Sei sulla pagina 1di 49

# CONTENT

INTRODUCTION

PART 1 :
THEORY OF MATHEMATICS LEARNING-ZOLTAN PAUL DIENES
THE FOUR PRINCIPLE
THE SIX STAGES

PART 2 :
LESSON PLAN APPLYING DIENES SIX STAGES OF
MATHEMATICS LEARNING
BEFORE THE LESSON
DURING THE LESSON
AFTER THE LESSON

PART 3 :
FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE DIENES THEORY

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

INTRODUCTION

## Mathematics is an abstraction in existence. Whether it was discovered by or

has been created by mankind is still a subject of debates. Yet one thing is certain.
Mathematics is indispensable in predicting, describing, and understanding events in
the world around us. It has also paved the way for the proliferation of numerous
technological and scientific breakthroughs and advancements.
The name of Zoltan Paul Dienes stands with the legendary figures whose
works leave an indelible impression and contribution in the field of mathematics
education. His name is associated with manipulative materials in teaching
mathematics such as the logic blocks and the multi base blocks used for the
teaching of place value. He also theorized that games, stories, and dance
(e.g.,Dienes, 1973, 1987) can be employed to effectively teach mathematics.
Dienes was one of the few theorists that specifically focus his learning theory
based on mathematics rather than learning in general. He introduced the four
principles of mathematics learning : the dynamic principle; the constructivity
principle; the mathematical variability principle; and the perceptual variability/
knowledge embodiment principle. Along with that he also suggested 6 stages of
mathematics learning that help build strong conceptual in students understanding.

## The chronological of cognitive development for individual cannot abide the

factors of age. The child and the adult phase of thinking is not the same. The ability
of thinking grew up with age. However, the cognitive development also reflects on
the surrounding and the social interaction. Therefore each person achieve different
phase of cognitive development. Therefore, an approach like Dienes Theory of
mathematical learning gives the chance for a child to maximize their cognitive skills.
This project began with the group member try to know and understand the
views of the theorist, Zoltan Paul Dienes and his contributions towards the field of
mathematics and educations. After that we apply our understanding of the theory on
a lesson that we planned using the six stages of Dienes theory of mathematics
learning and his four principles. The outcome of the understanding of the theory, the
implementation of the theory in class and the implication of the theory are shared by
presentation and documentation of this project in PLG 561 class.

PART
1
THEORY OF MATHEMATICS LEARNING-ZOLTAN
PAUL DIENES

## THE FOUR PRINCIPLE

THE SIX STAGES

PART
2
LESSON PLAN APPLYING DIENES SIX STAGES OF
MATHEMATICS
LEARNING AND THE FOUR PRINCIPLES
BEFORE THE LESSON
DURING THE LESSON
AFTER THE LESSON

STEP 1 :

## The first step was to determined which type of students to be chose in

the project. It was either primary or secondary school students. After
go through the Dienes Theory, it appears that Dienes Theory more
applicable on children and because the group want to design games
activities that get the young students interested in. Therefore the
primary school students of standard six in Penang were chosen.

STEP 2 :

The second step was to identify the most suitable topic to apply the
Dienes Theory in Mathematics Learning . Three topics were suggested,
which were fraction, factorization and integer number. After some
discussions, the group agreed upon selecting the topic of integer
number by the subtopic of multiplication of positive and negative
numbers. The decision was based on the students prerequisite
knowledge and the manipulatives or concrete materials that we can
provide in the lesson.

STEP 3 :

The third step was to prepare the activities, the slides, the
manipulatives and the lesson plan applying the six stages of the
Dienes Theory. Different types of activities was planned to imply the
Dienes principle of mathematical variability and the use of the slides
other than written on white board and hands on activities of the
manipulatives was to imply the Dienes principle of perceptual
variability.

STEP 4 :

The fourth step was to prepare the classroom for the lesson. The lab
was chosen because the space was ample enough for the students to
walk about and get into games activities. The arrangement of table and
chairs for group activities were done before the students came into the
class. The lab also considered to be a conducive place to teach and to
film the lesson.

STEP 5 :

## There was no strategic point to place the camera because the

students activities will be on going throughout the lesson, therefore the
group agree for a member to be the conducting teacher and the other
two to film the lesson in motion ( moved around the class ). A member
focused on the students and another one focused on the teacher. The
filming was using a tablet camera and a smartphone camera.

