Sei sulla pagina 1di 308

*Ti

PL145"!

1874

ESSAYS
LANGUAGES, LITERATURE, AND RELIGION
OF NEPAL AND TIBET:
TOGETHER WITH FURTHER PAPERS ON THE

GEOGRAPHY, ETHNOLOGY, AND COMMERCE


OF THOSE COUNTRIES.

B.

H.^ODGSON,

Esq.

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE GERMAN ORIENTAL SOCIETY;


CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE FRENCH INSTITUTE CHEVALIER OF THE LEGION OF HONOUR
MEMBER OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETIES OF CALCUTTA, LONDON, AND PARIS OF THE
ETHNOLOGICAL AND ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETIES OF LONDON AND
\

LATE BRITISH MINISTER AT THE COURT OF NEpXl.

Reprinted, with Corrections

and Additions, from "Illustrations of the Literature and Religion


; and " Selections from the Records of the

of the Buddhists," Seramfiore, 1841

Government of Bengal, No.

XXVII."

Calcutta, 1857.

LONDON:
TRUBNER

& CO., 57 & 59

LUDGATE

1874.
[All rights reserved.]

HILL.

NOTICE.
When

Professor J.

Summers was about

zine for China, Japan,

July 1870, he
in

it

solicited

to start the Phoenix, a

and Eastern Asia, the

number

first

and obtained permission

of

Mr

B.

of

monthly maga-

which appeared, in

H. Hodgson

to reprint

those contributions of his to the " Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society,"

which bear on the ethnology, languages, and religion of Tibet and Nepal. The
plan Professor Summers had in view is sketched out in the following editorial
note with which the series of reprints
"

is

prefaced

The present and following papers

(to be given in successive numbers of the Phoenix)


pen of Mr Brian H. Hodgson, and originally appeared in the Bengal
Asiatic Society's Journal, between the years 1828 and 1838.
Upon the subject of
ethnology, Mr Hodgson's views have since that time been improved and extended, and

are from the

we

purpose, when we have completed the present series of papers, chiefly devoted to
Buddhism, to reproduce in the Phoenix those improved and extended views of Tibetan
and Nepaulese races and languages, from No. 27 of Selections from the Records of the
Government of Bengal,' wherein they were published in the year 1857.
But those
Selections
form a work even more inaccessible to men of letters in Europe than the
'

'

'

and we believe, therefore, that we shall be doing a serEurope by making Mr Hodgson's researches into northern Buddhism and ethnology more generally and easily accessible." Phoenix, vol. i. p. 43.

'Journal of the Bengal Society;

'

vice to the learned of

Mr

Hodgson's "improved and extended views," so far as Buddhism

cerned, were found embodied in

numerous marginal notes

in his

is

own copy

con-

of the

" Illustrations of the Literature and Religion of the Buddhists " (Serampore,
1841).

In the same way many manuscript additions were made by him in his

own copy

of the " Selections."

All these corrections and additions have been

introduced into the text of the present reprint, though they represent, as
just to

Mr Hodgson

to state, various

is

only

phases of his views, ranging over a period

of nearly thirty years.

Professor

Summers

further proposed to

Mr Hodgson

a collected form as a separate publication, to

to issue these reprints in

which proposition the

latter

gave his

ready consent.

At p. 96 of vol. ii. of the Phoenix the reprints from the " Selections " commence, and proceed pari passu with those from the " Illustrations " to p. 26. of

NOTICE.

VI
vol.

iii.,

last article of the latter

where the

In consequence

of this

(on the Pravrajya Vrata) terminates.

arrangement, the Editor of the present work found

sary to begin a fresh pagination with the Second Part.


have, therefore, in. the index been

marked by a

II.

it

neces-

References to this part

prefixed to the Arabic figure,

showing the page.


Eight pages of the papers on the Commerce of Nepal were remaining to be set
up when Professor Summers' acceptance of an appointment in Japan put a stop
to the publication of the Phoenix,

and

accordance with his original design.


best to place the materials, as left

Trubner

of Messrs

&

Co.,

to the completion of the separate re-issue in

Under

these circumstances,

by Mr Summers on

it

was thought

his departure, in the

hands

Only the

with a view to their eventual publication.

above-mentioned article has subsequently been completed.

On

comparison with the two former collective publications, the present one

will be found to have excluded three short articles contained in the " Illustrations " (IX.

Remarks on an Inscription in the Rancha and Tibetan

X. Account of a Visit to the Ruins of Simroun

Royal Asiatic Society), which were considered


nature to be omitted, and articles IV., V., and

from Kathmandu

to Darjeeling

count of the systems of

as of a

ephemeral

sufficiently

XL 1. 2. of the " Selections " (Route

Route of Nepalese Mission

Law and

characters

XII. Extract of Proceedings of the

to

Pekin

Some

Police as recognised in the State of Nepal

ac-

and

on the Law and Legal Practice of Nepal, as regards familiar intercourse between
a

Hindu and an

These last-mentioned would in due course have

Outcast).

appeared in the Phoenix, and have been incorporated in the separate reprint, but
for the

sudden discontinuance of that magazine.

This

regretted in the case of the papers on Nepalese Law,

most other papers by

Mr

more

especially to be

still

remain the only

The same may,

trustworthy source of information on that subject.


said of

is

which

in fact, be

Hodgson, especially those on the Tribes and Lan-

guages of the Northern Non-Aryans adjacent to India, which are scattered over
periodicals

now

scarce

in a collected form,

and

little accessible,

inasmuch

as

on

and would be well worth preserving

all these questions,

both those treated of in

the present volume and those bearing on the ethnology and glossology of the

Himalayan

tribes,

he has almost exclusively remained master of a

search in which he had been the

The

first to

foregoing statement will explain the

present publication, without, however,

it is

somewhat ungainly form of the

hoped, detracting from

usefulness, as placing within the reach of scholars matter

means or opportunity

field of re-

break ground.

to consult in the "

its

substantial

which few of them have

Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society,"

or in the " Selections from the Records of the

Government

of Bengal."

Should the present volume be favourably received, the remaining papers of

Hodgson

will probably be given in another

volume

or two.

Mr

"

CONTENTS.
PART

I.

ON THE LANGUAGES, LITERATURE, AND RELIGION OF


NEPAX AND TIBET.
Page
I.

Notices of the Languages, Literature, and Religion of Nepal and Tibet.


["Asiatic

Researches," vol.

xvi.

" Illustrations of the Literature

Serampore, 1841,
II.

p. 1]

(1828), p.

and Religion

of the

Buddhists

in
;

Sketch of Buddhism, derived from the Bauddha Scriptures of Nepal


[" Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society," vol.

and Appendix
III.

Reprinted

409.

Reprinted in "

v., p. lxxvii.

ii.

(1828), p. 222,

Illustrations,'' p. 49]

35

Quotations from Original Sanskrit Authorities in proof and illustration of


the preceding article ["Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society,"
vol. v. (183(5), p. 29, p. 71.

Reprinted in "Illustrations,"

p.

94]

65

IV. European Speculations on Buddhism ["Journal of the Bengal Asiatic


Society," vol.
p.

136]

........
(1834), p.

iii.

Reprinted in "Illustrations,"

382.

96

V. Remarks on M. Remusat's Review of Buddhism ["Journal of the Bengal


Asiatic Society," vol.

iii.

(1834), p. 425

"Illustrations," p. 144 and

p.

152]

and

p. 499.
.

Reprinted in
.

.102

........

VI. Note on the Inscription from Sdrntfth ["Journal of the Bengal Asiatic
Society," vol.
p.

158]

VII. Notice of Adi

iv.

Reprinted in "Illustrations,"

(1835), p. 211.

Buddha and

of the

Bengal Asiatic Society,"


"Illustrations," p. 164]

Ill

Seven Mortal Buddhas [" Journal of the

......
......

vol.

iii.

(1834),

p.

215.

Reprinted in
115

VIII. Note on the Primary Language of the Buddhist Writings ["Journal of


the Bengal Asiatic Society," vol.
"Illustrations,"

p.

180]

vi.

(1837), p. 682.

Reprinted in

120

CONTENTS.

Vlll

Page
IX.

Disputation respecting Caste by a Buddhist [" Transactions of the Royal


Asiatic Society," vol.
tions," p. 192]

X.

On

.......
.......
iii.

(1829), p. 160.

Repriuted

"Illustra-

in

126

many of the Symbols


Buddhism and Saivism [" Oriental Quarterly Magazine," vol. vii.
Reprinted in " Illustra(1827), p. 218, and vol. viii. (1828), p. 252.

the Extreme Resemblance that prevails between


of

tions," p. 203]

133

XI. The Pravrajya" Vrata or Initiatory Rites of the Buddhists, according to the
Piija

Khanda

[" Illustrations," p. 212]

PART
I.

On

II.

Asiatic Society," vol. xviii. (1849),

from the Records

p.

Reprinted

761.

Government

of the

Calcutta, 1857, p. 48]

On

.139

the Physical Geography of the Himalaya ["Journal of the Bengal

tions

II.

xxvii.
.

......
Reprinted

29

Origin and Classification of the Military Tribes of Nepal ["Journal of the

Bengal Asiatic Society,"


"Selections," p. 141]

On

the Chepang and


Asiatic

...

vol.

Kusunda Tribes

Society,"

(1833), p.

ii.

of

Repriuted in

217.
.

xvii.,

ii.

(1857),

p.

Reprinted in

650.

V. Cursory Notice of Nayakot and of the Remarkable Tribes inhabiting


['Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society," vol.
printed in " Selections," p. 160]

On the

On

VIII.

On

ix., p.

1114.

it

Re-

Index.

55

Reprinted in "Selec-

the Colonization of the Himalaya by Europeans ["Selections," p. 1]


the

45

Tribes of Northern Tibet and of Sifan ["Journal of the Bengal

Asiatic Society," vol. xxii. (1853), p. 121.


tions," p. 173]

VII.

37

Nepal ["Journal of the Bengal

......
.....
.......

vol.

" Selections," p. 150]

VI.

the Aborigines of the Himalaya ["Journal of the Bengal Asiatic


in "Selections," p. 126]

IV.

No.
.

Society," vol. xvi. (1848), p. 1235, and vol. xvii.,p. 73.

III.

in "Selec-

of Bengal,"

Commerce

of

Nepal [" Selections,"

p.

11]

65
83

91

12 2

"

"

LIST OF ADDITIONS

AND CORRECTIONS.

PART
Page

I.

at languages, add foot note, " see on to pp. 29-36."


note " *," misplaced, belongs to the word " Buddha," four lines lower.

3, line 14,

,,

8,

,,

15,

for

"Najra" read " Vajra."


For " see No. 15" read "

,,

see on to the Pravrajya Vrata," p.


Bhotiya books " read " list (that of Bhotiya books.")
20, for " emigration" read " immigration."
22-32, heading of all, for " religion of Bhot" read " religion of Nepal."
33, heading, erase " List of Buddhist works."
34, for the same heading read " List of Jathagatas.

,,

23, note,

,,

24, line 19,

,,

25, 8 lines

,,

26,

,,

30,

,,
,,
,,

,,
,,

19, note.

21,

,,

39,

49,

,,

52,

,,

60,

,,

60,

,,

89,

,,

93,

for "

139,

et ccet.

list of

for" ought " read " sought.

for " and" read " an."


from bottom, for " meditation " read " mediation."
6 lines from bottom, for " articular" read "particular ."
line 14, for " Dharma" read " Dhyani."
1 line from bottom, for " were sent" read " sent by me to Royal Asiatic Society."
" This is
line 12 from bottom, at the word "them," insert the footnote " "
probably an error. Sakya taught orally; but his immediate disciples (Kasyapa,
Ananda, and Upali) reduced his doctrines to writing."
line 10 from top, for "bhikshari" read " Khikshari."
line 14 from top, for " are " read "is."
line 18, after " reduced" read " them."
line 9 from top, for "mortals" read " morals."
erase the whole of the Dwiamnaya and Triamnaya, and substitute as follows
-

||

Dwiamnaya.

The

first is

Upaya.

Prajna.

Pi-ajna.

Upaya,

theistic

the second, atheistic.

Triamndya.
Dharma.
Buddha.

Buddha.
Dharma.
Sangha.

The

first

and third of

Buddha.
Sangha.

Dharma.

Sangha.

this series are theistic (diverse)

the second

is

atheistic,

Buddha=Upaya, Dharma=Prajna.
,,

,,

note, 4 lines from bottom, for "pp. 137-9 of vol. i." read "for full list of
Sanskrit works, see pp. .36-39 aforegone."
101, note " *."
Add to note, "The identity in question has since been upheld by
98, in

Cunningham, Wilson

(of

Bombay), Chapman

(of

Madras), and Colonel Yule."

"

"

LIST OF ADDITIONS

X
Pa^e

102, at

word "published"

"

AND CORRECTIONS.
add footnote "+," "These drawings have

in last line,

French Institute.
110, in note, line 10 from bottom, for " above " read " about."
126, at title, add as footnote "J," "From Royal Asiatic Society's Transactions,
vol. ii., dated July 11, 1829."
133, at title, add footnote " +," " From Oriental Quarterly Magazine,' No. III. A.D.
since been presented to the

'

,,

1827."
,,

139, at title,

add footnote "," "From volume on Buddhism, printed

at

Serampore

A.D. 1841."

,,

140, line 5 from bottom, for " Pravra" read " Pravrajya."
141, note, for " Gardhar " read " Gandhar."

,,

142,

,,

to the note, "See enumeration of


worship above given," pp. 93-96.

add

PART
Page

all

the principal objects of Buddhist

II.

for " reach " read " reaches."


19 and 23, complete the brackets after 4000 and after

12, line 9,

,,

13, lines

,,

14, line 1,

,,

14, line 5

,,

15,

,,

17, line 13, for

el cat.

for " Lescha " read "Lepcha;" line 5, for " Kaya " read " Vayu ; " line
16, for " Leschu " read " Lepcha; " line 19, after " craftsmen," add, " of which
the names are as follows
In the mountains. In the valley."
:

from bottom in note, for " Tharuh " read " Tharii," and bracket the words,
" not own name," and also the word "Sallyan." Add to note, " Many of the
Awalias will be found spoken of in the paper on Nayakot, herein given."
at the words " Nepal, J.A.S.B., May 1833," add in note "+," given herein, at
p. 39.

,,

19,

,,

21,

,,

25,

,,

29,

"viverrula" read " viverricula." Last line, for " Galophasis " read
" Gallophasis.
line 11, for "to" read "too."
let the words at bottom of diagram run all through.
line 14, for "plateau" read "plateaux."
line 6 from bottom, at word " omitted," add footnote, "In the Bengal Asiatic
Journal for June 1848, may be seen a sample of the Khas tongue."
line 3 from bottom, at words " broken tribes," add footnote, " See a paper thereon
'

'

,,

29,

,,

30, line 8

expressly, in the sequel of this work.

31,
32,

from top, add footnote " ," "For the tribes East of Bhutan, round
Assam, and thence down the Indo-Chinese frontier, see papers in the sequel."
in note, for " 4500 " read " 4000."
line 9, after " Dravidian," add, " Mundarian or H6-Sontal."

word " dialects," add, " See them, as hereto annexed."


word " weavers," add footnote, " See list of them aforegone,
for " 4500-4700" read " 4000."

,,

32, line 11, at

,,

33, line 3, at

34,

,,

39, line 17, for

,,

40, line 4

,,
,,

at p. 14."

" caste " read " cast."


top, for " some " read " about 100."
46, line 1, for " already " read " always."
46, line 5 from top, at word "Kusunda," add footnote as follows, "+'':" Since
accomplished, and the result given hereinafter in the paper on the broken

from

tribes."
,,

4i".,

line S

from bottom, at word "Ilaiyu," erase note"," and substitute " llaiyu,
For more on this tribe, sec Treatise hereinafter given on the

Eayu, vel Vayu."


Vaj u and Bahing.

"

"

LIST OF ADDITIONS
Page

53,

the

for "Tibetan"

headings,

AND CORRECTIONS.

xi

"Chepang;" and for " Shopa" read

read

"English."
,,

,,

,,

,,

from bottom, at word " Denwar," add in footnote "+," "See paper on
broken tribes, before referred to."
60, line 14 from bottom, for "dialect" read " dialects ;" and add footnote
"See
paper on broken tribes, complete vocabulary of these tongues, and compare
13, 14 supra, Part II."
61, line 14 from top, for " overhang " read " overhanging."
05, line 7 from top, at word "tongues" add footnote "+," "See the former instance
here alluded to, in the paper on the Caucasian affinities of the Tibetans as given
57, line 4

in the sequel."

from bottom, for

65, line 7

'

'

Trochu

"

read

'
'

Thochu, " and

last line, for

" Khor " read

"Hor."
from top, at word "Kuenlun" add footnote, "Is not the Karakorum the
western prolongation of the Nyenchhen, and distinct from the Kuenlun, though
curving up to it on nearing the Pamer?"

,,

60, line 15

,,

67, line 12

from bottom,

at

word "Pekin," add

as footnote,

"See

this itinerary here-

inafter given."
,,

69, line 1, at

word "Indochinese," add

footnote,

"The

paper on the Indo-Chinese

borderers herein.
,,

69, line 20, at

word " Caucasus

"

add

footnote,

"See paper on

these affinities in the

sequel."

,,

for " tribunal " read " tribe.


"They are given as corrected in the sequel."
85, line 9 from bottom, erase the repeated "no end."
Line 7, for "drawback" read

,,

87, for

,,

88,

,,

89, before

,,

72, in note,

,,

76,

add

to second note,

"drawbacks."
" weed" read " weeds." In note, for " 4500
three lines from bottom, for " an" read " any."

"timber"

growth
are

"tea," and add the following footnote "t:" "The


lower region, and its sale in Tibet as well as in the plains,

insert

of tea in the

now

read " 4000."

"

affording great and increasing

means

of profitable

employment

to

settlers."

89,

For "1832" read "1831," and add at the end of this note: "The
and observe that the tea trade
with Tibet is now adding greatly to our means of successful competition with

note "||."

trade papers in question are given in the sequel

Russia."

but one, for " whp " read " why."


from bottom, at the word " rupees," add

,,

90, note, last line

,,

92, 4 lines

next page.
,,

97, line

in footnote:

"See note

't,' in

'

22 from top, for "or Takyeul" read

transit " read

"

"and Takyeul;" and

for "line of

lines of transit."

" Kothees," add "or houses of business firms."


from bottom, for " th " read " the."
line 3 from top, at the word " assertion," add note as follows: "To judge from
the statements lately made (1S72) by a member of the British Embassy in Nepal,
it would seem that the present condition of Nepal's commerce witli us, as well

,,

98, line 13, after

,,

100, line 14

,,

113,

as that of ours with her, calls loudly for the attention of our

Note of 1873.

Government."

PART

I.

ON THE LANGUAGES,* LITERATURE, AND RELIGION OF NEPAUL AND TIBET.

Within

the mountainous parts of the limits of the modern kingdom of Nepaul, there

are thirteen distinct

and strongly-marked

These are the Khas or

dialects spoken.

Parbattia, the Magar, the Gurung, the Sunwar, the Kachari, the Haiyu, the Chepang,

the Kasunda, the Murmi, the Newari, the Kiranti, the Limbuan, and the Lapachan.

With the exception


tongues are

all

of

of the

(which will be presently reverted to) these several

first

Trans-Himalayan

stock,

and are

They

closely affiliated.

are all

extremely rude, owing to the people who speak them having crossed the snows before
learning had

dawned upon

Tibet, and to the physical features of their

mountain barriers on every hand) having tended

to

new home (huge

break up and enfeeble the

common

speech they brought with them.

At

present the several tribes or clans to which these dialects are appropriated, can

hardly speak intelligibly to each other, and not one of the dialects, save the Newari
or language of

Nepaul Proper (and the Lapcha, which with the Limbu belongs now

Sikim), can boast a single book, or even a system of letters, original or borrowed.

