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Project Management Framework

Project Management Process Groups


Knowledge Area
Processes

Project
Management
Integration

Initiating Process
Group
Develop Project
Charter
Develop Preliminary
Project Scope
Statement

Planning
Process Group
Develop Project
Management Plan

Project Scope
Management

Scope Planning
Scope Definition
Create WBS

Project Time
Management

Activity Definition
Activity Sequencing
Activity Resource
Estimating
Activity Duration
Estimating
Schedule Development

Project Cost
Management

Cost Estimating
Cost Budgeting

Project Quality
Management

Quality Planning

Executing
Process Group

Direct and Manage


Project Execution

Monitoring &
Controlling Process
Group
Monitor and Control
Project Work
Integrated
Change Control

Scope Verification
Scope Control

Schedule Control

Cost Control

Perform Quality
Assurance

Perform Quality
Control

Closing
Process Group
Close Project

Project Management Framework


Project Management Process Groups
Knowledge Area
Processes

Project Human
Resource
Management

Project
Communications
Management

Initiating Process
Group

Planning
Process Group

Executing
Process Group

Human Resource
Planning

Acquire Project
Team
Develop Project
Team

Communications
Planning

Information
Distribution

Project Risk
Management

Risk Management
Planning
Risk Identification
Qualitative Risk
Analysis
Quantitative Risk
Analysis
Risk Response
Planning

Project
Procurement
Management

Plan Purchases and


Acquisitions
Plan Contracting

Monitoring &
Controlling Process
Group

Closing
Process Group

Manage Project
Team

Performance
Reporting
Manage Stakeholders

Risk Monitoring and


Control

Request Seller
Responses
Select Sellers

Contract
Administration

Contract
Closure

Project Stakeholders

Project Selection Decision


Models
System

Description

Decision tree

In a decision tree model, selection criteria are arranged along the branches
of a tree flowchart. The project is evaluated against criterion. If the project
fails to meet any criterion, it is removed from consideration.

Criteria profiling

This is similar to the decision tree in that the project is evaluated using one
criterion at a time. However, in this model the project continues to be
considered even if it fails to meet some of the criteria.

Weighted factor

This type of model is similar to criteria profiling, but different criteria may be
weighted and factored into the scoring.

Q-sorting

In a Q-sorting model, groups of people rate the relative priority of a number


of projects.

Delphi technique

In the Delphi technique, individuals can be located remotely and may remain
anonymous, yet still participate in group decision making. People
participating in a Delphi process are given criteria, asked to rate a project on
a zero-to-ten scale, and provide reasons for their ratings.

Create Project Charter


Include the project and authority identification information.
Include a clear, concise description of the business need,
opportunity, or threat that the project is intended to
address.
Include summary descriptions of the product or service of
the project.
Include a description of the project's relationship to the
business need it is intended to address.
Consider any known constraints and/or assumptions.
Ensure the person with the required knowledge and
authority signs the project charter.
Distribute the signed charter to the appropriate project
stakeholders.

Product Analysis
Technique

Description

Functional analysis

Analyzing all of the things that a product does, including primary and related
functions, to identify unnecessary functions that might drive up cost on a
product.

Value engineering
and value analysis

Identifying and developing the cost versus benefits ratio for each function of
a product. A method for controlling costs while maintaining performance and
quality standards. Very common in military and construction contracts.

Quality function
deployment
Systems engineering

Identifying what the customer's needs are, and translating those needs into
technical requirements. Appropriate for each stage of the product
development cycle.
Analyzing products holistically, integrating factors such as users, usage
environment, and related hardware or software with which the product must
function.

Alternatives Identification

Technique

Description

Lateral thinking

A creative approach to problem solving in which the team attempts to think


about a problem in new ways and generate a fresh solution.

Brainstorming

A general creativity technique for generating possible alternatives.


Brainstorming methods can be structured or unstructured in approach. The
goal is to generate as many ideas as possible from as many team
members as possible.

Delphi technique

A group technique that extracts and summarizes anonymous group input to


choose among various alternatives. Often used to arrive at an estimate or
forecast.

Create A Scope Statement


Refine the project objectives, deliverables, and product
scope description.
Reexamine the project requirements.
Review the project boundaries.
Update the preliminary project constraints, risks, and
assumptions.
Create schedule milestones.
Include a revised overall cost estimate and define any cost
limitations.
Identify and document known risks.
Map out the internal organization.
Document project specifications and approval requirements.
Finalize the procedure for accepting completed products.

