with increases pressure
Reason : Ice contracts on melting
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Assertion : Fahrenheit is the smallest unit measuring temprature.
Reason : Fahrenheit was the first temprature scale used for measuring temprature.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Assertion : Melting of solid causes no change in internal energy.
Reason :Latent heat is the heat required melt a unit mass of solid.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Assertion : Specific heat capacity is the cause of formation of land and sea breeze.
Reason : The specific heat of water is more then land.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
0
0
Assertion : The moleculs of 0 C ice and 0 C water will have same potential energy.
Reason : Potential energy depends only on temprature of the system.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
0
Assertion : A beaker is completely filled with water at 4 C. It will overflow both where heated or
cooled.
Reason : There is expansion of water below and above 40C.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
237
Answers Key
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
D
B
D
B
C
B
D
D
C
C
A
B
D
B
B
B
B
D
D
D
B
B
C
B
C
D
B
D
A
A
B
D
D
D
D
D
A
C
C
A
D
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
C
A
B
D
A
D
A
A
B
D
B
D
C
B
A
A
D
A
C
C
B
A
C
C
C
A
B
C
B
A
B
A
B
C
B
A
C
D
B
C
B
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
B
B
D
A
D
B
C
A
D
B
C
C
B
A
C
D
C
A
A
B
D
D
B
C
B
C
A
D
D
A
D
A
D
A
A
B
C
B
B
B
D
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
238
A
D
A
A
D
A
A
D
B
B
C
A
B
C
A
A
A
A
D
D
C
A
D
C
D
D
D
D
C
C
B
A
B
D
C
A
C
B
C
B
C
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
C
D
A
B
B
D
A
B
B
C
C
B
A
B
C
A
B
E
A
C
B
A
B
C
B
B
C
B
D
C
B
D
D
D
A
D
A
B
A
C
A
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
B
C
D
B
C
D
D
B
B
A
C
A
B
B
B
A
C
D
A
D
D
C
B
B
B
D
A
D
D
D
B
A
C
A
A
A
C
E
A
D
A
Hint
1.
FL
FV
V
2 V A L L
Ay
A y
A
A2 y
F
V
F A2
As cross sectional area of 2nd wire is 3 times therefore 9F force is required for same elongation.
2.
3.
F L
L
L
A
A d 2
L
(As F and Y are constant)
d2
The ratio of
4.
5.
6.
L
is maximum for case CD
d2
Young modulus of wire does not vary with dimension of wire. It is the property of given material.
Depression in beam.
wL2
4Y3bd3
1
r2
1
Y
If radius of the wire is doubled then increament in length will become 1/4 times, i.e.
7.
8.
9.
YA
L
F
Y A Given stress 3.18 108 N2
kp
Here KQ
2
Fp k p x p
Fp FQ (Given)
xp
xQ
239
kQ
kP
F/A
Y
....1
12
3 mm
4
10.
UQ
k p x 2P
kp
k 2Q 1
k q x 2 Q kQ
k 2p 2
kp
kQ 2
UP
UQ E
2
2
11.
12.
13.
Linear stress
Longitudin al strain
1
stress strain
2
14.
stress
Max . stress
Y
Max strain
Strain
V
15.
16.
force
1
stress 2
stress
Area
r
mg
Max strain A
Y
L2 dg
8 10 2 1.5 9.8
9.6 10 11 m
8
2Y
2 5 10
2
S
rA
2
S B rB 2 SB 4 SA
A
17.
18.
19.
I
A
A 10 6 m 2 Y
20.
FL
AY
1
(F, L & Y are constant)
r2
FL
1
2 (F, Land Y are same)
AY
r
240
FL
Ya1
Steel
AY
a1
YSteel (F, Land Y are constant)
21.
22.
23.
24.
F = force developed YA A
25.
26.
F
F
Y A A
strain
Yx strain
27.
28.
Y stress
Force
Area
P
dg
lateral strain
longitudinal strain
F
A
TL
AY
Elongation in wire tension in the wirein first case T1 wand in second case
T2
2w
w
ww
29.
FA
Al
30.
F
1
2 (F, Land Y are constant)
2
r y
r
31.
Longitudinal strain =
32.
It is the specific property of a particular material at a given temperature which can be changed only
by temperature variations.
33.
34.
l
stress
=
L
Y
F
A
r2
FYA F
(y and L are constant)
L
L
241
r
7
r0 3 10 10
35.
36.
37.
F
F
Y A strain
strain
AY
38.
39.
Potential energy stored in the rubber cord calapult will be covered into kinetic energy of mass
1 AL2
Y
2
L
1
1 YAL2
mv 2
2
2 L
40.
FL
AY
1
(F, L and Y are constant)
A
2
A
4 1
0.1
1 2 1
0.05mm
1 A 2 8 2
2
2
41.
stress
cons tan t
strain
42.
FL
AY
43.
FL
AY
44.
K Yro
45.
FL
FL2
FL2
AY AL Y VY
46.
47.
48.
49.
F A Y Strain
242
50.
51.
stress
52.
53.
Breaking force r 2
force
area
If diameter becomes double then breaking force will become four times
i.e.1000 4 4000 N
54.
FL
FL2
FL2
AY AL Y AY
If volume is fixed then L2
55.
Young's modulus
stress
strain
N
m2
56.
57.
58.
2 2 1 2 Q and L1 1 1 1 Q
FL
r 2 y
L
(Y & F are constant)
r2
2 1 l 2 l1 Q 2 2 1 1
now L 2 L1 2 1 So, 2 2 11 0
59.
Thermal stress = y Q
60.
61.
YA
L
FL
1
r 2 (F, Land l are constant)
2
r y
Y
243
62.
FL
r 2 y
1
(F, Land Y are constant)
A
A2
1
A1
2
63.
MgL
A
64.
FL
AY
65.
mgL
YA
66.
Work done
67.
F
r2
1
Mg
F
2
2
2
1 stress
Volume
2
Y
(V = A1)
w1
1
1 1
w2 2
2 2
68.
1
F
2
69.
F
1
1
1
and w F k k 2
2
2
2
70.
1
F2
L
U F
; U 2 (F and Y are constant)
2
2AY
r
71.
1
F
2
72.
1 stress
Volume
2
Y
73.
When a wire is stretched through a length then work has to be done. This work is stored in the wire
in the form of elastic potential energy.
Potential energy of stretched wire is
1
stress strain
2
1
1
F 6 U Fx
2
2
244
74.
1
2
YX strain
2
75.
YA 2
2L
76.
F2
T2
2K 2K
77.
78.
1 YA 2
U
2 L
79.
1 F
FL
2 A L 2AL
1
2
k 1
2
1
2
2
k 2 1
2
F
X
80.
81.
Isothermal elasticity ki = P
82.
PV
V B
V
1
P
given
1%
Y
V
V
100
1.5 1010
N
1.5 108 2
100
m
83.
V P
P
CV
84.
85.
86.
4
3
P
v
v
v
P 0.4 CC
v
245
1
2
k 1
2
P hsg
v
v
v
v
87.
88.
3
If side of cube is L then V L
89.
90.
dv 3dL
v
L
100
N
dynes
106 atm 1011 2 1012
0.01
m
cm 2
100
v v
v
volume elasticity P P
v
v
2
v
If side of the cube is L then V = L
91.
dv 3dL
v
L
92.
P'
8
P
7
93.
5
Isothermal elasticity P Ki 1 atm 1.013 1.013 10
94.
95.
dv
dL
1 2
v
L
96.
We know that
dv
3
3
v 2 2 10 4 10
dv
dL
1 2
v
L
If
N
m2
6 0.5 2
1
dv
then
0
2
v
97.
Y = 2N ( 1 + )
98.
Y 2n 1
99.
n r4
Twisting coulple C
2
0.5 y n
n
If material and length of the wires A and B equal twisting coulple are applied then
1
4
r
1 2
2 r1
lies between
102. y 2n 1 3n 2n 1
3
1
1
2
2
3 1 2
103. Y 2n 1
104. There will be both shear stress and normal stress.
105. Angle of shear
r
4 10 1
0.12'
L 100 30'
1
i.e. if L is more then will be small
L
9nk
Eliminating we got Y n 3k
n
T2 M
k
If we draw a graph of between T2 & M then it will be straight line and for M 0 ; T 2 0
i.e. graph should pass through the origin but from the graph it is not reflected it means the mass of
pan was neglected.
247
111. In the region OA, stress strain . i.e.Hooke's las hold good.
112. As stress is shown on X axis and strain on Y axis so we can say that
Y cot
1
1
tan slope
YA
tan A
YB
tan B
115. i.e.for the same load thickest wire will show minimum elongation so graph D present the thickest
wire.
114.
10 4 M, F 20 N
A 10 6 M 2 , 1 M
FL
20 1
N
10
6
2 1011 2
4 20 10
Al 10 10
m
1
kx 2 or U x 2
2
dv
119. F
dx
1
3
121. In ductile materials, yeild point exist which in brittle material failure would occur without yeilding.
122. Young's modulus is defined
stress
strain
123. Elasticity of wire decreases at high temperatare i.e. at higher temprature slope of graph will be less,
So T1 > T2.
124. Attraction will be minimum when the distance b/w the molecule is maximum. Altraction will be
maximum at that point where the positive slope is maximum b'sc
F
du
dx
248
125. B'se stretching of coil simply chnages its shape without any change in the length of the wire used in
coil Due to which shear of elasticity is prevolved.
126. A bridge during its use undergoes alternating strains for a large number of times each day depending
upon the movement of vehicle on it. When a bridge is used for long time. It losses its strength Due to
which the amount of strain in the bridge for a given stress will become large and ultimately the bridge
may collapse. This may not happen if the fridges are declared unsafe.
127. Ivory is more elastic than wetclay. Hence, the ball of ivory will rise to a greater height. Infact the ball
of wet day will not rise at all it will be same, what flattended permanently.
128. Young's modulus of a material. Y
Here, stress force
stress
strain
Re staring
force
Area
1
1
2
stress strain Y strain Since, elasticity of steel is more than copper,,
2
2
hence, more work has to be done in order to stretch the steel.
Ft
130. A
x
y
W
133. Y A
A
139. Y
F L
A L
249
Hint
143. Soap helps to lower the surface tension of solution thus soap get stick to the dist partcles and grease
and these are removed by action of water.
F
2TA
t
147.
148. 2TL mg
149. w 8T R 2 2 R 12
150. w T 8 r2 2 r12
mg
2L
8 T 2r r
D2 d2
T 8
4
4
24 r 2 T
2 D 2 d 2 T
T 2 4 2r 4r 2
2
24 T r 2 Joule
152. w T A
153. Surface energy = Surface tension surface ared
E T 2A
A
New surface energy F1 T 2
2
E Ei
100
E
1
154. The ration of the total surface energies before and after the change n 2 : 1 2 3 : 1
155. w 8 R 2 T
156. w T A
157.
w
A
4
R3
3
250
surface energy
Area
or T
E
A
2T
R
167. rA rB and p
1
So PA PB
r
4T
hdg
R
Rhdg
4
3.9 10 2
N
m
M R2
172. h
173.
2T
rdg
h1
r1 h1 r2 h 2
4.0 cm
cos cos 60
174. When a capillary tube is broken at a height of 6 cm the height of water column will be 6 cm.
As h
25 cos
h
or
cons tan t
rg
cos
8
6
6 cos 0o 3
or cos
cos 0o cos
8
4
1 3
cos
176. h
3T 1 1
Jsd r R
2T cos
rdg
4T
r
3T 1 1
J r R
1
r
1
r
1
t
178. TC To I t
i.e. Surface tension decreases with increase in temperature
179. Due to surface tension vertical force on drop
Fv T2 r Sm
T2 r
r
2 r2
T
R
R
2 r2
4
T R3 . 9
180.
R
3
3
181. U T A 0.11 4 1.4 10
183. h
184.
185.
186.
187.
2T
2T
hR
Rdg
dg
hR constant
Hence when the tube is of insufficient length radius of curvature of the liquid meniscus increasses so
as to maintain the product hR a finite constant.
i.e. as h decreases R increases and the liquid meniscus becomes more and more flat but the liquid
does not overflow.
The presence of impurities either on the liquid surface or dissolved in it considerably affect the force
of surface tension depending upon the degree of surface tension depending upon the degree of
contamination. A highly soluable substance like sodium chioride when dissolved in water increase
the surface tension. But the sparing soluable or substance like phenol when dissolved in water
reduces the surface tension of water.
We know that the intermolecular distance between the gas moleculas is Large as compaired to that
of liquid Due to it the forces of cohesion in the gas moleculas are very small and these are quite
Large for liquids. Therefor the concept of surface tension is applicable to Liquid but not to gasses.
The height of capillary rise is inversly propostional to radius (or diametre) of capillary tube
1
i.e. h so, for smaller r the value of his higher
r
When a drop of Liquid is poured on a glass, plate, the shape of the drop also is governed the force
of gravity for every small drops the potential energy due to gravity is insignification. Compared to
that due to surface tention. Hence, in this case the shape of the drop is determined by sufrace tension
alone and drope becomes spherical.
188. p1 v1 p 2 v 2
p hg 4
3
r3 p0
4
2r 3
3
252
hg
1
A
Agh
3
3
v v0 1
B
p
p
v v 0
v
B
Density 0 1
B
0 1
B
3
Density of water 10
Atmospheric pressure
Pa 1.01 105 pa
p pa gh
193. Weight of the ball = Buyoant force + viscous force
194. For the floatation Vo dog = Vin dg
Vin V0
do
d
Vout V0 Vin V0 V0
do
d
0
4
w
3
196. Aschemedies principal explains buoyant force and bouant force depends on acceleration due to
gravity
204. If two drops of same radius r coalesce then radius of new drop is given by R
4
4
4
R 3 r 3 r 3 R 3 2r 3
3
3
3
1
R 2 3 r
Is drop of radius r is falling in viscous medium then it acquire a critical velocity V and V r 2
13
2 r
v2 R
v1 r
r
2
3
2
3
v 2 2 v1
2 5
253
5 4 3
m
s
2.45
v2
0.30 cm
h
h
9
2 10
30.0 cm
v 2gD
Horizontal distance covered
x vt
209. Terminal speed v
2 r 2g
9 n
Where,
v
210. Mass = volume Density
M
4 3
r
3
2
2 R
g
9
n
VT1
2 R1 1
9n
and Vt 2
2 R2 2
9n
254
212. Diameter 8 10 3 m
V1 0.4
m
s
v 2 v12 2gh
A 1v 1 = A 2v 2
M
215. The volume of liquid displaced by floating ice VD
M
w
M
M
i.e VD VF
L w
Height of the blood column in the human body is more at feet than at the brain as P = hpg there face
the blood exeists more pressure at the feet than at the brain.
When to holes are made in the Hn air keeps on externing through the other hole Due to this the
pressure inside the tin does not become less than at mosphere pleassure which happen only when
hole is made.
218.
C F 32
183 F 32
F 297 o F
5
9
5
9
219. Change in resistonce 3.70 2.71 0.99 to interval of temprature 900 C so change in resistance
3.26 2.71 0.55 corresponds to change in temprature.
90
0.55 50 o C
0.99
5
9
221.
C F 32
5
9
222. The boiling point of mercury is 4000 C. Therefore the mercury thermeter can be used to measure the
range upto 3600 C.
223.
C F 32
5
9
2
225. A L
A
L
2.
A
L
255
2
1
. T
Calorimetry
229. Melting point of ice decreases with increase in pressuire.
230. m. c ; if 1k then mc Thermal capacity
231. Let final temprature of water bc heat taken = Heat given
110 1 10 10 10 220 1 70
48. 8o C 50o C
232. 0.0023h 0.0023 100 0.23o C
233. At boiling point vapour pressure becomes equal to the external pressure.
miLi
cw
mi mw
mw w
234. mix
Critical Thinking
235. Thermostat is used in electric opporatas like refrigerator iron etc for automatic cut off Therefore for
metallic strips to bend on heating their coefficient of linear expansion should be different.
236. Initially ice will absorb heat to rise its temprature to 00C then its melting takes place. If mi = Initial
mass of ice mi1 = Mass of ice that melts and mw = Initial mass of water By low of mixture Heat
gained by ice = Heat lost by water mi c 20 mi L mwC w 20
2 0.5 20 mi 80 5 1 20 mi 7 1 kg
So final mass water Initial mass of water + mass of ice that melts = 5 + 1 = 6 kg
237. If mass of the bullet is m gm then total heat required for bullet to just melt down.
1 mc mL
Now when bullet is stopped by the obstacle the loss in its mechanical energy
(As mg m 10 3 kg )
As 25% of this energy is absorbed by the
256
1
cm 10 3 ) v 2 9
2
75 1
3
2
3
2
3
2 100 2 mv 10 8 mv 10 J
mc 4200 m 4200 m
p
p
VI
1
oC
water 4200
kg
4200 1 100 20
381sec 6.3 min
220 4
Graphical Optaions
239. Initially on heating temprature rises from 100 C to 00 C Then ice melt and temprature does not rise
After the whole ice has melted temprature begins to rise until reaches 1000 C Then it becomes
constant as at the boiling point will not rise.
240. Density of water is maximum at 40 C and is less on either side of this temprature.
257
SUMMARY
C 0 F 32
C
F
0
0
0
100
180
100 1800
w P V (Isothesmal process)
RT n
v2
v1 (Isothesmal process)
cp
cv
Monoatomic gases C v =
Diatomic gases C v =
5
7
R, Cp = R, = 1.4
2
2
Polgatomic gases C v =
W=
3
5
R, = Cp = R, = 1.67
2
2
7R
9R
, Cp =
, = 1.4
2
2
1
(P V P2 V2 ) (adiabafic Process)
1 1 1
mR (T1 T2 )
1
259
n QW1
Q1 Q 2
Q1
T1 T2
T1
Q2
w
Q2
Q1 Q 2
T2
T1 T2
I deal gas Cp Cv R
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
(A)
5
9
(B)
9
5
(C)
260
1
9
(D)
3
9
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
The temperature on celsius scale is 250 C What is the corresponding temperature on the Fahrenheit
Scale?
(A) 400 F
(B) 450 F
(C) 500 F
(D) 770 F
The temperature of a body on Kelvin Scale is found to be x.K.when it is measured by Fahrenhit
thesmometes. it is found to be x0F, then the value of x is .
(A) 313
(B) 301.24
(C) 57425
(D) 40
A Centigrade and a Fahrenhit thesmometes are dipped in boiling watesThe wates temperature is
lowered until the Farenhit thesmometes registered 1400 what is the fall in thrmometers
(A) 800
(B) 600
(C) 400
(D) 300
A uniform metal rod is used as a bas pendulum. If the room temperature rises by 100C and the
efficient of line as expansion of the metal of the rod is, 2 106 0C1 what will have percentage increase
in the period of the pendulum ?
(A) 2 103
(B) 1 103
(C) 1 103
(D) 2 103
A gas expands from 1 litre to 3 litre at atmospheric pressure. The work done by the gas is about
(A) 200 J
(B) 2 J
(C) 300 J
(D) 2 105 J
Each molecule of a gas has f degrees of freedom. The radio
(A) 1
12.
f
2
1
f
(C) 1
2
f
(D) 1
1
3
Is the cyclic Process Shown on the V P diagram, the magnitude of the work done is
P2 P1
(A)
2
(C)
13.