Newari has, indeed, three systems


and

it

of letters, of

which more

to

The

the sequel

will be said in

has also a small stock of books in the shape of translations and comments from

and upon the sacred and exotic


has no dictionary or grammar

numerous as they

are,

It

may

to

an exotic medium,

literature of the
;

nor

who devote

is

its

But the Newari tongue

Newars.

thought of by those,

cultivation ever

their lives to the sacred literature of

Buddhism.

be remarked, by the way, that the general and enduring effects of this addiction
in preference to the vernacular,

have been,

to cut off the bridge

leading from speculation to practice, to divorce learning from utility, and to throw a
veil of craftful

mystery over the originally popular and generous practical Institutes of

the religion this people profess.


Before proceeding to a brief comparison of Newari and of the language of Tibet,
with a

view to indicate the Northern stock of the former tongue,

notice the

Khas

or Parbattia Bhasha, since the subject

words, and will not need revertence

The only language


battia

an

it will

may be

be better to

dismissed in a few

to.

of Southern origin spoken in these Hills

is

the

Khas

or Par-

Indian Prakrit, brought into them by colonies from below (twelfth to

* For these languages, see on to the Paper at p. 29 of Part


Himalaya," with its annexed " Comparative Vocabulary."'

II.,

"

On

the Aborigines of the

THE LANGUAGES OF NEPAUL.

fifteenth century of Christ)

of the Kali river,

it

and now

West

so generally diffused, that, in the provinces

has nearly eradicated the vernacular tongues, and, though less

prevalent in the provinces East of that river,

it

even in them, as far as the Trisul

has,

Ganga, divided the empire of speech almost equally with the local mother tongues.

The Parbattia language


what

it is.

At

present

simple, sufficiently copious in words, and very char-

is terse,

acteristic of the unlettered

hut energetic race of soldiers and statesmen who

it is

almost wholly in

vocables, substantially Hindee.

ancient barbarous stock.

speak

(the

it

And

Khas) were

Yet

Few
it

made

and in eight-tenths

several of its radical words

originally

what Menu

calls

them,

it

of its

indicate an

still

persons except

Brahmans and

with ease and correctness

being the nucleus of unity and refinement.

barbarous moun-

viz.,

same with the several other

are regularly taught the Parbattia language

read and write

structure,

have no doubt that the people who more especially

taineers of a race essentially the

Highlanders.

its

races of Nepaulese

Khardars

professional scribes or

but most gentlemen speak, and


the court where

all

many

so often assemble,

This language, however, has no litera-

ture properly so called, and very few and trivial books.

It

Devanagari characters, and, as a language of business,

always written in the

is

is

extremely concise and

clear.

The Gorkhalis speak the Parbattia Bhasha, and


lence, in later times, to be

to their ascendency

its

is

preva-

mainly ascribed.

Considering that Nepaul Proper, or the country of the Newars, has long been the
metropolis of Gorkhali power,

Parbattia has not

made any

it is

of this (not wholly referable to


facility of

and

rather remarkable that the fashionable

modern times)

communication characterising the

facile

The causes

material impression on the Newari language.

are probably, that the fertility

level country of the

and

Newars, soon gave

consistency and body to their speech, whilst their religion (Buddhism)

made them look

with jealousy, as well on the more ancient Hindoo immigrants, as on the more modern

Hindoo conquerors.
different

In the mountainous

districts, strictly so

called, the case

regions from the South set chiefly on the provinces west of the Trisul Ganga.
too, to this day,

Brahmanical Hinduism principally

grants were refugees from


give the impress of their

The

Moslem

bigotry

own speech and

prior establishment of

bigotry.

They came

to

These

and were

latter

so

Those southern immi-

numerous as

religion to the rude

Buddhism

Brahmanical southerns from penetrating


southerns had found a refuge.

in

There

flourishes, its great supporters

being the Khas, and, next to them, the Magars and Gurungs.

landers.

was

and, besides, from whatever reason, the tide of immigration into these

to be 'able to

and scattered high-

Nepaul Proper prevented these

there, where, however, ages before,

some

were Buddhists, fleeing from Brahmanical

Nepaul Proper about two centuries

after Christ.

had previously been established therein, and these immigrants were too few

Buddhism
to

make a

sensible impression on the speech or physiognomy of the prior settlers, already a dense

and cultivated population.

It

is

difficult to

chronologize these events.

But apparently

the Sakavans came into Nepaul when Kapila was destroyed by the King of Kosala.

;:

THE LANGUAGES OF NEPAUL.


For the

rest,

the population of the kingdom of Nepaul

is

preferring for the most part the Tibetan model of that faith

Bauddha
the Newars are the

principally
:

and the vast majority of them are Buddhists, but not Lamaitcs.

chief exception,

Between the Buddhism

of Tibet

and that of Nepaul Proper, (or of the Newars)

the differences are,


1st.

That the former

still

adheres

monastic institutes of Buddhism

unperplexed with caste


the Tibetan

to,

whilst the latter has rejected, the old

2nd. that the former

it

Buddhism has no concealments, whilst the Nepaulese

a pr oneness to withhold

many higher matters

as of old,

is still,

the latter, a good deal hampered by

is

and

wholly

that, lastly,

sadly vexed with

of the law from all but chosen vessels.

CONNEXION OF THE LANGUAGE OF NEPAUL PROPER WITH THAT OF TIBET.


I proceed

now

to

indicate that affinity of the language of the

language of the Tibetans which I have already adverted

to.

Newars

to the

had extended

this

vocabulary (in an amplified form) to the whole of the languages above-mentioned

but the results were, for several reasons, liable to question in


prefer holding

them back

for the present,

detail, so that I

though there can be no doubt of the

general facts, that these dialects are of northern origin, and are closely connected.

in

The language

of

common with

that of

Nepaul Proper or the Newari,

of Lassa and Digarchi

Bhot
and

or Tibet.
it

It is

has, as already intimated,

much

however, a poorer dialect than that

has, consequently,

been obliged to borrow more

extensive aid from Sanskrit, whilst the early adoption of Sanskrit as the sole

language of literature has facilitated this infusion.


of a few terms
English.

The following

is

a comparison

THE LANGUAGES OF XEPAUL.


English.

THE LANGUAGES CF NEPAUL.

6
sides of the snows,

and some of the

inferior Tibetan dialects

may, very probably,

come nearer to Newari than the best, or that of Lhassa.


The twelfth word in the Newari column, Water, is given according to the subWater is Lo at Patau, Luk at Katmandu, and Gna at
dialects of the Valley.
Bhatgong these places being the capitals of as many kingdoms before the Gorkha
conquest, though situated in very close vicinity to each other.
;

With

respect to

the numerals of the decimal scale, the resemblance

ingly close.

Numerals.
Bhotiya.
1.

Chi.

is strik-

THE LANGUAGES OF NEPATJL.


Newari.

Ehotiya,
35.

Sum

36.

Swi
Swi
Swi
Swi

elm (thampa.)

37
38.

Gniah.

Khu.
Nha.
Chiah.

40. Zhe-chu (thampa.)

Swi Gun.
Swi Sanho.

41-

Pi Chi.

42.

Pi Nassi.

43.

Pi Swong.

50.

Gna-chu (thampa.)

Gniayu or Pi-Sanho,
on the

also 60, 70, &c. are

60.

Tukh-chu (thampa.)

70.

Tun

Nhaiyu.

Gheali

Chaiye.

90.

Gu

1,000. Tong-tha-che.

Sach6.

10,000. Thea.

Zhi-dot.

Nor

&c.

mere

Lak-chi.

the variation, after passing the ten, of any importance, the principle of

both being
thus, ten

6, 7, &c.

Do-che.

Bum.

is

and thus

or :5

Guye.

(P.)

Gheah

100,000.

Gniah

formed out of

Qui.

80.

100.

or merely by pausing

last letter of

still

the same

that

is,

repetition

and compounding

of the ordinals

and one, ten and two, are the forms of expression in both, and

The Bhotiya word thampa,


expletive,

and often omitted

postfixed to the decimally increasing series,

The Newari names

in speech.

so, twice,
is

of the figures from

one to ten, as given by Kirkpatrick, are not correct, and hence the difference between
the Newari and Bhotiya names has been
it

seems to me, that even the

may

made

little difference

to appear greater than

it

is

in fact,

that remains in the present specimens

be resolved into mere modes of utterance.

Although the following

offer

no

verbal resemblances, the principle on which they are formed presents several analogies.

Bhotiya and Newari names of the twelve months.

Newari,
February.

March.

Chongchola or

April.

Bachola or

Chilla.

Ne'la.

May.

Tuchola Swoln.

June.

Dil'la

July.

Gung'la

August.

September.
October.

November.
December.
January.

February.

Pela.

THE LANGUAGES OF NEPAUL.

Sunday,

)
:

THE LANGUAGES OF NEPAUL.

is refuted by the fact of their extensive practical application, of which


was not aware when he gave that opinion. By comparing one of them

This notion
Dr. Carey

(the Ranja) with the fourth alphabet of the Bhotiyas,

will be seen, that the

it

And

general forms of the letters have a striking resemblance.

Lanja or

as this

deemed exotic by the Bhotiyas, I have no doubt it will prove the same
with the Newari letters so called for the words Lanja, Lantza, and Ranja are one
Ranja

is

Of

and the same.

appearance, and,

if

the Bhanjin Mola,

it

may

be observed that

it

has a very ornate

the ornamental parts were stripped from the letters, they (as

well as the Ranja) might be traced to a Devanagari origin, from the forms of

which alphabet the Bauddhas might possibly

Now, though

Indian.

nated

it,

purpose above hinted

undergo the

of

toil

letters follow the

its religion,

and

them

in order to use

literature

is,

our supposing that those

as

originally,

who

origi-

alter existing alphabetical forms for the

new

Indeed

it is

well

many

known

these systems of

All

characters.

Devanagari arrangement, nor shoidd

have no doubt that the

them,

not warrant our conjecturing, that they would

at, it will

anciently in the plains of India


extinct

might

inventing entirely

a Devanagari origin.

all

may warrant

probability

together with

alter

The Bauddha

a cover to the mysteries of their faith.

I hesitate to assign

them

to the learned, that there

were

sorts of written characters, since

letters

become

adverted to were part of these.

WRITTEN CHARACTERS OF TIBET.


Of the Bhotiya characters, four kinds are distinguishable but only two of them
known by name to the Newars they are called (in Tibet as well as here
Uchhen and Umen. The first are capitals the second, small letters the third,
;

are

running hand
Ranja.

and the fourth,

There

is

Sokpa, who,

also a character in use in

with the

Ilor

as already observed, equivalent to the

or

Horpa,

and near Tibet which

Nepaulese

ascribed to the

nomad population

the

constitute

is

of

and Mongol etymon respectively.

Tibet, of Turki,

LITERATURE OF BHOT OR TIBET.

The term Bhot

is

the Sanskrit, Tibet the Persian name,

probably only a corruption of the


general
first

name

for themselves

came among them

first

term, and,

if so,

(Bod-pa) or their country

Bod

the native one, but

the Tibetans had not any

when

their Indian teachers

in the 7th centuary, a.d.

The great bulk of the literature of Bhot (as of Nepaul)


In Bhot the principal works are only to be found at

religion.

relates to the

but numerous Bhotiya books of inferior pretensions, are to be obtained at

from the poor


religion

traffickers p.nd

is

Katmandu

Nepaul on account of

of the great part of these latter, or the Bhotiya books procured

in

that of popular tracts, suited to the capacity and wants of the humbler

classes of society,

kind shoidd be so
it

visit

and trade.

The character
Nepaul,

monks who annually

Bauddha

the larger monasteries

among whom

common

in

it is

a subject of surprise, that literature of any

such a region as Bhot, and, more remarkably

shoidd be so widely diffused as to reach persons covered with

filth,

so,

and

that

desti-

THE LANGUAGES OF NEPAUL.

IO

tute of every one of those thousand luxuries

which

(at least in

our ideas) precede

the gTeat luxury of books.

Printing is, no doubt, the main cause of this great diffusion of books. Yet the
very circumstance of printing being in such general use, is no less striking than this
supposed effect of it nor can I accoimt for the one or other effect, unless by
;

presuming that the hordes of

have been driven by the tedium

The invention
they make of

it

with which that country [Tibet] swarms,

religionists,

to these admirable uses of their time.

vitce,

is

The poorest

a merit of their own.

valley from the north

exhibits the neatest

but the universal use

individual

who

visits this

seldom without his Pothi [book], and from every part

is

of his dress dangle charms

[ Jantras,]

workmanship

made up

in slight cases, the interior of

which

in print.

allowance, however, should also be

Some

from China

of printing, the Bhotiyas got

made

for the

habit of writing, possessed by the people at large

very familiar power and

another feature in the moral

picture of Bhot, hardly less striking than the prevalence of printing or the diffusion

of books,

and which I should not venture

to point out,

among

opportunities of satisfying myself of its truth

Nepaul who come here


self-existent

had

not had sufficient

the annual sojourners in

pay their devotions at the temple of the

in hundreds to

Supreme Buddha [Swayambhu Adi Buddha].

In the collections forwarded to the Society will be found a vast number of


manuscripts

great

fragments,

and

and small

entire little

[as well as the small printed tracts] from the

were obtained

treatises

all

which

humblest individuals.

Their number and variety will, perhaps, be allowed to furnish sufficient evidence of

what

I have said regarding the appliances of education in Tibet, if

be had,

when

the estimate

is

made

to the scanty

due reference

and entirely casual source whence

the books were obtained in such plenty.

The many

different kinds of writing

which the MSS. exhibit

will, perhaps,

be

admitted yet further to corroborate the general power of writing possessed by almost
Or, at all events, these various kinds and infinite degrees
all classes of the people.
of penmanship, present a curious and

writing, let this proficiency

Something of

this

ample specimen of Bhotiya proficiency in

belong to what class or classes

familiar possession of the

have just noticed as characterising Bhot,


fear, in

the theory of

its

may

it

may.

elements of education, which I

be found also in India; but more, I

institutions than in the practice of its present society,

because of the successive floods of open violence which have, for ages, ravaged
The repose of Bhot, on the other hand, has
that, till lately, devoted land.

allowed

we

its pacific

institutions full

room to produce
Bhot able

see a great part of the people of

their natural effect; and hence

to write

and read.

In whatever I have said regarding the Press, the general power and habit of
writing, or the diffusion of books, in Bhot, I desire to be understood

readers with

most

The

many

different things in the

world

in the

by

my European

These words are names importing the

grains of allowance.

favoured part of Europe, and in Asia.

intelligent resident in Ilindoostan will

have no

difficulty in

apprehending the

exact force which I desire should be attached to such comprehensive phrases,

THE LITERATURE OF NEPAUL.


moment

especially if he wiil recollect for a

that the press, writing and hooks,

though most mighty engines, are hut engines


indisputably, they

proves to us

without once

society,

may

I I

and that

the'

example of China

continue in daily use for ages in a vast

man

hands of the strong

falling into the

waking one of those many sublime

consequently, without

of Milton

energies,

the

and
full

developement of which in Europe has shed such a glorious lustre around the path
of

manin

The
which

this world.

felt as

is

performed in the stereotype manner by wooden planks

graved

beautifully

often

are

instrument
is

Bhot

printing of

nor are the limited powers of such

an

an inconvenience by a people, the entire body of whose literature

of an unchanging character.

The Bhotiya

Tibetan writing, again, often exhibits specimens of ready and

or

But then

graceful penmanship.

it

is

never employed on any thing more useful

than a note of business, or more informing than the dreams of blind mythology

and thus,

ment

in

too, the general diffusion of

books (that most potent of spurs to improve-

our ideas) becomes, in Bhot, from the general worthlessness of the books

diffused, at least

but a comparatively innocent and agreeable means of

filling

up

the tedious hours of the twilight of civilization.

SANSKRIT DAUDDHA LITERATURE OF NEPAUL.

With

respect

scriptures,

the

to

authorities

of

sundry notices in their existing works)


scriptures amounted,
siitras

or aphorisms,

The most

when

religion

or their

collectively,

asserts, that

authoritative of the books of the Buddhists


as

now

extant in Nepaul in

subsequently to be enumerated, are known,

and individually, by the names of Sutra and Dharma.

" All that the

Khand

Buddhas have

are also frequently

there

said, as

is

the following passage

gave definite form and systematic force to these words,

The

to

if

in the face of that host of ascetics

whom

tion has exalted to the rank of an inspired teacher.


sect

is

indeed he did
is to

Buddhism

Brahmanism.

old books of these religionists universally assert this


it

Sutra, and

is

not wholly originate them; and, in this important respect Sakya


is

Maha Yana

contained in the

Dharma Ratna," or precious science. Hence the Scriptures


called " Buddha Vachana," the words of Buddha. Sakya Sinha

the rest of the Sutras,

what Vyasa

probably

and not volumes in our sense.

In a work called the Puja

admit

sacred

the original body of their

complete, to eighty-four thousand volumes

the sacred language of India,

first

the Buddhist

the universal tradition of the followers of this creed (supported by

the modern Bauddhas

the easiness of latter supersti-

The sacred chronology

of the

content with assigning Sakya to the Kali Yuga, and profane chronology

a science

which the Buddhists seem never

to have cultivated.

But the

seems to be that Sakya died about four and a half centuries before our

era.

subsequent enumeration of the chief Sanskrit authorities of the Buddhists

be seen that Sakya


to " hearer,"

and

is

the "Speaker" in

refers to the

all

the great works.

form of the works, which

is,

is

best opinion

In the
it

will

This word answers

for the

most

part, that

THE LITERATURE OF NEPAUL.

T2

of a report of a series of lectures or lessons delivered verbally

by Sakya

to his

That

favourite disciples, but sometimes diverging into dialogue between them.

Sakya Sinha was

come

substantially the originator of this creed, such as it has

to our times, is thus I think demonstrable from the uniform tenour of the
language of the great scriptural authorities of the sect, wherein, either before or

down

after the enunciation of every cardinal

Sinha,' or,

'

so

commanded Sakya

text, stand the words, 'thus said

cluded to be the founder of this creed, which took

from the hands of his

Adverting
I

now

earliest disciples, or

Sakya

Sakya Sinha therefore must be con-

Sinha.'

its

existing written form

Kasyapa, Ananda, and Upali.

to the technical arrangement, or classification of these works,

observe that they are primarily divided into Esoteric and Exoteric, and that

may

by the Buddhists

these classes are ordinarily termed Tantras and Puranas

as well

by the Brahmanists, though the former would likewise seem to convey this
Vyakarana is also employed in
distinction by the words Upadesa and Vyakarana.
Gatka, Jataka, Avadana, etc.,
the sense of narration as opposed to speculation.
as

seem to be subdivisions.

The word Sutra

as explained, "

Mula Grantha," " Buddha Vachana,"

words of Buddha,) has been held


as has their Sinriti to the

(chief book,

to be equivalent to the Sruti of the

But, apt as Buddhism

Bauddha Vyakarana.

human

Brahmans,
is

to forget

must be allowed to be
somewhat defective and, in fact, the Sutra of the Buddhists often comprehends
not only their own proper " Buddha Vachana," but also " Bodhisatwa and Bhikshu
the distinction of divine and

nature, this analogy

Vackana," (words of Bodhisatwa and of Bhikshu); which latter the Brahmans


" Bishi Vachana,"

would denominate

and of course, assign

ments by holy men upon the eternal truth of the

The Newars
small portion
to Sankara

assert, that of the original

now

exists.

Acharya

and

A
'

Of the
and

existing

com-

body of their sacred

literature but a

legend, familiar to this people, assigns the destruction

the incomparable Sankara

by the Nepaulese Bauddhas

to the Smriti, or

Sruti.

'

of Sir

W. Jones,

is

execrated

as a blood-stained bigot.*

Bauddha writings

of

Nepaul (originally of Indian growth

foimd unchanged in the Sanskrit language) by far the most important,

still

of the speculative kind, are the five

Khandas

or parts of the Prajna Paramita or

Raksha Bhagavati, each of which contains 2->,000 distiches. Of the riarrative


kind, the chief are eight of the nine works called the Nava Dharma
the ninth
being the Ashta Sahasrika Prajna Paramita. It is a valuable summary of the great
;

'

work

first

mentioned, to which, therefore, rather than to the narrative

Ashta Sahasrika bears


Sanskrit

'

essential affinity.