STEP 1

STEP 2

STEP 3

STEP 4

STEP 5

Choose students

## Determine the topic

Determine the subtopic

## Prepare lesson plan for 2 periods

Design activities
Prepare manipulatives

## Determine the venue

Arrangement of tables and chairs

## Delegation of tasks ( to teach / to film )

Prepare LCD projector, cameras
( tablet & smartphone )

STEP 1:

## Teacher arouse the students interest on positive and negative numbers

by introducing the positive and negative of the surrounding object and
nature.

## Suggested by the professor that we should give examples that

really related to the meaning of positive and negative numbers
such as the fluctuations of the temperature. It is so the
students will not have misconception.
Later on, teacher tested the students prerequisite knowledge on the
addition of positive and negative numbers.

STEP 2:

## Applying stage 1, the free play of Dienes theory of mathematics

learning. At this stage the dynamic principle was implied by letting the
students play with the cards.
Students were given a set of player cards consist of red and black.
Let the students use the cards to find the relation that can made 2
black cards and 3 black cards become 6 black cards.

STEP 3:

## Applying stage 2, playing by the rules of Dienes theory of mathematics

learning. Teacher introduced the games and the rules to be play by the
students.

The rules are : 1. If black cards meet black cards the relation made
must also be in black.

## 2. If red cards meet red cards the relation made

must also be in black
3. If red cards meet black cards or vice versa the
relation made must be in red.

## Teacher intervention was necessary to guide and make sure the

students get the structure of the activity.

STEP 4:

## Applying stage 3, the comparison stage or search for communalities of

Dienes theory of mathematics learning.

Teacher gave a few questions and let the students figured out the
answer using the cards. It was so the students able to recognise the
pattern / structure of the activities.

STEP 5:

## Applying stage 4, the representation stage of Dienes theory of

mathematics learning.

## Students imagined that the black cards as the representation of

positive numbers and the red cards as the representation of negative
numbers.

STEP 6:

## Applying stage 5, the symbolization stage of Dienes theory of

mathematics learning.

## At this stage students began to change the representation colour of the

cards into mathematical form.

STEP 7:

## Enrichment of activities in form of games to strength up the students

conceptual understanding.

Players

## : Groups of two to five

Materials

: Deck of cards, Ace worth 11, Jack worth 12, Queen worth 13,
King worth 14, scratch paper

Skill

multiplication

How to Play

## : Black cards are positive numbers; red cards are negative

numbers. Players split a deck of cards to 4 cards each. Each
player has to combine two of their best cards to get the
biggest number. Remember that two negative
numbers make a positive product and -2 is greater than -7.

Example of results :

## The highest product wins all cards in the playing counter.

If the cards products have the same value, the cards are placed in a center pile.
The next hand is played normally and the winner of the next multiplication
number battle takes the center pile as well.

STEP 8:

## Applying stage 6, the formalization stage of Dienes theory of

mathematics learning

After going through all the stages, students able to deduce that :
+numbers +numbers=numbers
+numbers numbers=numbers

numbersnumbers=+ numbers
numbers+numbers=numbers

RANCANGAN PEMBELAJARAN
KELAS :

6 SIDDIQ

SESI :

2014

SUBJEK:

MATEMATIK

BIL PELAJAR :

20

MINGGU :

MASA:

1 JAM 20 MINIT

TEMPAT :

GURU :

TOPIK :

NOMBOR BULAT

SUB-TOPIK :

PENDARABAN
NEGATIF

MELIBATKAN

NOMBOR

POSITIF

DAN

HASIL
PEMBELAJARAN:

## 1) mengenalpasti integer positif dan negatif.

2) menyelesaikan penambahan dan penolakan melibatkan
nombor positif dan negatif.
3) menyelesaikan pendaraban melibatkan nombor positif dan
negatif.

KEPERLUAN
PENGAJARAN
BAHAN PENGAJARAN

BAHAN

KUANTITI

1

## BAHAN AUDIO VISUAL

ALATAN

Projektor

Pen Marker

Papan Putih

PERINGKAT/
MASA

PENGENALAN
(5 mins)
Set Induksi
Rasional :
Merangsang
pengetahuan
pelajar tentang
sifat berlawanan
sesuatu
objek/sifat/
perkataan dan
nombor.

