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# TERMODINAMIKA

KIMIA
8.10- 8.16
Raymendo Sinaga
(14/364772/PA/16059)
Alaika Rizazuam
(14/365016/PA/16078)
Swasti Nilam N
(14/365602/PA/16103)
Herbi Yuliantoro
(14/365603/PA/16104)
Anggun Setya P
(14/365612/PA/16105)
Krisfian Tata
(14/365615/PA/16106)
Pratyangga Surya Dyaninggar
(14/365626/PA/16110)
Rosy Amalia Kurnia P

(14/365630/PA/16113)
Aqidatul Izza
(14/365632/PA/16115)
Hamid Rohma S
(14/365633/PA/16116)
(14/367629/PA/16281)
1

CARNOT CYCLE
WITH AN IDEAL
GAS
If an ideal gas is used as the
working substance in a Carnot
engine, the application of first
law to each step can be written
as
table.
Step General
Case
1
U
1=Q1-W1
2
U2=-W2

Ideal gas
0=Q1-RT1 ln
(v2/v1)

U3=Q1-W3

U4=-W4

0=Q2-RT2 ln
(V4/V3)

=
Rayme
ndo

Sinaga
2

## The value of W1 and W3,

which are quantities of work
produced
an isothermal reversible
expansion of an ideal gas, are
obtained from
equation
W=
ln

=
=

## The value of U are

computed by integrating the
equation dU=CvdT. The total
work produced in the cycle is the
sum of individual quantities.
W= RT1
ln ( )+

ln
(

)-

## The two integral sum to

zero, as can be shown by
interchanging the limits and thus
changing the sign of either of

them. Hence
W= RT1 ln ( )
) - RT2 ln (
Raymendo
Sinaga

## Equation (8.20) can be simplified if

we realize that the volumes V2 and
V3 are connected
by
an
reversible
transformation ; the same is true for
V4
and
V1
'
By
Eq.
(7.57)

## By dividing the first equation by the

second, we obtain

Alaika Rizazuam

## From the equation for the

first step in the cycle, we
have

## and the efficiency is given by

Alaika Rizazuam

Equation (8.21)
shows
that
the
total
work
produced
depends on the difference in
temperature between the two
reservoirs [compare to Eq. (8. 1
8)] and the volume ratio V2/V1
(the compression ratio). The
efficiency is a function only of
the
two temperatures [compare to
Eq. (8. 1 9)] . It is apparent
from
Eq.
(8.22)
that
if
the
efficiency is to be unity,
either
the
cold
reservoir must be at T2 = 0 or
the hot reservoir must have T1
equal
to
infinity.
Neither

## situation is physically realizable

Alaika Rizazuam

THE CARNOT
REFRIGERATOR
A refrigerator is a heat
engine operated in
reverse,
more or
less

Swasti Nilam N

Swasti Nilam N

Swasti Nilam N

Heat
Pump

Aqidatul Izza

10

h
p

S
i
n
c
e

hp

Aqidatul Izza

11

Heat
Engine
Menerima heat/panas
dari source bertemperature
tinggi
Mengubah sebagian panas ini
sink bertemperature rendah

12

I
t
i
s
i
m
p
o
s
s
i
b
l
e
f
o
r
a
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y

d
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i
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y
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t
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L
a
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o
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T
h
e
r
m
o
d
y
n
a
m
i
c
s
:

## Pratyangga Surya Dyaninggar

13

Thermal Efficiency
fraksi dari total heat input
kerja output (Wnet,out)
W
net,out
=
tQin
h

Untuk closed
system : Wnet,out =
Qin - Qout

(kJ)

14

## Thermal efficiency heat

=1

Atau:
=1

Q
L

Q
out

th
Qin

t QH
h
QL = heat transfer dari heat
engine ke reservoir temperature
rendah
QH = heat transfer dari reservoir
temperature tinggi ke heat
engine

## Tidak ada Heat Engines yang

mempunyai efisiensi thermal 100%.
Tidak semua panas yang
temperature rendah.

## Pratyangga Surya Dyaninggar

15

DEFINITION
OF ENTROPHY
The second law of thermodynamics
leads to the definition of a state
property of the system, the
entropy. It is characteristic of a
state property that the sum of the
changes of that property in a cycle
is zero.
The second law defines some new
property whose changes sum to zero
in
a cycle
Anggun
Setya P

16

## We begin by comparing two

expressions for the efficiency of
a
simple reversible heat
engine that operates between
two
reservoirs at the
thermodynamic temperatures
= 1 + 1+!

dan
=
"

"
!

S
o
:

+!
=0
"
!