Bauddha works known

to

In the sequel will be foimd a

list

class,

the

of

the

all

me by name.f

* Sankara is placed in the ninth century of Christ (1,000 years ago), and Sakya, the
founder of Buddhism, (for we have nothing authentic before him) certainly was not
horn sooner than about the middle of the sixtli century, B.C. The interval of fifteen
enturiea may vaguely indicate the period during which Buddhism most flourished
in India.
The decline of this creed in the plains we must date from Sankara's era, but
not its fall, for it is now certain that the expulsion was not complete till the fourteenth or fifteenth century of our era. From the ninth century onwards is comprised
the worst period of the persecution.
t See the next paper for this list.

THE LITERATURE OF NEPAUL.


The

Rakshas or Paramitas

five

* are

enumerated

in order in the

immediately sub-

sequent detail. They are of highly speculative character, belonging rather to phil-

osophy than

The

religion.

cast of thought

the extreme

in

sceptical

is

endless

Sakya appears surrounded

doubts are started, and few solutions of them attempted.

his disciples, by whom the arguments on each topic are chiefly maintained,
Sakya acting generally as moderator, but sometimes as sole speaker. The topics
discussed are the great first principles of Buddhism;! the tenets of the four schools

by

of

Bauddha Philosophy are mentioned, but those of the Swabkavika alone largely
The object of the whole work seems rather to be proof of the pro-

discussed.

position, that

ment of any
this great

doubt

the end as well as beginning of wisdom, than the establish-

is

dogmas of philosophy or religion and from the evidence of


would appear that the old Bauddha philosophers were rather

particular

work

it

sceptics than atheists.

The nine Dharmas


Raja.
8.

are as follows

Ashta Sahasrika.

1.

2.

Lankavatara.

5.

Lalita Vistara.

9.

Divine worship

is

Ganda
6.

Vyiiha.

3.

Dasa Bhiimeswara.

Sad Dharma Pundarika.

4.

Samadhi

Tathagata Guhyaka.

7.

Suvarna Prabhasa.

constantly offered to these nine works, as the

'

Nava Dharma,'

by the Bauddhas of Nepaul. The aggregation of the nine is now subservient to


ritual fancies, but it was originally dictated by a just respect for the pre-eminent
authority and importance of these works, which embrace, in the
of the philosophy of

Buddhism

and in the seven remaining ones, a

full illustration of

an abstract

first,

on the esoteric doctrines

in the seventh, a treatise

doctrine and discipline, taught in the easy and effective

way

of example and anec-

With

dote, interspersed with occasional instances of dogmatic instruction.

exception of the

first,

woven with much


is

these works are therefore of a narrative kind

occasional speculative matter.

the original authority for

have

crept,

all

every point of the ordinary

One of them

those versions of the history of

the

but inter-

(the Lalita Vistara

Sakya Sinha, which

through various channels, into the notice of Europeans.

I esteem myself fortunate in having been first to discover

To meditate and

these important works.

digest

them

is

and procure copies of

not for

me

but I venture

knowledge of genuine Buddhism be acquired.

to hint that

by

Buddhism

not simple, but a vast and complicate structure erected, during ages

is

so doing only can a

of leisure, by a literary
Doctors; nor
the

is

Brahmanism

the

people.

Buddhism

It

has

its

various schools divided

of the Vedas, of the Puranas,

and of the Bhagavat.

prevailed in India sixteen to seventeen centuries, and, as


it

had even before

its

by various

of one age less different from that of another, than

founder's death

many

sects.

And

its

Buddhism

genius was

free, so

soon after his death,

schisms multiplied infinitely despite the three great convocations called to stay

them.
it

These councils took place respectively,

B.C.

4(5.5,

B.C. 365, B.C. 231.

Let

not be supposed, because these works I have cited were procured in Nepaul,

that they are therefore of a local character or mountain origin.


the Prajna Paraniita. see Wassiljew's " Der Buddhismus"
f See the suquel at "Religion of Nepaul and Bhot."

*On

p. 157,

THE LITERATURE OF NEPAUL.

14
Such a notion

in every

is,

absurd; for the works hear intrinsic

-view, utterly

and their language (Sanskrit,) always


most assuredly was never cultivated there with a zeal or

evidence of the contrary in almost every page

wholly exotic

in Nepaul,

such as the composition of these works must have demanded.


These works were composed by the Sages of Magadha,* Kosala,t and Rajagriha,}:

ability

whence they were transferred

to

Nepaul by Bauddha Missionaries soon

they

after

had assumed their existing shape.

The Sambhu Purana


which I have made.

is

the only local work of importance in the large collection

Perhaps

Sankara's wrath consumed

it

surmised, that

now produced must

Buddhists, the ample works

but a legend

place, the legend is

may be

if (as is

stated) the fire of

but some fragments of the sacred writings of the

all

and

But, in the

be spurious.

in the next, exaggeration

may

first

reasonably be

number of books then extant and destroyed


The Bauddhas never had eighty-four thousand principal scriptures; nor could
Sankara destroy more than a few of those which they really possessed when he
came (if he ever came) to Nepaul. The proof of the latter statement is that Budsuspected, both as to

||

dhism was, long

after Sankara's time, the

Xepaulese Princes and subjects; and that


notwithstanding the Gorkhali conquest.

manical controversist)

may have

the others remained Buddhists


of their subjects.
letters

now

am

scarce.

who

its

still

in regard to the people,

converted one of the Princes of the Valley

but

and, no doubt, took care of the faith and property

Nepaul Proper, usually

in

Ranja and Bhanjin Mola, and on

of opinion, after five years of enquiry, that there were but four copies

my

obtaining one copy and a half

pot transcribed from an old one.

understand

so

Copies of the Raksha Bhagavati or Prajna Paramita are very

in the Valley, prior to

if it

it is

Sankara (or some other famous Brah-

All old Bauddha works are written in one of the three sorts of

peculiar to

Palmira leaves.

prevalent and national faith of the

contents

no

No

new copy had been made

possessed one or more khands or sections of

to offer to sealed

volumes the

silent

one copy more I

one had, for some time, been able fully to

homage

for ages
it,

and those few persons,

as heir-looms,

were content

Time and

of their puja (worship).

growing ignorance have been the chief enemies of Sanskrit Bauddha

literature in

Nepaul.

The Bauddha

Scripture's

are

with reference chiefly to their form and

known by the
Gatha 5. Udana

frequently stated to be of twelve kinds,**


1
.

Sutras

2.

Geya

3.

Vyakarana

4.

style,

following twelve names;


;

6.

Nidana

7.

Ityukta

The modern Bihar.


+ Berar.
t Rajgir.
should doubtless read aphorism or text (Sutra or bana), not book, with referin
question.
in e to the 84,000
The universality of the notion proves that this definit(
number has truth, in some sense, attached to it.
The primitive meaning of Sutra [aphorism, or thread of discourse,] implies that Sakya
taught verbally and if this be so, Sutra only took its present sense of principal scripture after his death. These sayings of Sakya may still be found all over the sacred works
The destruction of Bauddha books adverted
of the sect in their original aphoristic form.
to in the text, has, I fancy, reference to the plains of India.
There it was completi
aally
but in the mean while the most valuable works had been saved in Nepaul.
These I sent to the Library of the College of Fort William ad. 1825.
** Twelve kinds of Scriptures,
see AVassiljew, p. 118.
*

We

THE LITERATURE OF XEPAUL.


Jataka;

8.

9.

Vaipulya; 10. Aclbhuta Dliarma

Avadana;

11.

Upadesa.

12.

Sutras are the principal scriptures, (Mula Grantlia) as the Raksha Bhagavati or

The

Prajna Paramita; they are equivalent to the Vedas of the Brahmanists.


aphorisms of Sakya are the basis of them, hence the name.
Get/as are

works of

praise, thanksgiving

The Gita Govinda of the Brahmanists


which belongs to the Geya.

is

and pious fervour, in modulated language.


equivalent to the Buddhist Gita Pustaka,

Vydharana are narrative works, such as those containing


births of

by

Sakya

their lives

and of

praise.

prior to his attaining Nirvana

and opinions have

histories of the several

and sundry actions of others who

illustrated this religion,

Yyakarana, in the sense of narration,

with various forms of prayer

is

opposed generally to works

of philosophy or speculation, such as the Prajna Paramita.

It also characterises

works of an exoteric kind, as opposed to the Upadesa or Tantras.


Gdthds are narrative works, in verse and prose, containing moral and religious
tales,

(Aneka Dharmakatha)

and doctrine of the

relative to the

The

sect.

Buddhas, or elucidative of the discipline

Lalita Vistara

is

a Vyakarana of the sort called

Gatka.

Uddna

and attributes of the Buddhas, in the form of a dialogue

treat of the nature

between a Buddhist adept and novice.

Niddna are

how

which the causes of events are shewn

treatises, in

Buddha

did Sakya become a

the reason or cause

he

as for example,

fulfilled

the Dan,

and other Paramitas.*


Ityukta, whatever

is

spoken with reference

of some prior discourse,

to,

and

in conclusion

the explanation

Ityukta.

is

Jataka treat of the subject of transmigration or metempsychosis, the illustrations


being drawn from the 550 births of Sakya.

Vaipulya treat of several sorts of Dharnia and Artha, that

means of acquiring the goods of

this

is,

of the several

world (Artha) and of the world to come

(Dharnia).

Adbhuta Dhanna, on preternatural events.


Avadana, of the

fruits of actions or

moral law of Mundane existence.

Upadesa treat of the esoteric doctrines, and are equivalent to Tantra, the

and ceremonies being almost

identical

chief objects of worship, different, though very

same.
bara.

rites

with those of the Hindoo Tantras, but the

many

of the inferior ones are the

According to the Upadesa, the Buddhas are styled Yoganibara and DigainTantrika works are very numerous.

obscenity and by

all sorts

redeemed by unsually

They

are in general disgraced

of magic and doenionology.

explicit assertions of a

But they

supreme Godhead.

Buddha is the magnus Apollo of the Tantrikas.


The following is an enumeration of some of the most important
mens of the preceding classes.

by

are frequently

Najra Satwa

individual speci-

Paramita here means virtue, the moral merit by which our escape (passage") from
Dana, or charity, is the first of the ten cardinal virtues of the
is obtained.
"and other" refers to the remaining nine. Appendix A. of paper III.
Bauddhas
Yiram beyond and itd gone.
*

mortality

:;

THE LITERATURE OF NEPAUL.

Raksha Bhagavati

First khand, or section, of the

Maha Yana

became Bhagavan

(deified)

meditate his principles


as long as

Avidya*

or Prajna Paramita.

begins with a relation (by himself) of

It

Siitra Sastra.

how he

and

the world

lasts,

lasts,

khand

of the former part of this

exhorted his disciples to study and

when Avidya

and the

and Maha Siinyata.*

and other Bhikshukas

the style

is

is

Such are the general contents

of the

with explana-

the speaker, the hearers are Subhuti,

prose (Gadya).

Contents the same as above.

Second and third khands of the Raksha Bhagavati.

The fourth khand

is,

(Nirodha) the world

ceases,

latter part of it is occupied

Sakya

is

and how he explained the doctrine of Avidya, that

ceases; aliter, Pravritti ends, and Nirvritti* begins.

tions of Siinyata

It

how Sakya

Raksha Bhagavati

karmajna, or skilled in the knowledge of

all

relates

how any

one becomes Sarva-

things on earth and in heaven

in a

word, omniscient; besides which, the subjects of the former khands are treated

of,

in continuation, in this.

The
four

khand of the Raksha Bhagavati.

fifth

topics of the prior

It is a sort of abstract of the other

Besides Avidya, Siinyata, and

which form one work.

all

the other great

khands, this khand contains the names of the Buddhas, and

Bodhisatwas.

These

five

Paramita
last,

khands or divisions

the three

first

ai*e

each called Pancha, Vinsati, Sahasrika, Prajna

words indicating the extent of each

the nature of the subject or transcendental wisdom.

lective

name

and indeed

of the four

it

first

khands, to which the

ance, are used, indifferently with

khands.

and the two


is

a col-

not necessarily adjunct

one of several abstracts of the Sata Sahasrika, as already stated.

is

Arya Bhagavati and Raksha Bhagavati,


five

fifth is

division,

Sata Sahasrika

The

five

or holy Goddess and Goddess of Deliver-

Prajna Paramita, as

khands are

all in prose,

titles of

each or

all

of these

and comprise the philosophy of

Buddhism.
Ashtasdhasrika Prajna Paramita, a

Maha Yana

Siitra.

Another and smaller

epitome of the transcendental topics discoursed of at large in the Sata Sahasrika.


It

is

prose.

Sakya

is

the speaker;

and Subhuti and other Bhikshukas,t the

hearers.

ASHTA SAHASEIKA VYAKIIYA.


This

is

comment on

Ganda Vyuha,
giving, also

speaker,

how

Sakya

the last

to

in verse

and prose.

Dasa Bhumeswara,

wisdom of Buddhism. Prose


The Ganda Yyuha is a treatise on

obtain Bodhijnana, or the

hearer,

transcendentalism by

Sudhana Kumara.

Arya Sanga the teacher

of the Yogacharya.

a Vyakarana, containing an account of the ten Bhumis.f

Prose: speaker, Sakya; hearer,


*

work by Hara Bhadra,

a Vyakarana Sastra, contains forms of supplication and of thanks-

Ananda Bhikshuka.

See the explanation of these terms in the sequel.


The}' form the basis of the
philosophy of Buddhism.
Bhikshu,
name
of
Buddhist
on
section
a
mendicant.
See
on Religion.
to
f
+ Ten heavens, or ten stages of perfectibility: sometimes thirteen are enumerated and
the thirteen grades of the .spire of the Chaitya are typical of them.
See Laidlay's
Fahian, p. 91, and J.R.A.S. xi. 1, 21.

;;

THE LITERATURE OF NEPAL' L.


Samddhi Raja, a Vyakarana

by which the wisdom of


Prose speaker, Sakya

an account of the actions

Buddhism is acquired, and of the duties of Bodhisatwas.


hearers, Havana and others.
Sad Dharma Pundarika, a Vyakarana, an account of the Maha and other Dipa
:

Danas, or of the lights to he maintained in honour of the Buddhas, and Bodhisatwas


with narrations of the lives of several former Buddhas by Sakya, as well as prophetic

Speakers and hearers,

the future eminence of some of his disciples.

indications of

Sakya, Maitreya, Manjusri,

This

Lalita Vistara.

etc.

It contains a

a Vyakarana of the sort called Gatha.

is

history of the several births of Sakya, and how, in his last birth, he acquired
perfect wisdom,

Verse and prose

and became Buddha.

speaker,

Sakya

hearers,

Maitreya and others.

Guhya Samagha, otherwise


contains numerous mantras,
esoteric rites.

called Tathagata

with

Guhyaka

explanations

an Upadesa or Tantra

manner of performing-

the

of

Frose and verse: speaker, Bhagavan

Sakya)

(i.e.

hearers, Vajra

Pani* Bodhisatwa and others.

Suvarna Prabhdsa, a Vyakarana Sastra; discourses by Sakya for the benefit of


also an account of the Bhagavata Dhatu, or

Lakshmf, Saraswatf and others


mansions of the

Prose and verse

deities.

speaker,

Sakya

Kumara, the above named Goddesses and others.


Swayambhu Purdna, the greater a Vyakarana of the
;

account of the manifestation of


early history of Nepaul.

hearers, Litsavi t

sort called

Adi Buddha \

in

Gatha

an

Nepaul, and the

Verse: speaker, Sakya; hearer, Ananda Bhikshuka.

Sirai/ambhu Parana, the

Swayambhu

Swayambhu

or

less,

a Gatha,

Ohaitya, (or temple).

summary

Verse and prose

of the above
:

an account of

speaker and hearer, as above.

Karanda Vyuha, an account of Lokeswara Padma Pani.

Prose

speaker and

hearer, as above.

Guna Karanda

Vytiha,

an

Gatha;

amplification

of the

above in verse.

Speaker and hearer, as above.

Mahdvastu, an Avadana Sastra; an account of the

Karma Vipaka

of the Brahmans.

Prose

fruits

of actions, like the

speaker and hearer, as before.

Asoha Avadana; an account of the Triad, or Buddha, Dharma, Sangha; also of


Verse speaker, Upagupta
the Chaityas, with the fruits of worshipping them.
:

Bhikshuka; hearer, Asoka Raja.

Bhadra Kaipika, an Avadana Sastra a detailed account of the Buddhas of this


Verse and prose; speaker, Sakya; hearers, Upagupta Bhikshuka, with
;

Kalpa.**

a host of immortals and mortals.


Jdtaka Maid; an account of the meritorius actions of Sakya in his 5Go births,
* Vajra Fani is thereon of Vajra Satwa Buddha, already alluded to as the magnus
Apollo of the Tantrikas. See Fahian, p. 13-3.
+ Litsavis are the so called Scyths. Litsabyis in Tibetan. For Sakas, see J.R.A.S.

{Swayambhu means self-existent. Adi, first, ami Buddha, -wise.


the celebrated friend of Antiochus and builder of the Lata.
** It is styled the Golden because four Buddhas belong to it, viz., Karkut, Kanaka,
Kasyapa, ami Sakya.

xii. 2, 460.

This

is

LITERATURE

THE

NEPAUL.

OF

Verse and prose

Tathdgata.

prior to his 'becoming a

Sakya

speaker,

hearer,

Ananda Bhikshu.
Manichura, an Avadana

an account of Manichur Raja, also of the


Prose

of Sakya, and of the fruits of his actions.

Dwdvinsati Avadana, an Avadana Sastra

fruits of building,

an account of the

birth

first

speaker and hearer as above.

worshipping and circumambulating* Chaityas. Verse and prose

Sakya

speaker,

hearer, Maitreya.

Nandi Mukha Swaghosha, an Avadana; an account of the great fast


speaker, Sakya
Prose
fruit of observing it.

Vasundhara, and of the

called

hearer,

Ananda.
Bodhi-charyd, an Avadana Sastra, of the sort called

Kavya

contains a highly

laudatory account of the virtue of charity and of the Bodhi-Charya, or Buddhist

Verse speaker, Maitreya hearer, Sudhana Kumara.


of Samudra
Karuna Pundarika, an Avadana an account of Arinemi Raja
of Ratna Garbha, Tathagata; and of Avalokiteswara, (i. e.,
Renu, Purohita
duties.

Padma Pani Bodhisatwa)

interspersed with sundry philosophical topics

discussed by Sakya in a broken manner.

gives directions as to the


speaker,

Sakya

mode

in

which

are

Sakya, then, in anticipation of his demise,

which

his system

is

Prose

to be taught.

hearers, Maitreya, &c.

Chandomrita Mala, a treatise of prosody


laudatory of Sakya Sinha.

the measures illustrated by verses

Verse and prose

the author Amrita Bhikshu.

Lokesxoara Satdka, a hundred verses in praise of

Padma

Pani.

Verse

author,

Vajra Datta Bhikshu.

Saraka Dhdrd, with a comment


Sakti. Verse

Kavya

in

Arya Tara, Buddha

praise of

author, Sarvajna Mitrapada Bhikshu.

Apardmita Dhdrani, an Upadesajf contains many Dharams addressed


Buddhas,

who

are immortal

(Aparamitayusha

Tathagata).

Prose

to the

speaker,

Sakya; hearer, Ananda Bhikshu.

Dhdrani Sangraha, a

collection of Dharanis, as

Manjusri's D. and those of

many

Maha, Vairochana's D.

other Buddhas and Bodhisatwas. Verse

Maha

speaker,

Sakya; hearer, Vajra Pani.


1'ancha Rakshd, an Upadesa Dharani

an account of the

Sakya

called Pratisara, &c.$ Prose: speaker,

Pratyangird Dhdrani, an Upadesa Dharani

dha

Sakti.

five

Buddha

Saktis,

hearer, Ananda.

an account of

Pratyangira Bud-

Prose: speaker, Sakya; hearer, Ananda Bhikshu.

