Sei sulla pagina 1di 37

ACTIVATED NATURAL ZEOLITE

ON TEXTILES FOR PROTECTION


AND THERAPY

Ana Marija GRANCARI1, Anita TARBUK1,


Slavko IVKOVI2, Tihomir LELAS3, Darko UJEVI1
1 University

of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology,


Zagreb, Croatia
2 Clinic Svecnjak Zagreb, Croatia
3 Tribomin, Osijek, Croatia

INTRODUCTION
Human skin
Is a barrier organ
Is the greatest human immune organ
Is a sensory organ
Protects against
Cold,
Heat,
UV-R,
Mechanical impact,
Microorganisms.
The purpose of finishing with zeolite nanoparticles is
achieving high level multifunctionality of textiles.

ZEOLITE (CLINOPTILOLITE)
Material name

Natural Zeolite

Chemical name

Hydrated aluminosilicate from alkalis and earth


alkalis

Chemical type

Molecular sieve

Empirical formula (Ca, K2, Na2, Mg)4 Al8 Si40 O96 x 24 H2O

Adsorption
capacity

Ammonia NH3,
Hydrocarbons C1 to C6
Carbon dioxide CO2
Hydrogen sulphide H2S
Sulphur dioxide SO2, nitrogen oxides NOX,
aldehydes

Total exchange
capacity

Cations (Ca2+, K+, Na+, Mg2+)


(1,2-1,5 mol / kg)

ZEOLITE (CLINOPTILOLITE)
Substance

Percentage

SiO2

65,0 71,3 %

Al2O3

11,5 13,1 %

CaO

2,7 5,2 %

K2 O

2,2 3,4 %

Fe2O3

0,7 1,9%

MgO

0,6 1,2 %

Na2O

0,2 1,3 %

TiO2

0,1 0,3 %

Si/Al ratio

4,8 5,4

ZEOLITE (CLINOPTILOLITE)
Non-toxic
European approval as a food additive in
accordance with DIN 53 770
U.S. approval: Code of Federal Regulations,
Food and Drugs (FDA), 21 CFR CH. I, 182
Subpart C

ZEOLITE (CLINOPTILOLITE)
Clinoptilolite has a cage-like structure consisting
of high portion of SiO2 (60-67 %).

ZEOLITE (CLINOPTILOLITE)
Zeolite - activated micronized particles of
clinoptilolite produced by tribomechanical
processing in the patented machine.
Such product has 80% of nanoparticles.

TRIBOMECHANICAL ACTIVATION

TRIBOMECHANICAL ACTIVATION

TRIBOMECHANICAL ACTIVATION

LHC Large Hadron Collider

TRIBOMECHANICAL ACTIVATION

Stages of micronising

1. Particles
are accelerated

4. Dynamics cause
pulverising

2. Particles collide

5. Dynamic process
continues

3. Particles rebound surface friction

6. Crystal structure
fragments

MICRONIZING
Tribomechanical activation (TMA) is a newly
developed micronizing method for improving
reaction capacity levels
Special equipment is required: TMA disintegrator
After processing, significant changes to the
particles can be observed with regard to
size
surface characteristics
electrostatic charge
ion exchange capacity

EFFECTS OF ACTIVATED ZEOLITE


is non-toxic
has neither chemical or pharmacological effects
has only a biophysical effect.
This biophysical effect is used to regulate growth,
cell division and differentiation (protection and
repair mechanisms)
is used in agicultural, industrial and medical
purposes

Megagreen

Natural manure which improves photosynthetic activity


Photos: Crop trials with Megagreen in Lombardy, June 2004

Untreated crops

Crops treated with Megagreen

ACTIVATED NATURAL ZEOLITE


ON PROTECTIVE TEXTILES
Scatter UV ligth

UV Potection
Great absorbens

Antimicrobial
Protection

MATERIAL and TREATMENTS


Label

Treatment

Scoured (bioscouring with 1% Beisol PRO, Bezema) cotton


knitted/woven fabric

SM

Scoured mercerized (24% NaOH) cotton fabrics

SZ

Scoured cotton fabrics, impregnated with 5 g/l zeolite


nanoparticles

SZM

Scoured cotton fabrics, 5 g/l zeolite nanoparticles added in


mercerization process

SMZ

Scoured mercerized cotton fabrics, impregnated with 5 g/l of


zeolite nanoparticles

SM(AZ)