Anggun Setya P

"

(8.27
)
=0

17

## The 8. 27 Equation could

be written as the cyclic
integral of
the differential quantity dQ/
:
" = 0
(Reversible cycles)
!

"

I ! =0,
f
The quantity is the
differential of some property
of state. This
property is called the
entropy of the system and is
given the
symbol S :
dS "&'(

Anggun Setya P

18

GENERAL
PROOF
We have shown that
has a
cyclic integral equal to
zero only for cycles that
involve only two
temperatures. The
result can be generalized to
any cycle. Consider a Carnot
engine.
Then in a cycle

## and we have shown for the

Carnot engine that :

KRISFIAN TATA A P

## (By the definition o f the

Carnot cycle, the Q is a
reversible Q.)
Consider another engine E'.
Then in a cycle, by the first
law,

## assume that for this engine,

KRISFIAN TATA A P

## This second engine may execute

as complicated a cycle as we
please ; it may have many
temperature reservoirs ; it
may
use
any
working substance. The two
engines are coupled together
to
make
a composite cyclic engine.
The work produced by the
composite engine in its cycle is

KRISFIAN TATA A P

## We now adjust the direction

of operation and the size of
the
Carnot engine so that the
composite engine produces
no
work ; the work required to
operate E' is supplied by the
Carnot engine, or vice versa.
Then
and Eq. (8.34)
becomes

## Under what condition will the

relations Eqs. (8.35) and
(8.36)
be compatible ?

KRISFIAN TATA A P

## Because each of the

cyclic integrals can be
considered as a sum
of terms, we write Eqs.
(8.36)
and (8.35) in the forms

and

KRISFIAN TATA A P

## The sum on the left-hand side of Eq.

(8.37) consists of a number of
terms, some positive and some
negative.

We
have
to
find
numbers
(temperatures) such that by dividing
each term in Eq. (8.37) by a proper
number we can obtain a sum in
which
the
positive
terms
predominate.

## This implies that heat is extracted

from reservoirs at low temperatures
and rejected
to
reservoirs
at
higher
temperatures
in
the
operation of the composite engine.

24

## The composite engine is

consequently an impossible
engine, and our
assumption, Eq. (8.33), must be
incorrect. It follows that for any
engine E',

d
0
Q
(8.39)
'
T
We distinguish two cases :
Case I. The
d
engine E' is
<
Q
reversible.
'
If
we
assume
that
for E

## then we can reverse this engine,

which changes all the signs but

Then we have

d
Q >0
'
T

25

## and the proof is the

same as before. This
forces us to the
conclusion that for any

system
d
Qr =0
ev

cycles)

(all rerversible
(8.40)

## Therefore every system has

a state property S, the
entropy,
such that
dQ rev
d
ST
=

(8.41)

26

## Case II. The engine E' is not

reversible.
For any engine we have only the
possibilities expressed by (8.39).
We have shown that for any
engine the value cannot be
greater
than
zero ; consequently, it must be
less than zero. Therefore for
irreversible cycles we must have

d
0
Q<
cycles).
T

(all irreversible

(8.
42)

Rosy
Amali
a
Kurni
aP

27

Hamid Rohma S

28

Hamid Rohma S

29

kedua membahas tentang suatu
reaksi
dapat berlangsung sepontan
atau tidak .
Kalor dapat mengalir secara
spontan dari panas ke dingin
dan kalor
tidak mungkin mengalir secara
spontan dari dingin ke panas .
Aplikasi dari hukum kedua ini
mesin kalor carnot energi
dapat mengalir secara sepontan
dari panas
ke dingin dan menghasilkan
pendingin
carnot kalor baru dapat
mengalir dari dingin kepanas
dengan
bantuan usaha.

30

=
=
*1

(*11
2
=
*2)
1

*1

Untuk mesin
pendingin carnot
*
2
*
2
entropi
=

,="&'(
,=
perubahan

= 1

(*
1
+
*2
)
=

2
*-.

## kalor yang diserap

oleh sistem dalam proses
reversibel
=suhu

31

Tanya
jawab
Fauzy : heat pump,
menggunakan usaha
untuk
memndahkan kalor.
Semakin dikit usha
efisiensi
meningkat, apakah
dapat Heat engine,
sebagian kalor dialirkan
ke resevoir rendah,
bagaimana?
Dewanti: calusius,
sistem terislasi mencapai
kesetimbangan dan
entropi maksimum,
syaratnya

apa?
Jolang: refrigerator,
reaitasnya refrigerator
ake
gas freon, fungsinya
apa? Pas habis,
pendinginannya
berubah, mengapa?
32