AKTIVITI GURU

Menyapa murid

AKTIVITI MURID

Respon
Kemahiran
Berfikir:

murid

Keberkesanan
mengeluarkan
idea

yang berlawanan dalam
kehidupan.
Mengkehendaki murid
untuk bersama-sama
memberikan sifat
berlawanan bagi sesuatu
objek.

CATATAN

## Murid dipilih secara

rawak untuk memberi
berlawanan yang
dibincangkan.

PERINGKAT/
MASA

AKTIVITI GURU

AKTIVITI MURID

CATATAN

PEMBANGUNAN

Peringkat 1:
Permainan
Bebas

(15 minit)

Rasional:
Merangsang idea
kreatif murid
dengan bermain
secara bebas
tanpa aturan
permainan.

Menerangkan tentang
objektif pengajaran hari ini.
Mengasingkan murid
mengikut kumpulan.
Setiap kumpulan
permainan yang terdiri
merah dan hitam.
Memberikan aktiviti
hitam dan 2 kad hitam bagi
(tanpa aturan/arahan)

Membuat catatan.

Power Point
Slide

Memberi perhatian
semasa guru
menjalankan sesi
pembelajaran.

Nilai Moral :
Konsentrasi
dan
penglibatan
murid.

Pelajar menyelesaikan
aktiviti pertama secara
berkumpulan.
Pelajar menggunakan
mewakili hubungan
operasi yang
melibatkan dua
nombor:

Merangsang
sikap ingin
tahu murid.

PERINGKAT/
MASA
Peringkat 2:
Permainan
Berstruktur

AKTIVITI GURU
Memberikan sedikit tunjuk
menyelesaikan permainan

(10 minit)
akan menghasilkan 6.
Rasional:

AKTIVITI MURID

CATATAN

Mendapatkan satu
corak/struktur
melibatkan hubungan
dua nombor.
bantuan/rujukan yang
diberikan guru.

Murid
mendapatkan
konsep
melalui
pengalaman
tunjuk ajar guru.

Nilai moral :
Perhatian dan
fokus.

Peringkat 3:
Latihan/Praktis

(10 minit)

## Memberikan soalan lain

untuk aktiviti kedua bagi
murid menyelesaian
masalah menggunakan
kaedah yang permainan
yang sama.

permainan bagi
menyelesaikan aktiviti
kedua berpandukan
kaedah yang diberi
guru dan pengalaman
dalam aktiviti 1.

Rasional:
Latihan berlainan
memantapkan
pengetahuan
murid untuk
mengenalpasti
ciri-ciri
permainan.

Mendapatkan konsep
permainan dengan
percubaan yang
berulang-ulang
.mengenalpasti struktur
mengenalpasti ciriciri/kaedah permainan.

Nilai moral :
Penglibatan
dan kerjasama
antara murid.

PERINGKAT/
MASA

Peringkat 4:
Perwakilan
melalui warna
(10 minit)

Rasional:
Mendekatkan
jurang
pengetahuan
murid dengan
kefahaman
matematik.

Peringkat 5:
Perwakilan
simbol

AKTIVITI GURU

Menerangkan konsep
Hitam = Positif
Merah = Negatif
operasi hasil darab nombor
positif dan negatif
menggunakan permainan
- Hitam X Hitam = Hitam
(Positif X Positif = Positif)
- Merah X Merah = Hitam
(Negatif X Negatif = Positif)

Mengukuhkan
kefahaman murid
perwakilan simbol
dalam matematik

Memahami struktur
permainan melalui
dengan nombor positif
dan negatif.

CATATAN

Nilai Moral:
Pengukuhan
kefahaman
dan idea.

Menerapkan
kefahaman kolaberasi
(hasil darab) antara
warna dengan konsep
nombor positif dan
negatif.
Menggunakan

## - Hitam X Merah = Merah

(Positif X Negatif = Negatif)

Menerangkan perwakilan
nombor positif dan negatif
dengan menggunakan
symbol + (tambah) dan
(tolak)

(10 minit)

Rasional:

AKTIVITI MURID

Memberikan soalan-soalan
matematik menggunakan
simbol-simbol yang telah
dikenalpasti.

Membuat catatan
perwakilan simbol.
Nilai Moral:
Mengaplikasikan
penggunaan simbol
dalam soalan
pendaraban nombor
positif dan nombor
negatif.

Penerapan
informasi baru.

Kesungguhan
mempelajari
operasi unik
melibatkan
nombor.

