Sei sulla pagina 1di 13

2.

0 Management
2.1 Wal-Marts Organizational Structure
Wal-Mart is a major shopping corporation. With stores across the world, they are one of the
largest shopping centers ("Walmart", 2012). Being that they are a complex corporation,
they need to have a strong, very well thought out, organizational structure. Wal-Mart uses
the matrix structure. A matrix organization is an organization composed of a dual
reporting relationships in which some managers report to two superiors (Bateman &
Snell, , 2011). The system includes different levels of management. Wal-Mart has many
levels of management. They have management for international and domestic needs. They
were able to come up with a structure that would best suit their business and its
complexity. Being that Wal-Mart is a major company, it is highly important that their
organizational structure is well organized. Wal-Mart is one company that cannot afford to
have any issues with their management. There are too many stores world-wide that thrive
on organization. Wal-Mart thrives to satisfy their customers, and set way for other similar
businesses. Wal-Mart is a role model for other similar store like Target. The way Wal-Mart
is set up, is a great example of a well thought out structure.
A matrix organization is one of many different organizational structures. Like mentioned
before, each structure is based on the complexity of the business itself. Some other
structures include divisional and functional organization. Divisional organization is based
on the customers, geographic regions, and products, unlike the matrix structure, where it is
based on who the employees will report to, such as CEOs, general managers, and shift
managers just to name a few (Bateman & Snell, , 2011). Functional organization is when a
business groups different departments according to the skill of the group (Bateman &
Snell, , 2011).
Wal-Mart has a marketing team that does their best to keep their customers coming back.
For example, the marketing team came up with the slogan Save money. Live better.
("Walmart", 2012). The other aspects of this particular business are the finance department
and the human resource department. These departments, as well as others, also play a key
part in the structure of the business. With so many different departments, each with
different skills, there is a need for a structure that is able to keep the business organized.
Being that they have a complex system, the matrix structure seems to be the best choice
they could make. There are various different management for each department in WalMart. To keep it organized, the matrix structure breaks the whole system up so that each
manager has to report back to the same two mangers above them, to then eventually get to
the head of Wal-Mart.

Wal-Mart is an international store. It is very important that have a structure that will help
keep everything in order. If there is no structure for them to go off of, then they risk having
a fall in their business. When it comes to any business like Wal-Mart, there is competition
that comes along with being so popular. They need to have an organized team of specialist
that is ready and trained for all obstacles that they could be faced with. They need to have a
strong marketing team to make sure that Wal-Mart always strives in the business industry.
There are a large number of employees that Wal-Mart has employed. If there is no structure
in the human resource department, it would be very difficult to keep up with all of the
employees across the world. Wal-Mart representatives need to ensure that all employees
are taken care of, and have a system that will make their job easier. It can be very difficult
to keep up with so many employees. Having a structure that will make the departments
employees easier will be better for the company as a whole.
Like mentioned before, Wal-Mart is a company that is well-known across the world. The
geographic of all of the Wal-Marts, plays a role in the structure as well. Every country has
their own way of dealing with their businesses. Not one country is the same when it comes
to how they run their businesses. With that being said, Wal-Mart is a business that has their
own set of regulations that every Wal-Mart has to follow. Having a matrix structure helps
to make sure that all employees, regardless of the location, has a clear understanding as to
what is expected from them. The smallest mistake made, can ruin the reputation of WalMart as a whole. No business wants to ever deal with a big mistake that one employee
made that caused many problems to occur.
All businesses have their own structure; whether the business is a local business, or if it a
business that is known world-wide, there is a need to have structure. Without any structure
in a business, the business is at a high risk of failing. This is a fear that many up and
coming business entrepreneurs have. With no structure in this world, the world would be a
hectic place. For any new businesses owners, they have to make sure that they are running
their business on a strong structure that best suits their business. A mistake that many
business owners can make is basing their business on their structure of another business. A
small local business cannot base their structure on the structure of a major business like
Wal-Mart.
References
Bateman, T. S., & Snell, S. A. (2011). Management Leading & Collaborating in a
Competitive World (9th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection
database.
Walmart. (2012). Retrieved from http://corporate.walmart.com/