* This circumambulation is one of the commonest and most pious actions of Buddhist
Mental prayers are repeated all the while, and a small cylinder fixed upon
devotion.
the upper end of a short star] or Handle, is held in the right hand and kept in perpetual
This cylinder is culled Mani
some Laves of the sacred books are usually
revolution.
enclosed in it. Its use is more common to Tibetans than to Nepaulese.
Both people
use beads to count their repetitions of holy words.
They are short signifif Dilantins, though derived from the Upadesa, arc exoteric.
cant tonus of prayer, similar to the Panchanga of the Brahmans.
Whoever constantly
repeats or wears [made up in little lockets] a dharini, possesses a charmed life.
See
classified enumeration of the principal objects of Buddhist worship.
+
But
Pratisara is not therein named.
These are Tantrika goddesses.
The
now
.lust
ice
to
Pancha
used
swear
Etaksha is
in Courts of

Buddhists upon.
;

THE

LITERATURE

NEPAUL.

OF

19

Tdrd Satndma, an Upadesa Dharani, contains an account of Arya Tara, of her


Verse:

hundred names, her Yija mantras, &c.

Padma Pani;

speaker,

hearer,

Vajra Pani.
contains an account of the feast kept in

Sugatdvaddna, an Avadana Sastra,

speaker, Vasundhara

Verse:

honour of Sanghas or Bodhisatwas.

Bodhisatwa

hearer, Puslipaketu Ilajakumara.

Sukhavati

Verse

Sakya

speaker,

Amitabha Buddha.**

Loka, account of the so called heaven of

Ananda aud

hearers,

others.

Saptavara Dharani, an Upadesa of the sort termed Dharani; an account ot the


seven Devis (Buddha Saktis) called Vasundhara, Vajra Vidarini, Ganapati Hridaya,

Ushnisha Vijaya, Parna Savari, Marfchi, Graha Matrika, together with their Vija
mantras.

Prose

Sakya

speaker,

Sakya

speaker,

hearers,

Ananda and

others.

Upadesa; an account of the Tantrika

Kriyd Sangraha, an

hearers,

&c,

Vajra Pani,

Prose:

ritual.

the Mahodalhi of the

resemhles

Brahmans.
Sumaghdvaddna, an Avadana Sastra
the Bhikshukas

near the close

whence the name

wife,

Chaitya Pungava, an

Sakya

on account of the heaven (Bhuvana) of

a story of the merchant

is

Prose

of the work.

speaker,

Avadana on the worship

Sakya

Sumagha and

his

hearer, Ananda.

of the Chaityas.

Prose

speaker,

hearer, Suchetana Bhikshuka.

Kathindvaddna, an Avadana Sastra

reward of giving the Pindapatra,*

containing an account of the

merit and

Khikshari, Chivara and Nivasa to Bhikshukas.

Prose: speaker, Sakya; hearer, Kasyapa Bhikshu.


Piiidapafrdvaddna,

an account of the begging platter of

of the merit of bestowing

it

to

them.

Prose

Dhwajdgra Keyuri, an Upadesa, or Tantrika Dharani


jagra Keyuri,

Buddha Sakti. Prose

Graha Matrika,
Sakti.

speaker,

Tantrika Dharani;

Speaker, Sakya

Sakya

account

of

Deva

Dhwa-

(the god J.

Graha Matrika,

Buddha

It is extracted

from the

Ananda Bhikshu.

heaver,

It is of the

Bhikshus, and

au account of

hearer, Indra

Ndgapu/d, a manual of worship to the Nagas for rain.

Sadhana Mala.

1lie

speaker and hearer, as above.

same character as the Vrata Paddhati of the

Brahmans.f

Mahdkdla Tantra, an Upadesa


Prose

kala.

his Sakti,

Vajra

Satwa

account of the worship to be paid to Maha-

Bhagavan

(i.

Abhidhdnottaroitara, an Upadesa

Buddha)

account of the esoteric

Vajra Satwa Bhagavan ; hearer, Vajra Pani.


**

for

s1cii.It

Dasabhuvana affords no place


The begging platter, staff, and

speaker and hearer

The

rites.

Prose

rites prescribed

by

speaker,
this

book

Adi Buddha, or the

five Dhyanis.
habiliments of the Bauddha mendicant are
The Chivara is the upper, the Nivasa the lower

by the names in the text.


on to No. 15 for dress and discipline of all the four orders. They require also
dress a pair of wooden sandals, an umbrella, and a gandhas or ewer for holding

called

garb
for

e.

named Vajra Sattwatmakf.

see

water.

t The high honour paid to the Nagas and Indra in Nepaul carries us beyond the
Pauranic era to that older time represented in India by theVedic gods and ritual.

OF -TIBET.

LITERATURE

20

resemble in character the Tantrika ritual of Braknianisni, and

differ

from

it

only

in being- addressed to different objects.

Vinaya
is

Treatise on

Si'ttra,

Author, Chandra Kirti Acharya.

Discipline.

It

equivalent to the Vyasa Sutra of the Brahmans.

KaljHihtdraddna, an Avadana, a highly ornate account of the

Gitd Pustaka, a

Geya a

collection of songs

Stotra Sangrdha, the praises of

first

birth of Sakya,

Verse: author, Kshemendra Bhikshu.

fruits of his actions in that birth.

and of the

on Tantrika

topics,

by various hands.

Buddha, Dharnia, and Sangha.

In verse of

various measures and by various authors.

Divydvaddna, an Avadana Sastra, containing various legends of the


Sakya.

Verse and prose

speaker, Sakya, hearers,

BHOT LITERATURE
The following

list

IN

first

Ananda Bhikshu and

birth of
others.

THE LANGUAGE OF TIBET.

of a more miscellaneous description.

||

BHOTIYA "WORKS.
Suinachik

by Thula Lama, written

ChamaDam; by Aguchu Lama,

Khanam in Bhot,
Nowaj subject

at

on Jurisprudence.

at Tija

similar to the

Sagun

Pothi of the Hindus.


Chariig

by Thiya Lama, at Gejaketha, on the Jnana Pothi of the Hindus, or

divine wisdom.

Churiige Chapah

by Yepah Begreh Maha Lama,

at

Pargreh ah chu, on cure

of all diseases.

Tuchurakh

by Suka Lama,

at Jab-la

Denuk

read by mendicant monks to

prosper their petition for alms.

Maui Pothi

by Ohufil Lama

mani or praying

CM Dam

Gumewan

at

on the use and virtue of the

cylinder.

by Gevighup Lama,

at Yeparkas, on medicine.

Napache Pothi; by Aberak Lama,

at

Jatu Lam, on physical science, or the

winds, rain, weather.

Kichak

by Kihiah Lama,

Tui takh lu

at Botehi, on witchcraft,

by Ttakachandah Lama,

at

Kubakh, on

demonology, &c.

science of war.

Dutakh-a-si; by Bajachik Lama, at Gnama, read by survivors on the death of


a relation, that they

Serua-takh

may

not be haunted by his ghost.

by Takachik Lama,

at

Yipurki.

To be read by

travellers during

their wanderings, for the sake of a safe return.

Sata-tu-mah

by Yisahsekar Lama,

at

Sebhala, read previous to sitting on

a panchaet for a prosperous issue thereof.

Kerikh

by Amadatakh Lama,

at Asi

to be read for increase of temporal goods.

+ Since the above was composed, I have added greatly to my stock of Sanskrit works.
For their names, see the list appended to next paper Note of .1837.
This list represents merely the odds and ends first got a t.
Soon after I procured
the catalogue of the Kahgyur and ascertained that the great Tibetan Cyclopaedia
consisteil (if translations from those Sanskrit originals whereof a part only had been
rved in Xepaul.
I learnt this, and sent the catalogue to Calcutta before Dc Koros*

||

appearance

three.

THE LITERATURE OF
Numbeh

by

Titakli

Lama

TIBET.

at Bere-ga-hakh

to be read at times of gathering

flowers for -worship.

Dekmujak

by Miuitake-tan Lama,

at Miinka

to be read previous to laying the

foundation of a house.

Thaka-pah

by Gagamatakh Lama,

the sacred fishes at the temple

Kusa

at

Ma-chaclekoh

to be read whilst feeding

to be read at the time of bathing.

is

a very holy act.

by Nemachala Lama, at Yeparenesah


by Uma Lama, at Lassa;
serving up, to keep off wicked spirits.

Lahassa-ki-pothi
dinner

be read before eating, while

to

Ckandapu; by Grahah Lama, at Jubu-nasah

to be read previous to

making

purchases.

Sachah

by Urjanh Lama,

no

selves, that

Bachah
forests

evil spirit

by Jahadegh Lama,

and bye-ways,

Kajaw

at Jadiin

may come

be repeated whilst exonerating them-

to

Maharah

at

to be read

by lone

travellers, in

for protection.

by Olachavah Lama,
from purgatory.

up.

Karah

at

to be read

by a dead man's relatives

to free his soul

Yidaram
happy

by Machal Lama, at Saduri

to facilitate interviews,

and make them

in their issues.

Ditakk

by Chopallah Lama,

Urasikh

at

to interpret the

ominous croaking

of crows, and other inauspicious birds.

by Khuchak Lama, at Pheragiah.


by Gidu Lama, at Bidakh to be read at the time

Karachakk
Chala

may

of drinking, that no

ill

come of the draught.

Kegii

Ohabeh

by Tupathwo Lama,
by Akabeh Lama,

at

Kabajeh

for increase of years,

Kalaguh

at Ari

to be read for

and a long

removing the

life.

incle-

mencies of the season.

Kaghatukh

by Sugnah Lama,

seasons of journeys that they


Liichii

by Xowlah Lama,

Kachar

at Bole

may come

to

Chagiira

at

to be read

by horsemen, at

no harm.

Kahah

to

be read for increase of

eloquence and knowledge of languages.

Ghikatenah

by Sujanah Lama,

at

Seakuhah

by archers

for success

Temple of Kasachit

in Nepaul,

to be read

of their craft.

Baudh Pothi

or history of the founding of the

with other matters appertaining


Siri

Pothi

to

by Bistakow Lama

Buddhism
at

in

Nepaul.*

Jauiatakh

a general form of prayer for

and poor, sick and healthy, man and woman.


The latter of these lists of Bhotiya books is a mere thing of shreds and patches,

rich

and, in fact, I have no means of enumerating the


literature.

But

Missionaries,

have no doubt that Tibet

and Refugees from Hindustan.

is

standard

indebted for

its

works of Tibetan

literature to

Bauddha

These individuals carried with them,

of Kasachit and of Swayambmi Natlia though .situated in the Valley of


are almost exclusively in the keeping of the Tibetans, and Lamas are the
permanent ministering functionaries.
*

The temples

Nepaul,

11

THE RELIGION OF BHOT.

and subsequently procured from India, many of the sacred and profane works of
their sect, and, as

Bhot

was

their wont, they immediately

own, that

in their

is,

began to instruct the people of

doubt, some success in this measure in the


but, in the end, the difficulties of

period of their emigration into Bhot

first

Sanskrit,

They had, no

and language.

in the Sanskrit, letters

and the succession of Native teachers

to the chairs of the original Indian emigrants, led to the preference of

language,

and, consequently, to a translation of

all

he Bhotiya

the Sanskrit works they had,

and could obtain from India, into the vernacular tongue of the country.
resort to translation took place very early

a circumstance which, aided

and the further decline of the original

lapse of time,

This

by the

literary ardour, inspired

the Indian Refugees, produced, at no distant period from the decease of the

by

first

Indian teachers, the oblivion of Sanskrit, and the entire supercession of original
Sanskrit versions by translations into Tibetan.

they thus soon

whole

result of the

is,

ideas) Indian.

some respects

To support

much

the Nepaulese,

its

language, native

view of the

this

case, I

clearly of

much more

nearer as they are to India, and

Devanagari

whom
;

origin,

and

that,

and declared by themselves to be

have conversed, assure

me

that their books are translations

exist in Bhot, but that

now no

of the great Bhotiya classics proclaim,

remarks are applied, of course, to the


less

cultivated in

comments, and
although the

a good language of their own, they have no letters, but such as are

ledge from India


still

letters,(like

its

as they are, have resorted extensively to vernacular

Bhotiyas, with

there,

and long has

is,

have to observe, that even

even translations of their books, which also are Sanskrit

Newars have

now

that the body of Bhotiya literature

been, a mass of translations from Sanskrit


its

The Bhotiyas,* however, although


Devanagari letters. The

lost the Sanskrit language, retained the

by

that

Bhot,

for,

which

Lamas, and

in

the

vernacular

that spoken about Lassa and Digarchi,)

is

classics,

the

but

still,

(the

best

like

These

works of

in regard to

tongue,

the

that most

fact.f

esteem there, I believe such to be not translations, but originals

legends of

all

knowhere and

lastly,

very names, the

their

all their

that the originals,

one can read them

classics of

so

that they got

chiefly

dialect of

the translated

written in letters essentially Indian.

THE P.ELIGIOX OF NEPAUL AND OP BHOT.

An

accurate and complete view of the

the severe study of a


*

number

Bauddha system

of belief

would involve

of the voluminous Sanskrit works above specified,

Bhol is the Sanscrit, and Tibet the Persian, name of the country.
The native name
Bod, a mere corruption of the Sanskrit appellation, proving that the Tibetans had
ao1 reached a general designation fur their country when the Indian teachers came among
them.
t Note of 1837. It is needless now to say, how fully these views have been confirmed
by the researches of De Kbrbs.
It is but justice to myself to add that the real nature of
the Kahgyur and Stangyur was expressly stated and proved by me to the Secretary of
tin' Asiatic Society some time before Mr. De Kbrbs' ample revelations were made.
Corncopies of both collections have been presented by me to the Hon. East India
Company, and others procured for the Asiatic Society, Calcutta; upon the latter Mr.
>! &bros worked.
is

THE RELIGION OF BHOT.

23

and would demanl more time than could be bestowed upon the task by any person,

A few

not otherwise wholly unemployed.


this place

observations must, therefore, suffice in

on the religious notions of the Bauddhas of this part of India, and in

making them

view the

I shall keep chiefly in

subject on the part of those

and new mine of Sanskrit

who may

which

literature

facilitation of the

and courage

find time
it

my

has been

study of a

new

to explore the great

fortune to discover in

NepauL
Buddhism embraces four very

Speculative

the origin of the world, the nature of a

distinct systems of opinion respecting

first

cause,

and the nature and destiny

of the soul.

These systems are deuominated,t from the diognostic tenet of each, Swabhavika,
Aiswarika, Yatnika, and Karmika and each of these, again, admits of several
sub-divisions, comprising divers reconciling theories of the later Bauddha teachers,
;

who, living

and instructed by the

in quieter times than those of the first Doctors,

taunts of their adversaries, and by adversity, have attempted to explain

was most

The Swabhavikas deny the


is

away what

objectionable, as Ave 11 as contradictory, in the original system.

existence of immateriality

the sole substance, and they give

action and rest, concretion

and

two modes,

it

abstraction.

Matter

(however iufinitesimaliy attenuated in Nirvritti)

which powers

The proper

they assert that matter

called l'ravritti,

and

Nirvritti, or

they say,

itself,

eternal,

is

and so are the powers of matter

possess not only activity, but intelligence.

state of existence of these

from everything palpable and

visible,

powers

that of rest, and of abstraction

is

(Nirvritti), in

which

state

they are so

attenuated on the one hand, and so invested with infinite attributes of power and

on the other, that they want only consciousness and moral perfections to

skill

become
rest

gods.

When

into their casual

these powers pass from their proper and enduring state of

and transitory

of nature or of the world

come

chance, but spontaneously

and

when

state of activity, then

into existence, not


all

by a

all

the beautiful forms

divine creation, nor

by

these beautiful forms ot nature cease to exist,

the same powers repass again from this state of Pravritti, or activity, into the

state of Nirvritti, or repose.

The revolution

them revolve
Swabhavikas

of the states of Pravrrttif and Nirvritti

J|

is

eternal,

and with

the existence and destruction of nature or of palpable forms.


are so far

The

from ascribing the order and beauty of the world to blind

chance, that they are peculiarly fond of quoting the beauty of visible form as a

proof of the intelligence of the formative powers

from

the

eternal

succession of

new

forms.

and they

But they

infer their eternity

insist that these

powers

f My Bauddha pandit assigned these titles to theExfract made from his Sastras, and
always used them in his discussions with me. Hence I erroneously presumed them to be
derived from the Sastras, and preferable to Madyamika, &c, which he did not use, and
which, though the scriptural denominations, were postponed to those here used on his
authority as being less diagnostic. In making the extracts we ought to reach the leading
doctrines, and therein I think we succeded.
t Pra, an intrusive prefix and Vritti, action, avocation, from vrii to turn, move, exist.
See on these terms Burnouf, introduction, p.p. 441, 515.
:

||

Nir, a primitive prefix, and Vritti as before.

;;

THE RELIGION OF BHOT.

24

and not impressed on

are inherent in matter,

God, that

finger of

by the

and therefore to be perishable

but animate forms, among which

deemed capable of becoming by


state of Nirvritti their bliss in which

sufficiently, are

not distinguished

eternal

efforts associated to the

of an

is,

Inanimate forms are held to belong exclusively to

absolutely immaterial being.


Pravritti,

it

man is
own

their

con-

state

repose or release from an otherwise endlessly recurring migration through


the visible forms of Pravritti. Men are endowed with consciousness, as well, I
sists of

believe of the eternal bliss* of the rest of Nirvritti, as of the ceaseless pain of the

are not regarded as

judges of mankind

ment

But those men who have won the


rulers of the universe, which rules itself

still'

are not admitted

own

of his

eternity of Nirvritti,

of Pravritti.

activity

fate

left in Pravritti

for the notions of

nor as mediators or

mediation and judg-

by the Swabhavikas who hold every man to be the arbiter


evil in Pravritti being, by the constitution of nature
weal and woe and the acquistion of Nirvritti being, by

good and

indissolubly linked to

the same inherent law, the inevitable consequence of such an enlargement of his

by habitual abstraction, as will enable a man to know what Nirvritti


To know this, is to become omniscient, a Buddha to be divinely worshipped

faculties,
is.

as such, while yet lingering in Pravritti


in Nirvritti, all at least that

and to become, beyond the grave, or

man can become, and all respecting which some of


much doubt, while others of them have insisted

the Swabhavikas have expressed

eternal repose, and not eternal annihilation (Sunyata)

that

it

this

more dogmatical

is

were

school,

it

even Sunyata,

it

would

being otherwise doomed to an eternal migration through


the more desirable of which are

little to

be wished

all

still

though, adds
be good

man

the forms of nature

and the

less so, at

any price

to be shunned.

From

the foregoing sketch

will be seen, that the

it

most diognostic tenets of

the Swabhavikas are, the denial of immateriality, and the assertion that

The end

capable of enlarging his faculties to infinity.

human

is

faculties is association to the eternal rest of Nirvritti, respecting the value

of which there

the

man

of this enlargement of

is

some dispute

and the means of

it are,

Tapas and Dhyana

former of which terms, the Swabhavikas understand, not penance, or

inflicted bodily pain,

but a perfect rejection of

and, by the latter, pure mental abstraction.

vikas do not reject design or


self-conscious being,

admit what

we

call

who gave

skill,

all

by

self-

outward (Pravrittika) things

In regard to physics, the Swabha-

but a designer, that

is,

a single, immaterial,

existence and order to matter

by

volition.

They

the laws of matter, but insist that those laws are primary

* The doctrine is, that they are


some doctors, however, say no the question turns
on the prior acceptation of Sunyata, for which see on.
This interpretation of the Swabhavika Sunyata is not the general one, though the
opponents of Buddhism have attempted to make it so for the prevalent sense of the
wind among the Buddhas, see on. Plotinus contended that the most perfect worship
of the Deity consisted in a certain mysterious Belf-annihilation or total extinction of
This
all our faculties.
See M. Laurien's account of Newton's discoveries p. 387.
explains the SaTflgata doctrine of Dhyana, and partially that of Sunyata also.
;

THE RELIGION OF BHOT.


causes, not secondary

an immaterial

25

are inherent eternally in matter, not impressed on

They

creator.

which matter has had from

consider creation a spontaneity, resulting from powers


all

eternity,

and

have

will

So with

to all eternity.

respect to man, they admit intellectual and moral powers, but deny that
terial essence or being, to

which we

Swabhavika

-\

igour of nature, or Swabhava.

to be the oldest school of Buddhist philosophy;

school has, from the earliest times, been divided into

Swabhavikas simply, whose tenets

two

have endeavoured

termed the Prajnika Swabhavikas, from

imma-

Animate and inanimate

ascribe those powers.

causation, they alike attribute to the proper

believe the

by

it

parties,

one called the

to state above, the other

wisdom

the supreme

Prajna,||

but that

viz.

of

nature.