Scoured mercerized cotton fabrics, 5 g/l of zeolite nanoparticles


and azalide treated by exhaustion method

...A

Azalide treated by exhaustion method

...W

Washed according to ISO 105-C08/C09 using ECE Test Detergent


without phosphate and without OBA

AZALIDE (AZI)
Azalides are subclass of macrolide antibiotics
(macrocyclic lactone ring in their chemical structure).
Azithromycin is the most famous azalide with brand
names Zithromax (Pfizer) and Sumamed (Pliva).
It is derived from erythromycin
(14-membered lactone ring)
by adding a nitrogen atom into
the lactone ring making
15-membered lactone ring.
Azytromicine
9-deoxy-9a-aza-9a-methyl9a-homoerythromycin A

SEM images of
zeolite treated
bioscoured
cotton fabrics

SZM

SMZ

a) during (SMZ) and


b) after (SZM)
mercerization process
Images taken in DTNW,
Krefeld, Germany

METHODS
Characteristic
UV Protection
****
UV Protection
Factor (UPF)

Standard

Instrument

AS/NZS 4399:1996
Sun Protective
Clothing: evaluation
and classification

Transmission
Spectrophotometer Cary 50
Solarscreen
(Varian)

E S
UPF
E S

indicates the

ability of fabrics to
protect the skin against sun burning
indicates how much longer a person
can stay in the sun with the fabric
where:
covering the skin as compared with
E() = spectral weighting
function of erythemal action the uncovered skin to obtain same
erythemal response
spectra according to CIE
J.6;17-22.1989
S() = spectral irradiation [W m-2 nm-1]
() = spectral transmittance
= wavelength measuring interval [nm]

METHODS
Characteristic Standard

Antimicrobial
activity

Microorganisms used

AATCC TM 147-1999
Antibacterial Activity Assessment
of Textile Materials
and
AATCC TM 100-1999
Antibacterial Finishes on Textile
Materials: Assesment of

Gram positive
Staphylococcus aureus
and
Gram negative
Klebsiella pneumoniae

In Petri dish (80 mm diameter) microorganisms were put. In the middle of dish
circle test sample, d = 24 mm, was placed. After incubation of 24 h diameter of
sample and diameter of influenced area were measured. Diameter difference
quantitatively determines fabric protection of Gram positive and Gram
negative microorganisms.
Results are given as factor, f

d treated
f
d untreated

ANTIMICROBIAL PROTECTION

a)

b)

c)

no
antimicrobial
activity

great antimicrobial
activity to
Gram positive
Staphylococus
aureus

great antimicrobial
activity to
Gram negative
Klebsiella
pneumoniae

ANTIMICROBIAL PROTECTION
60

Gram positive
Staphylococus aureus

Treated
Treated and washed

48

36

24

12

Woven cotton fabric


60

Treated
Treated and washed

48

36

24

12

Z)
SM
(A

ZA
SM

Z
SM

A
SZ
M

SZ
M

SZ
A

SZ

A
SM

SM

SA

0
S

d [mm]

(A
Z)
SM

ZA
SM

Z
SM

A
SZ
M

SZ
M

SZ
A

SZ

A
SM

SM

SA

0
S

d [mm]

Knitted cotton fabric

ANTIMICROBIAL PROTECTION
Gram negative

60

Treated

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Treated and washed

48

36

24

12

Woven cotton fabric


60
Treated
Treated and washed

48

36

24

12

Z)
SM
(A

ZA
SM

Z
SM

A
SZ
M

SZ
M

SZ
A

SZ

A
SM

SM

SA

0
S

d [mm]

Z)
SM
(A

ZA
SM

Z
SM

A
SZ
M

SZ
M

SZ
A

SZ

A
SM

SM

SA

0
S

d [mm]

Knitted cotton fabric

UV PROTECTION

Knitted cotton fabric


1000
Treated
Treated + washed

600

400

Woven cotton fabric

200
1000

0
SM
(A
Z)

Treated + washed

800

Mean UPF

ZA
SM

Z
SM

A
SZ
M

M
SZ

SZ
A

SZ

SM
A

SM

SA

Treated

Mean UPF

800

600

400

200

0
S

SA

SM

A
SM

SZ

A
SZ

SZ

M
SZ

SM

Z
ZA
(A
SM
SM

ACTIVATED NATURAL ZEOLITE


FOR THERAPY
Activated natural zeolite
modulates the immune system. Taking Megamin
strengthens the bodys immune system
is a carrier of energy and information
is a product developed with new technology
which enhances an existing biophysical effect.
This enhanced biophysical effect can be
measured and is proven to exist

absorbs gastric acid (during heartburn)


regulates the pH values of human tissue
(counteracting hyperacidity)
is a remarkable prebiotic (bacterial activity in the
intestine)
influences cellular metabolism and through
mitochondrial activity also influences cell vitality
is the best possible antioxidant. It neutralises and
captures free radicals.
is also an enzymatic antioxidant (high silicon
ratio)

detoxifies our bodies

possesses a high
ion exchange
capacity (potassium,
sodium, magnesium
and calcium
exchange)
adsorbs and
absorbs ammonia
in the enteron and
colon
absorbs heavy
metals (including
lead, arsenic,
cadmium)