(1991). Organizational
Structure
and
Controls.
Retrieved
http://asso.nordnet.fr/adreg/hitt%20et%20al%20chapitre%2011%20structure%20et
%20contro

from

2.2 roles and responsibilities


2.2.1 Technical Monitor/Senior Management
Department manager does a variety of things. They do not, however, have the power to
fire/hire employees. They will often do interviews, but it's ultimately up to the assistant
manager whether someone is hired or not. Generally, Zone Merchandise Managers (ZMS)
do the interviewing.
Here's a list of some of the major things that department managers do:
1) price changes
2) order merchandise that is out of stock that is not manually ordered by the system
3) create features
4) train new employees (but this is not always true, either)
5) make on hand changes
6) set new mods (usually they go overnight for a week in order to do this)
7) RASPF (I think that's the acronym), which is basically going through a mod and making
certain that the shelf caps are correct and, if not, changing the shelf cap in the system and
printing new labels - this is an extremely tedious job that could take almost all day
8) maintaining a clean/orderly department
9) change on hands to minimize exception merchandise that comes back in the morning
10) completing 5-week bin reports (pulling deleted/inactive/NRPL items out of the bins to
put on clearance on the floor)
Department managers have to work with their ZMS much of the time in deciding features
for the department and if you're in the Housewares/Domestics or Garden Center area, this
includes maintaining the seasonal hot spot. In addition to that, department managers must
also, to a certain extent, maintain control of their employees and be comfortable giving
them tasks so that the department manager is able to perform their tasks. In addition, they
must complete notes from their assistant manager, shift manager, store manager, and after a
walk, the regional manager, as well .Some of these tasks the department manager must
complete themselves, but in many cases, they are able to designate these tasks to their
employees. If a department manager does not have a good relationship with their
employees or is not respected, they usually end up having a harder time and less time to get
their own notes done.

Reference: www.quora.com
2.2.2 Quality Assurance Team

Required to help Manager/TL identify the manpower needs to effectively run department
based on daily forecast and/or actual production.
must familiarize with all operational procedures within your department and ensure 100%
Compliance without exception. Responsibility to manage procedure/process compliance at
all times.
must full familiarize with Walmart Logistics Operational Team Leader General
Accountabilities and Responsibilities. Responsibility to ensure compliance with these
Expectations at all times.
will be dealing with clients on a daily basis via phone and email, and must be able to
understand their requests to prioritize the daily workload.
Consistently monitor operational reports pertaining to area, according to established
procedures.
Consistently communicate and demonstrate support of Walmart Logistics values: (Our
Customer ~ Our Team ~ Our Health & Safety ~ Our Community ~ Our Planet)
Visibility on the floor is essential to our values, namely Communication, Teamwork, and
valuing people. Leading by example is required at all times.
Additionally the Sundown rule must be followed at all times and backup documentation
must be kept for all Team Member relations issues.

2.2.3 Technical Staff


The three Technical staff managerial levels include assistant manager, co-manager and
store manager. For any of these positions, you must possess above-average
communication, organization and financial skills. This position also requires leadership
skills and in-depth knowledge of the Walmart store. A manager also needs people skills in
dealing with customers as well as employees. Many times customers have grievances, and
if the retail associate cannot handle it, it is up to the manager to step in to ensure
satisfaction. According to walmartstores.com, the most important product offered is
customer satisfaction. If the customer is happy then they will continue shopping. Managers
need people skills in order to motivate the employee to keep the store moving upward in
quality. Having a good working relationship with employees decreases turnover.

References
Walmartstores.com: Store Careers
Bls.gov: Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition-Sales Worker Supervisors
Bls.gov: Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition-Retail Salespersons

Quality Assurance Procedures

Minimum requirements
General
Federal Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN)

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. requires this number on all U.S.-based suppliers


application documents; non-U.S. suppliers must provide a current W-8
tax certificate as a part of the vendor setup process.