(B) 1
CP
= for the gas is
CV
V2 V1
(B)
2
P2V2 PV
1 1
(D)
P2 P1 V2 V1
4
If the ratio of specific heat of a gas at Consgant pressure to that at constant volume is , the Change
in internal energy of the mass of gas, when the volume changes from V to 2V at Constant Pressure
p, is
PV
(A)
1
(B)
R
1
(C) PV
261
(D)
PV
1
14.
15.
16.
17.
The change in internal energy, when a gas is cooled from 9270C to 270C
(A) 200%
(B) 100%
(C) 300%
(D) 400%
For hydrogen gas Cp  Cv = a and for oxygen gas Cp  Cv = b, The relation between a and b is
given by
(A) a = 4b
(B) a = b
(C) a = 16b
(D) a = 8b
In a thermodynamic process, pressure of a fixed mass of a gas is changed in such a manner that the
gas release 20J of heat and 8J of work has done on the gas If the inifial internal energy of the gas
was 30j, then the final internal energy will be
(A) 58 J
(B) 2 J
(C) 42 J
(D) 18 J
If for a gas
cp
= 1.67, this gas is made up to molecules which are
cv
(A) diatomic
(C) monoatomic
18.
An ideal monoatomic gas is taken around the cycle ABCDA as Shown in the P V diagram. The
work done during the cycle is given by
(A) PV
19.
21.
(B)
1
PV
2
(C) 2 PV
(D) 4 PV
A given mass of a gas expands from state A to B by three different paths 1, 2 and 3 as shown in the
figure. If W1,W2 and W3 respectively be the work done by the gas along the three paths, then
(A) W1>W2>W3
20.
(B) Polytomic
(D) mixnese of diatomic and polytomic molecules
(B) W1<W2<W3
5
7
262
22.
23.
24.
25.
One mole of a monoatomic ideal gas is mixed with one mole of a diatomic ideal gas The molas
specific heat of the micture at constant volume is ..........
(A) 4 R
(B) 3 R
(C) R
(D) 2R
One mole of a monoatomic gas is heate at a constant pressure of 1 atmosphere from 0k to 100 k.
If the gas constant R = 8.32 J/mol k the change in internal energy of the gas is approximate ?
(A) 23 J
(B) 1.25 103 J
(C) 8.67 103 J (D) 46 J
A gas mixture consists of 2 mde of oxygen and 4 mole of argon at tempressure T.Neglecting all
vibrational modes, the total internal energy of the system is
(A) 11 RT
(B) 9 RT
(C) 15 RT
(D) 4 RT
A monoatomic ideal gas, initially at temperature T1 is enclosed in a cylindes fitted with a frictionless
piston. The gas is allowed to expand adiabatically to a temperature T2 by releasing the piston suddenly
T1
If L1 and L2 the lengths of the gas colum be fore and afters expansion respectively, then then T is
2
given by
2
L
(A) 1
L2
26.
27.
28.
L
(B) 2
L1
L1
(C) L
2
L2
(D) L
1
Starting with the same intial Conditions, an ideal gas expands from Volume V1 to V2 in three different
ways. The Work done by the gas is W1 if the process is purely isothermal, W2 if purely isobasic and
W3 if purely adiabatic Then
(A) W2>W1>W3
(B) W2>W3>W1
(C) W1>W2>W3
(D)W1>W3>W2
In a given process on an ideal gas dw = 0 and dQ < 0. Then for the gas
(A) the volume will increase
(B) the pressure will semain constant
(C) the temperature will decrease
(D) the temperature will increase
Wafer of volume 2 filter in a containes is heated with a coil of 1kw at 270C. The lid of the containes
J
is open and energy dissipates at the late of 160 . In how much time tempreture will rise from
S
KJ
Kg
(B) 6 min 2s
(C) 14 min
263
(D) 8 min 20 S
29.
30.
70 calorie of heat are required to raise the temperature of 2 mole of an ideal gas at constant pressure
from 300C to 350C
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of the same gas through the same range at
constant volume is .................. calorie.
(A) 50
(B) 30
(C) 70
(D) 90
When an ideal diatomic gas is heated at constant pressure, the Section of the heat energy supplied
which increases the infernal energy of the gas is..
(A)
31.
32.
3
7
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
3
5
(C)
2
5
(D)
5
7
Two cylinders A and B fitted with piston contain equal amounts of an ideal diatomic gas at 300 k.
The piston of A is free to move, While that of B is held fixed. The same amount of heat is given to the
gas in each cylindes. If the rise in temperature of the gas in A is 30K, then the rise in temperature of
the gas in B is.
(A) 30 K
(B) 42 K
(C) 18 K
(D) 50 K
An insulated containes containing monoatomic gas of molas mass Mo is moving with a velocity, V.If
the container is suddenly stopped, find the change in temperature.
Mov2
(A)
5R
33.
(B)
Mov2
(B)
4R
Mov2
(C)
3R
Mov2
(D)
2R
A Small spherical body of radius r is falling under gravity in a viscous medium. Due to friction the
medium gets heated. How does the late of heating depend on radius of body when it attains terminal
velocity!
(A) r2
(B) r3
(C) r4
(D) r5
The first law of thermodynamics is concerned with the conservation of
(A) momentum
(B) energy
(C) mass
(D) temperature
If heat given to a system is 6 k cal and work done is 6kj. The change in internal energy is .......... KJ.
(A) 12.4
(B) 25
(C) 19.1
(D) 0
The internal energy change in a system that has absorbed 2 Kcal of heat and done 500J of work is
(A) 7900 J
(B) 4400 J
(C) 6400 J
(D ) 8900 J
Which of the following is not a thermodynamical function.
(A) Enthalpy
(B) Work done
(C) Gibb's energy
(D) Internal energy
Which of the following is not a thermodynamic coordinate.
(A) R
(B) P
(C) T
(D) V
The work of 6225 KJ is performed in order to compress one kilo mole of gas adiabatically and in
this process the temperature of the gas increases by 50C The gas is _______ R = 83
(A) triatomic
(B) diatomic
(C) monoatomic
(D) a mixture of monoatomic and diatomic
264
J
molk
40.
Cp and Cv denote the specific heat of oxygen per unit mass at constant Pressure and volume
respectively, then
(A) cp  cv =
R
16
(C) Cp  Cv = 32 R
41.
(B) Cp  Cv = R
(D) Cp  Cv =
R
32
When a System is taken from State i to State f along the path iaf, it is found that Q = 70 cal and w
= 30 cal, along the path ibf. Q=52cal. W atoug the path ibf is
(A) 6 cal
(B) 12 cal
(C) 24 cal
(D) 8 cal
N
5kg
what is the
2 The density of the gas is
m
m3
42.
5
One kg of adiatomic gas is at a pressure of 5 10
43.
44.
(A) 33.4 KJ
(B) 11.33 KJ
(C) 5.57 KJ
(D) 16.7 KJ
During an adiabatic process, the pressure of a gas ifound to be propostional to the fifth power of its
absolute temperature. The radio
(A)
45.
cal
)
90 C
4
5
cp
for the gas is
cv
(B)
3
4
(C)
(D) 4
One mole of oxygen is heated at constant pressure stasting at 00 C. How much heat energy in cal
must be added to the gas to double its volume ? Take R = 2
46.
5
4
cal
molk
(A) 1938
(B) 1920
(C) 1911
(D) 1957
moles of a gas filled in a containes at temperature T is in equilibrium inidially  If the gas is
compressed slowly and is thesmally to half its initial volume the work done by the atmosphere on the
piston is
(A) 
RT
2
(B)
RT
2
1
(C) RT ln (2  )
2
265
(D) RTln 2
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
(A) A and C
(B) A and B
(C) C and D
(D) B and D
An ideal gas is taken through cyclic process as shown in the figure. The net work done by the gas is
(A) PV
(B) 2 PV
(C) 3 PV
(D) zero
moles of gas expands from volume V1 to V2 at constant temperature T. The work done by the gas
is
V2
(A) RT V
1
V
(B) RT lnn 2
V1
V2
(C) RT V 1
1
266
V2
(D) RT lnn V 1
1
55.
A Cyclic Process ABCD is Shown in the P V diagam. which of the following curves represent
the same Process ?
(A)
56.
(B)
(C)
(D)
(A)
(B)
(C)
57.
(D)
Cp
Cv
initial pressure P1 to a final pressure P2 The resulting temperature T2 of the gas is given by.
p 2 1
(A) T2 = T1
p1
p2
(C) T2 = T1
p1
p
(B) T2 = T1 2
p1
p
(D) T2 = T1 2
p1
267
58.
59.
An ideal gas is taken through the cycle A B C A as shown in the figure. If the net heat
supplied to the gas in the cycle is 5J, the work done by the gas in the process C A is
(A)  5 J
(B) 10 J
(C) 15 J
(D)  20 J
0
In anisothermal reversible expansion, if the volume of 96J of oxygen at 27 C is increased from 70
liter to 140 liter, then the work done by the gas will be
(A) 300 R loge(2)
60.
61.
1
 2
r
v
(B)
2
(C) 
v
v
V
V
(D)
V
V
P
is equal to
P
2
(C) 
(B) 1
v2
v1
v
v
(D) 
v
v
(C)
(D) + 1
v2
(B) RT log10 v
1
v1
(C) RT log10 v
v1
(D) RT log e v
65.
V
V
P
is equal to
P
64.
(B)
If r denotes the ratio of adiabatic of two specific heats of a gas. Then what is the ratio of slope of an
adiabatic and isothermal P V curves at their point of intersection ?
(A)
63.
V
V
62.
(B) 81 R loge(2)
(B) P
(C)
p
2
(D)
p
v
(B) 1.013 10
11
N
m2
268
(C) 1.013 10
N
m2
(D) 1.013 10
11
N
m2
66.
67.
68.
(B)
(C) P
(D)
P
2
(D) 1 105
N
M2
If a quantity of heat 1163.4 J is supplied to one mole of nitrogen gas, at room temprature at constant
pressure, then the rise intemperature is R = 8.31
J
m.l.k
(A) 28 K
(C) 54 K
(B) 65 K
(D) 40 K
69.
One mole of O2 gas having a Volume equal to 22.4 liter at Oc and 1 atmosiheric Pressure is
Compressed isothermally so that its volume reduces to 11.2 lites. The work done in this Process is
(A) 1672.4 J
(B) 1728J
(C) 1728J
(D) 1572.4J
70.
71.
73.
(C) Infinite
(B) Coppes
(C) glass
75.
(D) Cloth
A thermodynamic Process in which temprature T of the system remains constant through out Variable
P and V may Change is called
(A) Isothermal Process
(B) Isochoric Process
(C) Isobasic Process
(D) None of this
5 N
When 1g of wates Oc and 10 m 2 Pressure is Converted into ice of Volume 1.091 cm3 the external
(D) Remairs
72.
(B) Negative
(C) 0.0182
(D) 0.0091
J
If the work done in the Process of expansion
g
of 1g is 168J. then increase in internal energy is .......... J
(A) 2072
(B) 2408
(C) 2240
(D) 1904
The Volume of an ideal gas is 1 liter column and its Pressure is equal to 72 cm of Hg. The Volume
of gas is made 900 cm3 by compressing it isothermally. The stress of the gas will be ............. Hg
column.
(A) 4 cm
(B) 6 cm
(C) 7 cm
(D) 8 cm
The letent heat of Vaporisation of water is 2240
269
76.
77.
In adiabatic expansion
(A) u=0
79.
(C) Ju = Nagative
(D) w = 0
78.
(B) u = Positive
N
m2
5
(B) 36 10
N
m2
5
(C) 56 10
N
m2
5
(D) 27 10
N
m2
5
1
is suddenly Compressed to of its original volume adiabatically
3
8
then the final Pressure of gas is ............. times its intial Pressure.
24
40
(A) 8
(B) 32
(C)
(D)
5
3
1 1
The Pressure and density of a diatomic gas = 7
5 Change adiabatically from (P,d) to (P ,d ) If
d'
p'
=32 then
Should be
d
p
1
(C) 32
(D) None of this
128
8
80. An ideal gas at 27 C is Compressed adiabatically, to
of its original Volume. If v = 5
3 , then the
27
rise in temperaure is
(A) 225 k
(B) 450 K
(C) 375 K
(D) 405 K
(A) 128
81.
(B)
A diatomic gas intially at 18 C is Compressed adiabatically to one eight of its original volume. The
temperature after Compression will be
(A) 10 C
82.
Cal
mol o K
(A) 600
(C) 60
(D) 54
(C) 250 W
(D) 250 N
P1
In an isochoric Process T1 27 C and T2 127 C then P will be equal to
2
(A)
85.
(B) 546
N
A gas expands 0.25m 3 at Constant Pressure 103 m2 the work done is
(A) 250 J
84.
(D) 144 C
Work done by 0.1 mole of a gas at 27 C to double its volume at constant Pressure is
Cal. R = 2
83.
(C) 887 C
(B) 668 K
9
59
(B)
2
3
(C)
4
3
(D)
3
4
If the temperature of 1 mole of ideal gas is changed from OC to 100 C at constant pressure, then
work done in the process is ............ J. R = 83
(A) 83 103
J
molk
86.
88.
A mono atomic gas is supplied the heat Q very slowly keeping the pressure constant The work done
by the gas.
2
2
1
3
(A) Q
(B) Q
(C) Q
(D) Q
5
3
5
5
The Volume of air increases by 5% in an adiabatic expansion. The percentange lecrease in its
Pressure will br.
(A) 5%
(B) 6%
(C) 7%
(D) 8%
In P V diagram given below, the isochoric, isothermal and isobaric path respectively are
89.
(A) BA,AD,DC
(B) DC,CB,BA
(C) AB,BC,CD
In the following indicatos diagram, the net amount of work done will be
(D) Infinity
90.
(A) Negative
(B) zero
(C) Positive
Work done in the given P V diagram in the cyclic process is
(A) 4 PV
(D)
87.
91.
(B) 3 PV
(D) CA,DA,AB
(C) 2 PV
PV
2
In the Cyclic Process shown is the figure, the work done by the gas in one cycle
(A) 40 P1V1
(B) 20 P1V1
271
(C) 10 P1V1
(D) 5 P1V1
92.
An ideal gas is taken V path ACBA as Shown in figure, The net work done in the whole cycle is
(A) 3 P1V1
93.
94.
(B) Zero
(C) 5 P1V1
(D) 3 P1V1
A thermodynamic system is taken from state A to B along ACB and is brought back to A along BDA
as Shown in the P V diagram. The net work done during the complete cycle is given by the area.
(A) P1 ACB P2 P1
(B) ACBDA
(C) ACBB1A1A
(D) ADBB1A 1A
Two identical samples of a gas are allowed to expand (i) isothermally (ii) adiabatically work done is
95.
What is the relationship Pressure and temperature for an ideal gas under going adiabatic Change.
96.
97.
98.
(A) pV = Const
(B) TV = Const
(C) TV =Const (D) TV1 = Const
For adiabatic Process which one is wrong statement?
(A) dQ = 0
(B) entropy is not constant
(C) du =  dw
(D) Q = constant
Air is filled in a motor tube at 27 C and at a Pressure of a atmosphere. The tube suddenly bursts.
Then what is the temperature of air. given r of air = 1.5
(D) 27.5 C
If v is the radio of Specigic heats and R is the universal gas constant, then the molar Specific heat at
constant Volume Cv is given by ............
(A) 150 K
99.
Cp
Cv
(A)
vR
v 1
(B) 150 C
(C) 75 K
(B) vR
272
(C)
R
v 1
(D)
v 1 R
r
100. A Car not engine operating between temperature T1 and T2 has efficiency 0.4, when T2 lowered by
50K, its efficiency uncreases to 0.5. Then T1 and T2 are respectively.
(A) 300 K and 100 K
(B) 400 K and 200 K
(C) 600 K and 400 K
(D) 400 K and 300 K
101. A monoatomic gas is used in a car not engine as the working substance, If during the adiabatic
expansion part of the cycle the volume of the gas increases from V to 8V1 the efficiency of the engine
is ..
(A) 60%
(B) 50%
(C) 75%
(D) 25%
102. A System under goes a Cyclic Process in which it absorbs Q1 heat and gives out Q2heat. The
efficiency of the Process is n and the work done is W. Which formula is wrong ?
(A) W Q1 Q2
Q2
(B) n Q
1
W
(C) n Q
1
Q2
(D) n 1 Q
1
103. A car not's engine whose sink is at a temperature of 300K has an efficiency of 40% By space
should the temperature of the source be increase the efficiency to 60%
(A) 275 K
(B) 325 K
(C) 300 K
(D) 250 K
104. An ideal gas heat engine is operating between 227 C and 127 C . It absorks 104 J Of heat at the
higher temperature. The amount of heat Converted into. work is .......... J.
(A) 2000
(B) 4000
(C) 5600
(D) 8000
105. Efficiency of a car not engine is 50%, when temperature of outlet is 500K. in order to increase
efficiency up to 60% keeping temperature of intake the same what is temperature of out let.
(A) 200 K
(B) 400 K
(C) 600 K
(D) 800 K
106. A car not engine takes 3 106 cal of heat from a reservoir at 627 C , and gives to a sink at 27 C .
The work done by the engine is
(A) 4.2 106 J
(D) Zero
107. For which combination of working temperatures the efficiency of Car not's engine is highest.
(A) 80 K, 60 K
(B) 100 K, 80 K
(C) 60 K, 40 K
(D) 40 K, 20 K
108. An ideal heat engine working between temperature T1 and T2 has an efficiency n. The new efficiency
if both the source and sink temperature are doubled, will be
(A) n
(B) 2n
(C) 3n
(D)
n
2
109. An ideal refrigerator has a freetes at a temperature of 13 C , The coefficent of perfomance of the
engine is 5. The temperature of the air to which heat is rejected will be.
(A) 325 C
(B) 39 C
(C) 325 K
(D) 320 C
110. An engine is supposed to operate between two reservoirs at temperature 727 C and 227 C . The
maximum possible efficiency of such an engine is
(A)
3
4
(B)
1
4
(C)
273
1
2
(D) 1
111. A car not engine Convertsm one sixth of the heat input into work. When the temperature of the sink
is reduces by 62 C the efficiency of the engine is doubled. The temperature of the source and sink
are
(A) 800 C, 370 C
(B) 950 C, 280 C
(C) 900 C, 370 C (D) 990 C, 370 C
112. Car not engine working between 300 K and 600 K has work output of 800J per cycle. What is
amount of heat energy supplied to the engine from source per cycle
(A) 1600
J
cycle
(C) 1 0 0 0 c ycJ le
J
(B) 2000 cycle
113. What is the value of sink temperature when efficiency of engine is 100%
(A) 300 K
(B) 273 K
(C) 0 K
(D) 1 8 0 0 c ycJ le
(D) 400 K
1
as heat engine is used as a refrigerators. if the work
10
done on the system is 10J. What is the amount of energy absorbed from the reservoir at lowes
temperature !
(A) 1 J
(B) 90 J
(C) 99 J
(D) 100 J
115. The temperature of sink of car not engine is 27 C . Efficiency of engine is 25% Then find the
temperature of source.
(A) 2270 C
(B) 3270 C
(C) 270 C
(D) 1270 C
116. The efficiency of car not's engine operating between reservoirs, maintained at temperature 27 C
117.
118.
119.
120.
274
AssertionReason
Instructions :Read the assertion and reason carefully to mask the correct option out of the options given
below.
(A) If both assertion and reason are true and the reason is the correct explanation of the assertion.