PERINGKAT/
AKTIVITI GURU

MASA

Peringkat 6:
Formalisasi
(20 minit)

Rasional:
Mengaplikasikan
konsep
pendaraban
nombor positif
dan negatif
dengan
kepelbagaian
aktiviti bagi
meningkatkan
dan
memantapkan
kemahiran murid.

Memberikan rumusan
berkenaan penggunaan
simbol secara am dalam
penyelesaian hasil darab
nombor positif dan negatif.
Memberikan aktiviti yang
berlainan untuk menguji
kefahaman murid.
Aktiviti 1:
- setiap kumpulan memilih
warna
- melakukan hasil darab
bagi pasangan nombor
- kemudiannya, melakukan
operasi tambah bagi hasil
darab yang diperoleh.

## Meminta pelajar untuk

melakukan perwakilan
simbol di papan putih
beserta penjelasan.
Aktiviti 2:

Mengulang aktiviti 1
dengan syarat berlainan:
- bermula dengan
berlainan warna.

AKTIVITI MURID

Melakukan aktiviti
permainan yang
seterusnya:
- setiap kumpulan
memilih 2 pasangan
i- hitam & hitam
ii- merah & merah
- mengenalpasti
nombor yang terdapat
kelas untuk
- melakukan hasil
darab bagi pasangan
berkenaan dengan
perwakilan simbol di
papan putih.
- seterusnya,
melakukan operasi
tambah bagi hasil
darab dari kedua-dua
pasangan nombor.
- menerangkan konsep
perwakilan nombor
positif dan negatif
sehingga mendapatkan
jawapan terakhir.

Aktiviti 3:
kumpulan yang mampu
mendapatkan nilai yang
terbesar melalui kaedah
dalam aktiviti 1 dan 2.

Melakukan aktiviti 2
dengan syarat
berlainan:
- bermula dengan
berlainan warna.
Melakukan aktiviti 3
bersama ahli kumpulan
bagi mengatasi

CATATAN

Nilai Moral:
Kerjasama
antara murid

Keberanian
untuk
mengusulkan
penyelesaian

Kebolehan
mengaplikasi
teknik
kemahiran
pembelajaran
yang dipelajari.

PERINGKAT/
AKTIVITI GURU

MASA

AKTIVITI MURID

CATATAN

kumpulan lain.

## AFTER THE LESSON

STEP 1 :

The group thanks the students for the cooperation and their support to
make the class successful. The topic is considered new to them
because the multiplication of integers will only be teach when they
enter secondary school in Form 1 level. Therefore their participation
can also conclude that Dienes games approach is affective to them.

STEP 2 :

## Teacher distribute worksheets to the students in order to evaluate the

students understanding on the lesson. The worksheet is to be done
individually.

Latihan Pengukuhan
Nama

Topik

Nombor Integer

Sub-topik

## Pendaraban Nombor Positif dan Nombor Negatif

Soalan
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

2 X 13 =
14 X 7 =
15 X 11 =
16 X 18 =
9 X 45 =
6 X 21 =
(5 X 4) + (6 X 5 ) =
(8 X 3) + (16 X 8 ) =
(7 X 12) + (16 X 5 ) =

10. (15 X 3) + (7 X 8 ) =

STEP 3 :

## The students answer sheets were collected on the following day to be

evaluated and analysed by the group.

STEP 4 :

## The group get together to make some reflection on the lesson.

Recognized the weakness and strength of the application of the Dienes
theory in the lesson
( Discuss on Part 3 )

STEP 1

## Thanks and reward the students who

willing to participate in the project

STEP 2

STEP 3

STEP 4

## Collect and marks the exercise

sheets.
Evaluate and analize students'

## Group get together

Discuss the weakness and strength
of the use of Dienes theory.

PART
3
IMPLICATION OF THE THEORY

THE STRENGTH
THE WEAKNESS

## 1. The whole-class (or large-group) lesson would be greatly deemphasized in

order to accommodate individual differences in ability and interests.
2. Individual and small-group activities would be used concomitantly because it
is not likely that more than two to four children would be ready for the same
experience at the same point in time.
3. The role of the teacher would include exposition as well as being a facilitator.
4. The role of students would be expanded. They would assume a greater
degree of responsibility for their own learning.
5. The newly defined learning environment would create new demands for
additional sources of information and direction. The creation of a learning
laboratory containing a large assortment of materials and other conceptual
amplifiers such as computers would be a natural result of serious
consideration of Dienes's ideas.