EFFECTS OF ACTIVATED ZEOLITE

Very strong antioxidative properties affect oxidative


stress in cancer and diabetes patients. Additionally,
diabetes mellitus patients can use zeolite for the
reason of its glucose high absorbance.
Free radicals are the main factors of many
pathological changes in organisms.
Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) measures the
concentration of antioxidants in the organisms. From
many results it is shown that activated zeolite
influenced an increase in TAS value more than 26%
which is in comparison to known antioxidants (A, C,
and E vitamines, flaovoinouds, melatonin etc.) tenth
time effective.

Anticancer activity of zeolite as antioxidants may not


only be attributed to their radical scavenger
properties, but also to direct modulation of cellular
signal transduction pathways, resulting in growth
arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells.
Recently, it has been shown that 4 weeks of oral
supplementation with activated zeolite resulted in
restoration of previously increased antioxidant levels
(Randox Total Antioxidant Status) and decreases of
free radicals (d-ROM-s Free Radical Analytical System)
in plasma of cancer patients.

Beside its antioxidant capacity, activated zeolite


demonstrated anticancer activity in vitro tissue
cultures by inhibition of protein kinase B (c-Act) and
induction of expression of tumor suppressor proteins,
independently from p53 protein. Blockade of cell
growth has been shown in several cancer cell lines.
The high inhibitory effects of zeolite are obtained with
two cell lines, HeLa and MiaPaCa-2 what confirmed the
recently results about zeolite inhibition of protein
kinase B (c-Act).
Additionally, the combination of activated zeolite with
doxorubicin for the treatment of mammary carcinomabearing mice was significantly more effective in
reducing the number pulmonary metastases when
compared to doxorubicin mono-therapy.

Cell viability [%]

The effect of activated zeolite treatment (different


TMAZ concentration) on growth of different human
150
cell lines.
control
120

0.05 mg/ml
0.25 mg/ml
0.5 mg/ml

90

60

30

0
HeLa

MiaPaCa-2

CaCo-2

MCF-7

Hep-2

Cell lines
Legend:
HeLa - cervical carcinoma; MiaPaCa-2 - pancreatic carcinoma;
CaCo-2 - colon carcinoma; MCF-7 - breast cancer;
Hep-2 - laryngeal carcinoma.

Activated Natural Zeolite in Healing Wounds


In the wound healing are five important
requirements: moist environment, antimicrobial,
non-toxic to human cells, hypoallergenic and
continuous debridement. Activated zeolite just
follows these requirements having favorable
effects on the healing of next superficial skin
wounds:
Acute skin problems - mechanical skin damage,
thermal burns, abrasions, insect bites, postoperative wound treatment, herpes simplex and
herpes zoster.
Chronic skin problems - various skin infections,
allergic reaction, degenerative diseases,
neurodermitis, ulcer cruris, decubitus ulcers,
etc.

CONCLUSION
Activated natural zeolite:
adsorbs sweat and stops unpleasant odors
cleans the skin from oxidants and free radicals
protects the body against harmful UV radiation
regardless of the fabric structure, applying
treatment, or washing process
UV protection in textile finishing means
antioxidative protection, as well.
protects the body from microorganisms and prevents
its access and activity
has favorable effects on the healing process in the
skin wounds

CONCLUSION
Activated natural zeolite:
constantly holds the body temperature
increase energy levels of entire body
protects of rheumatic problems
enhances exchanges of substances in the body and
helps the skin breath
regulates the pH values of skin and
is very comfortable to wear.
Tribomechanical activated natural zeolite on textiles
promises multifunctional properties and different
biological effects in the near future what requires further
research work.

ACTIVATED NATURAL ZEOLITE ON


TEXTILES FOR PROTECTION AND
THERAPY

Ana Marija GRANCARI1, Anita TARBUK1,


Slavko IVKOVI2, Tihomir LELAS3, Darko UJEVI1