(B) If both assertion and reason are true but reason is not be correct explanation of assertion.
(C) If assertion is true but reason is false.
(D) If the assertion and reason both are false.
121. Assertion : The melting point of ice decreases with increase of Pressure
Reason : Ice contracts on melting.
(A) C
(B) B
(C) A
(D) D
122. Assertion : Fahrenhit is the smallest unit measuring temperature.
Reason : Fahrenhit was the first temperature scale used for measuring temperature.
(A) A
(B) C
(C) B
(D) D
123. Assertion : A beakes is completely, filled with water at 4 C . It will overlow, both when heated or
cooled.
Reason : These is expansion of water below 40 C
(A) A
(B) B
(C) C
(D) D
124. Assertion : The total translation kinetic energy of all the molecules of a given mass of an ideal gas is
15 times the product of its Pressure and its volume.
Reason : The molecules of a gas collide with each other and velocities of the molecules change due
to the collision
(A) D
(B) C
(C) A
(D) B
125. Assertion : The car not is useful in understanding the perfomance of heat engine
Reason : The car not cycle provides a way of determining the maximum possible efficiency achivable
with reservoirs of given temperatures.
(A) A
(B) B
(C) C
(D) D
275
Match column
126. Heat given to process is positive, match the following column I with the corresponding option of
column I1
Columi
(A) JK
Columii
(p) W >0
(B) KL
(q) Q <0
(r) W <0
(C) LM
(D) MJ
(s) Q >0
(A) Ap, Bq, Cr, Ds
(C) Ar, Bs, Cp, Dq
(B) Aq, Bp, Cs, Dr
(D) As, Br, Cq, Dp
127. In Column I different Process is given match corresponding option of column I1
Column  I
Column  II
(A) adiabatic process
(p) p = 0
(B) Isobaric process
(C) Isochroic process
(D) Isothermal process
(A) Ap, Bs, Cr, Dq
(B) As, Bq, Cp, Dr
(a) u = 0
(r) Q = 0
(s) W = 0
(C) Ar, Bp, Cs, Dq
(D) Aq, Br, Cq, Dp
Comprehehsion Type
In a containes of negligible heat capacity, 200g ice at 0 C and 100g steam at 100 C are added to
200g of water that has temperature 55 C .Assume no heat is lost to the surroundings and the pressure
in the container is constant 1 atm.
128. What is the final temperature the System ?
(A) 72 C
(B) 48 C
(C) 100 C
129. At the final temperature, mass of the toal water present in the system is
(A) 493.6g
(B) 483.3g
(C) 472.6 g
130. Amount of the Sm left in the system, is equal to
(A) 167 g
(B) 84 g
(C) 12 g
276
(D) 94 C
(D) 500 g
(D) 0 g
KEY NOTE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
B
A
D
D
A
D
C
C
B
A
C
D
A
C
B
D
C
A
B
D
C
D
D
A
B
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
A
C
D
A
D
B
C
D
B
C
A
B
A
C
D
B
A
D
C
C
B
A
D
A
D
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
B
C
A
B
C
D
B
A
C
D
D
C
A
B
C
A
B
D
D
C
B
A
D
A
D
277
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
C
D
B
A
C
B
C
A
D
B
A
C
D
C
A
B
D
B
A
C
D
B
A
C
D
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
C
B
D
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
A
C
B
D
A
B
A
C
D
C
B
A
D
A
B
C
C
B
A
HINT
1.
C
F
25 F
0
0
100
180
100 180
2.
T = 273.15 + 0 C
3.
4.
0 = 273.15 + 0 C
equal
40 C
c F 32
5
9
5.
c F 32
5
9
y = m x + c with comparision m =
6.
c f 32
5
9
7.
F 32 K 273
9
5
8.
Tc
TF
=
100
180
5
9
Tc
TC 400 C
100
9.
T 1
1
2 0 2 106 10 105
T
2
2
% in increase =
T
100 10 5 100 1 10 3 %
T
10.
W = pV
11.
f
f
Cp 1 R, Cv R
2
2
Cp
Cv
f
1
1 R
f 2
2
2
2
=
1
f
f
f
f
R
2
2
278
12.
P(V2 V1) PV
=
1
1
13.
u =
14.
uT
15.
16.
Q u w
17.
18.
Cp
Cv
u1
T
u u
T T
1 1 2 1 2
u2
T2
u2
T2
= +
2
f
19.
20.
Cp (mix) = R + Cv
= R + 2R = 3R
r=
C p mix
C v mix
3R
= 1.5
2R
21.
dQ = du + dw
22.
Cv mix =
23.
U = C v T
24.
u =
n1 Cv1 n 2Cv2
n1 n 2
nfRt
2
U Total = U 02 U AB
279
25.
T1V1 = T2 T2
V
T1
= 2
T2
V1
26.
27.
dQ = du + dw
28.
energy avilable
Power of coil Power lost
S
29.
4.2 105
500 J 8.33min 8 min 205
840
Cp =
Q P
r T
cv cp R
cal
= 72 = 5 mol K
30.
u 1 5
Q 7
u = n Cv T
Q = n Cp T
C
u
1 5
v
Q
Cp
r
7
31.
1
mv 2 = C v T
2
32.
33.
dQ
nrv 2
dt
2 ( o ) r 2 g
n
g
280
34.
36.
39.
Q = U +W
Q = U
+ W
Q = U +W
u = u  62.25 (adiabatic process)
u = 62.25 x 103 J
u
n t
Cv =
If CP1 and CV1 is a molar specific heat CP1  CV1 = R  (i)
Cp
Cp1
Cv
, Cv 1 [molar mass of O2 = 32]
32
32
R
32
(i) Q = w + u
(ii) Q W u (u equal)
42.
5
RT
2
PV RT [diatomic gas]
5
u
PV
2
u
mass 1 3
m
density 5
43.
u mcT
44.
given P T 5
an adiabatic process P T
45.
5
1
281
46.
W = Patm V
= Patm
V
(i)
2
RT
pat
dv P V
50.
51.
Eint o
RT
P
52.
53.
W area of P V diagarm
=
54.
57.
1
P( 2V ) PV
2
RT
P
= const
P
58.
RT
P
Tr
= const
r 1
59.
W = RT oge
V2
V2
M
23
RT og10
V1
V1
Mo
282
60.
PV  VP = 0
61.
P
V
=
P
V
62.
PP adiabatic
PP isothermal
63.
V2
V2
W = mRT ln V = R T loge V
1
1
64.
64.
N
isothermal bulk modulus B = P = 1.013 105 m 2
66.
67.
68.
69.
dQ = Cp dT
W =  RT log e (isothermally compressed)
70.
Ciso =
71.
73.
74.
74.
76.
W = P V (isothemal process)
u = Q  w
P1V2 = P2V2 (isothermal process)
Q = u+ W

=
V
V
V = g
V
Q
= [ T = 0, isothermal process]
mT
0 = u +W
77.
T
= Constant [adiabatic change]
P 1
3
2
T
P2
2
P1
T1
P2 2 900
5 = 300
10
283
N
m2
78.
V
P2
= 1
P1
V2
79.
80.
T2 V1
=
T1 V2
81.
TV  1 = Constant
1
V1
T2 = T1
V2
82.
V1 T1
V2 T2
1
V
300
2V
T2
T2 600K
W = PV
83.
84.
P2 T2
85.
W = PV
86.
W (Q) P u
(Q) P (Q) V
Q V
(Q) P 1
Q P
CV
(Q) P 1
CP
87.
dp
dv
100 = 
100
p
V
89.
cyclic process
90.
91.
(adiabatic expansion)
1 nagative work
2 net positive
W area of closed P V diagram
= (3VV) (3PP) = 4PV
W = area under curve
284
92.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
T2
=
T1
P1
99.
CP
=
CV
CP = CV
but CP  CV = R
100. n = 1
T2
100.
T1
1
= T2 V2 1 (qdiabafic process)
101. T1V1
V
T1 =T2 2
V1
1
T2
103. n 1 T
1
104. n = 1 
T2
1400
1
=
=
T1
500
5
W = n Q1
105. n 1
T2 T2
,
T1
T1
106. (i) n 1
T2
T1
(ii ) n1 1
109.
Should be minimum
2T2
T
1 2 n
2T1
T1
T2
T1 T2
285
T2
500
1
110. n 1 T 1 1000 2
1
111. (i)
n=1
(ii ) n1 1
T2 W
1
1
=
n =  (1)
T1 Q1
6
6
T2 62
T1
T2
62
T1
T1
62
( 2)
T1
Now, n1 = 2n
112. n = 1 
113. n 1
T2
W
=
T1
Q1
T
Q= 1
T1 T2
T2
T1
T2
114. n 1
T1
T
W = Q2 1 1
T2
115. n = 1 
T2
T1
116. n = 1 
T2
T1
117. n = 1 
Q2
Q1
118. n = 1 
Q2
Q1
286
119. n = 1 
Q2
Q1
121. with rise in pressure melting point of ice decreases. Also ice contracts on melting.
122. celcius scale was the first temperature scale and Fahrenhit is the smallest unit measuring.
123. Water has maximum density at 4 C on heating above 4 C or cooling below 4 C density of
water decreases and its volume increases, therefore, water overflows in the both cases.
124.
1
3
m (2 ) = RT
2
2
w 0
Q u
P 0
ms =
287
SUMMARY
*
1.
Gas Laws:
Boyle's law: For a given mass of an ideal gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas is
inversely proportional to its pressure, i.e.
V
1
P
P1 P2
m
P
(i) PV P = constant
= constant or
1
2
m
Where density,
, and m = constant
V
N
V
N
(iii) PV P =
n
constant
N
also N = const.
n
P1
P2
P
= constant or n n
n
1
2
2.
Charle's law: At constant pressure, the volume of the given mass of a gas is directly proportional
to its absolute temperature.
i.e. V T
(i)
V1
V2
V
= constant = T T
1
2
T
V
m
= constant V
T T
(ii)
3.
P
= constant
T
P1 P2
T1 T2
Avogadro's law: Equal Volume of all the gases under similar conditions of temperature and
pressure contain equal number of molecules.
i.e. N1 = N2
Avogadro Number: The number of particles (atoms or molecules) in one mole of substance
(gas) is called Avogadro number (NA) which has a magnitude
NA = 6.023 1023 mol1
290
R
PV RT
kB
RT Nk BT
NA
NA
(i)
N
k BT nk BT
V
where n
(iii)
PV
N
V
M
M
RT
Mo
Mo
where Mo =
P
V Mo Mo
V
7.
8.
Inter molecular forces act only when two molecules come close to each other or collide.
The time spent in a collision between two moleules is negligible in comparision to time
between two successive collisions. The collisions between the molecules and between a
molecule and the wall of a container are elastic.
Pressure of an Ideal gas
P
1
1
2
2 rms
3
3
1
2 rms (i)
3
1 M 2
1
rms =
2rms (ii)
2 V
2
2
E
3
12 22 32 ........ N2
N
P =
3RT
=
M
where
m
3P
=
3PV
M
3k BT
m
M
= density of the gas
V
M
mass of each molecule
NA
rms T
with increase in molecular weight rms speed of gas molecule decreases as vrms
292
1
M
rms speed of gas molecules does not depend on the pressure of gas (If temperature remains
constant)
At T= 0 K , vrms= 0, i.e. the rms speed of molecules of a gas is zero at O K. This temperature
is called absolute zero.
Kinetic interpretation of temperature
Kinetic energy of of 1 mole ideal gas
E
1
1 3RT 3
M 2 rms M
RT
2
2 M 2
For 1 molecule E
3
kBT , kB = Boltzmann`s constant
2
For N molecule E
3
N kBT
2
Kinetic energy per nolecule of gas does not depend upon the mass of the molecule but only
depends on the temperature.
Mean free path:The distance travelled by a gas molecule between two successive collisions is known as free path.
The average of such free paths travelled by a molecule is called mean free path.
mean free path,
Collision frequency
1
k BT
P
P nk BT n
2
2
k BT
2 nd
2 Pd
= number of collisions per second.
rms
Degrees of Freedom :
The term degrees of freedom of a molecule or gas are the number of independent motions that
a molecule or gas can have.
The independent motion of a system can be translational, rotational or vibrational or any combination
of these.
Degress of freedom,
f = 3A  B; where A = Number of independent particles,
B = Number of independent restrictions
monoatomic gas 3 degrees of freedom
( All translational)
293
Diatomic gas
triatomic gas
5 degrees of freedom
( 3 translational + 2 rotational)
(Nonlinear)
1
k B T where kB = Boltzmann`s constant.
2
At a given temperataue T, all ideal gas molecules no matter what their mass have the same average
3
k BT
2
At same temperature gases with different degrees of freedom (i.e. H2 and He) will have different
average energy
f
k BT
2
The amount of heat required to change the temperature of l mole of gas by 1 K, keeping its
volume constant, is called specific heat of the gas at constant volume.
The quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1 mole of gas by 1 K (or 1o C) is
called molar specific heat of the gas.
Ratio of CP and CV is .
f
1 R
C
2
2
P
1
f
CV
f
R
2
1
f
CV f R , C P 1 R
2
2
294
MCQ
Choose the correct alternative from given options.
1.
Volume, pressure and temperature of an ideal gas are V, P and T respectively. If mass of molecule
is m, then its density is [ kB = Boltzmann`s constant]
P
(A) k T
B
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
9.
10.
(D) mk B T
(B)
p
8
(C) 2 P
(D) P
The equation of state for 5 g of oxygen at a pressure P and temperature T, when occupying a
volume V, will be
5
(A) PV RT
32
8.
.P
(C) k TV
B
The temperature of an ideal gas at atmospheric pressure is 300 K and volume 1 m3. If temperature
and volume become double, then pressure will be
(A) 4 105 Nm2
(B) 2 105 Nm2
(C) 1 105 Nm2
(D) 0.5 105 Nm2
At 100 K and 0.1 atmospheric pressure, the volume of helium gas is 10 litres. If volume and
pressure are doubled, its temperature will change to
(A) 127 K
(B) 400 K
(C) 25 K
(D) 200 K
What is the mass of 2 litres of nitrogen at 22.4 atmospheric pressure and 273 K.
(R = 8.314 Jmol k1)
(A) 14 22.4 g
(B) 56 g
(C) 28 g
(D) None of these.
An electron tube was sealed off during manufacture at a pressure of 1.2 107 mm of mercury at
270C. Its volume is 100 cm3. The number of molecules that remain in the tube is _______
(density of mercury is 13.6 gcm3)
(A) 3.9 1011
(B) 3 1016
(C) 2 1014
(D) 7 1011
A vessel contains 1 mole of O2 gas (relative molar mass 32) at a temperature T. The pressure of
the gas is P. An identical vessel containing 1 mole of He gas (relative molar mass 4) at a
temperature 2T has pressure of ..........
(A) 8 P
7.
Pm
(B) k T
B
5
(B) PV RT
16
5
(C) PV RT
2
(D) PV = 5 RT
A gas at 1 atmosphere and having volume 100 ml is mixed with another gas of equal moles at
0.5 atm and having volume 50 ml in flask of one litre, what is the final pressure?
(A) 0.125 atm
(B) 0.75 atm
(C) 1 atm
(D) 0.5 atm
PV
The quantity k T represents
B
P1
P2
(B) T T
1 1
2 2
(C)
295
P1 2 P21
T1
T2
P11 P2 2
(D) T T
1
2
11.
02 gas is filled in a vessel. If pressure is doubled, temperature becomes four times, how many times
13.
(B)
1
4
15.
1
2
If pressure of a gas contained in a closed vessel is increased by 0.4% when heated by 10 C the
initial temperature must be.
(B) 250 C
(C) 250 K
(D) 2500 K
A gas at the temperature 250 K is contained in a closed vessel. If the gas is heated through
1 K, then the percentage increase in its pressurse will be
(A) 0.4%
16.
(D)
(A) 2500 C
14.
(C) 2
(B) 0.1 %
(C) 0.8%
(D) 0.2%
17.
At O C the density of a fixed mass of a gas divided by pressure is x. At 100 C, the ratio will
be
273
x
(B)
373
(A) x
18.
(B) 17.26 ml
(C) 19.27 ml
(D) 192.7 ml
2g of O2 gas is taken at 27 C and pressure 76 cm Hg. Find out volume of gas (ln litre)
(A) 3.08
21.
The volume of a gas at 20 C is 200 ml. If the temperature is reduced to 20o C at constant
pressure, its volume will be.
(A) 172.6 ml
20.
100
x
(D)
273
Air is pumped into an automobile tube upto a pressure of 200 kPa in the morning when the air
o
o
temperature is 22 C. During the day, temperature rises to 42 C and the tube expands by 2%
The pressure of the air in the tube at this temperature will be approximately.
(A) 209 kPa
19.
373
x
(C)
273
(B) 44.2
(C) 1.53
(D) 2.44
1 mole of gas occupies a volume of 100 ml at 50 mm pressure. What is the volume occupied by
two moles of gas at 100 mm pressure and at same temperature
(A) 50 ml
(B) 200 ml
(C) 100 ml
296
(D) 500 ml
22.
23.
P, V, T
2P, 2V, T
II
(D) 1:4
A cylinder contains 10 kg of gas at pressure of 107 N/m2. The quantity of gas taken out of the
cylinder, if final pressure is 2.5 10 6 Nm 2 , will be ______ (temperature of gas is constant)
(A) 5.2 kg
24.
(C) 7.5 kg
(D) 1 kg
o
25.
(B) 3.7 kg
(B) 7
(C) 14
(D) 15
o
The pressure and temperature of an ideal gas in a closed vessel are 720 kPa and 40 C respectively.
If
1
4
th
of the gas is released from the vessel and the temperature of the remaning gas is raised
o
27.
(B) 2 P
(C) 851 C
(B) 182 C
(C) 646 C
(B) 600
(D)None of these
o
(D) 546 C
(C) 327
(D) 270
At constant temperature on incerasing the pressure of a gas 5% its volume will decrease by
(A) 5%
(B) 5.26%
(C) 4.76%
(D) 4.26%
33.
(B) 651 C
To double the volume of a given mass at an ideal gas at 270 C keeping the pressure constant one
must raise the temperature in degree centigrade
(A) 54
32.
(D) 6 P
31.
(C) 4 P
Air is filled in a bottle at atmospheric pressure and it is corked at 35 C, If the cork can come
out at 3 atmospheric pressure then upto what temperature should the bottle be heated in order to
remove the cork.
o
30.
(A) 325.5 C
29.
Suppose ideal gas equation follows VP 3 = constant, Initial temperature and volume of the gas are
T and V respectively. If gas expand to 27 V, then temperature will become
(A) 9 T
(B) 27 T
(C) T 9
(D) T
The temperature of a gas at pressure P and volume V is 270 C Keeping its volume constant if its
temperature is raised to 9270 C, then its pressure will be
(A) 3 P
28.