The Prajnikas* agree with the Swabhavikas,


entity, in investing

it

in considering

modes, or that of action and that of

But the Prajnikas

rest.

make

the powers of matter in the state of Xirvritti; to

summum

consider man's

state of Xirvritti

matter as the sole

with intelligence as well as activity, and

in giving it

two

incline to unitize

that unit, deity; and to

bonum, not as a vague and doubtful association to the

but as a specific and certain absorption into Prajna, the sum

The Aiswarikas admit

of all the powers, active and intellectual, of the universe.

of immaterial essence, and of a supreme, infinite, and self-existent Deity (Adi

whom

Buddha)

some of them consider

as the sole deity

and cause of

while others associate with him a coequal and eternal material principle
that

all

all things,
;

believing

things proceeded from the joint operation of these two principles.

The

Aiswarikas accept the two modes of the Swabhavikas and Prajnikas, or Pravritti

and

But, though the Aiswarikas admit immaterial essence, and a God,

Xirvritti.

they deny his providence and dominion; and though they believe Moksha to be an

him

absorption into his essence, and vaguely appeal to

things of Pravritti, they

deem

to be independent of him,

only by their

own

and the

efforts of

as the giver of the

bliss of Xirvritti to

Tapas and Dhyana,

efforts

fident will enlarge their faculties to infinity, will

worshipped as Buddhas on earth, and will

make them worthy

them

raise

be capable of being

union with him.


tion,

Moksha, or absorption

in

heaven

to

of being

an equal and

Supreme Adi Buddha;

into him, or, I should rather say, of

All the Bauddhas agree in referring the use and value of medita-

(earthly and heavenly,) of the rights and duties of morality, and of the

ceremo

ies of religion, solely to Pravritti, a state

coutemu

and to seek, by their own

their faculties, the accomplishment of


as complete as

ledge.

which they

are all alike taught to

efforts of abstraction, that infinite extension of

which

realizes, in their

own

godhead

persons, a

any of them, and the only one which some of them

The Karmikasand Yatnikas derive

by which
||

won

which they too are con-

selfearned participation of the attributes and bliss of the


for such is their idea of

good

the connection of virtue and felicity in Pravritti

acknow-

will

their names, respectively, from

I understand 'conscious moral agency,"

and Yatna, which

Karma,

interpret

Prajna, from pra, an intensitive prefix, and Jnyana, wisdom, or perhaps, the simple

jnn.
* See

the sequal for a good

summary glance

at the

philosophy of the Prajnikas.

THE RELIGION OF BHOT.

26

I believe these schools to be

'conscious intellectual agency.'

more recent than

the others, and attribute their origin to an attempt to rectify that extravagant
quietism, which, in the other schools, stripped the powers above, (whether considered as of material or immaterial natures,) of all personality, providence and

dominion

and man, of

all his active

Assuming

energies and duties.

more general principles of their predecessors, they seem


chief attention to the phsenomena of
free will,

human

and the distinction between

to

as just, the

have directed their

nature, to have been struck with its

cogitative and sensitive powers, and to

its

have sought to prove, notwithstanding the necessary moral law of their

man must be

first

by the proper culture


of his moral sense,* which was the sentiment of the Karmikas, or, by the just
conduct of his understanding, a conclusion which the Yatnikas preferred and this,
I believe to be the ground of distinction between these two schools as compared

teachers, that the felicity of

secured, either

As compared with

with one another.


affinity

their predecessors,

they held a closer

with the Aiswarikas than with the other schools, iuclined to admit the

existence of immaterial entities, and endeavoured to correct the absolute impersonality

and quiescence of the Causa Causarum, (whether material or immaterial,)

by feigning Karma

or Yatna, conscious moral, or conscious intellectual, agency, to

The Karniika

have been with causation from the beginning.


a language as this,

"Sakya Sinha, who, according

to

sprang from Swabhava, and, according to others, (the

texts often hold such

some (the Swabhavikas),


Aiswarikas,)

Buddha, performed such and such Karmas, and reaped such and such

from Adi
fruits

from

them."

In regard to the destiny of the soul, I can find no essential difference of opinion
between the Bauddha and the Brahmanical sages. By all, metempsychosis and
absorption are accepted. But absorbed into what ? into Brahma, say the Brahmans,
into Sunyata, or Swabhava, or Prajna, or

the Buddhists.

And

I should add, that

Adi Buddha, say the various

by

their doubtful Sunyata, I

sects of

do not, in

general, understand, annihilation, nothingness, but rather that extreme and almost
infinite

attenuation which they ascribe to their material

the state of Nirvritti, or of abstraction from


as

compose the sensible world of

yata with Akasa, and through

and revolution of Pravritti,t

modus of primal entity in the

it

Pravritti.

it,

By

powers or forces in

particular palpable forms, such

tracing the connextion of Sun-

with the palpable elements, in the evolution

maybe

last

all

plainly seen, that Sunyata

and highest

state of abstraction

modifications such as our senses and understanding are cognizant

How

far,

and

in

what exact

is

the

from

uM and
all

the

articular

of.

sense, the followers of these diverse

and opposite

systems of speculation adopted the innumerable deities of the existent Buddhist

Pantheon,
I

it

must

rest

have no stomach

with future research accurately to determine.

for the marshalling of such

For

my

part,

an immense, and for the most

* Notwithstanding these sentiments, which are princpially referable to the state of


Pravritti, the Karmikas and Yatnikas still held preferentially to the Tapas and Dhyana,
the severe meditative asceticism of the older schools.
fSee tin; Dasakara or ten forms, where the evolution and revolution of each element
constitutes a phrase of divine energy.

THE RELIGION Or BHOT.


But some

part useless, host.*


tion

and connexion,

tion of these objects

of the principal objects of worship, with their rela-

he noticed.

The

leading, and

most fundamental associa-

that of the triad, or three persons

is,

named Buddha, Dharma,

In the transcendental and philosophic sense, Buddha means

and Sangha.

Dharma,

may

2J

'matter,'

'

mind,'

and Sangha, the concretion of the two former in the sensible or

phenomenal world.

In a practical and religious sense, Buddha means the mortal

author of this religion (Sakya), Dharma, his law, and Sangha, the congregation of
the faithful.

The

triad is liable to a theistic or atheistic interpretation in the higher or phil-

osophic sense, according as

The

next, and a

Buddha

is

creed between those avowed mortals

by their own

efforts,

preferred or postponed to

very marked distinction of persons,

who win

and the Buddhas of a

The most notorious of the former of


ised as "

Manushi

"

or

human

is

Dharma.
established in

the rank and powers of a

celestial nature

and

this

Buddha

origin.

who are all charactersix who are contradistin-

these are sevenf

of the latter are five or

guished as " Anupapadaka," without parents, and also as " Dhyani," or divine.

This second appellation of the Celestial Buddhas

name
all

for that abstracted

the Asiatic religionists, but which

istic of

is

derived from the Sanskrit

musing which has found more or


is

less

favour with almost

peculiarly and pre-eminently character-

Buddhism.

The Dhyani Buddhas, with Adi Buddha,

and justly

their chief, are usually

referred to the Theistic school.

The epithet Dhyani, however,

as applied to a class of Buddhas,

capable of an atheistic interpretation.


sense other schools

may admit

obviously

is

It is nevertheless certain, that, in

this term, or the class of divinities

which

whatever
it

charac-

Aiswarikas (beyond the bounds of Nepaul too)f ascribe this creative


Dhyana to a self-eonstent, infinite^ and omniscient "Adi Buddha," one of whose attributes is the possession of five sorts of wisdom. Hence he is called " Panchajnana
terises, the

was by virtue of these five sorts of wisdom, that he, by five


Dhyana, created, from the beginning and for the duration of
the present system of worlds, the " Pancha Buddha Dhyani."
Atmika;" and

it

successive acts of

The names and graduation of these Jnanas, Dhyanas, and Buddhas

are thus

Buddhas.

Jndnas.
1.

Suvisuddha Dharma Dhatu.

1.

Vairochana.

2.

Adarsana.

2.

3.

Prativekshana.

3.

Akshobhya.
Ratnasambhava.
Amitabha.f
Amoghasiddha.

4.

Santa.

4.

5.

Krityanushthana.

5.

* See further on for a goodly array.


f Called Vipasyi, Sikhi, Viswabhu, Kakutsanda, Kanakamuni, Kasyapa, and Sakya
Two others are frequently associated with these to form a series of nine mortal
Sinha.
Buddhas, the extra two being Dipankara and Ratnagarbha. But they are much less
notorious than the seven, and even of them I find nothing distinct recorded, with the
single exception of Sakya, whom I am therefore inclined to regard as the founder of
this creed, such at least as it has come down to us in the existing books and existing
practical religion of the Buddhists.
J For example, in the Katna Kuta Amitabha and Akshobhya are spoken of, and
in the Sarva dharma Mahasanti as well as in the Swayambhu purana and Guna

THE RELIGION OF BHOT.

28

Dhydnas : The Dhyana of creation is called by one generic name Lokaand by five repetitions of this, tbe five Buddhas were created.
five
It might be expected, that the supreme Buddha, having created these
and
creation
of
the
active
cares
them
the
celestials, would have devolved on
Sansarjana;

Not

government of the world.

so,

however

the genius of genuine

Buddhism

is

eminentlv quiescent, and hence these most exalted seons are relieved from the
degradation of acdon. Each of them receives, together with his existence, the
virtues of that Jnana and

owed

his existence

Dhyana, to the exertion of which, by Adi Buddha, he

and by a similar exertion of both, he again produces a Dhyani

The Dhyani Bodhisatwas

Bodhisatwa.

and active authors of creation.

are,

one by one, in succession, the tertiary

These creations are but perishable

fore,

the

work

his worshippers in

and

sole

who

of the fourth Bodhisatwa,

Nepaul

are

wout

to invest

is

and, since the

The present world

beginning of time, three of them have passed away.

now Lord

him with

all

its course,

ernor of the next will be assumed by the

fifth

When

Bodhisatwa.

1.

Vairochana.

1.

Samantabhadra.

2.

Akshobhya.

2.

Vajra Pani.

3.

Ratnasambhava.

3.

Ratna Pani.

4.

Amitabha.

4.

Padma

5.

Amoghasiddha.

5.

Viswa Pani.

Pani.

are considered to stand in the relation

of fathers and sons to each other; and as there are

Manushi Bodhisatwas, who again bear

the

the offices of creator and gov-

The names and lineage of these Dhyani Bodhisatwas are as follows

The Dhyani Buddhas and Bodhisatwas

there-

the powers of a supreme

God, the "Praesens Divus" being, as usual, everything.!

existing system of worlds shall have run

is,

of the ascendan", and

Dhyani Bodhisatwas,

so are there

Manushi Buddhas the

to their respective

connexion of pupil to teacher, of graduate to adept, of the aspirant after the

wisdom

of

competent

Buddhism

to

for a mortal

fle.-h, albeit,

him who

man

to

possesses that wisdom.

I should add, that

become a Buddha,** whilst he yet

it is

lingers in the

the entire fuliilment of the rewards, if not of the prerogatives, of that

transcendent character

is

assigned to a more unearthly state,

viz.,

the state of Nir-

V yiiha,

allPuranic or exoteric works, of which the first is not even obtainable


bhere any evidence tint any <>t' the other works were composed there.
See Csoma de Kerbs in Bengal Asiatic Society's Journal.
+ Original of the Chinese O-mi-to, a word as utterly without meaning as their Bonze,
Amitabha is the
of which latter the Sanskrit Bandya is the real ami significant form.
Bandya is a person entitled to reverence, and the collective
immeasurably splendid.
See Crawford's
or general appellation of all professed or ascetical followers of Buddha.
All
Archi})clago for a line representation of Akshobhya, the second Dhyani Buddha.
the five are represented in the Cave at Bag.
+ Hence the celebrity and popularity of his mantra or invocation (Om mani padme
hum), while those of the two other members of that triad to which Padmapani is thus
There is a fine image of Padma Pani
associated as the Sangha, are hardly ever heard of.
at Karnagarh on the Ganges, the old capital nf Champa, now Bhagalpur.
see further
The nine mortal Bodhisatwas are variously and vaguely set down;
on.
Ananda, Manju Ghosha, and Avalokiteswara, are the only ones of whom anything

Kavanda

iu Nepaul, noi

is

known.
Hence the Divine Lamas of Bhot
They are rather Arhantas.
somewhat.
is

**

though the original idea has been perverted

THE RELIGION OF BHOT.


In the above remarks

vritti.

Buddhas and Bodhisatwas.

29

have inserted only the quinary

But there

is,

also,

Satwa, and the Bodhisatwa Vajra Pani, being added to the

Dhyani
Buddha Vajra

series of

a series of six, the

series of five, to perfect

2
Further, as the five material elements, 1 the five senses, and

the larger series.

the five respective (outward) seats of sense, 3 are referred to the series of five
so intellect, 4

Buddhas,

or the whole

And

with apprehension 5 and the objects of such apprehension*

phenomena

of the universe, 8 * are referred to Vajra

the dignity of useful knowledge to

prater en

Nor

what must otherwise have been mere

voces et

nihil.

is

there any

want of

sufficing original authority for the series of six Celes-

Buddhas,! au y more than

tial

Satwa Buddhaf.

should not escape remark, that the above associations give somewhat of

it

perhaps

for the series of five,

though the

latter

may

be,

and

in this place to caution the

Wherefore I will take leave

the older.

is,

reader against exclusive and confined opinions, founded upon any one enumeration

he

may

find

may have

It

also

with an express object,

find the series of six Celestial


senses,

is

ritualists

and shadowy grounds

frail

Buddhas (which

with the other

inconsistent

must at the same time be admitted that the

multiplied these Deities upon very

particular

But that does not imply that any other

a definite object.

and larger enumeration,


series.

Any

Pancha Buddha Dhyani.

as for instance, that of the

enumeration

as identified

appear to have

and in

way

this

with the elements,

and mind, I consider valid) augmented

Vajvadharma, and Vajrakarma.


divinities in this

religion is into

to nine by the addition of Vajrakaya,


The next material distinction of persons or
Exoteric or Pauranika Buddhas and Esoteric

and alone heretofore known to


Yogambara and Digambara they form
and their statues or
the link of connexion between Jainism and Buddhism
images are distinguished either by nudity or by a multiplicity of members they
or Tantrika.

The

The second

us.

first

are

are those ordinarily so called

more

specially styled

are wholly

unknown

to Europeans.

ter of the Tantrika ritual.

have already adverted to the general charac-

It is a strange

though vouched by numerous scriptural

The images

of the 5

and unintelligible adjunct of Buddhism,

authorities.

Dhyani Buddhas, which were sent

Bengal, occupy (and exclusively so of

all

to the Asiatic Society of

lower Buddhas) the base of every

Maha

chaitya, or highest order of temples in Nepaul; and those images are invariably

distinguished
viz.,

by the

respective differences exhibited in the specimens transmitted,

the position of the hands


(1)

Five Bhutas.

(2)

the nature of the supporters and the particular

Five Indriyas.
(5) Dharana.

(3)

(61

Five Ayatanas.

(4)

Manas.

Dharma.

senses are assumed to be. inert without Manas not even sensation, far less perception, or mental realization of sensation, can exist without Manas.
t Vajra Satwa, or the sixth Dhyani with his appendages, belongs to the Vamacharyas,
whose doctrine as to things in general, or the origin, nature, and connexion of material
and immaterial phenomena, can hardly he reconciled with the views of the older Dakshinaoharyas on these topics.
+ E grege the Sarva Dharma Mahasanti, said hy Mr. Csoma to be the bible of the
' oldest
Buddhist sect in Tibet.
For authorities for Adi Buddha and the six Celestial
Buddhas, see Quotations in Proof, 1837.
Temple and monastery are the respective equivalents of Chaitya and of Yiham.
*

The

'

THE RELIGION OF BHOT.

30

cognizance of each, which


figured

placed between the supporters.

is

Vairochana

Buddhas occupy shallow niches

the other four celestial

hemisphere of the Chaitya, one opposite each cardinal point

Ratna Sambhava

east,

Vajra Satwa

the north.

to

to the south,

But

placed in the Chaityas.

is

seldom represented

met with

his

tetragonal pyramid, the grades of

him

Akshobhya

and never

image or sculptured figure in Yiharas.


Buddhist form of temple.

commonly surmounted by

a graduated cone or

which (the cone or pyramid)

are thirteen,

usually sur-

is

of the structure represents Akanishtha

or the highest heaven, or that of

Adi Buddha.

represent the abodes of the five

Dharrna Buddhas.

is

mani.

The
chiira-

but

first,

all

which they form the superstructure

supreme Buddha, and to his

by the Buddhists

are used

besides

which many sacred

for enshrining their mortal

edifices of

Buddhas, as

well as any of the numberless gods and goddesses of their ample Pantheon.
followers of

Buddha

are divided

equivalent to the Grihastha

Hindoos

but not

into

regular and secular

Asrama and Vairagf

equivalent to Laics and Clerics.

or

The

name

into four orders,

Bandya (person
called Bhikshu or

is

'the scantly robed,'

regulars are

entitled to reverence)

They

are

little

in

who

Their

all
;

monks, and

the seculars

better than heretics, until political ambition

to qualify the high-toned enthusiasm of the primitive saints

many having come

monastic,

and they are divided

constitute the congregation of the faithful, or only real Buddhists

began

all

(Yiharas).

'mendicants,' Sravaka or readers, Chailaka or

and Arhata or Arhanta or 'Adepts.'

having always been regarded as

The

division exactly

Sannyasi Asraina of the

as solitaries or as coenobites, living in deserts or in monasteries


collective

tomb

their principal edifices

Chaityas are frequently combined with small hollow temples,

celestial aeons.

Hindoo form

upon each of the

are sufficiently familiar with Chaityas in the sense of

of this nature are dedicated to the self-existent,

of

latter,

umbrella

hemisphere

the

and the cone or pyramid,

temples, or mausolea, or covers of relics (Dagopa)

five

Between

graved which typify omniscience.

is

called the garbha; the neck, gala;

The Nepaulese

Bhuvana,

five spokes of the

a short square neck for the

four sides of which a pair of eyes


is

The

and

The

Bodhisatwa heavens of Buddhist cosmography.

cone or pyramid terminates in apalus very like a lingam, and which

hemisphere

to the

are frequent in the

mounted by an umbrella. This part

and the cone or pyramid

seldom

and Aniogha Siddha

in statuary form,

to be the only exclusively

It consists of a solid hemisphere,

are typical of the thirteen

to the west,

pictorial representations of

illuminated Sastras, and I have

The Chaitya would appear

Amitabha

is

at the base of the

could not

all live in idleness,

and until very

these were allowed to

follow the various business of the world, their instruction being provided for by

the monks, some of

whom

thus became invested with a partially clerical character

which they exercised under the names of Acharya and Vajra Acharya or 'teacher
and powerful teacher.' The monasteries or conventual dwellings of the regular
Buddhists are called Yihara in Sanskrit, Bahi and Bahal in Newari.

They

are

usually large open quadrangles of a regular form, but sometimes irregular, and
built

round a Chaitya, or a Kiitagar temple, (the

former to Dhyani Buddhas).

latter sacred to

Mauushi, the

Every great church was formerly conventual, and

THE RELIGION OF BHOT.

31

the four orders had each their separate Viharas, of which there are

still

fifteen in

the city of Patan alone, though the Nepaulese have long since abandoned

now

monastic institutes of their creed, and hence these monasteries are


ized,

hut

still

Bandya

exclusively appropriated to the

the

secular-

The

or tonsured Buddhists.

power appears to have been much


more limited than that of the Abbots and Priors of European monachism, and
since this decay of the monastic institutes in Nepaul it has become at all events
strikingly so.
Still, however, it is the Nayakas alone who confer the rank and
head of a Vihara

called

is

Nayaka, hut

his

Bandya

character of Bandya, and every

ostensibly attached to

is

or other, even though he do not dwell in any, as

some convent

not.