Work Breakdown Structure


This is a technique to analyse the content of work and cost by breaking it down into its
component parts. It is produced by : Identifying the key elements
Breaking each element down into component parts
Continuing to breakdown until manageable work packages have been identified. These
can then be allocated to the appropriate person.
Below is a work breakdown structure for the recruitment of a new person to fill a vacant
post.

PERT
Program Evaluation and Review Techniqueplanificacin de duracin de actividades. Se
asignan valores a las condiciones:
Optimista
Pesimista
Lo ms probable
La distribucin de las 3 posibilidades se multiplica
por el valor dado a la condicin, y se divide entre
6.

Project Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)


Network analysis or PERT is used to analyse the inter-relationships between the tasks identified by the
work breakdown structure and to define the dependencies of each task. Whilst laying out a PERT chart it is
often possible to see that assumptions for the order of work are not logical or could be achieved more cost
effectively by re-ordering them. This is particularly true whilst allocating resources; it may become self
evident that two tasks cannot be completed at the same time by the same person due to lack of working
hours or, conversely, that by adding an extra person to the project team several tasks can be done in
parallel thus shortening the length of the project.
Below is the PERT chart of the WBS shown above after network analysis as been applied.

Activity
An element of project work that requires an
action to produce a deliverable.
Typically has an expected duration.
Usually consumes costs and resources.
Examples of activities:
Revise user manual
Dig footers
Reserve conference room

Create Activity List


Gather inputs and resource materials.
Decompose each work package in the WBS
into activities required to produce the
deliverable.
Consult records of similar projects to identify
possible activities.
Consult subject matter experts about unfamiliar
activity.
Ensure activities listed are necessary and
sufficient to successfully complete. the work
package.

Finish-to-Start (FS) Example

A
10 days

B cant start until


A is finished

B
4 days

B (4 days)

A (10 days)
14 days

Finish-to-Finish (FF) Example


FF

A
10 days

B cant finish
until A finishes

B
4 days

A (10 days)

B (4 days)
10 days (Best Case)

A (10 days)

B (4 days)

14 days (Worst Case)

Start-to-Start (SS) Example


A
10 days

B cant start
until A starts

SS

B
4 days

A (10 days)

B (4 days)
10 days (Best Case)

A (10 days)

B (4 days)

14 days (Worst Case)

Start-to-Finish (SF) Example


A
10 days

A must start before B


can finish

SF
B
4 days

A (10 days)

B (4 days)
10 days (Best Case)

A (10 days)

B (4 days)

14 days (Worst Case)

Arrow Diagramming Method

D
Start

Finish
F

J
I

Project Network Diagram

Start

E
Finish

D
F

Hammock Activity

Start

E
Finish

D
F

H
Hammock

GERT Network Diagram with Loop Example


Design Logo

Sponsor
Approval?

no

Loops
yes
Demo for Focus
Groups

Focus
Group
OK?

yes
Produce Final
Artwork

no

GERT Network Diagram with


Conditional Branch
Dig trench

Fill with
Water?

yes

Pump trench

no

Lay pipe

Conditional
branch

Install sump
system

Completed Sidewalk Replacement Work


Package Network Diagram

2.3.3.4
Pour
Concrete

2.3.3.1

2.3.3.2

2.3.3.3

2.3.3.7

Remove
Old Sidewalk

Excavate
Lawn

Build
Forms

Remove
Forms

2.3.3.5

2.3.3.6

Replace
Topsoil

Lay
Sod

Estimate Activity Resources


Determine what resources are necessary to
complete each activity.
Determine what quantity of resources is
necessary to complete each activity.
Generate possible alternatives for unavailable
resources.
Analyze the scope statement.
Consider organizational policies that could
affect resource acquisition and usage.
Identify and use expert judgment resources.
Analyze the resources already available.

Activity Duration Estimates


Number of work units required to complete the
activity.
Assumptions made when making the
estimates.
Range of variance for the estimate.

Analogous Estimating
The amount and reliability of historical
information.
The similarity of the historical project on which
the estimates are based.
The expertise and relevancy of the expert
judgment used to make the estimates.

Estimate Activity Durations


Involve the work package owners.
Consult historical information.
Determine which work unit you will use.
Consider resource requirements and capabilities
Determine the appropriate estimation method to use.
Modify the constraints and assumptions from the
other planning processes.
Verify the accuracy of your estimates.
Consider the need for reserve time.
Include the list of assumptions made in the creation of
estimates.
Include a range of variance for each estimate.