Insurance
Require all approved product suppliers to carry product liability
insurance. This type of insurance addresses legal costs or other
liabilities that could result from claims or lawsuits related to your
product. Should Walmart decide to carry your product, you will be asked
to provide documentation that you have adequate insurance.

Goods for resale


Food Safety Requirements
All companies that provide edible products must meet our food safety requirements to
become a supplier.
Food Safety Requirements for Processors
Food Safety Requirements for Produce Suppliers
Food Safety Requirements for Pet Food Suppliers

Global Food Sourcing Supply Chain Security


New Food Factories - Suppliers must request an onsite audit of a food factory through
Retail Link prior to the receipt of a Purchase Order. The cost for an onsite audit ranges
from $975 to $1,250 USD depending on the location of the facility.

Pack Houses
For new pack houses: suppliers are required to have the primary pack house complete a
Pre-Assessment Checklist for Pack Houses prior to receipt of a Purchase Order. The
supplier must also immediately request an onsite audit of the pack house through Retail

Link. The cost for an onsite audit ranges from $975 to $1,250 USD depending on the
location of the facility.
Note: Walmart will accept the official security audit results of any pack house or food
factory that has been audited on behalf of another retailer by any Walmart authorized third
party audit firm, and has received a passing score of 71 or above. If the facility failed the
audit, it will not be accepted and the facility must undergo a Walmart security audit.

General Merchandise Requirements


Product Safety and Compliance
Product Safety and Compliance administers programs to identify, mitigate and monitor
risks associated with general merchandise. We strive to set clear expectations within the
supply chain and develop reasonable levels of assurance and procedures for corrective
action.
Required to submit all product test reports, as well as General Certificates of Conformity
(GCC). Will receive further instructions and resources for this after youve been given full
access to Retail Link.
Product Safety and Compliance is responsible for General Merchandise in all U.S. and
Puerto Rico retail formats for Walmart, Walmart.com, Sam's Club, and Samsclub.com.
Food and Pharmacy are covered by different groups within Walmart. Please contact your
merchant with questions for those departments.
Provide information regarding product safety and regulatory requirements and do not
include requirements related to product quality.

Global Merchandise and Apparel Supply Chain Security


A new factory, regardless of the global location, the Walmart retail market, or country risk
rating, is required to pass an onsite supply chain security audit conducted by one of
Walmarts appointed audit firms prior to being activated in Retail Link.

Factory Capability & Capacity Audit (FCCA)


FCCA is applicable to all Direct Import Factories (Non-Food and Non-Packaging)

FCCA is required prior to order commitment for new factories of all Supplier
classifications & Retail Markets and is part of the three Pre-Qualification Audits (RS, SCS
& FCCA). All FCCA audits will be conducted by Walmart designated 3rd Party Audit
companies at the suppliers cost.
All Walmart Direct Import Suppliers (Non-Food and Non-Packaging) are responsible to
book the audit early as possible, and promptly pay the audit fee in advance. All
arrangements must be directly with the designated 3rd Party Audit Company, and not
through Walmart.

Health and wellness


All companies that provide over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, dietary & nutritional
supplements, or personal care or cosmetics containing active pharmaceutical ingredients
must meet our Health & Wellness product safety requirements to become a supplier.

4.2.1 Review Procedures


Walmart Global Compliance Action steps

For many years, Walmart has been working diligently to strengthen its compliance
programs and is committed to having a strong and effective global compliance program in
every country in which it operates.

Walmarts corporate culture has been built on a foundation of acting with integrity
and the highest ethical standards. The company has the same high standards of integrity for
every associate regardless of his or her position and everyone is held accountable for
those standards.

Recently, Walmart has made improvements to its compliance programs around the
world and has taken a number of actions with respect to its processes, procedures and
people.

The company is addressing 14 compliance subject matters in every market. Every


country also has compliance subject matters that are specific to it, but the following 14
areas are common everywhere it does business: anti-corruption, food safety, anti-money
laundering, antitrust, pharmacy, labor & employment, environment, privacy, consumer
protection, licenses & permits, health & safety, trade, product safety, and ethical sourcing.