Any

person

a Bandya by submitting to tonsure and taking the usual vows of

may become

and humility, and

celibacy, poverty,

by a

many now do

these

all

which

peculiar dress and equipment,

monks

alike

are

as well as the

distinguished

ceremony of induction

will be found described in the sequel.


I have at present to offer on the subtime ago by an old Bauddha of Nepaul,

The following list of Buddhas completes all


ject.

Two

whom

were prepared

for

me some

but they were then laid


and explanation when opportunity should serve.
have accordingly had them compared, under my own eyes, with the scriptures

with

I have long

cultivated an acquaintance

future examination

aside for
I

lists

whence they were

extracted, and the comparison has suggested the following brief

elucidatory remarks.

In the

first

place, the lesser list has proved to be superfluous, all its

has been found to amount to 131, and not to 145, as stated

in the greater catalogue

elsewhere
times,

name being

the same

by reason of

repeated, in

some

instances,

this catalogue consisting of literal extracts

And

pendent works.

names being

In the next place, the whole number of Buddhas

contained in the larger one.

have thought

it

better to leave

it

two and three

from several inde-

in statu quo, than to

omit

Such omission might

sundry names of one series because they occur in another.

have interfered with some established contiguity of time, place, or circumstances,


in regard to the Buddhas, with
to the repetitions, they

may

There

attached to them.

is

which we

given in

my

list,

-50

list,

at a glance,

and with respect


by the references

one deviation from the catalogues as found in the

works whence they are drawn, and

Manushi Buddhas (No.

are not acquainted

be seen in the

it is

this.

name

to 50) the

of

After the names of the six great

Sakya Sinha, the seventh and

though not found at that place in the Lalita Vistara

because Sakya had not,

of the

my

catalogue in that place, in order to

now famous Sapta Buddha

distinct series of

'

is,

notwithstan-

make up the complement

Manushi,' or seven mortal Buddhas. Before each

names, the work from which

In the works cited,


are to be found,

last, is

possibly

when that work was compiled/attained Nirvana and become

a Tathagata in the proper sense. His name, though occurring before,


ding, reinserted in

many more

it is

derived,

is

uniformly noted.

names, besides those given in the catalogue,

and from the whole of the books which have been procured and

transmitted to Calcutta, hundreds of

new names might be drawn.

THE RELIGION OF BOHT.

32

In the Samadhi Raja,* Sarvartha Siddha (Sakya before he became a Buddha,)


is

how

asked by Maitreya and Vajra Pani,

he acquired Samadhi Jnana.

Iu reply,

he begins by naming- 120 Tathagatas, who instructed him therein in

his former

births; and at the conclusion of his enumeration of Buddhas, Sarvartha Siddha


observes,

were

'

There

is

many names exempli


number than eighty crores !

he has given so

really

no

less in

gratia,

but that his instructors

a verse in the Aparimita Dharani (to be found in

higher authorities) purporting that " the Buddhas

who have

many

these

Buddhas sprang,

divinely not generatively, from other

Akasa, and some from the Lotos.

Yet

chronology and history.

down

frequently drew

of

some from

These are evident nonentities, in regard to

them from

origin of the latter having been frequently

by the vanity of

traced up to heaven

often most difficult to distinguish

more substantial compeers, the

their

less

it is

Buddhas

be,

svill

Some

more numerous than the grains of sand on the banks of the Ganges."

are

and

other,

been, are, and

no

superstition, while its grovelling genius

among

Again,

the lineage of the former to earth.

the Buddhas confessedly of mortal mould, there are three wide degrees, that of

the Pratyeka Buddha, that of the Sravaka Buddha, and that of the Mahayanika

But the two former

Buddha.

more than mere men

are regarded, even

of superior sanctity

and as

by

their worshippers, as little

Maha-

infinitely inferior to the

yanika Buddhas, such as Sakya and his six great predecessors.

We

multitudes even of this highest degree

belongs not only to

Upon

and, besides, the

Manushi Tathagatas, but

the supreme

the whole, then,

it

also to all the

seems peculiarly

title

Dhyams

have, however,

indiscriminately.

desirable, in the present state of our

information, to keep a steady eye upon the authoritative assertion of the old
scriptures, that

been selected

Sakya

for

the seventh, and

is

such especial honour

Four of them belong

grounds.

golden (tra or Bhadra Kalpa

an

indefinite period,

mortal Buddhas save the

for I

me

have not

last,

Why

of the Buddhas.

seems impossible

seven have

on historical

to explain

to the present cycle of ages thence

the three

and I think

frequently occurred to
cessors

it

it

last are

first to

may

be safely asserted that

all

At

mythological shadows.

called the

the precedent Kalpa.

Kalpa

is

of the so-called

events

all

it

has

to doubt the historical existence of Sakya's six prede-

failed to

remark that while the Buddhist writings make

ample mention of Sakya's births (505), sayings, and doings, and while they ascribe
to

him the

effectual authorship of all the scriptural authorities of the

sect,

writings are nearly silent with respect to the origin and actions of the six

dhas

who went

before

him

the authorities in question.

Bud-

nor are any doctrines or dogmas referred to them in

To go

farther into this matter

would lead me beyond

What

the bounds I have prescribed to myself on the present occasion.


said will suffice to

these

shew why the catalogue

of

Buddhas has been

and perhaps would justify the withholding of


scriptures the form perpetually occurs

'

it

still.

so said Sakya,'

and

In

have

so long withheld,

the

forthcoming

this is the reason

the works are ascribed to him, though they took their written shape from

why
his

favourite disciples Kasyapa, Ananda, and Upali.

it

*I have this list before me extracted from the Samadhi Raja


worth while to add it to the lists already given.
1

but

do not think

LIST
LIST OP TATHAGATAS,

OF BUDDHIST WORKS.

33

COMPILED FROM THE LAEITA VISTARA, KRIYA 8ANGKAHA


AND RAKSHA BHAGAVATI.
LALITA

OF BUDDHIST WORKS.

LIST

34

7519 Nagadatta.
7620 Atyuckchagaini.
77

21

Mahavyuha.

7822 Rasmiraj.
7923 Sakyamuni.
8024 Indraketu.
81

(See No. 12)

25

8226
8327
8428

(See No. 56.)

8529 Sinhaketu.
8630 Gunagradhari.
8731 Kasyapa. (See
8832 Arcliihketu.
8933 Akskobhyaraj.
9034 Tagarasikba.

35

No. 55.)

Suryanana.

91

Sumati.

92_36 Mahapradipa.
9337 Padmottara (See No. 1.)
9438 Dharmaketu. (See No. 2.)

Nagabhiblni.
Bhaiskajyaraj.

Sarvagandhi.

LALITA VISTAEA, 20TH SECTION.


95

93

Vimalaprabhasa.

2 Ratnarchih.

3 Pusbpavalivanarajikusumitabbijna.
4 Obandrasuryajibuiikaraprabba.
99 5 Gunarjaprabhasa.

97

98

100

6 Ratnayashti.

7 Meghakutabhigarjitaswara.
102 8 Ratnacbbatrabbyudgatavabbasa.
103 9 Samantadarsi.
101

10410 Ganendra.
KRIYA SANGEAHA.

105

107

108

108

110
111
112
109

15 Ratnasambhava.

16 Vajraratna.
17 Vajrasurya.

2 Mabosbuisba.

120

3 Sitatapatrosbuisba.

121

4 Tejorasi.

12218 Vajraketu.
12319 Yajrabasa.
12420 Amitabba.t

5 Yijayosbmsba.

6 Vikiranoslmfsba.

21 Vajradbarma.

7 Udgatosbuisba.

125

8 Mabodgatosbuisba.

12022 Yajratiksbna.
12723 Vajraketu.
12824 Vajrabbasba.

113_9

Vijayosbnisba.

11410 Aksbobbya.
115

119

(See No. 58.)

1 Vairocbana.*t

(See No. 163.)

(See No. 85.)

11 Vajrasatwa.f

129-25 Aniogbasiddha.t

23 Vajrakarma.
27 Vajraraksba.

11612 Vajrai-aja.
11713
11814

103
131

Vajraraga.

13228

Vajrasadbu.

13329

Vajrayaksba.

Yajrasandbi,

Tbis name, although a repetition, is numbered because the personage here inby the name Vdirochana, is really Vairochana Jratdra, Manjusri. The six
celestial Buddhxs of Nepaul will he recognised in this list; but commenting were endThe six are those marked thus +, Vairochana being assumed to be V. proper, and
less.
*

dicated

not Manjusri.

SKETCH OF BUDDHISM.

35

RAKSHA BHAGAVATI.
134

139

140
141

(See No. 90.)

Ratnarckik.

137

142

4 Jayendra.

1385

(See No.

Padmottarasrf.

after

my

arrival in

tion of such a subject

me

general led

residence in a

9 Padmasn.
Nandasri.

writings of Nepaul.

Nepaul (1821), I began to devise means of procuring


Buddhism for, though the regular investiga-

relative to

was

cheerfully

Bauddha

7 Ekachkatra.
8 Sarnadkikastyuttarasrf.

Sketch of Buddhism.

II.

some accurate information

G Suryainandalaprabbasottama.

14310

1.)

From Bauddka
Soon

Ratnakara.
Asokasrf.

1352
1303

foreign

my

to

pursuits,

avail myself of the

to

my

respect

for science in

my

opportunity afforded, by

country, for collecting and transmitting to Calcutta the

my

There were, however, serious obstacles in

materials for such investigation.

way, arising out of the jealousy of the people in regard to any profanation of

by an European, and yet more, resulting from the Chinese notions


I nevertheless persevered; and time,

their sacred things

of policy adopted by this Government.

patience, and dexterous applications to the superior intelligence of the chief minisat length

ter,

My
in

first

was

Nepaul; and to

in the course of

this

which the reputation

of these he gave

sed

and

me

me

drew one of
a

many

large

His

copies of them.

at length, chiefly

large collection

my

When we

list.

brethren in the Bauddha


cutta a

list

for

works relating

my

This old

Buddhism

man
and

Having

some

influence with

was enabled to procure and transmit


of important Bauddha scriptures.*
faith, I

He

assured
of

did so

intelligent,

which

and these questions

his

Cal-

my curiosity was

and

set of questions,

to

anel

I desired

he

answers form

in his answers quoted sundry slokas in proof of his

and many of the scriptures whence these were taken being now in

possession, I

research gave

me

was tempted

to try the truth of his quotations.

in general satisfactory proof.

But the

that,

my

by

this

Thus one

step

anel, trieel

the Bauddha's quotations were not always so satisfactory.

* Nearly all were eventually procured,

Of

possession of the books

led to questions respecting their relative age anel authority


test,

gradually enlarged as his confidence increa-

through his kindness, and his

woulel answer from his boohs.

statements

to

became better acquainted, he volunteered

him (about 1823) a

the text of this paper.

scriptures

knowledge of an old Bauddka residing

people to his abode.

Meanwhile, as the Pdtna Bauddha seemed very


excited, I proposed to

Bauddha

end I privately instituted inquiries in various directions,

that Nepaul contained

to procure

toils.

to ascertain the existence or otherwise of

in tke city of Patan,

me

my

rewarded

object

chiefly, and in tke first place solely, I'm' Calwith the Librarian of the College of Foi t William,
then with the Asiatic Society, but were I'm- years utterly neglected, and still are so I
Those sent to France met with
fancy; so also the copies sent to London anel Oxford.
a far different reception see Burnouf.

cutta.

Tkey were deposited

lirst

36

OF BUDDHIST

LIST

WORKS.

led to anoth3r, until I comaivei the ilia of drawing' up, with the aid of
friend

und

his booln, a sketch of tlu terminology

sum

external parts of Bilihism, in the bjlisf that


fectly executed,

would be of some assistance

unknown

investigation of this almost

When, however,
me;

patience, and almost looked back

a ccurate account of

tain notices of

my

though but imper-

countrymen

as,

with

and acuu\*te

to enter into a full

it

would lead

of languages, and (to confess the truth) of

with a sigh

Bud Ihism whic h

comparative labour, from

old

subject.

my want

to feel

my

my

disposition of the

design, I little suspected where

I conceived that

began ere long

a sketch,

to such of

might be disposed

the books only before them,

and general

to tbe tolerably full

I hael obtained so long ago,

old frien d's answers to

Buldhism coming from time

to

my

queiies.

and tolerably

and with
I also

little

saw

cer-

tim e before the world, ushered by

the talents and industry of Klaproth anel Remusat; and, so far as I had opportunity
to learn

what these

notices

contained,

it

seemed that the answers to

much ample r and more accurate views of


men could extract from their limited sources

tions furnished

distinguished

add here a very considerable

forme from

those

that its accuracy

still

may

list of

my

ques-

the subject than these


of information.

the Baiiddlta scriptures in general, extracted

existing in Nepaul,

without

be relied on, and that

it s

further observation on

it

than

contents are so far from being local

to Nepaul, that the largest portion of the books neither are, nor ever

were pro-

curable in this valley.

The Bauddhast were used, in old time, to insert at the end of any particular
lists of the names of many of their sacred wr itings; and to this usage of

work,

theirs

am

indebted

for the large catalogue

LIST
1.

which

have obtained.

OP SANSKRIT BAUDDHA WORKS.

PURANAS OR EXOTERIC WORKS.

Satasahasrika Prajna Paramita.

2 Pancha Vinsati Sahasrika Prajna Paramita.


3 Ashtadasa Sahasrika Prajna Paramita.

4 Ashta Sahasrika Prajna Paramita.


5 Sapta Sati Prajna Paramita.
6 Prajna Paramita Vyakhya.
7

Ganda Vyuha.*

Bhadrachari.

8 Dasa Bhumeswara.

9 Samadhi Raja.f
10 Lankavatara.
II

Saddharma Pundarika

Bhadrachari.

12 Lalita Vistara.

13 Tathagata Guhyaka, or

Guhya Samadhi

(Tantra).

14 Suvarna Prabhasa.
*

Ascribed to Arya Sanga, and teaches the Yogacharya branch of the Mahayana.
tThis book and the Buddhavatamsaka and the Ratnakiita are works aseribd
whom the western barrier mountain of the Val

to Nagarjuna, a transcendentalist after


ley of Nepaul is named.

LIST
1*5

Mahavastuavadana.

1(3

Divyavad.ina.

OF

BUDDHIST WORKS.

37

Samaj ataka. Kinnarij ataka


Dipankaravastu. Birkiisavadana.
Sardvilak irnavadana.

Opakkadh avadana.

17 Satakavadana.

Barikavad

Rasktra Palavadana.
1

Bkadrakalpavadana.

Birkiisavadana.

Kinnarijataka.

Bodki Ckaryavatara.

19 Asokavadana.

Sapta Kurnarik ivadana.


Durgati Parirshodkana.
Akortitri vrata.

Kartika Makatmya.
Ckaitya Pungava.

20 Vicliitra Karnikiivadana.
21 Dwavinsatyavadana.

22 Rataamalavadana, or Ratnavadana

Suchandravakina.

23 Avadana Kalpalata.
24 Sugatavadana.
25 Dkarnia Koska.

26 Dkarma Sangraka.
27 Vinaya Sutra4

28 Makayana Sutra.
29 Makayana Siitralankara.

30 Gosringa Vyakkyana.
31 Salackakravadana.

32 Jatakavadana.
33 Jataka Mala

34

Maka Jataka

'

Viswantaraj ataka.

Mala.

35 Swayambkii Purana Kalpa.


36 Swayambkii Purana Mahata.
37 Swayambkii Purana

Madkyama.

38 Swayambkii Purana

Manickiiravadana.

39 Karanda Vyiika.

40 Gunakaranda Vyiika.
41 Sukkavati Vyiika.

42 Karuna Pundarika.

43 Lalita Vistara, or Tatkagata Janmavadana.


44 Laukika Lankavatara.
45

C baity a Makatmya.

46 Kalpadrumavadana

Kavikumaravadana.

X Only trace of Vinaya eo nomine, though this be one grand division of the book*
But Burnouf I think observes that the Vinaya la..
of the Ceylonese and Tibetans.
of books in those places is represented by the Avadana, its equivalent in Nepaul.
i

LIST

38

OF

BUDDHIST WORKS.
Uposhadhavadana.

47 Dharma Kosha Vyakhya.


Suinagadhavadana.

48 Avadana Sarasaniniuchaya

Sahakopadesavadana.
Kapisavadana.

Kathinavadana.
Pindapatravadana.

Nandimukka.

49 Vratavadana Mala

Sugkoskavadana.

Dhimatyavadana.
Sringabheri, &c.

50 Anumana kkanda.
51 Adikarrna pradipa.

52 Sadkana yuga Tippani.


53 Manju Sri Parajika.*

54 Vajra Satwa Parajika.


55 Lokeswara Parajika.

56 Okhando Mrityulata.
57 Suvarnavarnavadana.

58

Tara,

Satanama.

59 Buddha Siksha Samuchchaya.


60 Pancha Rakska.
61 Buddhokta Sansaramaya.

62 Lakska Chaitya Vratanusansa.


63 Pratimoksha Sutra.
64 Vajra

Siichi.

65 Buddha Charita Kavya.

66 Gautama Kavya.
67 Punya Pratisaha Kavya.

68 Lokeswara Sataka Kavya.


69 Sragdkara Kavya.
70 Vidagdkaruukhamandana Kavya.
2.

71

Pramodya Makayuga

TANTRAS OR ESOTERIC WORKS.f


Tantra.

72 Paramartka Seva Tantra.


73 Pindi

Krama

Tantra.

108 Vajravfra Tantra.


109 Vajra Satwa Tantra.

110 Marichi Tantra.

74 Samputodbhava Tantra.

Ill Tara, Tantra.

75 Hevajra Tantra.

112 Vajradhatu Tantra.

76 Buddha Kapala Tantra.

113 Virnalaprabha Tantra.

77 Samvara Tantra, or Sanivarodya.

114 Manikarnika Tantra.

*Nos. 53, 54, and 55 are Vinaya as to matter.


expulsion from the congregation.
fSee Asiatic Researches, vol.

Gogerly says 52 related to the law


v., p.

62 and note.

fo

OF BUDDHIST WORKS.

LIST

78 Varahi Tanira, or Varahi Kalpa.

39

115 Trilokvavijaya Tantra.

79 Yogambara Tantra.

110 Sampiita Tantra.

80 Dakini Jala Tantra.

117

81 Sukla Yamari Tantra.

118 Kuru Kula Tantra.

Marma

Kalika Tantra.

82 Krishna Yamari Tantra.

119 Bhiita Damara.

83 Pita Yamari Tantra.

120 Kala Chakra Tantra.

84 Rakta Yamari Tantra.

121 Yogini Tantra.

85 Syama Yamari Tantra.

122 Yogini Sanchara Tanira.

86 Kriya Sangraha Tantra.

123 Yogini Jala Tantra.

87 Kriya Kan

la

124 Yogambarapitha Tantra.

Tantra.

125 Uddamara Tantra.

83 Kriya Sagara Tantra.


89 Kriya Kalpa

Druma

12

Tantra.

Vasundhara Sadhana Tantra.

127 Nairatma Tantra.

90 Kriyarnava Tantra.
91 Abhidanottara Tanira.

128 Dakarnava Tantra.

92 Kriya Samuchchaya Tantra.

129 Kriya Sara Tantra.

93 Sadhana Mala Tantra.

130 Yamantaka Tanira.

94 Sadhana Samuchchaya Tantra.

131

95 Sadhana Sangraha Tantra.

132 Tantra Samuchchaya Tantra.

Manju

Sri Kalpa Tantra.

90 Sadhana Ratna Tantra.

133 Kriya Vatansa Tantra.

97 Sadhana Pariksha Tantra.

134 Tantra Sloka Sangraha.

9S Sadhana Kalpalata Tantra.

135 Hayagriva Tantra.

136 Sankirna Tantra.

99 Tatwa Jnana Siddhi Tantra.

137 Namasangiti Vyakhya, Tantra.

100 Jnana Siddhi Tantra.


101

Guhya Siddhi

138 Amrita Karnika nama Sangiti Tika.

Tantra.

102 Udyana Tantra.

139 Gddhotpada nama Sangiti Tika.

103 Nagarjuna Tantra.

140 Maya jala Tantra.

104 Yogapitha Tantra.

141 Jnanodaya Tantra.

105 Pithavatara Tantra.

142 Vasanta Tilaka Tantra.

103 Kalavira Tantra, or Ohanda Roshana. 143 Nispanna Yogambara Tantra.

Pancha Buddha Dharani

Pratyangira
107

Maha Kala

144 Dharani Sanjrraha.

Tantra.