Critical Path

Ruta Crtica

Como gerente de proyectos, debo concentrarme en las actividades que estn en


la ruta crtica, que es la de menor flexibilidad.

Float: tiempo que puedo dilatar sin impactar el proyecto.


Conocido como slack
Free float: se puede compartir en una secuencia de actividades.

Compresin de Itinerario
Fast Tracking

Crashing

Realizar tareas
secuenciales de forma
concurrente.

Crashing: trade off de tiempo por costo.


Es la reduccin de actividades que menos
cuesten, y que acorten el tiempo de
ejecucin de un proceso. Por lo regular se
hace crashing a las tareas de la ruta
crtica. El crashing aumenta el factor de
riesgo en error, los costos del proyecto y
su calidad

Simulacin
Montecarlo Analysis
What-if Scenario

Nivelacin de Recursos

Estimado de Costos
Proyeccin de recursos necesarios para
completar el proyecto

Anlisis de reserva: se establece cuando hay riesgos


que pueden impactar el costo del proyecto. Se evala
a medida que el proyecto avanza.
Luego de tener los estimados de costo, puedo
trabajar en el baseline. Son elementos de
monitoreo. Puede sufrir cambios si el proyecto tiene
un ajuste en alcance o costo. El baseline se crea en
la fase de planificacin para controlar el proyecto y
comparar los cambios en el mismo, basado en el
costo inicial estimado.

El baseline ayuda a medir las varianzas


de costo a lo largo del proyecto.

Mtodos de Asignacin de
Costos

Calidad, Staff y Comunicaciones

Para minimizar el riesgo de fallas en calidad, disposicin de recursos y


comunicacin, se debe lograr el consenso y el respaldo de los stakeholders para
desarrollar los planes correspondientes, que servirn de gua y referencia
durante el proyecto.

Quality Planning debe hacerse regular y


concurrentemente con otros procesos de
planificacin para proyectar el impacto en en
el proyecto.

Establecimiento de guas de calidad (ISO 9000, Total Quality Management)


Considerar regulaciones externas
Quality Management Plan: cmo se maneja la calidad. Subsidiario del PM
Plan. Contiene las mtricas y factores que influyen en el proyecto
(estndares, regulaciones)

Estndar: principios, guas, buenas prcticas de la empresa, o generales


en la industria.
Regulaciones: normas establecidas.
Quality Planning
Reconocer los tipos de costo: de prevencin, appraisal o falla- el ms
costoso

Process Flowchart

Uso de Flowcharts para


identificar problemas de calidad y
sus efectos

Causa y Efecto (Fishbone)

Checklists

Diseo de Experimentos

Qu variable tiene mayor efecto?


Qu relacin hay entre la variable y la calidad?

Cul es el mejor valor para la variable, asegurando la calidad?

Roles y Responsabilidades

S: Signoff
A: Accountable (responsable)
P: Participant

Organization Chart del proyecto- ayuda a evitar el problema de


desconocimiento respecto a quin dirigirse.

Adquisicin de Recursos

Considerar:
Competencias, Procedencia y Costos

Desarrollar habilidad de negociacin de recursos

Planificacin de Comunicacin

Risk Management Plan


Riesgo es cualquier evento no planificado, sea positivo o negativo. Si la
organizacin ya tiene un manejo de riesgos, el gerente de proyectos debe
seguirlo. Si el pas tiene unos procesos establecidos, deben ir sobre el de la
organizacin.

Risk Management Plan

Risk Management Plan Components

Tolerancia al Riesgo, Clasificaciones

Toma de Decisiones, Categoras

Identificacin de Riesgos y Triggers

Risk Register

Risk Identification

Risk Identification

Anlisis Cualitativo de Riesgo

Qualitative Risk Analysis: clasifica el


proyecto en trminos de riesgo e
impacto de forma subjetiva. El gerente
de proyecto establece cmo lo va a
llevar.

Matriz de Probabilidad e Impacto de Riesgos

Distribucin de probabilidad de riesgos en un proyecto

Anlisis Cuantitativo de Riesgo

Output: Actualizacin del Risk Register

Todos los proyectos tienen riesgos; el problema es que la gente los conoce, cree
saber qu hacer si ocurren, y si ocurren nadie se encarga de tomar accin ante el
riesgo

Contract Planning