To address these areas, Walmart is doing the following:


Hiring Chief Compliance Officers and Anti-Corruption Directors in each
market and region (along with staff)

Implementing common compliance systems

Conducting regular risk assessments using standardized tools

Increasing training

Designating Global Compliance Subject Matter Leaders for each of the 14


compliance subjects

4.3.1 Audit Procedures

The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors, which is composed solely of


independent directors, continues to closely supervise the internal investigation of alleged
violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and the enhancement of
Walmarts global compliance program. In addition to fully cooperating with related
investigations by the U.S. Department of Justice and Securities and Exchange
Commission, the Audit Committee and the company have taken a number of specific,
concrete actions to enhance Walmarts compliance team and all of the companys
compliance processes and procedures globally.

These actions have included aligning our global compliance, ethics, investigations,
and legal functions under one organization as well as creating new senior global
compliance and investigations positions and hiring seasoned professionals to fill these
positions in each of our markets outside the U.S.

We are also implementing enhancements to how we report and investigate


allegations of wrongdoing worldwide that will, among other things, centralize the
investigative function in the Bentonville Home Office. The company has engaged a
number of outside counsel and other advisors who regularly report to the Audit Committee
on the progress of the implementation of compliance enhancements. To date, these firms

have dedicated over a hundred thousand hours of professional work to enhance Walmarts
global compliance program.

To further emphasize our commitment to our compliance program, the Board of


Directors has determined that the compensation program for our most senior executive
officers will be subject to the achievement of certain compliance objectives. If the Audit
Committee, in its sole discretion, deems the companys progress in implementing its
compliance objectives to be unsatisfactory, then the annual cash incentive for the relevant
senior executives may be reduced or eliminated.

Walmart is committed to becoming an even better company, and our Board of


Directors and independent Audit Committee, with the assistance of outside professionals,
are providing their guidance and oversight to ensure that we meet our enhanced
compliance goals.

New processes to strengthen compliance

The company changed the reporting structure of its Legal, Ethics, Finance and
Compliance functions around the world. The General Counsels, Ethics Officers, CFOs and
Compliance Officers for each country now report to centralized managers in Bentonville,
rather than to only the CEO of the individual country.

Walmart also established a new global compliance and ethics committee to help the
company continue to operate in accordance with applicable laws and regulations and the
highest ethical business standards. The committee comprised of senior executives across
the organization including President & CEO Mike Duke, meets at least quarterly and will
report periodically to the Audit Committee of the board. Similar committees have been
established in each of Walmarts international markets.

Walmart has made enhancements to strengthen how it reports and investigates


allegations of wrongdoing and has established a clear protocol for global investigations
that include corporate oversight and engagement. The protocol sets forth the global criteria
that require immediate notification to the Global Ethics Office at the Corporate Home
Office in Bentonville before any investigation is commenced. The Global Ethics Office
will determine whether the companys corporate-level investigative resources are
appropriately engaged.

The company has added a series of new escalation and review protocols for the
purpose of managing global investigations consistently and independently, conducting
investigations rigorously and addressing findings appropriately. In addition, every country
has communications channels in place to report actual or potential issues, and protocols
established to notify senior management for timely resolution and proper remediation.

FCPA compliance action steps

In March of 2011, Walmart President & CEO Mike Duke directed the company to
conduct a worldwide review of its U.S. FCPA and anti-corruption compliance program.
Following that direction, over the past two years, Walmart has worked closely with anticorruption compliance experts at the international law firm Greenberg Traurig and the
professional services firm KPMG to review and assess Walmarts global FCPA and anticorruption compliance program.

The company is taking a systematic approach to improve FCPA compliance in


every market in which it operates, drawing on corporate best practices that will help
enhance, over time, an FCPA compliance program that will make Walmart an even better
company.

Walmart believes a world-class FCPA compliance program requires a sustained


effort and a commitment to continually make adjustments along the way. With any
compliance program, the goal is to prevent violations, but its also important to have an
effective mechanism to detect potential violations, investigate them thoroughly and, if
appropriate, take remedial action.

