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Bearing V12.xmcd

The Units used as standard: m, kg, N, Pa, sec, watts

N, kg, m, Pa, sec/min, watts/kW

Rolling Contact Bearings

(pg 550)

This note is only a guideline for using the text book. Detailed explaination and
tables are found in Shigley Mechanical Engineering Design text book.
a) double row deep
groove ball bearing
b) roller bearing
c) angular contact

Bearing types
a) single row
deep groove
b) double row
deep groove
c) angular
d) roller or
e) self-aligning

f) tapered roller bearing

(for thrust load)

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Bearing V12.xmcd

Bearing Load

Pg 554

Ball bearings are designed to support high radial load and limited axial load.
Roller bearings, however, support extremely high radial load but no axial load.
Other bearings are beyond the scope of this subject.

Bearing Life

Pg 553

The objective of this analysis is to determine the life of a bearing before the first
tangible evidence of fatigue.
Common life measures are
1. Number of revolutions of the inner ring (outer ring stationary) or
2. Number of hours of use at a standard angular speed
AFBMA standard states that the first evidence of fatigue is the spalling or pitting of
an area of 0.01 in2 (by Timken Company laboratories).
The AFBMA (and most other manufactures) term rating life as the life span of 90%
of a batch of bearings.

Bearing Load-life trade-off at constant reliability

For 90% reliability (R = 0.9) (std value for most bearing), the regression equation form is

F L = constant

this is the basic load-rating eqn for bearing

F is steady radial load, and
L is the desired life


Lr Fd



for ball bearing

for roller bearings

where Lr, Fr refer to RATED specs provided by manufacturers

and Ld, Fd are the DESIGNER values.

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Bearing V12.xmcd

From the equation above, a catalog load rating known as C10 is use to represent the
standard 90% reliability (10th percentile rating life where the reliability R = 0.90 ).

Hence the catalog rating

(unit: kN) is given by

LD nD 60
C10 = Af Fr

LR nR 60


- radial load (in kN) applied to the bearing

- designed life (in hours) --> the expected life of the bearing


- designed rotational speed of the bearing in RPM

- rated life (in hours) provided by manufacturer of the bearing


- rated rotational speed of the bearing (RPM)

- application (safety) factor of the bearing system

The value (LR x nR) provide the rated life in revolutions for 1 minute. Most bearing
manufacturer chooses a rated cycles value of 1,000,000 revolutions in a 1 hr period to
correspond to a basic load rating in the catalog. Hence for most class of bearing
where R = 0.90, the catalog rating is given by:

LD nD 60
C10 = Af Fr


N.B: If reliability is not mentioned,

then the default value of R = 0.90 is

Sample 1A
A ball bearing is to be selected to carry a radial load of 6.5 kN. The designed life is
5000 hr with a rotation rate of 900 rpm. For a bearing reliability of 0.90, find the
suitable bearing.
Designed load (radial),
Designed life,

Fr = 6.5kN

Af = 1.15

nD = 900rpm

LD nD 60
= 48.31 kN


C10 = Af Fr

a = 3

Application factor,

LD = 5000

Inner ring rotates,

Ball bearing,

Refer to Table 11-2 pg 571 , column for

Deep Groove Load Ratings. The next
higher C rating C10 = 55.9 kN
corresponding to Bore 65mm.

The selected bearing is 65mm 02-series deep groove ball bearing !

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Bearing V12.xmcd

Reliability of the Bearings

The Reliability-Life Trade-Off [bearing survival and load-life] :
Reliability R > 0.9
Empirical formulaes had been used for higher accuracy of the calculation for
Bearing Life based on reliability analysis. The formula below is the most accurate for
bearing analysis.

Xd =

LD nD 60



C10 = Fr


0 (


Based on experimental data, the equation above had been refined and finally for
academic purposes, it was simplified further. The final equation for load rating of
reliability R 0.9 is shown below:

Xd =

LD nD 60



C10 = Af Fr

0.02 + 4.439 ( 1 R)

If Application factor (safety factor ) if not mentioned, Af = 1.0

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Bearing V12.xmcd

Sample 1B
If reliability in Sample 1A is R = 0.95 , and safety factor Af = 1.15 , find the new load
rating and the correct bearing? Find the suitable bearing if it is to be mounted on a
65mm round shaft.



= 1.15 6.5 10

0.02 + 4.439 ( 1 0.95 )


C10 = 57 kN

The next higher C load rating is ( C10 = 61.8 kN) for a

70mm bore deep groove ball bearing.
However the shaft diameter is only 65mm. It will be rocking within the bearing bore
because of the generous tolerance (i.e. the bearing is too big for the shaft)
Comments: 70mm ball-bearing - Not recommended
Solution: Use the alternative:- Angular Contact bearing.
The next higher Angular Contact C rating ( C10 = 63.7 kN) corresponding to a 65mm
bearing. This bearing will slip perfectly on the 65mm shaft.
Recommended: 65mm Angular Contact ball bearing
Overall Reliability (or combined reliability) for multi-bearings system
Most shaft are supported by at least 2 bearings. If the overall reliability of the
bearings supporting the shaft is given as R' , then
Individual bearing reliability,


where n is the number of bearings

supporting the shaft.
(used at least 2 more decimal points)


For a 3 bearings system with overall reliability R' = 0.99 then

the individual reliability is given by R =
If R' = 0.999 then
If R' = 0.9999 then

R =
R =

0.99 = 0.9967

0.999 = 0.99967 with 2 decimal points added.


0.9999 = 0.999967 with 2 decimal points added.

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Bearing V12.xmcd

Combined radial and thrust loading

A ball bearing is capable of resisting radial loading, Fr and thrust (axial) loading, Fa.
To consider both loads, an equivalent radial load, Fe is obtained that does the same
damage as combined radial and thrust load. The equation is given as below:
Fe = X1 V Fr + Y1 Fa


Fe = X2 V Fr + Y2 Fa

To correct for various rotating-ring conditions, a rotation factor, V is used.

inner ring rotates

V = 1.2
outer ring rotates

The X and Y factors depends on several conditions including number of balls

and its diameter.
The Equivalent Radial load factors for ball-bearing is shown in Table 11-1.
The Y = 0 for straight and cylindrical roller bearings because it does not take
any axial load.


V Fr
V Fr

then use X1 and Y1 in Table 11-1


then use X2 and Y2 in Table 11-1

To get the accurate value of e and Y2, tabulation may be needed.


Fe = X2 V Fr + Y2 Fa

LD nD 60
C10 = Fe


Sample 2
An ball bearing is to be selected to carry a radial load of 8 kN and thrust load of 4 kN.
The desired life LD is to be 5000 h with an inner-ring rotation rate of 900 rpm What is
the basic load rating that should be used in selecting a bearing for reliability of 0.95?

Sample 3
A bearing is to be selected to carry a radial load of 5.0 kN. The designed life is 2500 hrs
with a rotation rate of 500 rpm. For a bearing reliability of 0.99, find the suitable bearing if
it is to be mounted on a 35mm round shaft. Application factor = 1.15