(B) 760 mm
(C) 730 mm
Hydrogen gas is filled in a ballon at 200 C. If temperature is made 400 C, pressure remaining the
same what fraction of haydrogen will come out
(A) 0.75
(B) 0.07
(C) 0.25
297
(D) 0.5
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
When the pressure on 1200 ml of a gas is increased from 70 cm to 120 cm of mercury at constant
temperature, the new volume of the gas will be
(A) 400 ml
(B) 600 ml
(C) 700 ml
(D) 500 ml
0
A gas at 27 C temperature and 30 atmospheric pressure is allowed to expand to the atmospheric
pressure if the volume becomes two times its initial volume, then the final temperature becomes
(A) 2730 C
(B) 1730 C
(C) 1730 C
(D) 1000 C
A gas at 270 C has a volume V and pressure P. On heating its pressure is doubled and volume
becomes three times. The resulting temperature of the gas will be
(A) 15270 C
(B) 6000 C
(C) 1620 C
(D) 18000 C
o
A perfect gas at 270 C is heated at constant pressure to 3270 C. If original volume of gas at 27 C
o
is V then volume at 327 C is
(A) 2 V
(B) V
(C) V 2
(D) 3 V
A vessel contains 1 mole of O2 gas (molar mass 32) at a temperature T. The pressure of the gas
is P. An identical vessel containing one mole of He gas (molar mass 4) at temperature 2T has a
pressure of
P
8
The pressure and temperature of two different gases P and T having the volumes V for each. They
are mixed keeping the same volume and temperature, the pressure of the mixture will be,
(A) 2 P
39.
(B) P
41.
42.
43.
(B)
2
E
3
3
E
2
E
2
The root mean square speed of hydrogen molecules of an ideal hydrogen kept in a gas chamber
at 00C is 3180 ms1. The pressure on the hydrogen gas is (Density of hydrogen gas is
(A) P
44.
(D)
P
(C) 4 P
(D) 2 P
2
Air is filled at 600 C in a vessel of open mouth. The vessel is heated to a temperature T so that
th
1
part of air escapes. Assuming the volume of the vessel remaining constant the value of T is.
4
(A) 3330 C
(B) 1710 C
(C) 4440 C
(D) 800 C
A gas is filled in a cylinder, its temperature is incresecd by 20% on kelvin scale and volume is
reduced by 10%. How much percentage of the gas will leak out
(A) 15%
(B) 25%
(C) 40%
(D) 30%
The pressure is exerted by the gas on the walls of the container because
(A) It sticks with the walls
(B) It is accelerated towards the walls
(C) It loses kinetic energy
(D) On collision with the walls there is a change in momentum
The relation between the gas pressure P and average kinetic energy per unit volume E is
(A) P
40.
(C) 8 P
(B) P
(C) P E
(D) P =
45.
Gas at a pressure Po is contained in a vessel. If the masses of all the molecules are halved and
(B) 4 P0
(C)
P0
2
(D) P0
A cylinder of capacity 20 litres is filled with H 2 gas. The total average kinetic energy of translatory
motion of its molecules is 1.5 105 J. The pressure of hydrogen in the cylinder is
(A) 4 106 Nm2
(B) 3 106 Nm2
(C) 5 106 Nm2
(D) 2 106 Nm2
47.
The average kinetic energy per molecule of a gas at 230 C and 75 cm pressure is 5 10 14 erg for
H 2 . The mean kinetic energy per molecule of the O2 at 227 C and 150 cm pressure will be
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
(A) 80 10 14 erg
(B) 10 10 14 erg
(C) 20 10 14 erg
(D) 40 10 14 erg
The ratio of mean kinetic energy of hydrogen and oxygen at a given temperature is
(A) 1:8
(B) 1:4
(C) 1:16
(D) 1:1
The ratio of mean kinetic energy of hydrogen and nitrogen at temperature 300 K and 450 K
respectively is
(A) 2:3
(B) 3:2
(C) 4:9
(D) 2:2
Pressure of an ideal gas is increased by keeping temperature constant what is the effect on kinetic
energy of molecules.
(A) Decrease
(B) Increase
(C) No change
(D) Can`t be determined
A sealed container with negligible coefficient of volumetric expansion contains helium (a monoatomic
gas) when it is heated from 200 K to 600 K, the averagy K.E. of helium atom is
(A) Halved
(B) Doubled
(C) Unchanged (D) Increased by factor 2
The mean kinetic energy of a gas at 300 K is 100J. mean energy of the gas at 450 K is equal to
(A) 100 J
(B) 150 J
(C) 3000 J
(D) 450 J
At what temperature is the kinetic energy of a gas molecule double that of its value at 27 C
(A) 540 C
(B) 1080 C
(C) 3270 C
(D) 3000 C
The average kinetic energy of a gas molecule at 270 C is 6.21 1021 J. Its average kinetic energy
at 2270 C will be
(A) 5.22 10 21 J
(B) 11.35 10 21 J
(C) 52.2 10 21 J
(D) 12.42 1021 J
The average translational energy and rms speed of molecules in sample of oxygen gas at 300 K
are 6.21 1021 J and 484 m s respectively. The corresponding values at 600 K are nearly
(assuming ideal gas behaviour)
(A) 6.21 1021 J , 968 m s
(B) 12.42 1021 J , 684 m s
(C) 12.42 1021 J , 968 m s
(D) 8.78 1021 J , 684 m s
299
56.
57.
58.
The average translational kinetic energy of O2 (molar mass 32) molecules at a particular temperature
is 0.068 eV. The translational kinetic energy of N2 (molar mass 28) molecules in eV at the same
temperature is
(A) 0.003 eV
(B) 0.068 eV
(C) 0.056 eV
(D) 0.678 eV
At O K which of the follwing properties of a gas will be zero
(A) Kinetic energy
(B) Density
(C) Potential energy (D) Vibrational energy
The kinetic energy of one mole gas at 300 K temperatue is E. At 400 K temperature kinetic enrgy
is E'. The value of
16
4
(C) 1.33
(D)
9
3
The average kinetic energy of hydrogen molecules at 300 K is E. At the same temperature the
average kinetic energy of oxygen molecules will be
(A) 2
59.
60.
(B)
(A) E 16
(B) E
(C) 4 E
(D) E 4
The temperature at which the average translational kinetic energy of a molecule is equal to the
energy gained by an electron accelerating from rest through a potential differencc of 1 volt is
(A) 4.6 103 K
61.
62.
63.
64.
66.
65.
E'
is
E
(B) 600 C
(C) 108 C
(D) 1200 C
Root mean square velocity of a molecule is at pressure P. If pressure is increased two times,
then the rms velocity becomes
(A) 3
(B) 2
The rms speed of gas molecules is given by
(A) 2.5
Mo
RT
RT
(C) 0.5
(D)
RT
(B) 2.5 M
o
(C) 1.73 M
o
300
(D) 1.73
Mo
RT
67.
A sample of gas is at O C. To what temperature it must be raised in order to double the rms
speed of molecule.
o
o
o
o
(A) 270 C
(B) 819 C
(C) 100 C
(D) 1090 C
68.
69.
1
, then under constant pressure the
16
(C) 16:1
(D) 1:4
The molecules of a given mass of a gas have a rms velocity of 200 m s at 27 C and
1.0 105 Nm 2 pressure when the temperature is 127 C and pressure is 0.5 10 5 Nm 2 , the
rms velocity in m s will be
(A) 100 2
70.
(B)
100 2
3
(C)
400
3
If the molecular weight of two gases are M1 and M 2 , then at a given temperature the ratio of
root mean square velocity 1 and 2 will be
71.
72.
(A)
M1
M2
(B)
M2
M1
(C)
M1 M 2
M1 M 2
(D)
M1 M 2
M1 M 2
To what temperature should the hydrogen at 327 C cooled at constant pressure, so that the root
mean square velocity of its molcules become half of its previous value
(A) 100 C
(B) 123 C
(C) 0 C
(D) 123 C
At what temperature is the root mean square velocity of gaseous hydrogen molecules equal to that
of oxygen molecules at 47 C ?
(A) 73 K
73.
(D) 3 K
th
(B) 0 C
(C) O K
(D) 100 C
At room temperature ( 27 C ), the rms speed of the molecules of certain diatomic gas is found to
be 1930 m/s. The gas is
(A) O2
75.
(C) 20 K
The root mean square velocity of the molecules in a sample of helium is 57 that of the molecules
in a sample of hydrogen. If the temperature of hydorgen sample is 00C, then the temperature of
the helium sample is about
(A) 273 C
74.
(B) 80 K
(B) C 2
(C) H2
(D) F2
If three molecules have velocities 0.5, 1 and 2 the ratio of rms speed and average speed is (The
velocities are in km/s)
(A) 0.134
(B) 1.34
(C) 1.134
(D) 13.4
301
76.
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
At what temperature pressure remaining constant will the rms speed of a gas molecules increase
by 10% of the rms speed at NTP?
(A) 57.3 K
(B) 57.30 C
(C) 557.3 K
(D) 57.30 C
When temperature of an ideal gas is increased from 27o C to 227o C, its rms speed changed from
400 ms1 to Vs. The Vs is
(A) 516 ms1
(B) 746 ms1
(C) 310 ms1
(D) 450 ms1
At what temperature the molecules of nitrogen will have the same rms. velocity as the molecules
of Oxygen at 127oC.
(A) 2730 C
(B) 3500 C
(C) 770 C
(D) 4570 C
The temperature of an ideal gas is increased from 270 C to 1270 C, then percentage increase in
rms is
(A) 33%
(B) 11%
(C) 15.5%
(D) 37%
Let A and B the two gases and given : TA 4 M A . Where T is the temperature and M is
TB
MB
A
molecular mass. If A and B are the r.m.s speed, then the ratio will be equal to __________
B
(A) 2
(B) 4
(C) 0.5
(D) 1
1
The rms. speed of the molecules of a gas in a vessel is 400 ms . If half of the gas leaks out,
at constant temperature, the r.m.s speed of the remaining molecules will be
(A) 800 ms1
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
Calculate the temperature at which rms velocity of S02 molecules is the same as that of O2
molecules at 270 C. Molecular weights of Oxygen and SO2 are 32 g and 64 g respectively
(A) 3270 C
(B) 327 K
(C) 1270 C
(D) 2270 C
For a gas, the rms speed at 800 K is
(A) Four times the value at 200 K
(B) Twice the value at 200 K
(C) Half the value at 200 K
(D) same as at 200 K
A mixture of 2 moles of helium gas (atomic mass = 4 amu), and 1 mole of argon gas (atomic mass
= 40 amu) is kept at 300 K in a container. The ratio of the rms speeds
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
(A) 0.45
(B) 2.24
(C) 3.16
(D) 0.32
0
0
The temperature of an ideal gas is increased from 27 C to 927 C. The root mean square speed
of its molecules becomes
(A) Four times
(B) Onefourth (C) Half
(D) Twice
At a given temperature the root mean square velocities of Oxygen and hydrogen molecules are in
the ratio
(A) 1:4
(B) 1:16
(C) 16:1
(D) 4:1
If mass of He atom is 4 times that of hydrogen atom, then rms speed of the is
(A) Two times of H rms speed.
(B) Four times of H rms speed.
(C) Same as of H rms speed.
(D) half of H rms speed.
At temperature T, the rms speed of helium molecules is the same as rms speed of hydrogen
mdecules at normal temperature and pressure. The value of T is
(A) 5460 C
(B) 00 C
(C) 2730 C
(D) 136.50 C
The root mean square speed of hydrogen molecules at 300 K is 1930 m/s. Then the root mean
square speed of Oxygen molecules at 900 K will be
(A) 836 m/s
96.
97.
98.
vrms (helium)
is
vrms (argon)
(D)
1930
m/s
3
If rms speed of a gas is rms = 1840 m/s and its density = 8.99 102 kg/m3 , the pressure of
the gas will be
(A) 1.01 103 Nm2
(B) 1.01 105 Nm2 (C) 1.01 107 Nm2 (D) 1.01 Nm2
When the temperature of a gas is raised from 270 C to 900 C , the percentage increase in the
rms velocity of the molecules will be
(A) 15%
(B) 17.5%
(C) 10%
(D) 20%
The rms speed of a gas at a certain temperature is 2 times than that of the Oxygen molecule
at that temperature, the gas is_____
(A) SO2
(B) CH4
(C) H2
(D) He
303
99.
The temperature at which the rms speed of hydrogen molecules is equal to escape velocity on earth
surface will be
(A) 5030 K
(B) 10063 K
(C) 1060 K
(D) 8270 K
100. What is the meanfree path and collision frequency of a nitrogen molecule in a cylinder containing
nitrogen at 2 atm and temperature 17oC ? Take the radius of nitrogen molecule to be 1A .
M olecular mass of nitrogen = 28 , k B = 1.38 1023 JK1, 1 atm = 1.013 105 Nm2
(A) 2.2 10 7 m, 2.58 10 9
101. The radius of a molecule of Argon gas is 1.78 A . Find the mean free path of molecules of Argon
at 00 C temperature and 1 atm pressure.
k B 1.38 10 23 JK 1
(A) 6.65 10 8 m
(B) 3.65 10 7 m
(C) 6.65 10 7 m
(D) 3.65 10 8 m
Cp
Cv
is given by
2
2
1
3
1
(B) 1
(C)
(D) 1
f
f
f
f
106. A diatomic gas molecule has translational, rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom. The
(A) 1
Cp
Cv
is
(A) 1.29
(B) 1.33
(C) 1.4
107. The value of Cv for one mole of neon gas is
(A)
3
R
2
(B)
7
R
2
(C)
1
R
2
(B) CP CV J
(C) CP C V R J
(D) CV CP J
304
(D) 1.67
(D)
5
R
2
109. The molar specific heat at constant pressure for a monoatomic gas is
(A)
3
R
2
(B)
5
R
2
(C) 4 R
(D)
7
R
2
R
0.67 . This gas is made up of molecules which are
CV
(A) Diatomic
(B) monoatomic
(C) polyatomic
(D) mixture of diatomic and polyatomic molecules
111. The specific heat of an ideal gas is
(A) Proportional to T2
(B) Proportional to T3
(C) Proportional to T
(D) Independent of T
112. The specific heats at constant pressure is greater than that of the same gas at constant volume
because (A) At constant volume work is done in expanding the gas.
(B) At constant pressure work is done in expanding the gas.
(C) The molecular vibration increases more at constant pressure.
(D) The molecular attraction increases more at constant pressure.
7
is mixed with one mole of diatomic gas .
3
What is for the mixture? denotes the ratio of specific heat at constant pressure to that at
constant volume.
(A)
114.
35
23
23
15
(C)
3
2
(D)
4
3
For a gas if ratio of specific heats at constant pressure and volume is , then value of degrees
of freedom is
2
(A) 1
115.
(B)
(B)
25
1
2
3 1
(C) 2 1
(D)
7
R . The ratio of specific heat
2
5
7
For a gas
(B)
9
7
(C)
8
7
(D)
7
5
7
, the gas may probably be
5
(A) Neon
(B) Argon
(C) Helium
(D) Hydrogen
117. From the following P  T graph, what inference can be drawn
(A ) V 2< V1
(B) V2= V1
(C) V 2>V1
(D) none of these
305
9
1
2
118. The figure shows the volume V versus temperature T graphs for
a certain mass of a perfect gas at two constant pressure of
P1 and P2. What inference can you draw from the graphs.
(A) P1< P2
(B) P1>P2
(C) P1= P2
(D) No inference can be drawn due to insufficient information.
119. Which one the following graphs represents the behaviour of an ideal gas
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
Direction:(a) If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is correct explanation of the Assertion.
(b) If both Assertion and Reason are true, but Reason is not correct explanation of the Assertion.
(c) If Assertion is true; the Reason is false.
(d) If Assertion is false, but the reason is true.
121. Assertion : 300 cc of a gas at 270 C is cooled at 30 C at constant pressure. The final volume
of the gas would be 270 cc
Reason
V2 T2
: This is as per charle's law V T
1
1
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
8
122. Assertion : The time of collision of molecules is of the order of 10 s, which is very very small
compared to the time between two successive collisions.
Reason
: This is an experimental fact.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
123. Assertion : Mean free path of gas varies inversly as density of the gas.
Reason
: Mean free path varies inversely as pressure of the gas.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
306
KEY NOTE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
1 B
2 C
3 B
C
4
A
5 C
6 A
7 A
8 C
B
9 D
10 D
11 C
12A
A
13
B
14 B
15A
16A
17 C
C
18
D
19 C
20 B
21 C
22
23
24
25
B
C
B
C
A
C
A
A
C
B
D
D
C
A
A
B
B
A
A
C
C
D
C
B
C
26
26
27
27
28
28
29
29
30
30
31
31
32
33
32
34
33
35
34
36
35
37
38
36
39
37
40
38
41
39
42
40
43
44
41
45
42
46
43
47
44
48
45
49
50
46
47
48
49
50
A
C
B
D
C
C
D
B
C
B
A
A
A
D
B
B
D
A
B
C
B
D
A
A
C
A51
C52
B53
D
54
C
C55
D56
B57
C
58
B
A59
A60
A61
D62
B
63
B
D64
A65
B66
A67
C
68
B
D69
A70
C71
72
73
74
75
B 51
B 52
C 53
54
D
55
B 56
B 57
A 58
C 59
60
B 61
B 62
C 63
B 64
65
A
66
A 67
D 68
C 69
B 70
71
A
72
C 73
B 74
D 75
C
B
C
C
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
307
BB
AB
CC
D
C
B
AB
DA
CC
CB
B
BC
BB
DA
BA
D
A
C
BB
CA
DC
AB
D
D
C
CB
AC
BC
C
B
B
C
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
A
76
77
A
78
D
79
B
80
D
81
B
82
83
A
84
C
85
B
86
B
87
88
D
89
90
C
91
A
92
D
93
94
D
95
C
96
B
97
C
98
D
99
100
A
A
B
B
A
C
C
A
D
C
C
B
B
D
B
A
B
C
D
A
D
C
A
B
C
B
B
C
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
A
A
D
B
C
B
A
C
B
B
D
B
C
A
D
D
C
B
C
D
A
A
B
Hint / Solution
1.
PV = RT PV M
(B)
PM o M
RT
V
2.
RT
(C)
PM o P m N A
Pm
Pm
RT
RT
R
k BT
T
NA
PV RT P
T
V
(B)
PV RT PV T
(C)
PV RT
PV
RT
5.
(A)
6.
(C)
PV
k BT
PV RT P
RT
V
(A)
Equation of state is PV = RT
PV
8.
(A)
5
32
5
RT
32
PV
PV
PV
1 1
2 2
RT
RT
RT
1 100
0 .5 5 0
P 1000
+
=
( 1 L = 100 m )
RT
RT
RT
P 0.125 atm
308
9.
(C)
PV RT 1
R
PV k B N AT
kB
NA
PV
N A Avogadro's number..
k BT
10.
(B).
PV RT
M
PV
RT
Mo
M RT
V Mo
RT
Mo
11.
(D)
P
R
= const.
T M o
PV RT
M
P RT
M M
P
P
RT
T
Mo
12.
(D)
PV RT
M
PV
RT P M
Mo
13.
(C). PV RT
P T
14.
( V, T Constant )
P1 T1
P2 T2
P1V1 P2V2
95
PV
1 1 P2
V1
100
V2 95% V1
309
P2 1.0526 P1
P1 0.0526 P1
P1 5.26% P1
15.
From, PV RT
P T
P2 T2
P1 T1
P2 P1 T2 T1
P1
T1
16.
(B)
PV T ( ,R Constant)
17.
(B)
PV RT
Mo
RT
M Mo
PV RT
density
Mo
=
P
RT
density
P At 0 C
density
P
At 100 C
M
x...........................(i)
R 273
M
.........................(ii)
R 373
density
273
x
P
At 100 C 373
18.
(A)
PV
=R = constant P1V1 P2 V2
T
T1
T2
19.
(A)
PV=RT
since P is const. V T
20.