The company also recognizes that no policies or principles, however strong, will
succeed over time without people who believe in them and practice them. Walmarts firm
expectation is that each and every one of its associates will adhere not only to the letter of
the law, but also to the highest standards of personal integrity. Every associate in every
market has a mandate to both prevent and report issues.

As a result of this review, the company is presently implementing an enhanced and


updated global FCPA and anti-corruption compliance program worldwide designed to
strengthen its ability to prevent, detect and remediate violations.

The company has spent more than $60 million on this effort over the past two
years. More than 300 professionals at Greenburg Traurig and KPMG have dedicated in

excess of 180,000 hours, including more than 100 market task force and other market
visits, and more than 1,200 interviews of market personnel. 1

The company has focused its enhancements on several key components, including
the following:

An ongoing commitment to FCPA compliance from senior management

An improved organizational structure

Robust global policy and accompanying procedures designed to prevent,


detect, and remediate violations

Communication and training

Third party due diligence

Monitoring and auditing.

An improved organizational structure

Walmart aligned its corporate structure to have the global compliance, ethics,
investigations and legal functions under one organization, reporting to its Executive Vice
President and Corporate Secretary Jeff Gearhart. This move will allow the company to
leverage its strengths in these key disciplines around the world, resulting in closer
coordination and integration.

The company also created and filled several key positions to further support its
global compliance, ethics, investigations and legal functions. See examples above. The
company has also hired in-market anti-corruption directors in nearly all of its markets,
including Mexico, Argentina, Chile, Brazil, China, Africa, and India.

Mentoring and auditing

The company is currently evaluating its FCPA related financial controls and will
enhance such controls where appropriate.

The company is also in the process of implementing processes to monitor and audit
FCPA compliance on a global basis. This includes implementing processes to conduct
corruption risk assessments in each market on at least an annual basis and engaging the

global audit firm PricewaterhouseCoopers, LLC to assist with the FCPA monitoring and
audit process.

6.0 Quality Assurance Metrics


Metrics have always been used to help guide managers with decisions about
their organizations. However as technologies and methodologies have evolved,
metrics must evolve as well. Defect tracking, for example, has traditionally
been a metric used to measure software quality throughout the lifecycle.
However, agile methodologies suggest that pre-production defect tracking
may, in fact, be detrimental to software teams. It can be difficult to determine
which are the best for giving a true picture of software quality. This guide will
provide insights for CIOs, senior managers and project managers in selecting
the right set of metrics to effectively and efficiently manage their software
development organizations.

Senior Software Engineer in Test / Senior Quality Engineer


Demonstrates up-to-date expertise and applies this to the development, execution, and
improvement of action plans
* Develops software quality assurance (SQA) project plans
* Models compliance with company policies and procedures and supports company
mission, values, and standards of ethics and integrity
* Participates in medium- to large-scale projects
* Performs quality assurance testing for large-scale, eCommerce web applications, tools,
and software
* Provides and supports the implementation of business solutions
* Provides solutions for coding errors
* Supports code development for eCommerce projects

Appendix
Wal-Mart launched its RFID (radio frequency identification) initiative on
June 11, 2003, when it issued its first
RFID mandate for suppliers. In that mandate, Wal-Mart formally
announced
That it would require its top 100 suppliers to begin tagging pallets of
merchandise
By January 2005, and all suppliers were to begin tagging pallets by
January
2006. A few months after issuing the mandate, in September of 2003,
WalMart then opened its own RFID lab, which has been tasked with
researching
Ways to apply RFID technology to Wal-Mart operations and with
formulating

Wal-Marts RFID policy.


Pilot testing began in October 2003. A specialty distribution center and
two
Suppliers were used in the initial run. In late 2003, Wal-Mart also began
an
On-going effort to communicate RFID policy to both suppliers and
technology
Vendors when it held an RFID Symposium with its top 100 vendors and
by
Participating in an RFID trade-show.
Wal-Mart has decided not to make its full RFID policy available to the
Public. Instead, Wal-Mart has chosen to distribute the full text of the
policy
To its suppliers only, via its Retail Link, which is a Wal-Mart-designed,
web based
IT application used to communicate with suppliers.