Dharani,
Saptavara Dharani, ^Yit]l
hundreds more, the work
being a collection of them

all.

N. B. Names on the right are portions of the work written opposite them
on the left priorly they had been treated as separate works.
;

The whole

of the above are classed under the

two important heads of Exoteric

and Esoteric, the subdivisions not being noted. This list has been corrected
the paper to which it was originally attached was written.
In a clever paper in the

first

since

and second numbers of the Calcutta Quarterly

(Review of the Bombay Literary Transactions), it is said


that one of the distinctions between Jainisin and Buddhism is, that the Jaina
statues are all naked, and the Bauddha statues all clothed.
The pictures were
Oriental Magazine,

sent to prove that this notion

was

false.

The Bauddha images

are called

Digam-

THE BUDDHIST TRIAD.

40

bora* a name heretofore fancied to be peculiar to Jainism this is another error,


and were this the place for dissertation, I could bring forward many other pre;

who

sumptions in favour of the notion that the Jainas are sectarian Bauddhas,\

Bauddha brethren merely

dissented from their

in carrying to a gross excess,

and in

promulgating publicly, certain dangerous dogmas, which the more prudent Buddhists
chose to keep veiled from

though I have been

The Nepaul Buddhists

but the initiated.

all

jealous of any intrusion into their esoteric

dogmas and symbols;

(Bauddha though he

me some

brought

secret things at

esoteric pictures

all, if

small degree, myself;

nor probably should

had not been able

and

my

in

power, I at

With

my Bauddha

my

and

twelve months

have got at these

my

hands a picture

these decisive means of questioning

last

got

me

copies of the naked saLits,

sanctuary, to bring

that

examine the Bauddha books, in some

to

a B/iotii/a had not put into

if

containing one of these naked saints.

last

so,

old Vajra

dogmas

esoteric

has only within these

be,)

are very

much

my

for seven years enquiring after these things,

Achdnja friend only recently gave me a peep at the


CJiitrakdra,

so

assistants to

draw up the

and

to tell

veil of the

me

little

of

the naked doctrines.

Every part of each image


are marked,

mudrd)
the

by the

first,

secondly,

significant

is

the differences

by the variety of the supporters,

vaiiely of the cognizances or chinas

yellow, or golden

colour

is

white

by

Amitdblia's, red

difierence of

it

may

upon which
dha,

be advisable to state here

'

About the former

latter.

dlirl), I

Bodhandtmaka

in the first

Buddhism

of

rank stands the authority

To the word Dhdrana,

is

(under the names

often styled, in
'

Dharma,

that

bias

define

Dharma.'

iti

may

con-

or holding, containing, sustaining (from


;

Dharma,

first,

because

it is

opposed to

the prdvrlttika personification

the most authentic books, Prakrit estcari

goddess of matter

;'

and

thirdly, because this goddess

Abya Tatja, etc.) in very many passages


the ma erial cause of all things; conform-

Pra.txa,

Bauddha works, described

ably, indeed, with

The Bauddhas

of these definitions there can be no difficulty; there

the material goddess,' or

of old

Vai-

colour.

Ratna-Sambhava s

Dhdran-dtmaka

have assigned a material sense

of this principle,

is,

and

Buddha

iti

bodhdna; secondly, because the goddess

by
and

have assigned the meaning of intellectual essence to the word Bud-

the words thus

the root

and Amot/ha-Siddha's, green.J

and that of material essence to the word Dharma.

cerning the

the

There are a few matters connected with the following sketch

which

five

called

called vdhanas; thirdly,

Akshobhyds, blue

is

placed between the supporters

fourthly (where painting and colours are used),


rochana's appropriate

between the

the hands (which

different position of

as

towards materialism, which our heretofore scanty

knowledge of Buddhism has led us

to assign to the Saitjata faith.

*See J.R.A.S. ii. 1, 140.


f See Digambar and Yogambar.
% For the positions of these Buddhas in Chaitya temples see further on j Akshobhya
is enshrined on the east side, Ratna Sambhava on the south, Amitabha on the west,
and Anio/ha Siddha on the north. Vairochana is seldom found, but if he be, his
station is immediately to the right of Akshobhya, Amogha Siddha has always a canopy
of snakes.
For Nagapiija in Nepanl see further on.

BUDDHIST COSMOGONY.
member

Sangha, the third

of the Triad, belongs not to the exalted state of

things, or

which no sect of Bauddhas admits more than two principles of all


mind and matter, Buddha and Dharma. Sangha is defined Samuddyi

dtmaka

Sangha,

ninrWi,

in

iti

'

world of

'

In note 31, I have distinctly rejected the

my

Bauddha

old

There can be no doubt that

tive

name

the

Vajra

of the

of the

my

friend

Bandgas*

order of

fifth

friend's

or

Vajra

is

statement in the text of the

mistaken

many high

for in

collec-

Chatur Varna, and are therein described without mention of

Achdrgas.

you that he

may

It

serve to explain

my

friend's

statement

to tell

himself a Vajra Achdrga; and that as the genuine monachism

is

Buddhism has long

since passed

away

in Nepaul, sundry local books

been composed here by Vajra Achdrgas, in which they have made their
order coequal with the four ancient orders

modern Nepaul books


I

is

and true orders of Bandgas are called by the

authorities, the four original

of

held to be

is

the palpable world,' as unity

nirvrltti, or 'abstraction.'

Aehdrga*, in opposition to
Sketch.

because multitude

;'

the multitudinous essence

as strong a characteristic of pravrUH, or

sufficient

and

my

old friend

have

own modern

would hold these

warrant for the rank ascribed

Ms own

to

class.

have lately spoken to him on this subject, and he has confessed that there

no old authority

carefully to separate

quoad this point of

Buddhism

as

it is

If

classification.

works on Nepaul, you

how

will see

things as they are from


hints

order of Bandgas.

for his fifth

(in

my

In

is

note I have endeavoured

Nepaul) and Buddhism as

it

ought to

be,

you look into Kirkpatrick's and Buchanan's

they have been puzzled with the difference of

what they ought

and erroneous

to be, in those casual

which they have afforded on the subject of Buddhism.

In note 15, I have stated that the Kdrmikas and Ydtnikas entertained tolerably
just views on the grand subject of free-will and necessity; and I believe I

therein essentially correct


sion of faith,

'

Still,

'

otherwise are

we

Conduct

is

is

the vehicle of the sense of this passage, and

fate

:'

were I cross-examined,

law of freedom
I

am

to understand their confes-

the actions of a man's prior births are his destiny?'

metempsychosis, which
old adage,

how

for

Exclude the

we have

our

surely.

might be forced

to confess,

that

the ideas which

the Kdrmikas and Ydtnikas entertain of free-will, seem to resemble rather the
qualifications of our Collins

and Edwards, than the

full

and absolute freedom of

Clarke and the best European philosophers.

The Kdrmikas and Ydtnikas seem

to

have been impressed with the fact of

man's free-will, but to have been perplexed in reconciling such a notion with
the general spirit and tendency

of

the old

Sirdbhdvika philosophy.

But

in

the result, the Kdrmikas and Ydtnikas seem to have adhered to free-will, though

perhaps in the qualified sense above mentioned.

Question

How

and when was the world created

I.

*Bandya is the original and correct form of the Chinese Bonze and Mongolian
Bandida, as Arhata or Arhanta is of the Indo-Chinese Rahatun.

BUDDHIST COSMOGONY.

42

Answer.
According to the Sambhu Purdna, in the beginning
first

light that

was produced
nothing

called

Mahd

(See note

universe.

was,

else

Aum

was manifest was the word


1.)

all

The

was void (sunya).

and from

this

Aum

the alphabet

Varna, the letters of which are the seeds of the

In the

Sambhu was

Guna Kdranda Vyuha


that

is

written,

is

it

the self-existent (Swayamblm)

when
and

was before all, he is also called A'di-Buddha. He wished from one to


become many, which desire is denominated Prapia. Buddha and Prajna united
In
(See note 2.)
became Prajna Upaya, as Siva Sakti, or Brahma Mava.
as he

the instant of conceiving this desire, five forms or beings were produced, called

Vairochaxa,
the five Buddhas (see note 3), whose names are as follows
Akshobhya, Ratna-Sambhava, Amitabha, Amogha-Siddha. Each of these
Buddhas, again, produced from himself, by means of Dhydna, another being called
his Bodhi-Satioa, or son. Vairochana produced Samanta-Bhabra; Akshobhya,
Amitabha, Padma-Pani;
Vajra-Pani; Batna-Sambhava, Ratna-Pani;
and Amogha-Siddha, Viswa-Pani.
:

Of

these five Bodhi-Sahcas, four are engrossed with the worship of

known

Sambhu

them than their names; the fifth,


Padma-Pani, was engaged by Sambhu's command, in creation (see note 4) and
having by the efficacy of Sambhu's Dhydna, assumed the virtues of the three
Gunas, he created Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesa, and delegated to them resAccordingly, by Padrua-Pani's
pectively, creation, preservation, and destruction.
(SwayambhiiJ, and nothing more

is

of

commands, Brahma
viviparous,

rous,

set about creating all things

etc.,*)

came

into

existence

and the Chatur-yoni (or ovipa-

Brahma.

by

The

creation of

Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesa by Padma-Pani, is confirmed by the sloka (see note
5), the meaning of which is, Kamali (Padma-Pani,) produced Brahma for creaAnd the creation of
ting, Vishnu for preserving, and Mahesa for destroying.
Brahma is six-sorted, viz., Deva, Daitya, Mdnusha, etc. and, for the Devas,
;

Brahma made heaven

and

for the

Daityas, Pdtdla

and the four remaining lands

he placed between these two regions and upon the earth.

With

respect to the

the highest

And below
thirteen

is
it,

mansions (Bhuvanas) of the universe,

Bhuvand

called Agnishtha

(see note G)

of

this is the

named, Pramdditd,

it

is

related, that

abode of Adi-Buddha.

and according

to others,

Tl'mald, Prabhdkari,

Ar< hish-

Abhimukhi, Durangamd, AcJiald, Sddhumati, Dharma-megha

(x),

These thirteen Bhuvanas

are

Samanta-prabhd, Nirdpamd, Jnydnavati

work

and

according to some accounts, there are ten

Bhuvanas

mati, Sudurjayd,

the

Adi-Buddha: they

a faithful follower of

Buddha

(xiii).f

are the B6dhi- Sat ica

Bhuvanas

and whoever

is

will be translated to one of these mansions after

death.

By et ctetera always understand more Brdhmanorum.


t Aknishtha or Agnishtha is not named in the Dasa Bhuvana, and neither therein nor
here is any mention made of the abodes of the five Dhyani Buddhas and not Aehala
but Samanta Bhadra is the tenth Bhuvana. Nirupama, Aehala, and Jnyanavati are the
three extra Bhuvanas.
*

BUDDHIST COSMOGONY.
Below the
ually

These are subject to Brahma, and are named individ-

Rupyavachara,

lectively

43

are eighteen Bhuvanas, called col-

Bhuvanas

thirteen BddJd-Satica

Brahnia-kayika, Brahma-piirohita, Brahina-prashadya,

Maha Brahmana,
Anabhraka,

Paritabha, Apramanabha, Abhaswara, Parita-subhd, Subhakiskna,

Puuya-prasava, Yrikat-phiila, Arangi-satwa, Avriha, Apaya, Sudrisha, Sudarsana,

and Sumiikha.
Bhuvanas

And below
called

Pious worshippers of

Brahma

go to one of these eighteen

shall

after death.

the eighteen mansions of Brahma, are six others subject to Vishnu,

collectively

Kdmdvachard, and separately

as follows

Chatiir-Mahd-rdja-

Kdyikd, Trayastrinsd, Tushita, Yamd, Nirmdnavati, Paranirmitd-Vasavarti.

whosoever worships Vishnu with pure heart

And below
deva,

called

Bhuvanas of

Maha-

generally Arupyavachard, and

as

follows

Abhdgd-

Ritya-yatndpagd,

Indra Bhuvana,

down

earth are seven Divipas,

Par vat as or mountains

and Chandra Bhuvana

also called

Agni-kunda.

T ^ayu-kunda is Prithvi, or

Jambu Dwipa,

etc.

and the earth

is

as Dharani, etc.
is

and these eight compose the

Manjusrf.

Brahma down
Manjusri

is

command,
Thus Manjusri

by

his

and on the
and eight
Prithvi

six of

them

is

And

are the

Naraka, consisting of eight separate

hell of sinners

to the eight

and from the eighteen Bhu-

chambers of Naraka,

by the Bauddhas esteemed the great

structs the mansions of the

are

together

on the waters as a boat.

abodes of the Daityas; and the seventh

vanas of

seas,

And below

etc.

helow the Jdla-kunda are seven Pdtdlas,

abodes

And below Agni-

the earth

and seven Sdgai'as or

Sumcru Parvata,

(see note 7),

Jala-kunda, or the world of waters

and these are the

the planets, and various others which occupy

stars, of

Agni Bhuvana,

to the

Below the mansions enumerated,

Yama Bhuvana, Surya Bhuvana,

Vayu-kunda; and below

is

particularly

Akinchanya-yatndpagd,

Vgnyd-yatndpagd,

with the mansions of the fixed

kunda

And

go to one of these.

the six Bhuvanas of Vishnu are the three

heavens designed for pious Siva-Mdrgis.

the places

shall

all

is

work

the

architect,

who

of

con-

world by Adi-Buddha's command, as Padma-Pani,

creates all animate things.


(see note 8) is the

Visva-karma of the Bauddhas

and

is

also the

author of the sixty-four Vidyds.

Question
"What was the origin of mankind

II.

Answer.
It is written in the

narrative portion of our

Tantras, that originally the earth

was uninhabited. In those times the inhabitants of Abhdsumrd Bhuvana (which


is one of the Bhuvanas of Brahma) used frequently to visit the earth, and thence
It happened at length, that, when a few of these
speedily to return to Abhdsward.
beings, who, though half males and half females, had never yet, from the purity of
their minds, conceived the sexual desire, or even noticed their distinction of sex,

came, as usual, to the earth, Adi-Buddha suddenly created in them so violent a


longing to eat, that they ate some of the earth, which had the taste of almonds,

and by eating

it

they

lost their

power of

flying

back to their Bhuvana, and so

BUDDHIST COSMOGONY.

44

They were now constrained

they remained on the earth.

and from eating these

to eat the fruits of the

they conceived the sexual

earth

for sustenance

desire,

and from that time, and


and began to associate together
commenced from the union of the sexes.

fruits

in that

When
was

their leader,

and he was the


it

first

With

respect to time,

we

the immediate creator of

is

conceive the Satya-yuya to be the beginning of time,

and the Kali-yuga the end of

which

culars of

which

it

and the duration of the four yugas, the par-

Brahmanical scriptures, have no place in our's

are found in the

merely written that there are four yugas

it is

and that in the

lived 80,000 years; in the second, 10,000; in the third 1,000:


is

)*

king of the whole earth.

written that Adi-Buddha

is

'..

Sainvata

things in heaven and earth.

all

in

Maha

the beings above-mentioned came last from Abhdsward,

In another Tantra

manner,

(See note

the origin of mankind

divided into four periods; in the

the second,

fifty

years

the close of the Kali-yuga

alone remain

and then

all

which when completed,

all

and

all

How many

have

layas)

and their stature will

is

revolutions of the four yugas

now passed, and how many remain


matter, and

what

Adi-Buddha

a Pralaya.

is

things else to live in their dura-

things will be again destroyed, and thus there

Question

What

in

when

in the fourth,

will be seventy-one pralayas, or completions of the four yugas,

laya will arrive.

100 years;

will live

and

m< n

things will be destroyed, and Adi-

and this period of four gagas

will then again create the four yugas,


tion,

men

of which,

approaching, seven years only

is

be only the height of the thumb

Buddha

first

the third, twenty-five years

in

first,

and the fourth

to revolve,

is

when Malta Prahow many pra-

{i.e.

nowhere written.

III.

spirit ?

Answer.
Body

elements

five

and

Adi-Buddha.

of

ticle

and
in

(see note 10),

which

soul,

which

is
is

called

prdna and

all,

whether

faculty of

soul
in

is

unchangeable.

man

speech,

which the meaning


the Angas of

jiva, is a particle of the essence

Body, as created out of the elements, perisheth

of the divine spirit, perisheth not


lean, etc.

and Delia, was produced from the

called Sarira

or

Body

body

is

But men have,

any other creature.

this: " Delia is derived

Swayambhu"

soul, as a par-

different in all animals

is

which other animals have not


is

subject to changes

to

soul

fat

alike

besides prdna, the

according to the

from the

be

is

five Bltutas,

sloka,

of

and Jiva from

(See note 11.)

Question IV.
Is

matter an independent existence, or derived from

God

Answer.
Body, according to some, depends upon the inhaling and exhaling of the Prdna-

Vdyu; and

this inhalation

and exhalation of the breath

(prdna), which virtue, according to some,


* See
the

is

is

by virtue of the soul

derived from God, and according to

Tumour's and Csoma de Korijs versions


Asiatk tioritty of Bengal.

of

this legend,

in the

Journal of

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
others (see note 12),

Some

this subject.

bhdvdka;

Swdbh&va

who makes

And

whence

And

45

much

diversity of opinion on

of the Buddha-mdrgis contend that deha (the body)

the eyes, the

womb ? Swdbhdva ! And

mother's

is

Swd-

is

from the copulation of males and females, new bodies proceed:

i.e.,

and they ask

beasts,

inherent in itself: there

is

who

points

them

timidity of the deer kind, and the fury of the ravenous

the

are

the limbs, etc. of the fcetus in the

flesh,

the thorns of the desert,

they? from Swdbhdva!

specimen of their reasoning and proofs, according to a sloka of

this is a

the Buddha-Chaiita-Kavya.

Some

(See note 13.)

sdra are Aiswarika (see note 14),

i.

again say, that deha and ean-

produced by Iswara, or Adi-Buddha,

e.,

according to another sloka.

Some

human body Kdrmika,

again call the world and the

the cause of this existence of deha and sansdra


to a

and works,

(kshetra),

field

affected

not

it

so

was the

man

but when

Karma,

ceived was subject to

And

to a seed.

which man received was created

solely

put

off

or the

opinion

"

first

Some

and some that

persons say that Sansdra


it is

of these matters.

Do you

body

first

body

body which he re(see note

15)

and

Mukti and Mulcsh a ; and

from transmigration must pay his

free

aftt r

And, in the Buddha-Charita-Kavva

Sakya

points,
is

expressed

Sivdbhdvaka, some that

Aiswarika and Atmaka;

is

deha

first

worldly goods to Buddha, nor ever

all his

respect to these

Karma

that

and at that time works

his first body, the next

works of the

suffer such things to excite his desires.

written, that with

e.,

they relate, that the

by Adi-Buddha

whoever would be

devotions to Buddha, and consecrate

i.

and they liken the

next, and all future ones, until he attained to

therefore they say, that

is

following

it is

Kdrmika,

for myself, I can tell

address your meditation to

it

the

you nothing

Buddha; and when you

have attained Bodhijndna, you will know the truth yourselves."

Question V.

What

are the attributes of

God ?
Answer.

His distinctive attributes are many; one of which

is,

that he

is

Panchqjndndtmaka

(see note 16), or, in his essence are five sorts of fndna, possessed

and which are as follows:

first,

Suvisuddha-Dharma-Dhdiuja

third, Pratyavekshanaja ; fourth,

beings, Vairochana, etc.,


in each of these five

attributes

is

were

Buddhas

Sdmtaja;

number

in

fifth,

five,

owing

to

by him alone

second, Adarsanaja

Armshthdnqja.

one of the jndnas.

is

these

The
five

first

created

Jndnas; and

Another of Adi-Buddha's

the faculty of individualizing, and multiplying himself, and again

individualizing himself at pleasure

another

is,

possessing the qualities of passion

and clemency.