(C)
V1 T1
V2 T2
PV= RT
M
=
RT
Mo
V=
MRT
M oP
310
21. (C)
PV= RT
22.
(D)
P1V1
1
P2 V2
2
PV Nk B T
Now, N '
23.
(C)
( T const.)
PV
k BT
2P 2V
PV
4
4N
k BT
k BT
N 1
N' 4
PV=RT
M
PV =
RT P M
Mo
( V, R, T  Constant)
P1 M1
107
10
M2 = 2.5 kg
6
P2 M 2
2.5 10
M2
Hence mass of the gas taken out of the cylinder = 10 2.5 = 7.5 kg
PV
RT
24.
(B)
PV = RT =
25.
(C)
M
PV = RT PV =
RT P MT
Mo
26.
(A)
VP3 = constant = k P 3
1
1
P 1
V
V 3
V
k
PV = RT
V
k V
V
2
V1
Hence
V2
1 T
9 T2
V RT
3
RT
RT
k
2
T
1
T2
27 V
T
T2
T2 9 T
311
P2 M 2 T2
P1 M1 T1
P1 T1
Using Gaylussac's law P T
2
2
27.
(C)
28.
29.
P2
T2
P
T2 2
P1
T1
V2 T2
V1 T1
30.
(C)
V T
31.
(C)
V
T2 2
V1
T1
V1 T1
V2 T2
1
V
P
100
100
2 1
V2
V1 0.9524 V1
V
V1 P2
105
105
V2 1 0.0476 V1
V1 0.0476 V1
V1 4.76% V1
32.
(D)
PT
P2 T2
T
P2 P1 2
P1 T1
T1
33.
(B)
V T
V2 T2
V V1 T2 T1
V1 T1
V1
T1
34.
(C)
313 293
V 273 40 273 20
0.07
293
V
273 20
P1 V2
P2 V1
PV
T2 2 2 T1
P1V1
35.
(B)
P1V1 P2 V2
T1
T2
36.
(A)
PV
P1V1
PV
2 2 T2 2 2 T1
Pl V1
T1
T2
37.
(A)
VT
V1 T1
V2 T2
312
38.
(A)
P2 2 T2
P1 1T1
39.
(D)
PV= RT 1
P '
40.
(B)
1 2 RT
PV
PV
and 2
RT
RT
2 PV RT
2P
RT
V
41.
(B)
M
1
RT T
Mo
M
T1 M 2
T2 M1
1 th
part escapes, so remaining mass in the vessel is
4
3
M
3
273 60 4 1
M 2 M1
T 444 K 1710 C
4
T
M1
Let initial conditions = V, T
final conditions = V', T'
V ' 1.2 V
T
T'
T 1.2 T
1.2 0.9 V
1.2 V
42.
(D)
Pressure P
43.
(A)
44.
(B)
100 % 25%
F 1 P
( P = change in momentum)
A A t
2
( Energy per unit volume )
3
2
3
rms
E
V
2
E
3
3P
2
P rms
313
3P
3PV
45.
(A)
rms
46.
(C)
47.
(B)
rms
P
M
P1 M 2
P2 M1
3
2E
PV P
2
3V
3
E
T
k BT 1 1
2
E 2 T2
48.
(D)
49.
(A)
ET
50.
(C)
51.
(B)
Kinetic energy of ideal gas depends only on its temperature. Hence, it remains constant
whether pressure is increased or decreased.
Kinetic energy is directly proportional to temperature. Hence if temperature is doubled,
kinetic energy will also be doubled.
52.
(B)
53.
(C)
ET
E1 T1
E 2 T2
54.
(D)
ET
E1 T1
E 2 T2
55.
(B)
E1 T1
E 2 T2
E1 T1
E 2 T2
= 6.21 10 21 J
= 2 6.21 10 21
3
k BT
2
= 12.42 1021 J
We know that rms =
3k BT
m
57.
2 484 684 ms 1
3
k BT
2
(B)
(A)
3
E' T'
RT E T
2
E T
58.
(C)
59.
(B)
E T
60.
(B)
2 eV 2
1.6 10 19
3
7.7 103 K
k B T 1 eV T
23
3 kB 3
1.38 10
2
61.
(C)
rms =
3RT
M o rms
62.
(B)
rms
T
2
1
Mo
63.
(C)
rms =
1 2 3 4 5
5
64.
(A)
rms
rms 2
T rms
1
65.
(D)
66.
(C)
rms =
3RT
Mo
67.
(B)
rms
T , To double the rms speed temperature should be made four times i.e.
= 4.24
T2
T1
RT
Mo
1.73
RT
Mo
T2 4T1
3P
16
4 :1
1
68.
(A)
vrms
69.
(C)
rms =
3RT
rms T T 2 rms
Mo
1
T1
2
T2
70.
(B)
rms =
3RT
1
1
1
1
and 2
Mo
M1
M2
2
71.
(D)
rms =
3RT
rms T T 2rms
Mo
72.
(C)
rms
3RT
Mo
T M o ( rms , R constant)
315
M2
M1
73.
(B)
3RT
T
rms
Mo
Mo
rms
THe M H 2
He 5
H2 7
TH 2 M He
THe
25 4
273
49 2
273 K 00 C
74.
(C)
3 RT
Mo
rms
Mo
3 RT 3 8.3 300
2 103 kg 2 g
2
2 rms
1920
Gas is hydrogen.
75.
(C)
1 2 3
3
average speed,
76.
(B)
As
1.1
rms t
rms O
(A)
rms T
78.
(C)
rms
79.
TN2
TO 2
(C)
T
and rms speed increases by 10%
T0
273 t
273 t
2
1.1 1.21
or
273
273
77.
12 22 32
3
2
T2
1
T1
3RT
T Mo
Mo
M O N
M O O
rms
( rms , R constant)
3RT
Mo
% increase in rms
3RT2
3 RT1
Mo
Mo
3RT1
Mo
100%
316
20 17.32
100% 15.5%
17.32
80.
(A)
TA
T
4 B
MA
MB
TA
MA
3 RTA
3 RTB
2
MA
MB
A 2 B
A
2
B
81.
(D)
82.
(C)
rms =
3 RT
T Mo
Mo
TO2
TN2
M o O
Mo N
( rms , R Const. )
rms 1
rms 2
T1
T2
83.
(C)
rms T
84.
(B)
rms
85.
(B)
86.
(D)
rms T
rms 2
rms 1
87.
TB
MB
3k BT
1
rms m 2
m
and rms 2
T 1
T0 2
1
rms 1
2
273 t
273 0
1
2
273 t 1
273
t
273 = 68.25273 = 204.750 C
273
4
4
(B)
rms
3 RT
Mo
rms 1
3 RT
;
Mo
rms 2
3R T2
3RT
4M o
2M o
317
1 3RT
2 4M o
vrms 1
2
= 150 ms1
88.
(A)
3 RT
Mo
rms
3RT
rms =
=
Mo
89.
(B)
28103
rms 1 rms 2
here
TO 2
M o O
TSO2
Mo SO
rms T
90.
(C)
rms He
rms Ar
91.
(D)
rms T
92.
(A)
rms
1
Mo
300 TSO2
0
v1
T
1
v2
T2
3RT
Mo He
3RT
M o Ar
40
10
4
2
T2
1
T1
So
rms O
rms H
M o H
M o O
93.
(D)
rms
mH
He
m
H
m He
94.
(C)
rms =
M o He
T
3RT
T M o He =
TH M o H
M0
95.
(A)
rms =
3 RT
Mo
96.
(B)
rms =
3P
3.16
rms O
rms H
TO2 M o H
TH2 M o O
2
or P = rms
3
318
97.
(C)
3RT
Mo
rms =
2
=
1
T2
=
T1
273+90
273+27
=1.1
2
% increase = 1 100% = 0.1100% =10%
1
98.
(B)
rms
1
Mo
1
=
2
M o 2
M o 1
M o 2
1
=
2
M o 2 = 16
32
99.
(B)
100.
(C) =
k BT
2Pd 2
escape Mo
3RT
T
Mo
3R
1.3810 290
=
2 3.14 2.02610 210
23
5
10
rms =
101. (A)
1
=
2nd 2
= 1.11 107 m
508.24
rms
=
= 4.58109
7
1.1110
3RT
=
Mo
k BT
6.65 108 m
2
2 Pd
102. (A) A monoatomic gas molecule has only three translational degrees of freedom.
103. (D) A diatomic molecule has three translational and two rotational degrees of freedom. Hence
total degrees of freedom, f = 3+2 = 5
104. (B) For a triatomic gas f = 6 ( 3 translation + 3 rotational )
105.
(C)
Cp
2
1
Cv
f
4
1.33
3
107. (A) Neon gas is mono atomic and for mono atomic gases C v 3 R
2
108.
(C) When Cp and Cv are given with caloric and R with Joule then Cp Cv =
319
R
J
109. (B) C p C v R
110.
(B) C v =
Cp R Cv R
f
3
R = R+ R f = 3
2
2
5
R
2
R
3
= 1.5 R =
R
0.67
2
53 1 75 1 3 1.5
1 1 2 1
1
1
2
2
7
5
1 1
2 1
1
3 5
2
2
f
1
2
1
f
f
f
2 1
1
114.
(A)
115.
116.
117.
118.
(D)
7
R
2
7
5
R R R
2
2
7
for a diatomic gas.
5
T T
(C) As 2 1 tan 2 > tan 1
P 2 P 1
T
Also from PV RT ,
V V2 V1
P
V
V
(B) As 1 2 tan 1 < tan 2
T 1
T 2
1
1
V 1
Hence P P P1 P2
1 2
T P
119. (C) For an ideal gas PV = constant
i.e PV doesn't vary with V
1
120. (D) At constant temperature, PV = constant P
V
from PV = RT ;
320
Unit  10
Ocsillations And
Waves
321
SUMMARY
1.
Waves : The motion of the disturbance in the medium (or in free space) is called wave pulse or
generally a wave.
2.
Amplitude of a wave : Amplitude of oscillation of particles of the medium is called the amplitude of
a wave.
3.
Wavelength and frequency : The linear distance between any two points or particles having phase
difference of 2 rad is called the wavelength () of the wave.
Frequency of wave is just the frequency of oscillation of particles of the medium. Relation between
wavelength and frequency :
v = f, =
4.
Mechanical waves : The waves which require elastic medium for their transmission are called
mechanical waves, e.g. sound waves.
5.
Transverse and longitudinal waves : Waves in which the oscillations are in a direction perpendicular
to the direction of wave propagation are called the transverse wave.
Waves in which the oscillations of the particles of medium are a!cng the direction of wave propagation
are called longitudinal waves.
6. Wave Equation : The equation which describe the displacement for any particle of medium at a required
time is called wave equation. Various forms of wave equations are as follows :
t x
T
(ii) y A sin
(iii) y A sin 2 t
(iv) y A sin
vt x
The above equations are for the wave travelling in the direction of increasing value of x. If the wave
is travelling in the direction of decreasing value of x then put '+' instead of '' in above equations.
7.
The elasticity and inertia of the medium are necessary for the propagation of the mechanical waves.
8.
The speed of the transverse waves in a medium like string kept under tension, v
where, T = Tension in the string and (I = mass per unit length of the string  y
9.
322
Cp
CV
RT
v
M
The speed of sound in a gas does not depend on the pressure variation.
10.
Principle of Superposition : When a particle of medium comes under the influence of two or more
waves simultaneously, its net displacement is the vector sum of displacement that could occur under
the influence of the individual waves.
11.
Stationary Waves : When two waves having same amplitude and frequency and travelling in mutually
opposite directions are superposed the resultant wave formed loses the property of propagation. Such
a wave is .called a stationary wave.
Equation of stationary wave : y = 2 A sinkx cos t
Amplitude of stationary wave : 2 A sin kx
Position of nodes in stationary wave xn =
n
2
where , n 1, 2, 3,....
4
fn
13.
nv n T
where n 1, 2, 3......
2L 2L
In a closed pipe the values of possible wavelengths required for stationary wave pattern are given by.
4L
v
(2n 1) f1
and possible frequencies, fn (2n 1)
(2n  1)
4L
323
14.
In an open pipe the values of possible wavelength required for stationary waves are given by,
2L
nv
nf1 where, n 1, 2, 3,......and
and possible frequencies, fn
n
2L
L  length of pipe.
In open pipe of the harmonics like f1, 2f1, 3f1 ..... are possible.
15.
Beat: The phenomenon of the loudness of sound becoming maximum periodically due to superposition
of two sound waves of equal amplitude and slightly different frequencies is called the 'beats'.
Number of beats produced in unit time = f1 f2.
16.
Doppler Effect : Whenever there is a relative motion between a source of sound and a listener with
respect to the medium in which the waves are propagating the frequency of sound experienced by the
listener is different from that which is emitted by the source. This phenomenon is called Doppler
effect.
Frequency listened by the listener, f L
v vL
fS
v vS
If a body moves to and fro, back and forth, or up and down about a fixed point in a fixed interval of
time, such a motion is called an oscillatory motion.
19.
When a body moves to and fro repeatedly about an equilibrium position under a restoring force, which
is always directed towards equilibrium position and whose magnitude at any instant is directly
proportional to the displacement of the body from the equilibrium position of that instant then such a
motion is known as simple harmonic motion.
20.
The maximum displacement of the oscillator on cither side of mean position is called amplitude of the
oscillator.
21.
The time taken by the oscillator to complete one oscillation is known as periodic time or time period or
period (T) of the oscillator.
22.
The number of oscillation completed by the simple harmonic oscillator in one second is known as its
frcquency(f).
23.
24.
25.
For simple harmonic motion, the displacement y(t} of a particle from its equilibrium position is represented
by sine, cosine or its linear combination like
1 2
1
2
or f or =
f
T
T
y( t ) = A sin (t + )
y(t) = B cos (t + )
y( t ) A' sin t + B' cost
whereA' Acos and B' = Bsin
324
A2 y2
26.
27.
28.
A particle of mass m oscillating under the influence of Hook's Law exhibits simple harmonic motion
with
k
;
m
T 2
m
k
d2y
+ 2 y = 0
29. Differential equation for SHM is
dth
30. For scries combination of n spring of spring constants k1, k2, k3,..., kn, the equivalent spring constant is
1
1
1
1
=
=
... the periodic time T 2 m
k
k1
k2
kn
k
31.
ky k
m
k
1
m2 (A2  y2)
2
32.
33.
34.
35.
For SHO, at y 0, the potential energy is minimum (U = 0) and the kinetic energy is maximum
(K
36.
1 2
ky
2
1 2
1
m2 A2 = kA
2
2
1
kA2 E )
2
1
kA2 E ) and the kinetic energy
gy
2
is minimum (K = 0)
37.
Simple harmonic motion is the projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter of the reference
circle.
325
38.
1
and
g
T = 2
2f =
g
l
39.
For simple pendulum, T is independent of the mass of the bob as well as the amplitude of the oscillaions.
40.
d2y
dt
dy
= + ky = 0
dt
k
b2
m 4m2
1
kA2 e etlm gives the mechanical energy of damped oscillation at time t.
2
41.
E( t )
42.
A system oscillates under the influence of external periodic force are forced oscillations.
43.
d2y
dt
44.
b dy
k
F
+
y = 0 sint
m dt
m
m
F0
A
2
[m ( 0 ) + b ]
1
2
326
MCQ
For the answer of the following questions choose the correct alternative from among the given ones.
SECTION I:
1.
If the equation for a particle performing S.H.M. is given by y = Sin2t + 3 Cos2t, its periodic time
will be ..s.
(A) 21
2.
(C) 2p
(D) 4p.
The distance travelled by a particle performing S.H.M. during time interval equal to its periodic time
is ..
(A) A
3.
(B)p
(B) 2A
(C) 4A
(D) Zero.
A person standing in a stationary lift measures the periodic time of a simple pendulum inside the lift
to be equal to T. Now, if the lift moves along the vertically upward direction with an acceleration of
g
, then the periodic time of the lift will now be
3
(A)
4.
3T
T
3
(D)
T
3
(C)
(B)
(D)
.
2
When a body having mass m is suspended from the free end of two
springs suspended from a rigid support, as shown in figure, its periodic
time of oscillation is T. If only one of the two springs are used, then
the periodic time would be
(A)
(C)
6.
(C)
If the equation for displacement of two particles executing S.H.M. is given by y1 = 2Sin(10t+)
and y2 = 3Cos10t respectively, then the phase difference between the velocity of two particles
will be ..
(A)
5.
3
T
2
(B)
T
2
2T
(B)
T
2
(D) 2T
If the maximum velocity of two springs ( both has same mass ) executing S.H.M. and having force
constants k1 and k2 respectively are same, then the ratio of their amplitudes will be .
k1
(A) k
2
k2
(B) k
1
(C)
327
k1
k2
(D)
k2
k1
7.
8.
As shown in figure, two masses of 3.0 kg and 1.0 kg are attached at the two ends of a spring having
force constant 300 N m 1 . The natural frequency of oscillation for the system will be hz.
( Ignore friction )
(A)
(B) 1/3
(C) 4
(D) 3
3kg
1kg
The bob of a simple pendulum having length l is displaced from its equilibrium position by an angle
of and released. If the velocity of the bob, while passing through its equilibrium position is v, then
v = ..
9.
(A)
2 gl (1 Cos )
(B)
2 gl (1 Sin )
(C)
2 gl (1 Sin )
(D)
2 gl (1 Cos )
If
1
of a spring having length l is cutoff, then what will be the spring constant of remaining part?
4
(A) k
10.
(B) 4k
(C)
4k
3
(D)
3k
4
(B) 7
(C) 4
(D) 3.
11.
When an elastic spring is given a displacement of 10mm, it gains an potential energy equal to U. If
this spring is given an additional displacement of 10 mm, then its potential energy will be ..
(A) U
(B) 2U
(C) 4U
(D) U/4.
12.
The increase in periodic time of a simple pendulum executing S.H.M. is .when its length
is increased by 21%.
(A) 42 %
13.
(B) 10%
(D) 21%.
A particle executing S.H.M. has an amplitude A and periodic time T. The minimum time required by
the particle to get displaced by
(A) T
14.
(C) 11%
A
2
(B) T/4`
(C) T/8
(D) T/16.
If a body having mass M is suspended from the free ends of two springs A and B, their periodic time
are found to be T1 and T2 respectively. If both these springs are now connected in series and
if the same mass is suspended from the free end, then the periodic time is found to be T.
Therefore ..
(A) T = T1 + T2
1 1
1
(B) T T T
1
2
328
1
1
1
(D) T 2 2 2 .
T1
T2
15.
maximum velocity?
(A)
16.
3
8
18.
(C)
A
2
(B)
(C)
(A) 1.5
(B) 3.0
(C) 4.5
(D) 6.0.
(D)
.
16
(D) 3 A .
For particles A and B executing S.H.M., the equation for displacement is given by y1 =
0.1Sin(100t+p/3) and y2 = 0.1Cospt respectively. The phase difference between velocity of
particle A with respect to that of B is
(B)
(C)
(D)
The periodic time of a simple pendulum is T1. Now if the point of suspension of this pendulum
starts moving along the vertical direction according to the equation y = kt 2, the periodic time
of the pendulum becomes T 2. Therefore,
(A) 6/5
20.
3
16
(A)
19.
8
3
At what position will the potential energy of a S.H.O. become equal to one third its kinetic energy?
(A)
17.
