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INTRODUCTION

The oral exam (also oral test or viva voce) is a practice in many schools and disciplines, where
an examiner poses questions to the student in spoken form. The student has to answer the
question in such a way as to demonstrate sufficient knowledge of the subject in order to pass the
exam. Oral assessment includes any assessment of student learning that is conducted, wholly or
in part,by word of mouth.Oral assessment in its many forms has along history. we can conclude
that the test is a tool or a procedure used to evaluate individuals or groups who have an objective
standard to observe one or more characteristics of a person that the results can be used as a basis
for decision making.

There are several terms related to oral test, they aret test, testing, tester and testee, each of which
has a different understanding, but closely associated with the test.
1. The tests are tools or procedures used in the framework of measurement and assessment
2. Testing means an activity whose purpose is to determine what learners can do or know about
something.
3. Tester is the person who carries out the tests or the person entrusted to carry out tests
4. Testee is the person that is being subjected to the tests.

Test as one measurement technique can be defined as a systematic procedure for measuring a
sample of an individual's behavior (Brown, 1970: 2). The definition contains two main points to
note in understanding the meaning of the test, the first is the word systematic procedure, which
means that a test should be drafted, implemented (administered) and processed according to
certain rules that have been established. Systematically here includes three steps, namely (a)
systematic in content, meaning that those items (items) of a test should be compiled and selected

by region and scope of behaviors that will and must be measured or tested, so the test is actually
the validity level can be accounted for, (b) systematically in the implementation of the
(administrative) means that the test should be carried out by following the procedures and
conditions as specified; and (c) systematic in its processing, meaning that the data generated
from a test processed and interpreted according to the rules and benchmarks (norms) specific.
The second is the measuring of an individual's behavior is that it means that the test only
measures a sample from an individual behavior tested. The test can not measure the whole
(population) behavior, but limited to the contents (items) tests are concerned.

A text will contain questions or problems to be addressed or solved by the individual being tested
(testee), the so-called achievement test (achievement test). This concurs with an expert who
stated that the type of ability test that describes what a person has learned to do is called an
achievement test (Thordike & Hagen,975: 5). Based on that opinion, achievement test usually
consists of a number of items that have a certain difficulty level (there are easy, medium and
hard). The test must be done by the students in a specified time. Therefore, the test result of
learning is the power test. Its purpose is to measure the student's ability to answer questions or
concerns.

The test is a series of questions that must be answered by the students. In this case, the test result
of learning can be classified into three types based forms of implementation, namely an oral test,
writing test, and performance test.

Oral test that tests the implementation is done by holding a question and answer directly between
educators and learners. These tests include verbal test group, namely the test questions and
answers using spoken language. In terms of preparation and how to ask, oral tests can be divided
into free oral test, that educators in providing matter to students without using the guidelines
prepared in writing; guided oral test, that educators use written guides on what will be asked of
learners.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

Oral test has advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of oral test are: (1) be able to assess
the ability and level of knowledge of learners, attitudes, and personality because it is done face to
face; (2) for learners who are relatively slow in thinking have difficulty in understanding the
problem statement, the learners can ask directly to clarify the question is; (3) the results of the
tests can be directly known by the learner; (4) minimize cheating; (5) the learners answers can
be argued. (6) it can evaluate reasoning ability and verbal language skills; (7) the test can be
broad and deep. The Weaknesses of oral test are: (1) subjectivity educators often contaminate
the test results, (2) it takes a relatively long time, (3) if the learner s are nervous, it can disrupt
the test, (4) it is possible not objective, (5 ) It is less reliable.

The things that need attention in the implementation of such oral test are as follows.
1. Teachers must remain aware that the purpose of the evaluation is to get an overview of
academic achievement attained by students.

2. Teachers do not yell at a student because the student gives an answer that in the opinion of
teachers is the answer "stupid.
3. Do not have a tendency to help a student who was in the test
4. Prepare a plan to first answer the question as well as the score for each question asked.
5. Organize scoring carefully to each answer given by the student.

Benefits questions with an oral test is as follows.


1. Develop students understanding
2. Developing the ability to think and make decisions
3. Activate both sides of teachers and students.
The development of an oral test is basically the same as written test. The difference is in the the
observance, as well as the diversity of the item given to respondents. In the written test, the
format of the test item can be assigned to one class of respondents, while the oral tes, the format
item can only be given to a respondent or at most in three respondents only. This is done to avoid
the respondent guessing the next item that will be given. The things that must be considered in
the preparation of an oral test item are as follows.
1. Create a format item with several possible answers and weighted score. As an example can
be seen in the following table.
Table 1: Oral Test Format
No.
1
2
3

Questions

Possible answers

Score

2. Prepare some items that parallel format to some respondents.


3. To fulfill the requirements of parallel, each item must have the same content, degree of
difficulty, and the time to answer.
4. In asking the question, the testers can perform deeper questions to determine the actual level
of mastery.

CONCLUSION
Oral test is a test that the implementation is done by holding a question and answer directly
between educators and learners. In terms of preparation and how to ask, oral tests can be divided
into two general categories: (1) free oral test; (2) guided oral test.
The advantages of oral test are: (1) be able to assess the ability and level of knowledge of
learners, attitudes, and personality because it is done face to face; (2) for learners who are
relatively slow in thinking have difficulty in understanding the problem statement, the learners
can ask directly to clarify the question is; (3) the results of the tests can be directly known by the
learner; (4) minimize cheating; (5) the learners answers can be argued. (6) it can evaluate
reasoning ability and verbal language skills; (7) the test can be broad and deep. The Weaknesses
of oral test are: (1) subjectivity educators often contaminate the test results, (2) it takes a
relatively long time, (3) if the learner s are nervous, it can disrupt the test, (4) it is possible not
objective, (5 ) It is less reliable.

Based on the above it can be concluded that the oral test can develop students understanding.
develop the ability to think and make decisions, activate both sides of teachers and students.

Brown, F.D. (1970). Principles of educational and psychological testing. Hinsdale, IL:
Dryden Press
Mueller, J. (2012). Authentic assessment toolbox. Naperville, IL: North Central College.
Retrieved October 2012

Thorndike, R., & Hagen, E. (1986). Measurement and evaluation in psychology and
education (4th ed.). New York: Wiley.