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# HANOI UNIVERSITY OF MINING AND GEOLOGY

ECH 141
Fluid Mechanics
Midterm Exam 1 Solution
(Closed book and notes, calculators allowed)

June 2013

## Given for the exam

Equation of hydrostatics
p = g
Stress vector and stress tensor
tHnL = T n, where T = Tij ei ej

@Tij D =

## T11 T12 T13

T21 T22 T23
T31 T32 T33

Problem 1
Determine the new differential reading along the inclined leg of the mercury manometer shown below, if
the pressure in pipe A is decreased 10 kPa and the pressure in pipe B remains unchanged. The fluid in
pipe A has a specific gravity of 0.9 and the fluid in pipe B is water.

Solution
First we compute the pressure drop before the pressure in pipe A is decreased:
PA + A H0.1 mL + Hg H0.05 Sin@D - H2 O H0.08 mL = PB
Now let PA* be the new pressure in pipe A, such that PA* < PA so that the mercury level moves up the
slanted tube towards pipe A a distance meters. Then the pressurebalance becomes
P*A + A H0.1 - Sin@DL + Hg H Sin@D + 0.05 Sin@D + L - H2 O H0.08 m + L = PB
Then the pressure difference at pipe A is

ECH141MidtermExam_2013Soln.nb

## PA - P*A + A H Sin@DL - Hg HSin@D + 1L + H2 O = 0

Solving for the distance gives
-HPA - P*A L

A Sin@D - Hg HSin@D + 1L + H2 0
Substituting in the values given in the problem statement
= I-10 kN m2 M IH0.9L I9.81 kN m3 M Sin@30 180D I133 kN m3 M HSin@30 180D + 1L + 9.81 kN m3 M
= 0.054 m
Thus with the change in pressure in pipe A the mecury slides up a distance 0.054 m toward Pipe A.

Problem 2
A hot air balloon weighs 225 kg, including the weight of the balloon, the basket, and one person. The air
outside the balloon has a temperature of 27C and the heated air inside the balloon has a temperature
of 66C. Assume the inside and outside air to be at standard atmospheric pressure of 101.3 kPa.
Determine the required volume of the balloon to support the weight. If the balloon has a spherical
shape, what would be the required diameter.
Hint: work in SI units. Density of air can be found using ideal gas law, which is given by
= P R T, where R = 286.9 J Hkg KL, and J = Joule = Pa m3
g = 9.81 m s2

Solution
At equilibrium, the balloon has the following forces acting on it:
HiL a upward buoyant force :
F2 = 2 gVs
HiiL a downward force equal to the weight of the the hot air in the ballon :
F1 = 1 g Vs
HiiiL a downward force equal to the weight of the basket
FB = g M
Here 2 is the density of the outside air at T2 = 27 C, 1 is the density of the hot air at T1 = 66 C
From the ideal gas law we can compute the density of the air at T=27C andT=66C:
P
2 =

101.3 kPa
=

1000 Pa kPa
286.9 Pa m3 Hkg KL H273.15 + 27L K

RT

= 1.17636 kg m3
P
2 =

101.3 kPa
=

RT

1000 Pa kPa
286.9 Pa m3 Hkg KL H273.15 + 66L K

= 1.04109 kg m3
At equilibrium
F2 = F1 + FB

ECH141MidtermExam_2013Soln.nb

2 gVs = 1 g Vs + g M
Solving for the volume of the balloon gives
4
Vs =

R3 =

gM
2 - 1

## Thus the radius of the balloon is

M

13

R=

225 kg

13

=
H1.17636 - 1.04109L kg m3 4

2 - 1 4
= 7.3501 m
The volume of the balloon is
225 kg

= 1663.29 m3

Vs =
H1.17636 - 1.04109L kg m

Problem 3
A cube 4ft on a side weighs 3000 lb and floats half submerged in a tank consisting of a liquid with
density , as illustrated in the figure below. Determine the net force acting on the square gate in the
tank, where H=6ft and ht = 7 ft.

Solution
When a system is in hydrostatic equilibrium, the presence of the floating cube has no bearing on the
net force acting on the gate. As shown in the lecture notes the net force acting on the gate is
Fnet,x = g A

Hhb + ht L
2

Thus in order to evaluate the force we need to determine the density of the unknown liquid. This can be
achieved by examining the floating cube. At equilibrium, the buoyant force must be balanced by the
weight of the cube. The net buoyant force on the cube is
Fbuoy = Liq g V = Liq Vdisp
where Vdisp is the displaced volume of water which is Vdisp = 1 2 H4 4 4L = 32 ft3 . Thus at equilibrium

ECH141MidtermExam_2013Soln.nb

Fbuoy = g M
where M is the mass of the cube. we are told that the cube weighs 3000lb, which is in reality 3000 lbf .
Hence
Fbuoy = g M = 3000 lbf = Liq Vdisp
thus
Liq =

3000 lbf
3

32 ft

Fnet,x = g A

Hhb + ht L

## = I93.8 lbf ft3 M 36 ft2

H13 ft + 7 ftL

= 33 768 lbf

Problem 4
The state of stress at a point P in a fluid is given by
@TD =

20 10 -10
10 30 0
-10 0 50

Determine the normal stress and the shearing stress on a surface intersecting the point P and parallel
to the plane 2x+y-3z=9 . Hint: recall that the force per unit area acting at a point in the fluid on a plane
with unit normal n is
tHnL = T n, where T = Tij ei ej

Solution
The unit normal to the plane F(x,y,z)=0 is
F
n=

2 i +j -3 k
=

14

1
tHnL = T n
14

20 10 -10
10 30 0
-10 0 50

2
1
-3

2
= :40

2
, -85

, 25
7

>

## Note that the magnitude of the stress vector is

tHnL =

tHnL .tHnL
2

:40
7

= J30

3N

2
, -85

, 25
7

2
>.:40

2
, -85

, 25
7

>
7

ECH141MidtermExam_2013Soln.nb

## Now the normal component of the traction vector is

2
tHnL n = :40

2
, -85

, 25
7

>.82, 1, -3<

14

360
=
7
To compute the magnitude of the shear stress, note that the stress vector can be represented as
tHnL = TN n + TS eS
Thus the magnitude of the shear stress is

Ts =

tHnL 2 - T2N =

360
2700 -

30

=
7

= 7.42307
7