(B)
(B) 5/6
T1
T2
(C) 4/5
A hollow sphere is filled with water. There is a hole at the bottom of this sphere. This sphere is
suspended with a string from a rigid support and given an oscillation. During oscillation, the
hole is opened up and the periodic time of this oscillating system is measured. The periodic
time of the system.
(A) will remain constant
(B) Will increase upto a certain time
(C) Increases initially and then decreases to attain its initial periodic time
(D) Initially decreases and then will attain the initial periodic time value.
329
21.
The periodic time of a S.H.O. oscillating about a fixed point is 2 s. After what time will the kinetic
energy of the oscillator become 25% of its total energy?
(A) 1/12 s
22.
(C) s
(D) 1/3 s.
A body having mass 5g is executing S.H.M. with an amplitude of 0.3 m. If the periodic time of the
system is
(A) 0.6 N
23.
(B) 1/6 s
(B) 0.3 N
(C) 6 N
(D) 3 N
As shown in figure, a body having mass m is attached with two springs having spring constants k1
and k2. The frequency of oscillation is f. Now, if the springs constants of both the springs are
increased 4 times, then the frequency of oscillation will be equal to .
24.
(A) 2f
(B) f/2
(C) f/4
(D) 4f
The figure shows a graph of displacement versus time for a particle executing S.H.M. The acceleration
of the S.H.O. at the end of time t =
(A)
3 2
32
2
(C)
32
25.
(B)
2
32
(D)
3 2
32
4
second is ..cm.s 2
3
As shown in figure, the object having mass M is executing S.H.M. with an amplitude A. The
amplitude of point P shown in figure will be .
(A)
k1 A
k2
k2 A
(B) k
1
(C)
k1 A
k1 k 2
(D)
k2 A
k1 k 2
26.
A particle is executing S.H.M. between x =  A and x = +A. If the time taken by the particle to travel
from x = 0 to A/2 is T1 and that taken to travel from x = A/2 to x = A is T2, then .
(A) T1 < T2
( B ) T1 > T2
(C) T1 = 2T2
(D) T1 = T2
27.
For a particle executing S.H.M., when the potential energy of the oscillator becomes 1/8 the maximum
potential energy, the displacement of the oscillator in terms of amplitude A will be .
(A)
A
2
(B)
(C)
2 2
330
A
2
(D)
A
3 2
28.
The average values of potential energy and kinetic energy over a cycle for a S.H.O. will be
.. respectively.
1
m 2 A 2
2
(A) 0 ,
(C)
29.
(B)
(D)
1
1
m 2 A 2 , m 2 A2 .
4
4
1
5
(C)
5
1
(D)
5
1
When a mass M is suspended from the free end of a spring, its periodic time is found to be T. Now,
if the spring is divided into two equal parts and the same mass M is suspended and oscillated, the
periodic time of oscillation is found to be T. Then ..
(A) T < T
31.
1
m 2 A 2 , 0
2
The ratio of force constants of two springs is 1:5. The equal mass suspended at the free ends of both
springs are performing S.H.M. If the maximum acceleration for both springs are equal, the ratio of
amplitudes for both springs is
(A)
30.
1
1
m 2 A 2 , m 2 A 2
2
2
(B)
(B) T = T
(C) T > T
5T
respectively. Both oscillators starts their oscillation
4
simultaneously from the mid point of their path of motion. When the oscillator having periodic time T
completes one oscillation, the phase difference between the two oscillators will be
(A) 900
32.
(C) 720
(D) 450
A rectangular block having mass m and cross sectional area A is floating in a liquid having density r.
If this block in its equilibrium position is given a small vertical displacement, its starts oscillating with
periodic time T. Then in this case..
(A) T
33.
(B) 1120
1
m
(C) T
(B) T
1
A
(D) T
(B) 8.0 cm
(C) 4.0 cm
34.
(B) acceleration = k ( x + a )
(C) acceleration = kx
The displacement for a particle performing S.H.M. is given by x = A Cos( t + ). If the initial
position of the particle is 1 cm and its initial velocity is p cm s 1 , then what will be its initial phase? The
angular frequency of the particle is p s1.
(A)
36.
2
4
(B)
(B) 12
3
4
(D) 20
(C) 0.25 s 1
(D) 2 s 1
(B) 288p2
(C) 188p2
A simple pendulum having length l is given a small angular displacement at time t = 0 and released.
After time t, the linear displacement of the bob of the pendulum is given by
l
t
g
(B) x = aCos2p
g
g
t (C) x = aSin
t
l
l
(D) x = aCos
g
t
l
Two masses m1 and m2 are attached to the two ends of a massless spring having force constant k.
When the system is in equilibrium, if the mass m1 is detached, then the angular frequency of mass m2
will be .
(A)
41.
(D)
A particle having mass 1 kg is executing S.H.M. with an amplitude of 0.01 m and a frequency of 60
hz. The maximum force acting on this particle is .. N
(A) x = aSin2p
40.
(C) 21
(B) 3.14 s 1
(A) 144p2
39.
5
4
The maximum velocity and maximum acceleration of a particle executing S.H.M. are 1 m/s and 3.14
m/s2 respectively. The frequency of oscillation for this particle is ..
(A) 0.5 s 1
38.
(C)
Two simple pendulums having lengths 144 cm and 121 cm starts executing oscillations. At some
time, both bobs of the pendulum are at the equilibrium positions and in same phase. After how many
oscillations of the shorter pendulum will both the bobs pass through the equilibrium position and
will have same phase?
(A) 11
37.
7
4
k
m1
(B)
k
m2
(C)
k
m1
m2
(D)
k
m1 m2
When the displacement of a S.H.O. is equal to A/2, what fraction of total energy will be equal to
kinetic energy? { A is amplitude }
(A) 2/7
(B)
(C) 2/9
332
(D) 5/7
42.
The speed of a particle executing motion changes with time according to the equation y = aSint +
bCost, then ..
(A) Motion is periodic but not a S.H.M.
(B) It is a S.H.M. with amplitude equal to a+b
(C) It is a S.H.M. with amplitude equal to a2 + b2
(D) Motion is a S.H.M. with amplitude equal to a 2 b 2 .
43.
44.
A body is placed on a horizontal plank executing S.H.M. along vertical direction. Its amplitude of
oscillation is 3.92 x 10 3m. What should be the minimum periodic time so that the body does not
loose contact with the plank?
(A) 0.1256 s
(B) 0.1356 s
(C) 0.1456 s
(D) 0.1556 s
2
If the kinetic energy of a particle executing S.H.M. is given by K = K0 Cos t, then the displacement
of the particle is given by .
K0
(A)
2
m
45.
46.
1/ 2
Sint
Sint
1 n
(B) k
n
2 2
(C)
mK 0
1/ 2
Sint
2K 0
(D)
m
1/ 2
Sint
(C) k
(D)
k
(n 1)
When a mass m is suspended from the free end of a massless spring having force constant k, its
oscillates with frequency f. Now if the spring is divided into two equal parts and a mass 2m is
suspended from the end of anyone of them, it will oscillate with a frequency equal to .
(A) f
48.
1/ 2
The equation for displacement of two identical particles performing S.H.M. is given by
x1 =4Sin(20t+p/6) and x2 =10Sint. For what value of will both particles have same energy?
(A) 4 units
(B) 8 units
(C) 16 units
(D) 20 units
A spring having length l and spring constant k is divided into two parts having lengths l1 and l2. If l1
= nl2, the force constant of the spring having length l2 is .
(A) k(1+n)
47.
2K 0
(B)
2
m
(B) 2f
(C)
f
2
(D)
2f
A mass m on an inclined smooth surface is attached to two springs as shown in figure. The other
ends of both springs are attached to rigid surface. If the force constant of both spring is k, then the
periodic time of oscillation for the system is
1/ 2
M
(A) 2
2k
MgSin
(C) 2
2k
2M
(B) 2
k
1/ 2
1/ 2
1/ 2
2Mg
(D) 2
k
333
49.
50.
A body of mass 1 kg suspended from the free end of a spring having force constant 400 Nm1 is
executing S.H.M. When the total energy of the system is 2 joule, the maximum acceleration is
ms 2 .
(A) 8 ms 2
(B) 10 ms 2
(C) 40 ms 2
(D) 40 cms 2
When a block of mass m is suspended from the free end of a massless spring having force constant
k, its length increases by y. Now when the block is slightly pulled downwards and released, it starts
executing S.H.M with amplitude A and angular frequency . The total energy of the system comprising
of the block and spring is .
1
1
1 2
1 2
1
1 2
2 2
2 2
m 2 A 2
(B) m A ky (C) ky
(D) m A ky .
2
2
2
2
2
2
A spring is attached to the center of a frictionless horizontal turn table and at the other end a body of
mass 2 kg is attached. The length of the spring is 35 cm. Now when the turn table is rotated with an
angular speed of 10 rad s 1 , the length of the spring becomes 40 cm then the force constant of the
spring is .. N/m.
(A) 1.2 x 103
(B) 1.6 x 103
(C) 2.2 x 103
(D) 2.6 x 10 3
As shown in figure (a) and (b), a body of mass m is attached
at the ends of the spring system. All springs have the same
spring constant k. Now when both systems oscillates along
vertical direction, the ratio of their periodic time is ..
(A)
(B)
(C) 2
(D)4
A simple pendulum is executing S.H.M. around point O between the end points B and C with a
periodic time of 6 s. If the distance between B and C is 20 cm then in what time will the bob move
from C to D? Point D is at the midpoint of C and O.
(A) 1 s
(B) 2 s
(C) 3 s
(D) 4 s
A small spherical steel ball is placed at a distance slightly away from the center of a concave mirror
having radius of curvature 250 cm. If the ball is released, it will now move on the curved surface.
What will be the periodic time of this motion? Ignore frictional force and take g = 10 m/s2.
(A)
51.
52.
53.
54.
s
(B) p s
(c) s
(D) 2p s
4
2
Two identical springs are attached at the opposite ends of a rod having length l and mass m. The
rod could rotate about its midpoint O as shown in figure. Now, if the point A of the rod is
pressed slightly and released, the rod starts executing oscillatory motion. The periodic time of this
motion is
(A)
55.
(A) 2
(C)
m
2k
2m
3k
(B) 2
(D)
2m
k
3m
2k
334
l
2
l
2
56.
A simple pendulum having length l is suspended at the roof of a train moving with constant acceleration
a along horizontal direction. The periodic time of this pendulum
is
(A) T 2
57.
l
(B) T 2
g
l
l
(D) T 2
.
2
g a2
g a
l
(C) T 2
ga
A trolley is sliding down a frictionless slope having inclination . If a simple pendulum is suspended
l
on top of this trolley, its periodic time is given by T 2 g , where gefff = ..
eff
(A) g
58.
(C) g cos
(D) g tan
One end of a massless spring having force constant k and length 50 cm is attached at the upper end
of a plane inclined at an angle = 300.When a body of mass m = 1.5 kg is attached at the lower end
of the spring, the length of the spring increases by 2.5 cm. Now, if the mass is displaced by a small
amount and released, t he amplitude of the resultant oscillation is ..
(A)
59.
(B) g sin
(B)
2
7
(C)
(D)
2
5
(A) During maximum contraction of the spring, the kinetic energy of the system AB will be zero.
(B) During maximum contraction of the spring, the kinetic energy of the system AB will be mv2 / 4
60.
m
k
2m
k
61.
(B) 3
(C) 4
(B) II, IV
(D) I, IV
335
(D) 5
PE
62.
A system is executing S.H.M. The potential energy of the system for displacement x is E1 and for a
displacement of y, the potential energy of the system is E2. The potential energy for a displacement
of (x+y) is
(A) E1 + E2
63.
(B)
5 5
(C) E1 + E2 + 2
E1 E 2 (D)
E1 E 2
(C)
4 5
8
4 5
(D)
8
5 5
(B) 2.5
(C) 3.33
(D) 2.33
A block is placed on a horizontal table. The table executes S.H.M. along the horizontal plane with a
period T. The coefficient of static friction between the table and block is . The maximum amplitude
of oscillation should be so that the block does not slide off the table.
(A)
66.
The periodic time of a simple pendulum is 3.3 s. Now if the point of support of the pendulum starts
moving along the vertically upward direction with a velocity v = kt ( where k = 2.1 m/s2 ), then the
new periodic time is s. { Take g = 10 m/s2 }
(A) 3
65.
E1 E 2
A system is executing S.H.M. with a periodic time of 4/5 s under the influence of force F1. When a
force F2 is applied, the periodic time is (2/5) s. Now if F1 and F2 are applied simultaneously along
the same direction, the periodic time will be
(A)
64.
(B)
gT
5
(B)
gT 2
4 2
(C)
gT
2
(D) gT
As shown in figure, a block A having mass M is attached to one end of a massless spring. The block
is on a frictionless horizontal surface and the free end of the spring is attached to a wall. Another
block B having mass m is placed on top of block A. Now on displacing this system horizontally
and released, it executes S.H.M. What should be the maximum amplitude of oscillation so that B
does not slide off A? Coefficient of static friction between the surfaces of the blocks is .
(A) Amax =
mg
k
(B) A max =
(m M ) g
k
( C) Amax =
( M m) g
k
(D) Amax =
2 ( M m) g
k
336
67.
A particle is executing S.H.M. about the origin at x = 0. Which of the following graph shows
variation in potential energy with displacement?
U(x)
U(x)
(A)
(B)
U(x)
U(x)
(C)
68.
(D)
A horizontal plank is executing SHM along the vertical direction with angular frequency . A coin is
placed on top of this plank. If the amplitude of oscillation is increased gradually, for what maximum
amplitude will the coin be on the verge of loosing contact with the plank?
(A) When is plank is at its maximum height
g
(C) When the amplitude is 2
g2
(D) When the amplitude is 2
SECTION : II
(b)
Statement 1 is true, statement 2 is true but statement2 is not the correct explanation of statement
1.
(c)
(d)
69.
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Statement 1 : If a spring having spring constant k is divided into equal parts, then the spring
constant of each part will be 2k.
337
Statement 2 : When the length of the elastic spring is increased ( stretched ) by x, then the amount
of work required to be done is
(A) a
70.
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Statement 1 : The periodic time of a S.H.O. depends on its amplitude and force constant.
Statement 2 : The elasticity and inertia decides the frequency of S.H.O.
(A) a
71.
1 2
kx
2
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Statement 1 : For small amplitude, the motion of a simple pendulum is a S.H.M. with
periodic time T 2
l
. For large amplitudes, periodic time is greater than 2
g
l
.
g
Statement 2 : For large amplitude, the speed of the bob is more when it passes through the
midpoint ( equilibrium point ).
(A) a
72.
(D) d
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Statement 1: The periodic time of a simple pendulum increases on the surface of moon.
Statement 2 : Moon is very small as compared to Earth.
(A) a
74.
(C) c
Statement 1 : Periodic time of a simple pendulum is independent of the mass of the bob.
Statement 2 : The restoring force does not depend on the mass of the bob.
(A) a
73.
(B) b
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Statement 1: If the length of a simple pendulum is increased by 3%, then the periodic time
changes by 1.5%.
Statement 2 : Periodic time of a simple pendulum is proportional to its length.
(A) a
75.
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Statement 1: For a particle executing S.H.M. with an amplitude of 0.01 m and frequency
30 hz, the maximum acceleration is 36p2 m/s2.
Statement 2 : The maximum acceleration for the above particle is + 2A, where A is amplitude.
(A) a
76.
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Statement 1 : The periodic time of a stiff spring is less than that of a soft spring.
Statement 2 : The periodic time of a spring depends on its force constant value and for a stiff
spring, it is more.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
338
(D) d
77.
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
Statement 1 : For a particle executing SHM, the amplitude and phase is decided by its initial
position and initial velocity.
Statement 2 : In a SHM, the amplitude and phase is dependent on the restoring force.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
SECTION III
COMPREHENSION BASED QUESTIONS
NOTE: Questions 79 to 81 are based on the following passage.
Passage 1:
As shown in figure, two light springs having force constants k1 = 1.8 N m 1 and k2 = 3.2 N m 1 and a
block having mass m = 200 g are placed on a frictionless horizontal surface. One end of both springs are
attached to rigid supports. The distance between the free ends of the spring is 60 cm and the block is
moving in this gap with a speed v = 120 cm s 1 .
79.
When the block is moving towards spring k2, what will be the time taken for the spring to get
maximum compressed from point D?
(A) p s
80.
(C) (p/3) s
(D) (p/4) s
When the block is moving towards k1, what will be the time taken for it to get maximum compressed
from point C?
(A) p s
81.
(B) (p/2) s
(B) (2/3) s
(C) (p/3) s
(D) (p/4) s
What will be the periodic time of the block, between the two springs?
(A) 1+ (5p/6) s
(B) 1+ (7p/6) s
(C) 1+ (5p/12) s
(D) 1+ (7p/12) s
82.
f'
The ratio of frequencies
= ..
f
(A)
83.
84.
mM
(B)
mM
(C)
MA
'
mA
( M m) A '
(D)
mA
If the velocity before putting the mass and after putting it is v and v1 respectively, then
M
(A)
mM
M m
(B)
M
A1
= .
A
(A)
M m
(B)
1
M m A
(C)
M m A
M m
(C)
M m
v1
= .
v
1
M m A
(D)
.
M m A
(D)
M m
86.
(D) 2p s
(B) 3
(C) 5
(D) 7
(B) 12
(C) 20
(D) 28
If the mass of the particle is 5 gm, then the total energy of the particle is erg.
(A) 250
90.
(C) (/2) s
89.
(B) p s
88.
87.
(B) 125
(C) 500
(D) 375
(C) (1/2p)
(D) (p/2)
(B) p
340
Waves
SECTION I :
91.
Equation for a harmonic progressive wave is given by y = A sin ( 15pt + 10px + p/3) where x is in
meter and t is in seconds. This wave is .
(A) Travelling along the positive x direction with a speed of 1.5 ms 1 .
(B) Travelling along the negative x direction with a speed of 1.5 ms 1 .
(C) Has a wavelength of 1.5 m along the x direction.
(D) Has a wavelength of 1.5 m along the positive x direction.
92.
If the velocity of sound wave in humid air is vm and that in dry air is vd, then
(A) vm > vd
93.
( D ) vm >> vd
(B) 5:2
(C) 3:5
(D) 5:3
If the maximum frequency of a sound wave at room temperature is 20,000 hz then its minimum
wavelength will be approximately ( v = 340 ms 1 )
(A) 0.2 A 0
95.
( C ) vm = vd
The ratio of frequencies of two waves travelling through the same medium is 2:5. The ratio of their
wavelengths will be
(A) 2:5
94.
( B ) vm < vd
( B ) 5 A0
( C ) 5 cm to 2 m
(D) 20 mm
If the equation of a wave in a string having linear mass density 0.04 kg m 1 is given by y = 0.02
t
x
, then the tension in the string is ..N. ( All values are in mks )
Sin 2
0.04 0.50
(A) 6.25
96.
(B) 4.0
(C) 12.5
(D) 0.5
t x
If the equation for a transverse wave is y = A Sin2p , then for what wavelength will the
T
A
4
(B)
A
2
(C) pA
(D) 2pA
Consider two points lying at a distance of 10 m and 15 m from an oscillating source. If the periodic
time of oscillation is 0.05 s and the velocity of wave produced is 300 m/s, then what will be the
phase difference the two points?
(A) p
(B) p/6
(C) p/3
341
(D) 2p/3
98.
