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HD 3620 -- Human Bonding

Professor Hazan
Spring 2016


Please note that the final version of this study guide will be posted
after lecture on 2.25.16.
The first prelim will be given in class on Tuesday, March 1 st, and you will have the entire period to work on it. It will
cover the eight lectures from January 28th through February 25th, and the four required corresponding readings (see below for
The exam will consist solely of short answer/essay questions and count for 30% of your course grade. The questions are
designed to test understanding and integration of course material more than simple memorization (see below for an example).
Note that the Professor and all six graduate TAs will be available to help during their weekly walk-in hours (see the
course syllabus for days/times/locations).
-------------------------------------------------------WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW FROM LECTURE
What are the dynamics of the attachment behavioral system? In other words, how does the system work? What turns it on and
What makes attachment relationships different from other types of social ties? That is, what are the four defining features?
The attachment system is designed to monitor the proximity and/or availability of attachment figures. What are examples of
endogenous and exogenous factors that affect whether an attachment figure is judged to be sufficiently near?
What is the difference between attachment behaviors and attachment bonds?
Within Bowlbys theory, what is meant by monotropy and attachment hierarchies and cradle to grave (with normative
What are the approximate ages, stages, and related behaviors in the ontogeny (formation) of infant-caregiver attachment bonds?
What are the factors that promote bonding between infants and adult caregivers (i.e., that attract them to each other)?
What is the bi-phasic response to separation from an attachment figure? On the basis of his studies of rat mothers and pups,
what did Hofer conclude about attachment bonds?
In terms of parent-infant co-sleeping What differences between co-sleepers and non-co-sleepers were observed in the lab?
How might these differences relate to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)? What sleeping position (prone vs. supine) and
sleeping arrangement (same vs. separate rooms/beds) is currently recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics?
What are the short- and long-term effects of so-called kangaroo care?
What are the functions and activating stimuli of the following social-behavioral systems: attachment, parental/caregiving, sexual
How did Harlows experiments test the secondary drive theory of infant-caregiver bonding? What sleeper effects did he
discover? What did he conclude? What might explain the interrelations among social-behavioral systems?
What are the three main patterns (styles) of infant-caregiver attachment identified by Ainsworth et al. and what characterizes

the laboratory behavior of babies in each of the three categories? What episodes in the experiment are coded in order to assign
infants to a particular pattern/category? What one variable assessed in the first 3 months of life predicted how babies would
behave in the strange situation at 12 months of age? How is this variable defined by Ainsworth? And what are the caregiving
antecedents of each of the patterns?
What evidence suggests that the patterns of attachment identified by Ainsworth et al. are due to nurture (i.e., the way infants have
been treated by their caregivers) and not due to nature (i.e., inborn temperament)?
Bowlby argued that early bonding experiences can have lasting effects. Be familiar with how this might happen at the levels of
experience, expectations, and behaviors as well as the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and the Hypothalamic-PituitaryAdrenal Axis (HPA).
TBA: What you need to know from lectures on 2.23 and 2.25.
Bowlby: Be familiar with the general history that led to the development of attachment theory, some facts that made Bowlby
doubt the secondary-drive theory of infant-caregiver attachment, the influences of work by such researchers as Lorenz and
Harlow, and the new perspective on separation anxiety. [Note: feel free to skip the sections on mourning and defensive processes,
which we will cover later in the semester.]
Hofer: In this paper Hofer uses findings from animal models to address three questions relevant to human attachment. Be
familiar with his answers to all three.
Ainsworth et al.: Be familiar with the observed behavior, as well as the authors interpretations of the behavior, of infants in
each of the three (A, B, and C) groupsboth at home and in the strange situation. [Note: you will not be expected to know
differences between subgroups, such as C1 and C2.]
Suomi: Be familiar with the methods and findings regarding effects of maternal deprivation (pp. 175-177), effects of
disruptions of maternal care (pp. 178-179) and effects of unusually secure early attachments (pp. 179-181).
-------------------------------------------------EXAMPLE OF A MULTI-PART ESSAY QUESTION
1. Briefly describe the dynamics of the attachment behavioral system.
2. Describe two factors that promote infant-caregiver bonding.
3. Briefly contrast an infants behavior during the pre-attachment and attachment-in-themaking phases.
4. Name and describe two of the four defining features of an attachment bond.
1. Do not hesitate to ask for clarification.
Its difficult to answer a question accurately if youre not sure whats being asked. Every
attempt will be made to ensure that exam questions are clear, but if the wording strikes you as
confusing or ambiguous OR if you are unsure how much detail is required, please do not hesitate to
ask for clarification.
2. Bring your favorite writing instrument plus at least one backup.
You may not be used to bringing a pen or pencil to class, but you will need at least one on exam

3. Start by writing your name on every page of the exam.

There will be several different versions of the exam. Often the TAs disassemble the exams prior
to grading. To ensure that you receive credit for all of your responses it is essential that you write your
name at the top of every page of the exam. We recommend you do this before you begin working.
4. Limit your responses to the textboxes.
Every question will be followed by a textbox for recording your answer. We encourage you to be
concise. Bullet points are most welcome. Please be advised that TAs will consider only the information
contained within the textboxes. For this reason they recommend the use of pencils with good erasers.
5. Arrive early if you can.
Because the class is so large, it typically takes several minutes for everyone to settle enough for
lecture to begin. On exam days, this could be costly. If you wish to have the full 75 minutes to work on
the exam, you will need to be seated and ready to begin promptly at 2:55.
Best of luck!