A string is divided into three parts having lengths l1, l2 and l3 each. If the fundamental frequency
of these parts are f1, f2 and f3 respectively, then the fundamental frequency of the original
string f = .
(A)
f1
f2
(B) f = f1 + f2 + f3
1
1
(D) f
f1
1
1
1
1
(C) f f f f
1
2
3
99.
1
f
1
f
Waves produced by two tuning forks are given by y1 = 4Sin500pt and y2 = 2Sin506pt. The number
of beats produced per minute is .
(A) 360
(B) 180
(c) 60
(D) 3
100. Equation for a progressive harmonic wave is given by y = 8Sin2p( 0.1x 2t), where x and y are in
cm and t is in seconds. What will be the phase difference between two particles of this wave
separated by a distance of 2 cm?
(A) 180
(B) 360
(C) 720
(D) 540
101. As shown in figure, two pulses in a string having center to center distance of 8 cm are travelling along
mutually opposite direction. If the speed of both the pulse is 2 cm/s, then after 2 s, the energy of
these pulses will be
(A) zero
(B) totally kinetic energy
(C) totally potential energy
(D) Partially potential energy and partially kinetic energy.
102. Two waves are represented by y1 = ASint and y2 = aCost. The phase of the first wave, w.r.t. to
the second wave is .
(A) more by radian
103. If the resultant of two waves having amplitude b is b, then the phase difference between the two
waves is .
(A) 1200
(B) 600
(C) 900
(D) 1800
104. If two antinodes and three nodes are formed in a distance of 1.21 A0, then the wavelength of the
stationary wave is .
( A ) 2.42 A0
(B) 6.05 A0
(C) 3.63 A0
(D) 1.21 A0
342
106. If two almost identical waves having frequencies n1 and n2, produced one after the other superposes
then the time interval to obtain a beat of maximum intensity is ..
1
(A) n n
1
2
1
1
(B) n n
1
2
1
1
(C) n n
1
2
1
(D) n n
1
2
107. When two sound waves having amplitude A , angular frequency and a phase difference of p/2
superposes, the maximum amplitude and angular frequency of the resultant wave is
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
(C)
,
(D) 2 A,
2
2 2
2
The amplitude of a wave in a string is 2 cm. This wave is propagating along the xdirection with a
speed of 128 m/s. Five such waves are accommodated in 4 m length of the string. The equation for
this wave is .
(A) y = 0.02Sin(15.7x 2010t ) m
(B) y = 0.02Sin(15.7x + 2010t ) m
(C) y = 0.02Sin(7.85x 1005t ) m
(D) y = 0.02Sin(7.85x + 1005t ) m
A string of length 70 cm is stretched between two rigid supports. The resonant frequency for this
string is found to be 420 hz and 315 hz. If there are no resonant frequencies between these two
values, then what would be the minimum resonant frequency of this string?
(A) 10.5 hz
(B) 1.05 hz
(C) 105 hz
(D) 1050 hz
Sound waves propagates with a speed of 350 m/s through air and with a speed of 3500 m/s through
brass. If a sound wave having frequency 700 hz passes from air to brass, then its
wavelength .
(A) decreases by a fraction of 10
(B) increases 20 times
(C) increases 10 times
(D) decreases by a fraction of 20
A transverse wave is represented by y = ASin (tkx). For what value of its wavelength will the
wave velocity be equal to the maximum velocity of the particle taking part in the wave propagation?
(A) 2pA
(B) A
(C) pA
(D) pA/2
Two monoatomic ideal gases 1 and 2 has molecular weights m1 and m2. Both are kept in two
different containers at the same temperature. The ratio of velocity of sound wave in gas
1 and 2 is .
(A)
2A,
(B)
(A)
m2
m1
(B)
m1
m2
(C)
m1
m2
(D)
m2
m1
113. A wire having length L is kept under tension between x = 0 and x = L. In one experiment, the
x
equation of the wave and energy is given by y1 = ASin Sint and E1 respectively. In another
L
2x
Sin2t and E2. Then
experiment, it is y2 = ASin
L
(A) E2 = E1
(B) E2 = 2E1
(C) E2 = 4E1
343
(D) E2 = 16E1
114. Twenty four tuning forks are arranged in such a way that each fork produces 6 beats/s with the
preceding fork. If the frequency of the last tuning fork is double than the first fork, then the frequency
of the second tuning fork is
(A) 132
(B) 138
(C) 276
(D) 144
115. If two SHMs are given by the equation y1 = 0.1 Sin(100pt + p/3) and y2 = 0.1 Cospt, then the
phase difference between the velocity of particle 1 and 2 is
(A) p/6
(B)  p/3
(C) p/3
(D)  p/6
1
(B) 50
(C) 100
(D) 200
117. An listener is moving towards a stationary source of sound with a speed times the speed of sound.
What will be the percentage increase in the frequency of sound heard by the listener?
(A) 20%
(B) 25%
(C) 2.5%
(D) 5%
118. When the resonance tube experiment, to measure speed of sound is performed in winter, the first
harmonic is obtained for 16 cm length of air column. If the same experiment is performed in summer,
the second harmonic is obtained for x length of air column. Then .
(A) 32 > x > 16
(B) 16 > x
(C) x > 48
119. What should be the speed of a source of sound moving towards a stationary listener, so that the
frequency of sound heard by the listener is double the frequency of sound produced by the source?
{ Speed of sound wave is v }
(A) v
( B ) 2v
(C) v/2
(D) v /4
120. A metal wire having linear mass density 10 g/m is passed over two supports separated by a distance
of 1 m. The wire is kept in tension by suspending a 10 kg mass. The mid point of the wire passes
through a magnetic field provided by magnets and an a.c. supply having frequency n is passed
through the wire. If the wire starts vibrating with its resonant frequency, what is the frequency ofa.c.
supply?
(A) 50 hz
(B) 100 hz
(C) 200 hz
(D) 25 hz
121. If the listener and the source of sound moves along the same direction with the same speed, then..
(A)
fL
<1
fs
fL
(B) f =0
s
fL
(C) f = 1
s
fL
(D) f >1
s
122. A wire of length 10 m and mass 3 kg is suspended from a rigid support. The wire has uniform cross
sectional area. Now a block of mass 1 kg is suspended at the free end of the wire and a wave having
wavelength 0.05 m is produced at the lower end of the wire. What will be the wavelength of this
wave when it reached the upper end of the wire?
(A) 0.12 m
(B) 0.18 m
(C) 0.14 m
(D) 0.10 m
123. If the mass of 1 mole of air is 29 x 10 3 kg, then the speed of sound in it at STP is .. ( =7/5).
{ T = 273 K, P = 1.01 x 105 Pa }
(A) 270 m/s
344
124. A wave travelling along a string is described by y = 0.005Sin(40x 2t) in SI units. The wavelength
and frequency of the wave are
(A) (p/5) m ; 0.12 hz
125. Two sitar strings A and B playing the note Dha are slightly out of time and produce beats of
frequency 5 hz. The tension of the string B is slightly increased and the beat frequency is found to
decrease to 3 hz. What is the original frequency of B if the frequency of A is 427 hz?
(A) 432
(B) 422
(C) 437
(D) 417
126. A rocket is moving at a speed of 130 m/s towards a stationary target. While moving, it emits a wave
of frequency 800 hz. Calculate the frequency of the sound as detected by the target. ( Speed of
wave = 330 m/s)
(A) 1320 hz
(B) 2540 hz
(C) 1270 hz
(D) 660 hz
127. Length of a steel wire is 11 m and its mass is 2.2 kg. What should be the tension in the wire so that
the speed of a transverse wave in it is equal to the speed of sound in dry air at 200 C temperature?
(A) 2.31 x 104 N
128. A wire stretched between two rigid supports vibrates with a frequency of 45 hz. If the mass of the
wire is 3.5 x 10 2 kg and its linear mass density is 4.0 x 10  2 kg/m, what will be the tension in the
wire ?
(A) 212 N
(B) 236 N
(C) 248 N
(D) 254 N
129. Tube A has both ends open while tube B has one end closed, otherwise they are identical. The ratio
of fundamental frequency of tube A and B is ..
(A) 1:2
(B) 1:4
(C) 2:1
(D) 4:1
130. A tuning fork arrangement produces 4 beats/second with one fork of frequency 288 hz. A little wax
is applied on the unknown fork and it then produces 2 beats/s. The frequency of the unknown fork
is .hz.
(A) 286
(B) 292
(C) 294
(D) 288
131. A wave y = aSin(t kx ) on a string meets with another wave producing a node at
the equation of the unknown wave is
(A) y = a Sin(t + kx ) (B) y =  aSin( t+kx) (C) y = aSin(t kx )
x = 0. Then
(B) Decreases
133. A tuning fork of known frequency 256 hz makes 5 beats per second with the vibrating string of a
piano. The beats frequency decreases to 2 beats/s when the tension in the piano string is slightly
increased. The frequency of the piano string before increase in the tension was ..hz.
(A) 256 + 2
(B) 256 2
(C) 256 5
345
(D) 256 + 5.
134. An observer moves towards a stationary source of sound with a velocity one fifth the velocity of
sound. What is the percentage increase in the apparent frequency?
(A) 5%
(B) 20%
(C) zero
(D) 0.5%
135. The speed of sound in Oxygen ( O2) at a certain temperature is 460 m/s. The speed of sound in
helium at the same temperature will be ..ms 1 . (Assume both gases to be ideal)
(A) 330
(B) 460
(C) 5002
(D) None of these
136. In a longitudinal wave, pressure variation and displacement variation are
(A) In phase
(B) 900 out of phase (C) 450 out of phase
(D) 1800 out of phase
137. A tuning fork of frequency 480 hz produces 10 beats/s when sounded with a vibrating sonometer
string. What must have been the frequency of the string if a slight increase in tension produces fewer
beats per second than before?
(A) 480
(B) 490 hz
(C) 460 hz
(D) 470 hz
138. Which of the following functions represents a wave?
(A) ( x vt)2
(B) ln( x + vt )
(C) e ( x vt ) 2
1
x vt
(D)
139. Two sound waves are represented by y = aSin(tkx) and y = aCos(tkx). The phase difference
between the waves in water is ..
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
3
4
140. A string of linear density 0.2 kg/m is stretched with a force of 500 N. A transverse wave of length
4.0 m and amplitude 1/l meter is travelling along the string. The speed of the wave is .. m/s.
(A) 50
(B) 62.5
(C) 2500
(D) 12.5
141. Two wires made up of same material are of equal lengths but their radii are in the ratio 1:2. On
stretching each of these two strings by the same tension, the ratio between their fundamental frequency
is ..
(A) 1:2
(B) 2:1
(C) 1:4
(D) 4:1
142. The tension in a wire is decreased by 19%, then the percentage decrease in frequency will be
(A) 19%
(B) 10%
(C) 0.19%
(D) None of these
143. An open organ pipe has fundamental frequency 100 hz. What frequency will be produced if its one
end is closed?
(A) 100, 200, 300, .
(B) 50, 150, 250.
(C) 50, 100, 200, 300
(D) 50, 100, 150, 200,..
144. A closed organ pipe has fundamental frequency 100 hz. What frequencies will be produced if its
other end is also opened?
(A) 200, 400, 600, 800,..
346
145. A column of air of length 50 cm resonates with a stretched string of length 40 cm. The length of the
same air column which will resonate with 60 cm of the same string at the same tension is ..
(A) 100 cm
(B) 75 cm
(C) 50 cm
(D) 25 cm
146. Two forks A and B when sounded together produce 4 beats/s. The fork A is in unison with 30 cm
length of a sonometer wire and B is in unison with 25 cm length of the same wire at the same tension.
The frequencies of the fork are .
(A) 24 hz, 28 hz
(B) 20 hz, 24 hz
(C) 16 hz , 20 hz
(D) 26 hz, 30 hz
147. A tuning fork of frequency 200 hz is in unison with a sonometer wire. The number of beats heard per
second when the tension is increased by 1 % is .
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 4
(D) 0.5
148. A bus is moving with a velocity of 5 m/s towards a huge wall. The driver sounds a horn of frequency
165 hz. If the speed of sound in air is 335 m/s, the number of beats heard per second by the
passengers in the bus will be .
(A) 3
(B) 4
(C) 5
(D) 6
149. A vehicle with a horn of frequency n is moving with a velocity of 30 m/s in a direction perpendicular
to the straight line joining the observer and the vehicle. The observer perceives the sound to have a
frequency ( n + n1 ). If the sound velocity in air is 300 m/s, then
(A) n1 = 10n
(B) n1 = 0
(C) n1 = 0.1 n
(D) n1 =  0.1n
150. In a sine wave, position of different particles at time t = 0 is shown in figure. The equation for this
wave travelling along the positive x direction can be .
y
(A) y = Asin ( t kx )
(B) y = Acos (kx t)
(C) y = Acos( t kx )
(D) y = Asin(kx t)
151. Which of the following changes at an antinode in a stationary wave?
(A) Density only
152. A sonometer wire supports a 4 kg load and vibrates in fundamental mode with a tuning fork of
frequency 416 hz. The length of the wire between the bridges is now doubled. In order to maintain
fundamental mode, the load should be changed to .
(A) 1 kg
(B) 2 kg
(C) 8 kg
(D) 16 kg
153. In brass, the velocity of a longitudinal wave is 100 times the velocity of a transverse wave. If Y = 1
x 1011 N/m2, then stress in the wire is
(A) 1 x 1013 N/m2
154. The frequency of tuning fork A is 2% more than the frequency of a standard fork. Frequency of
tuning fork B is 3% less than the frequency of the standard fork. If 6 beats per second are heard
when the two forks A and B are excited, then frequency of A is hz.
(A) 120
(B) 122.4
(C) 116.4
(D) 130
155. Fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire is n. If the length and diameter of the wire are doubled
keeping the tension same, the new fundamental frequency is
(A)
2n
2
(B)
(C)
2 2
2n
(D)
n
4
156. A car blowing its horn at 480 hz moves towards a high wall at a speed of 20 m/s. If the speed of
sound is 340 m/s, the frequency of the reflected sound heard by the driver sitting in the car will be
closest to ..hz.
(A) 540
(B) 524
(C) 568
(D) 480
157. A cylindrical tube open at both ends has a fundamental frequency f in air. The tube is dipped vertically
in water so that half of it is in water. The fundamental frequency of the air column is now
(A) f/2
(B) f
(C) 3f/4
(D) 2f
158. Three sound waves of equal amplitudes have frequencies (v1 ), v, ( v+1). They superpose to give
beats. The number of beats produced per second will be .
(A) 3
(B) 2
(C) 1
(D) 4
159. A wave travelling along the xaxis is described by the equation y(x,t) = 0.005Cos(x  t). If the
wavelength and the time period of the wave are 0.08 m and 2.0 s respectively, then and in
appropriate units are
(A) = 12.50p , = p/2.0
(B) = 25p , = p
160. A wave travelling along a string is described by the equation y = ASin(tkx). The maximum particle
velocity is ..
(A) A
(B) /k
(C) d/dk
(D) x
161. A string is stretched between fixed points seperated by 75 cm. It is observed to have a resonant
frequencies of 420 hz and 315 hz. There are other resonant frequencies between these two. Then
the lowest frequency for this string is ..hz.
(A) 1.05
(B) 1050
(C) 10.5
(D) 105
162. Two tuning forks P and Q when set vibrating gives 4 beats/second. If the prong of fork P is filed, the
beats are reduced to 2/s. What is the frequency of P, if that of Q is 250 hz.?
(A) 246 hz
(B) 250 hz
(C) 254 hz
(D) 252 hz
163. The length of a string tied across two rigid supports is 40 cm. The maximum wavelength of a stationary
wave that can be produced in it is . cm.
(A) 20
(B) 40
(C) 80
348
(D) 120
164. A stationary wave of frequency 200 hz are formed in air. If the velocity of the wave is 360 m/s, the
shortest distance between two antinodes is .m
(A) 1.8
(B) 3.6
(C) 0.9
(D) 0.45
165. A tuning fork produces 8 beats per second with both 80 cm and 70 cm of stretched wire of a
sonometer. Frequency of the fork is .hz.
(A) 120
(B) 128
(C) 112
(D) 240
166. An open pipe is in resonance in 2nd harmonic with frequency f1. Now one end of the tube is closed
and frequency is increased to f2, such that the resonance again occurs in the nth harmonic. Choose
the correct option.
(A) n = 3, f2 = (3/4)f1 (B) n = 3, f2 = (5/4)f1
(C) n = 5, f2 = (5/4)f1
(D) n = 5, f2 = (3/4)f1
SECTION : II
Assertion Reason type questions :
Note:
For the following questions, statement as well as the reason(s) are given. Each questions has four options.
Select the correct option.
(a)
(b)
Statement 1 is true, statement 2 is true but statement2 is not the correct explanation of statement
1.
(c)
(d)
167. Statement 1: Two waves moving in a uniform string having uniform tension cannot have different
velocities.
Statement 2 : Elastic and inertial properties of string are same for all waves in same string.
Moreover speed of wave in a string depends on its elastic and inertial properties only.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
168. Statement 1: When a sound source moves towards observer, then frequency of sound increases.
Statement 2 : Wavelength of sound in a medium moving towards the observer decreases.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
169. Statement 1: Newtons equation for speed of sound was found wrong because he assumed the
process to be isothermal.
Statement 2 : When sound propagates, the compressions and rarefactions happen so rapidly
that there is not enough time for heat to be distributed.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
349
(D) d
170. Statement 1 : When pressure in a gas changes, velocity of sound in gas may change.
Statement 2 : Velocity of sound is directly proportional to square root of pressure.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
171. Statement 1 : If wave enters from one medium to another medium then sum of amplitudes of
reflected wave and transmitted wave is equal to the amplitude of incident wave.
Statement 2 : If wave enters from one medium to another medium some part of energy is
transmitted and rest of the energy is reflected back.
(A) a
(B) b
(C) c
(D) d
SECTION III
COMPREHENSION BASED QUESTIONS
NOTE: Questions 172 to 174 are based on the following passage.
Passage 1
A string 25 cm long and having a mass of 2.5 g is under tension. A pipe closed at one end is 40 cm long.
When the string is set vibrating in its first overtone and the air in the pipe in its fundamental frequency, 8
beats per second is heard. It is observed that decreasing the tension in the string decreases the beat
frequency. The speed of sound in air is 320 ms 1 .
172. The frequency of the fundamental mode of the closed pipe is .. hz
(A) 100
(B) 200
(C) 300
(D) 400
(B) 108
(C) 192
(D) 208.
(B) 27 N
(C) 28 N
(D) 30 N
(B) 3.0
(C) 3p/2
(D) 3p
(B) p
(C) 0.5
350
(D) 1.0
y2 =
(B) 5.4 x 10 2 m
(C) (p/2) x 10 1 m
(D) p x 10 1 m
(B) 0.3p
(C) zero
(D) 0.3
(C) 92 m/s
180. How many times per second does an observer hear the sound of maximum intensity?
(A) 4
(B) 8
(C) 12
(D) 16
181. At x = 0, how many times between t = 0 and t = 1 s does the resultant displacement become zero?
(A) 46
(B) 50
(C) 92
(D) 100
x
Cos10t represents a stationary wave where x and y are in centimeter and t is
4
in seconds.
182. The amplitude of each component wave is .
(A) 5 cm
(B) 10 cm
(C) 20 cm
(B) 4 cm
(C) 5 cm
351
(D) 8 cm
KEY NOTE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
(B)
(C)
(B)
(C)
(A)
(D)
(D)
(A)
(C)
(A)
(C)
(B)
(C)
(C)
(A)
(A)
(B)
(C)
(A)
(C)
(D)
(A)
(A)
(D)
(D)
(A)
(B)
(D)
(C)
(C)
(C)
(C)
(A)
(A)
(D)
(B)
(A)
(A)
(D)
(B)
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
(B)
(D)
(A)
(B)
(B)
(A)
(A)
(A)
(C)
(B)
(B)
(B)
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(C)
(A)
(B)
(B)
(A)
(C)
(A)
(A)
(B)
(B)
(D)
(C)
(B)
(D)
(B)
(C)
(B)
(C)
(B)
(A)
(C)
(C)
(D)
(C)
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
352
(D)
(A)
(A)
(C)
(D)
(B)
(C)
(C)
(A)
(A)
(B)
(A)
(B)
(D)
(A)
(C)
(D)
(C)
(B)
(C)
(B)
(D)
(A)
(D)
(A)
(A)
(A)
(C)
(C)
(C)
(A)
(A)
(C)
(B)
(B)
(D)
(B)
(C)
(C)
(A)
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
(C)
(D)
(C)
(D)
(B)
(A)
(A)
(C)
(C)
(B)
(B)
(B)
(C)
(B)
(D)
(D)
(D)
(C)
(A)
(A)
(B)
(B)
(B)
(A)
(B)
(B)
(A)
(C)
(B)
(D)
(D)
(D)
(D)
(A)
(D)
(A)
(B)
(C)
(B)
(A)
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
(D)
(A)
(C)
(C)
(A)
(C)
(D)
(A)
(A)
(B)
(D)
(B)
(D)
(B)
(C)
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(A)
(D)
(A)
(B)
HINT
1.
y sin 2t 3 cos 2t
3
1
y 2 sin 2t
cos 2t
2
2
2
2 t s
T
2.
3.
T 2
g
When lift moves up with accleratim 3 the effective graritatianl acclenations
g
in g1 g g 3 4g 3
l'
new peliodic time T ' 2 g '
4.
dy1
2 10 cos(10t )
dt
2 3 10sin t 30 cos(10t 2 )
K1k 2
k
For series combination, K S K k 2 ( k1 k 2 K)
1
2
T'
T
k
now T 1
6.
ks
= 2 T' = 2 T
k
A1 2
A 2 1
k2 / m2
k1 / m1
k2
( m1 m 2 )
k1
353
7.
m1m 2
0.75 kg
m1 m 2
1 k 20
3Hz
2 m
KE at o = PE at A
freq of oscillation f
8.
1
m 2 mgh mg 1 cos
2
2g(1 cos )
9.
K11 K 2 2 k
3
K1 K 2 k
4
4
force constant of spring having lenght
k2
3
l in
4
4
k
3
2
2 2
a + b = (3 4 ) 5m
2
11.
y
u
u y 2 2 u 2 4u
u1 y1
2
T2
T1
l2
1.21l1
1.1
l1
l1
%increase
T2 T1
100 10%
T1
13. y A sin(t )
A
1
A sin t 0
sin t
4
2
2
.t
t T 8
T
4
354
14. T1 2
m1
4 2 .M
42 M
k1
and
k
2
2
2
k1
T1
T2
T 2
M
kk
where k 1 2
k
k1 k 2
M1
2
2
(T1 T2 )
2
4 M
dx
x A cos( t ) v
A sin (t )
8
dt
2
3
3
t
t
8 2
8
8
16. 3u = k
1
1
A
3 ky 2 k(A 2 y 2 ) y
2
2
2
k2
in figure (b) if on applying a force F`, if
x ' F' k 6
2 3
x k' F 4
18. 1
dy1
dt
and v2
dy2
dt
355
19. Here y kt 2
dy
d2y
2kt 2 2k 2 ms2
dt
dt
m 2
the point of support in moving upwards with an accelaration of 2
s
n
effective acc l . g ' g a 12 m / s 2
Now T1 2
20.
T 2
and T2 2
g
g'
'
as water leaks, the center of gravity moves down and hence increases.
g
T increases initially
When all the water has leaked, the center of gravity moves up and hence decreases and
hence T decreases Finally the centre of gravity steady at the center of sphde and so T will remain
constant.
21. Kinetic energy = 25 % E
1
E
4
4 2
mA mA 2 0.6 N.
T
2
1 k
1 kl k2
(1)
2 m 2
m
f1
1 4(K1 K 2 )
2f .(from(1))
2
m
a w2 y
2
3
ty
cm
T
2
42 31
31 2 cm
.
2
T2 2
32
s
356
25. Now k
1
k contant
k11 k 2 2 2 k11
k +k
k2
Now, A = l1 1 2 l1 =
A
k2
k2 k2
26. w A 2 x 2 ,
the velocity for moving form x=o to x A 2 will ge more them for x A 2 tox A
T1 T2.
27. U
1
u max
8
1 2 11 2
A2
2
ky kA y
2
8 2
8
28. In the expression for both Kinetic and potential energy, We have the square of the halmonic
functions (sine or cisine).
The average of which over a cycle is 1 2
u
E
1
K m2 A 2
2
4
k
m
Since m is constant, K
a max
A
2
Now, a max A
a max
a
k max A
A
K
1
k
m
k
1
k
357
( m is comtant)
2
31. Phase of 1st oscillater 1 1 t T t
1
2
t+
For 2nd oscillater, 2 2 t
T2
phase diff 1  2
32. Restoring force F = Ayg = (Ag)y = ky
k Ag T 2
m
1
T
k
A1
mg
( k mw 2 )
k
34. In SHM, accelelation and displacement are opposite in direction Also a y..
35. Here t = 0, x = 1 cm and cm s 1 , w s 1
Now, x A cos(t )  (1)
dx
A sin(t )  (2)
dt
Solved the equation (1) and (2)
Velocity
T1 T2
When the shorter pendulum completes n oscillations, the longer one completes (n1)
oscilla
tions (when in same phase).
nT2 (n 1)T1
37.
3.14
2 r
0.5s 1
3.14 2f 3.14 f
2
r
l
2
g
and
g
T
l
358
40.
k
k
'
or
removing
m,
angular
frequency
m1 m 2
m2
1
m2 (A 2 y 2 )
2
1
m 2 A 2
2
Now a 2 b 2 A 2 A a 2 b 2.
43. The body will not loose contact with the surface,
2
if mg m r
m42
r {where r is amplitude}
T2
T 2
1
2K 0
2 2
44. Maximum kinetic energy K 0 m A A
2
2
m
Equation for displacement is ;
1
2K o 2
y A sin t
sin t
2
m
45. E
1
m2 A 2 E2 A 2
2
E(A) 2 (1A1 ) 2 (2 A 2 ) 2
46. k 2 be the spring constant of the spring having lenght 2.
Now, 1 2.
n 2 2.
47. f
1 k
1 2k
and f '
{k' 2k}
2 m
2 2m
f ' f
359
r
g
48. Here both springs are in parallel. The restoring force on the system in only due to spring and not due
to gravitational force We can ignore the slope.
Equivalent spring cantant =k+k=2k
1
Periodic time T 2 M
2k
1
kA 2
2
1 2
ky .
2
1
1
m2 A 2 ky 2 .
2
2
F
80
1.6 103 N / m.
x 0.05
m
m
Peliodic time Tp 2 kp 2 2k
periodic time Ts 2 k 2
s
2m
k
360
Tp
Ts
1
.
2
1
m 2 A 2
2
Amplitude OB OC
2
where A=10 gm, T 3 rad
B
O
2
Putting this in eqn. (1)
x A sin(t 2 ) A cos t = 10 cos t
for x = 5 cm,
5=10cos t cos t 1 2
t 3
t 1 S
54. Force responsible for oscillation in
F mg sin mg { is small}
x
R
Comparing this with
F=  kx ;
mg
mg
R
55. Let the rod be pressed down by x at point
A and released.
both spring gets displaced by x
Restoring torgue produced
k
= kx 2 kx 2
=kx
Now tan
2x
361
If in small; tan 2x
k
torque k
2
2
Now moment of inertia of rod with reference to O is if I, then
2
k 2
Id 2
dt 2
2
Comparing with
k 2
d 2
dt 2
2I
d 2
2 ;
dt 2
k2
2I
2
m2
where
and I
T
12
2m
3k
56. Here 2 acceleration vectors g. and a are acting along mutually prependicular direction .
T
T 2
g eff
a x 2 g 2 a y 2 2ga y
= a 2 sin 2 cos2 g 2 g 2 sin 2 2g 2 sin 2
g 2 (1 sin 2 )
g 2 cos 2
g eff g cos
58. When the length of spring increases by x=2.5 cm
force F mg sin
force constant k
T 2
F mg sin
x
x
m
x
2
s.
k
g sin 7
362
m mu mu 2mu
u
v
2
Now if the compression produced in the spring is x, then acc. to law of conservation of energy,
1
1
1
1
m 2 mu 2 mu 2 kx 2
2
2
2
2
v 2 kx 2
kx 2
v 2u
2
m
4 m
2
kx 2 v 2
m
xv
m
2
2k
(1)
m .v 2
4
60. Displacement
t
y = 4 cos 2 sin100t
2
363
1
1
2 2
2
62. E1 m x E1 x m (1)
2
2
1
1
E 2 m2 y 2 E2 y m2 (2)
2
2
E
1
1
m2 (x y)2 E (x y) m2 (3)
2
2
From (1), (2) {(3),
E E1 E 2
or E E1 E 2 2 E1E 2
2
63. 1
k
kx
F
1 (1)
m mx mx
2
Similarly, 2
F2
(2)
mx
F1 F2
(3)
mx
2
T
(1)
g
d d (kt)
k 2.1 m.s 2
dt
dt
364
g a
To prevent the block from sliding the maximum acceleration
of table must be a max g
Now maximum accleration a max 2 A
2 A max g
A max
g gT 2
2
4 2
(M m
(1)
Now to prevent B from sliding off A, the maximum force acting on B should not be more than
the frictional force mg .
f max ma max m2 A max
(2)
mkA max
mg
mM
U(x) k.x.dx
0
du
dx
kx
du
dx
du k.x.dx
kx 2
C
2
u(x)
1 2
kx in an equation for a parabola.
2
365
68.
x
(2)
2
If is small, sin
Effective value of g is g e
T will increase
As compared to earth, moon in small
366
75.
1
2
{ On differentiation}
T
1.5%
T
362 m
s2
79. Time taken by the spring k 2 to get maximum compressed from point D= half period of oscillation
of the block.
(if block in attached at the frce end of spring)
T2 1
m 1
0.2
i.e. t 2 2 2 2 k 2 2 0.3 4 s
2
T1
s
2 3
81. Time period of Block T=Time taken by the block to move from C to D and D to C
80. Similarly t1
82. f
1 k
2 M
and
f'
1
k
2 m M
1
1
Mv 2 kA 2
2
2
And
2
2
1
1
( M m ) v1 kA1
2
2
367
2 2
87. Amplitude A 32 42 5 cm
88. Maximum Accelaration of
a particle A2 5(2)2 20 cm s 2
89. Mechanical Energy
1
m2 A 2 250 erg
2
1 1 1
90. frequency of the particle f S
T
with y = A sin (t kx )
92. At constant pressure density of water vapour is less than dry air.
with increase in humidity according to the equation v
p
the
f 1
f1
2
f2
1
17 mm which is nearer to 20 mm
max
25 1
ms
T = 0.04 s, =0.5 m v
2
T v 2 6.25 N
368
2
2
2
x
(15 10)
15
3
1 23
99.
1 1 1
1
f f1 f2 f3
100.
t x
y 8sin 2 (2t 0.1x) comparing with y A sin
T
We get
1
=0.1 10cm
101.
2
.x kx
2 180 2
= 72o
10
Distance covered by the pulse = speed x time = 4 cm in 2 seconds both will cover 4 cm & the
centre of both will superpose & potential energy will be zero.
Total energy will be in the from of kinetic energy..
369
102.
103.
Here A is the amplitude of resultant wave formed by 2 waves having amplitude A1 and A2
respectively.
2
2
A 2 A1 A 2 2A1 A 2 cos Also in the phase A1 , A 2
b 2 2b 2 1 cos
cos 1 2
1200
104.
105.
y sin 2 t
=
1 cos 2 t 1 1
cos 2 t ____________ 1
2
2 2
1
2 sin 2 t sin 2 t
2
a 22 cos 2t
1
= 2 22 Y {From eng. (1)}
2
1
= 42 y
2
a y { SHM}
Now,
106.
2 T
T
n1 n 2
107.
1
n1 n 2
A2 A2
2 A
370
108.
A 0.02 m, =
5 = 4 =
128 ms 1
k
4
2
m, k
2.5 7.85
5
y A sin kx t
109.
f n nf1 315
f n 1 n 1 f1 420
f n 1 f n f1 105 Hz
110.
When, sound waves travel fromone medium to another, its frequency does not change.
f
b
a
b
111.
= consant
b
a 10 a
a
1
A A =
k
k 2
= 2A
112.
113.
RT
m
1
m2
2
m1
1
1
m 2 A 2 m
2
2
4 2 f 2 A 2
2
E f
E f f
1
1 1
E 2 f 2 2f
4
E 2 4E1
371
114.
= f1 6 24 1 f1 138
115.
f1 138 Hz
2 0.1 sin t
2
t+
3
t
rad
2
6
1
1
200 m 1
0.005
116.
Wave number
117.
fs
f
+ 2
L
fs
% increase
118.
From =
s = 0
+
5
4
f L fS
54
100
100 25%
fS
4
RT
, T
M
x 48
372
119.
+ L
In f L
fs
putting L 0, f L 2fs ,
120.
1
2L
f L + L
f S S
or
but, L S
122.
s s
2fs
s
fs
2
s
2
s
For resonance, the frequency of a.c. supply should be same as fundamnetal freq. of wire.
f
121.
= 50 Hz
f L L
fS  S
fL
1
fS
Since the rope is heavy, the tension at the lower end & top end of the rope will be different.
Mass of rope m 2 3kg
Mass of block m1 1 kg
tension at the lower end T1 m1 g 1 g N &
T
T
f =
= T
( f , are constants)
123.
2
T2
T2
2
1
T1
T1
Speed of sound
speed
= 1 = 2 0.1m
7 1.01 105
5
1.3
29 103 kg
1.3
22.4 103 m3
330 ms 1
373
124
40
20
1
and = 2 OR 2f 2 f Hz
125
Increase in tension of string increases its frequency. If the original frequency of B(fB) were
greater than that of A(fA), further the increase in fB should have resulted in increase in the beat
frequency. But the beat frequency is found to decrease. This shows that fA fB = 5 Hz and
fA=427 Hz, we get
fB = 422 Hz
126
L
330 0
fL
fS
800 1320 Hz
s
330 130
127
128
4
T
M 2 2.2
T 2
(340) 2 T 2.3110 N
L
11
1
2l
T
T f 2 4l 2
M
4f 2 M 2
T 4f
248 N
129
In tube A, A 2l
In tube B, B 4l
A
130
B
A
A 2l
B 4l
B 1
The was decreases the frequency of unknown fork. The possible unknown frequencies are, (288+4)
Hz and (2884) Hz. Wax reduces 284 Hz and so beats should increases. It is not given in the
question. This frequency is ruled out. Wax reduces 292 Hz and so beats should decrease. It is
given that the beats decrease from 2 to 4. Hence the unknown fork has frequency 292 Hz.
consider option (a)
131
374
132
133
The possible frequency of piano are (256 + 5)Hz and (256  5)Hz.
For a piano string
1
2l
T
When tension T increases v increases.
fL L
By Dopplers effect, f
S
S
Fractional increase
f L  fS f L
6
1
1 1
fS
fS
5
5
percentage increase
135
5 6
f L L
fS
100
20%
5
RT
M
He 32
4 o2
In a longitudinal wave, pressure is maximum where displacement is minimum. Therefore pressure and displacement variations are 180 out of phase
137
(c) is the correct choice because its value is finite at all times.
139
140
141
r1 1
Here, 1 2 , r 2 , T1 T2
2
T
500
50ms 1
0.2
f1
1
2l r1
T1
1
f2
,
1
2l r2
f
r 2
T2
1 1
f 2 r2 1
2
375
142
143
f f
f2
T
81
9
1 2 100 10%
2
f1
f1
T1
100 10
100
50H z
2
When other end of pipe is opened, its fundamental frequency becomes 200Hz. The overtone
have frequencies 400, 600, 800 Hz..
145
As
146
f1 2 25 5
f 2 1 30 6
2 2 '
60 2 '
2 ' 75cm
2 1 '
40 50
f2
101
1
f1
100 100
f 2 f1
148
1
200
f1
f
numbers of be ab s 1 f 2 f1 1 1
200
200
f L + L
1
1
=
,
f S + S Here L 5 ms , S 5 ms , f S 165 Hz
As the source is moving perpendicular to straight line joining the observer and source, (as if
moving along a circle), apparent frequency is not affected n1 = 0
150
dy
dy
dy
dt
dy
dy
=  A cos(kxt)
= kA cos(kxt)
dy v dt  v dx
dt
dx
dx
i.e. particle velocity =  (wave speed) xslope and slope at x = 0 and t = 0 is positive, in figure
Therefore, particle velocity is in negative y  direction
151
At a displacement antinode, a pressure node is present. Since pressure does not change at its
node, nor does density.
376
152
1 T
22
To maintatin the fundamental mode, in doubling the length, tension must be quadrupled.
153
154
L
Y
Y
2
T
T / r
stress
102
97
97
x, f B
x , fB
x
100
100
100
Now f A f B
155
T
T
m
r 2
102 x 97
x x 120 Hz
100 100
If the length of the wire between the two bridges is , then the frequency of vibration is
1 T 1
T
2l m 2l r 2d
If the length and diameter of the wire are doubled keeping the tension same, then new fundamental frequency will be n/4
156
f L L
f S S using this equation the frequency of reflected sound heard by the girl,
fL
157
L
fS
S
f open 2
o pen
fclosed
158
4 closed
As closed open
4 open /2
2
f open
2 open
159
160
dy
................(ii)
dt
dy
A cos(t kx)
dt
173
320
200 Hz
4L 4 0.40
Since the beat frequency is 8, the frequncy of the string vibrating in its first Overtone is 192 Hz
or 208 Hz.
Where for 1st Overtone frequency f1 '
1 T
........(1)
m
It is given that the beat frequency decreases if the tension in the string is decreased.
175
2
2 m
2f
3
3 ms1
2
m
2 2
176
177
Particle velocity
dy d
(0.1 Cos 2x sin 3t) = 0.1 x 3 cos 2x sin 3t
dt dt
179
1 2
2 2
The resultant displacement is given by
Beat frequncy = f1 f 2 =
y y1 y2
A cos ( k1x 1t) A cos (k2x 2t) For x = 0 we have
y=A cos 1 t+A cos 2 t
y 0.10 cos (96t) cos (4t)
Between t = 0 and t = 1 s, Cos 96 t becomes zero 96times and cos 4 t becomes zero 4
times
Hence the resultant displacement Y at x = 0 becomes zero 100 times
between t = 0 and t = 15.
182
y1 = A sin(kx+ t)
yr A sin (kx t) y yi yr
y 2A sin kx cos t Here 2A=10 A 5
379
NOTES
380
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