Question VI.
Is the pleasure of

God

derived from action or repose

Answee.
There are two modes of considering this subject
secondly, according to pracritti.

first,

according to nirvritti; and

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

46

Nirvritti (see note 17) is this

and an

illusion

whom

nirvritti,

Adi-Buddha

nothing can be done

remains but himself.

an

to be

know

is

whose care

But some

containeth

all it

i>

view of

who

all

pravritti,

may

yet the wise

is

among

distributed

all

And

things.

king,

this

who

and punishes sinners

fructify the earth

with their rays

the

Such

pravritti,

in this latter

gives orders; and

who

execute his

In this

slaves.

way

the

the deities, each having his proper

Thus the
:

Buddhas

five

Brahma by

orders, destroys

Yama

Indra and Varuna give rain

is

the orders of

Vishnu, by the same orders, cherishes

and Maha Deva, by the same

sins,

and moon

and

and Adi-Buddha has no concern with it.


and moksha to good men

Paduta-Paui, performs the part of creator

zance of

He

but

found to be unity;

is

be distinguished in

give mukti (see note 19)

know

yet one.

all living things, is

Adi-Buddha may be considered a

business of the world

beings

and nothing

and outward members, of this monad

orders; and we, poor mortals, his subjects, servants,

all

inhabitants

its

annihilated,

the five Buddhas, and other divinities of heaven, his ministers,

functions;

Therefore,

things, without

profess nirvritti, contend that the

from Adi-Buddha

which, being deeply studied,

multiplicity,

is

the opposite of this

and

sustains the world

persons,

is distinct

the lirnbs

and they are but

which

is

(See note 18.)

error.

nirvritti,

and Pravritti

them they became

Adi-Buddha, though he comprehends


soul,

the world to be a mere semblance, unreal,

the author and creator of

he averts his face from

and the moment


world with

to

practice and notions of ordinary men.

sublime science, andis the


according to

and to know God to be one

and so of the

takes cogni-

and the sun

rest.

Question VII.

Who

is

Buddha

heaven, or of a

Is

woman

he God, or the creator, or a propbet or saint

born of

Answeh.
Buddha means,
and

in Sanskrit, 'the wise

;'

also, 'that

one of the names which we give

it is

dha, because he was before

all,

and

is

to

God,

which

is

known by wisdom

whom we

not created, but

is

also

the creator

;'

Adi-Bud-

call
:

and the

Pancha Dhydni Buddhas were created by him, and are in the heavens. Sakya, and
These latter,
the rest of the seven human Buddhas are earth-born or human.
by the worship of Buddha, arrived at the highest eminence, and attained Nirvana

Pada
call

(i.e.

tbem

What

were absorbed into Adi-Buddha).

all

is

(See note 20.)

We

therefore

Buddhas.

the reason for

Question VIII.
Buddha being represented with

curled locks

Answer.
Adi-Buddha was never seen. He is merely light. (See note 21.) But in the
and
pictures of Vairochana, and the other Buddhas, we have the curled hair
;

since in limbs

and organs we discriminate thirty-two points of beauty (TakshanasJ,

such as expansion of forehead, blackness of the eyes, roundness of the head, eleva-

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
tion of the nose, archedness of the

eyebrows

one of the points of beauty, and there


represented with curled locks.

47

so also the having curled locks

no other reason

is

for

is

Buddha's being

(See note 22.)

Question IX.

What

names of the great Buddha?


the word Buddha, or any substitute for it?
for Buddha ?

Does the Neicdri language admit

are the

and what

is

name

the Bhotiya

Answer.
The names

of

Adi-Buddha

are innumerable

Dharma-

Sarvajna, Sugata, Buddha,

Raja, Tathagata, Bhagavan, Samanta-Bhadra, Marajita, Lokajita, Jina, Anadini-

dhana, Adi-Buddha, Xirandhaka, Jnanaikachakshu, Amala, Jnana-Miirti, Vackeswara, Maha-Vadi, Vadirata, Vadipuugava, Vadisinha, and Parajata.

and the other


follows

five

Buddhas, have

also

many names.

Some

Vairochana,

of Vairochana's are as

Maha-Dipti, Jnana-Jyotish, Jagat-Pravritti, Mahatejas, &c.

and so of

Padma-Pani also has many names, as Padina-Pani, Kaniali,


Padma-Hasta, Padma-Kara, Kamala-Hasta, Kamalakara, Kamala-Pani, Aryathe other four.

valokiteswara, Aryavalokeswara, Avalokiteswara,

Many

23.)

whom

to

of the above

I do not

and

Loka-Xatka*

(See note

are intercommunicable between the several persona

Buddha

they are here appropriated.

BhoUya names

the

names

know

is

a Sanskrit word, not Neicdri

but I have heard they

call

Sakya Sinha.

Sungi Thuba: Sungi meaning the deity, and Thiibaf his Alaya or Vihdrn.

Question X.
In the opinion of the Banras, did
often

and what

is

God

make a descent on earth?


name of each Acatdra f

ever

the Sanskrit and Newdri

how

if so,

An saver.
According to the scriptures of the Bvddhamdrgis, neither Adi-Buddha nor any
of the Pancha

Dhydni Buddhas

(see note 24), ever

they were never conceived in mortal


certain persons of mortal

womb

made

a descent; that

is

to say

nor had they father or mother

mould have by degrees attained

but

to such excellence of

nature and such Bodhifndna, as to have been gifted with divine wisdom, and to have

Buddhamdrga

taught the Bodhi-charya and

Vipasyi, Sikhi, Viswabhii, Krakutchanda,

In the Satya-yuga were three


the house of

Vinduman Raja;

other

Vipasyi,

who wasborn

Sikhi, in TJrna

Desa, in the house of a Kshatriya

has

;
and these were seven, named
Kanaka muni, Kasyapa, Sakya Sinha.

in

Vindumati Niagara, in

Desa; and Viswabhii,

in the Trctdyuga,

in

Anupama

two persons became Budd-

one Krakutchandaj in Kskemavati Kagara, in the house of a Brahman; the


Kanaka Muni, in Subhavati Nagara, in the house of a Brahman and in
:

the Dwdpara-yuga, one person

named Kasyapa,

in Vdrdnasi

Nagara,

in the

house

We

do not find Matsyendra among these synonymes though he be now usually idenwith Padma Pani. For Avalokiteswara see Fahian, p.p. 115-117.
t Sanskiitice Stlnipa, a tomb, temple. But Csoma de Koros gives Sange Thubba as
*

tified

his

name

only.

T
[The name is Sangs- Gyas Thub-pa, from Sang-jay T'ub-pa, and means: 'the Holy
One, the Conqueror.' J.S.

"

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

48
of a

Sakya, then called Sarvartha Siddha

and in the Kali-yuga*

Brahman:

house of Suddhodana Raja, a Sdkyavansi, in the city of

25), in the

(see note

Kapilavastu, which

near

is

many

seven, there are

The

but none equal to these.

Buddhas,

history of these seven, and of other

Besides these

became Buddhas.

Gangasagara,f

illustrious persons

is

particular

written in the Lalita Yistara.

(See note 25.)

Question XI.

How many

Avatdras of Buddhas have there been, according to the Lamas

Answer.
They agree with
our

us in the

worship of the seven Buddhas, the difference in

Lamas go

notions being extremely small; but the

contend that they themselves are Avatdras.

were

his time, there

five

Lamas esteemed

divine

than this and

further

have heard from

my

father, that, in

the names of three of

them

have forgotten, but the remaining two are called Shamurpa and Karmapa.

Question XII.

Do

the

Lamas worship

the Avatdras recognized by the Newdrs

Answer.
The Lamas

are

orthodox Buddhamdrgis, and even carry their orthodoxy to a

greater extent than

we

do.

Insomuch, that

it

is

said,

that Sankara Acharya,}

Siva-Mdrgi, having destroyed the worship of Buddha and


taining

its

doctrine

in

Hindustan,

came

to

the scriptures con-

Xepaul, where also he effected

There he had a conference with


The Lama, who never bathes, and after natural evacuations
does not use topical ablution, disgusted him to that degree, that he commenced
The Lama replied, "I keep my inside pure, although my outreviling the Lama.

much

mischief; and then proceeded to Bhot.

the grand

side be

sr=>

Lama.

impure

while you carefully purify yourself without, but are filthy within

and at the same time he drew out his whole entrails, and shewed them to Sanand then replaced them again. He then demanded an answer of Sankara.

kara

Sankara, by virtue of his yoga, ascended into the heavens

I-

the

shadow of Saukara's body on the ground, fixed a knife


shadow Sankara directly fell upon the knife, which pierced
the

him

instantly.

for the fact

Such

is

is

perceiving

his throat and killed

the legend or tale that prevails, and thus

that the Buddhamdrgi practice of Bhot

more numerous, than

Lama

in the place of the

we account

purer, and its scriptures

ours.

Question XIII.

What

is

the

name

of your sacred writings, and

who

is

their author

* This allotment into four yugas is apochryphal.


The three first Buddhas belong to
the penultimate Kalpa, and the four last to the present, or Bhadra Kalpa.
Kapila was on
t Near or in Oude, or Rohilkhand, according to other works.
the Bhagirathi, near Kailas, say the Tibetan authorities.
back.
about
years
This
we learn from
1,000
flourished in the ninth century, or
the Brahmans, and the date is important as it agrees with the era of that persecution
which led the Southerners to seek protection in Nepanl and Tibet.
of the Sanskrit literature of Buddhism.
See pp. 36-39 for a corrected list

He

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

49

Answer.

We

" the nine

have nine Purdnas, called

Parana

is

Dharmas."

The

ceremonies of Buddhism, and the lives of our chief Tathagatas.


is

called Prajna Parantita,

work

(See note 2G.)

a narrative or historical work, containing a description of the rites and

of a philosophic character,

first

Dharma

Nydya Sdstra,
of being understood only by men

and contains 8,000


capahle

This

slokas.

is

or

of

named Ganda Vyiika,* of 12,000 slokas, which contains


the history of Sudhana Kumara, who made sixty-four persons his gurus, from
whom he acquired Bodkijndna ; the third, is the Samadhi Raj a, of 3,000 slokas,
science; the second is

in

which the nature and value of japa and tapas

Lankavatara, of 3,000 slokas, in which

is

are explained; the fourth

written

how Havana,

is

the

lord of Lanka,

having gone to Malayagiri mountain, and there heard the history of the Buddha,

from Sakya Sinha, obtained Bodliijnuna.

Guhya,

is

which

contains

an account of

mandala, and the mode and


of a temple dedicated to

ever temple
seventh,

is

The

fifth,

not to be found in Nepaul;** the sixth,

is

method of building a

the

fruits of

worshipping it.

Adi-Buddha

which

or to the

erected to Sakya, or other

called Tathagata

is

the Saddharma Pundarika

is

chaitya or

Buddha-

(Chaitya is the exclusive name

Pancha Dhyani Buddha

Manushi Buddhas, is

called

and what-

Kutdydr)

||

the

the Lalita Vistara, of 7,000 slokas, which contains the histoiy of the several

incarnations of Sakya Sinha Bhagavan,and an account of his perfections in virtue and

knowledge, with some notices of other Buddhas.

The

eighth,

is

the Suvarna

Prabha, containing, in 1,000 slokas, an account of Saraswati, Lakshmi and Prithivi;


how they lauded Sakya Sinha Bhagavan and how he, in return, gave each of
;

them what she

desired.

The

ninth,

the Dasa Bhiimeswara, of 2,000 slokas,

is

containing an account of the ten Bhuvanas of Buddha.


received from Sakya Sinha, and esteem
before the time of

memory

Sakya our

religion

them our

was not reduced

we

because

to writing, but retained in

the disadvantages of which latter method being evident to Sakya, he

secured our institutes

by writing them.

Besides these

Tantras and Dhdranis from Sakya Sinha.


in

All these Purdnas

primitive scriptures

Tantra

is

the

Puranas,

name

we

received

of those books

which Mantras and Yantras are written, explanatory of both of which we


Three of them are famous first, Maya Jala, of 16,000

have very many works.


slokas

second, Kala Chakra, of 0,000

third,

Sambhii Udaya, of 1,000.

The

Dharanis were extracted from the Tantras, and are similar in nature to the Guhya,

A Dharani is never less than eight slokas


and middle of which are written the " Vija

or mysterious rites, of the Siva-Margis.


or

more than 500;

in the beginning

Mantra," and at the end, the " Phiil Stotra," or the Mahatmya,

may

i.e.,

what

desire

be accomplished or what business achieved by the perusal of that Dharani

such, for example, as obtaining

merely the approbation of Buddha.


*See note at page 137** This is a very holy Tantra.
Kutagar is the name of the

children

advantage

over an

enemy

rainor

There are probably a thousand Dharanis.

was kept from me long, but at last I got it.


temples inferior to Chaityas, as now employed
Besides the Chaityas, the Nepaulese have temples, dedicated equally to
in Nepaul.
the Diiminores of the Bavddhas, and to many of the (adopted) deities of the Brahmans.
||

It

class of

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

50

Question XIV.

What

the cause of good and evil

is

Answer.

When

Tri-guna-Atmaka, that

Padina-Pani, having heconie

having assumed

is,

the form of Satyaguna, Rajo-guna, and Tamo-guna, created Brahma, Vishnu, and
Mahesa; then from Satya-guna, arose spontaneously (Swabhavaka), punya or

and from Tamo-guna, papa or

virtue,

two, which

mixed

quality that good acts,

and bad

acts,

of these Tcarmas or classes of actions


ten kinds,
called

excite

sixth, reviling

them

to quarrels

from speech

is

murder

(see note 27)

first

kdyaka or bodily,

slander

evil,

and from Rajo-guna, the mean of the

neither all good nor all evil

is

i. e.,

second, robbery

derived from Kdija

third, adultery,

fourth, lying

ninth, malice

e.,

derived

and tenth,

disbelief

i.

and these three are called manasa,

derived

i. e.,

ten actions opposite to these are good actions

The

of

secret

fifth,

is

which are

two persons as

and these four papas are called vachaka,

of the scriptures and immorality


'

seventh, reporting such words between

Each

from them.

divided into ten species, so that papa

eighth, coveting another's goods

from mdnas the mind.'

gun as are of such a

for these three

acts, necessarily flow

and

the ten actions, composed, half and half, of these two sorts, are mixed actions.

Question XV.

What

is

the motive of your good acts

the desiring of prospering in the world

the

love of

God

the fear of God or

Answer.
The primary motive

for

doing well, and worshipping Buddha, according to the

hope of obtaining Mukti and MoJcsha, becoming Nirvana, and

scriptures, is the

being freed from transmigrations

God

the love of

therefore they,

these exalted blessings cannot be had without

who make

true saints, and are rarely found;

difference, because they will eventually

Pada,

i.

e.,

Buddha

(see note 28)

has reached this state

from the fear of

hell,

and

to this degree

have arrived, and we


is,

in our creed, a

and avoid

are likewise rarely found,


sinners.

become Buddhas, and

will obtain

is

no

Nirvana

mukti (absorption,) and their jyotish (flame, essence), will be absorbed

into the jyotish of

Buddha"

themselves accepted of God, are the

and between them and Buddha there

evil

Sakya and the others of the "Sapta-

call

them Buddhas,

Buddha.

and their degree

is

constrained to suffer several transmigrations,


till

whoever

who

do good

from the desire of prospering

much above

in the world,

that of the class of

Their sufferings in Naraka will be therefore lessened

this world,

because,

Those persons

but they will be

and endure pain and pleasure in

they obtain Mukti and Moksha.

Question XVI.
world to come, to Adi-Buddha for your acts in this
world, or to whom will you answer ? and what rewards for good, and pains for evil,
will you reap in the next world ?

Will you answer,

How can

in the

the wicked arrive at

hurry them away to

Naraka

Answer.
Buddha ? (see note

29.)

Their wicked deeds will

and the good-will, by virtue of

their

good

acts,

be

1;

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

transported to the Bhuvanas of Buddha, and will not be there interrogated at


all

and those who have sometimes done good and sometimes

and deaths on

to a series of births

Yama

kept by

destined

evil, are

and the account of their actions

earth,

is

Raja.

Question XVII.

Do you

believe in the metempsychosis

Answer.
For

Y"es.

it is

written in the Jataka Mala, and also in the Lalita Vistara, that

Sakya, after having transmigrated through 501 bodies, obtained Nirvana Pada or

Mukti

in the last

body

but so long as

we

cannot acquire Mukti, so long

Some

pass through births and deaths on earth.


birth,

some

after the seventy-seventh,

where written that Moksha


but every

Moksha

we must

after the first

innumerable births.

after

to be obtained after a prescribed

is

man must atone for the


and when the sins

future births

and some

acquire

number

It is

no

of births

sins of

each birth by a proportionate number of

of the

body are entirely purified and absolved,

he will obtain absorption into Adi-Buddka.

Question XVIII.

What

and from whence are

note 80,) and

what

is

the Newars, from Hindust'han or Bhot

name

the word Newar, the

(see

of a country or a people

Answer.
The

natives of the valley of Nepaul are Newars.

In Sanskrit the country

is

and the inhabitants Naipali and the words Newar and Newari
are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of p to v, and l to R.
Thus too the
called Naipala,*

word Bandya, the name


bandana,

e.,

i.

salutation

Buddhamargi

of the

and reverence to the

(because

sect

its

make
metam-

followers

proficients in Bodhijnana), is

orphosed by ignorance into Banra, a word which has no meaning.

Question XIX.

Do the Newars

follow the doctrine of caste or not

Answer.
As

inhabitants of one country they are one

but

in regard to caste, they are

diverse.

Question XX.

How many

castes are there

amongst the Banras

Answer.
Banra, according to the true reading,
to our

Puranas, whoever has

is

Bandya,

adopted the

as explained above.

tenets of

According

Buddha, and has cut

off

the lock from the crown of his head, of whatever tribe or nation he be, becomes

thereby a Bandya (see note 31).

The Bhotiyas,

for

example, are Bandyas because

they follow the tenets of Buddha, and have no lock on their heads.
are divided into

two

classes

those

who

* From Ne,
'the sender to Paradise,' who
cherished. The Brahmans derive the word
name of a Patriarch or Muni.
'

'

The Bandyas

follow the Vahya-charya, and those

who

is Swayambhu Adi-Buddha, and pala,


Nepaul from Ne or Neyuni, the proper

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

52

adopt the Abhyantara-charya

words

The

a family man.

first

Grihastha asrama and

denominated Bhikshu

class is

the

The Bhikshu cannot marry; but the Vajra Acharya

second, Vajra Acharya,*


|

is

equivalent to the

The

Vairagi asrama of the Brahmanas.

latter is

Newars, Giibhal, which

is

sometimes

called, in the vernacular

not a Sanskrit word.

tongue of the

Besides this distinction into

monastic and secular orders, the Bandyasjt re again div ided, according to the scriptures, into five classes:

Chailaka;

fifth,

first,

The Bhikshu,

is

second, Bhikshu;

The Arhat

is

he

Sravaka;

third,

who

is

fourth,

perfect himself,

and

who eats what is offered to him, hut never asks for


he who assumes a staff and beggar's dish (bhikshari

can give perfection to others


anything.

Arhat;

Vajra Acharya.
;

and pinda patra), sustains himself by alms, and devotes

his attention solely to the

contemplation (dhyana) of Adi-Buddha, without ever intermeddling with worldly

The Sravaka

affairs.

tures read or reading

is

he

them

who

devotes himself to hearing the

to others

Bauddha

scrip-

these are his sole occupations, and he

sustained by the small presents of his audiences.

The Chailaka

is

is

he who contents

himself with such a portion of clothes (chilaka) as barely suffices to cover his
nakedness, rejecting everything more as superfluous.

The Bhikshu and the Chai-

laka very nearly resemble each other, and both (and the Arhat also) are bound to
practice celibacy.

The Vajra Acharya

is

he

who

has a wife and children, and

Such

devotes himself to the active ministry of Buddhism.

found in the scriptures

five classes

No

the account of the

is

but there are no traces of them in NepauLf

one follows the rules of that class to which he nominally belongs.

the Bhotiyas there are


are properly Arhats.

Among

many Bhikshus, who never marry and the Bhotiya Lamas


But all the Nepaulese Buddhamargis are married men, who
;

pursue the business of the world, and seldom think of the injunctions of their

The Tantras and Dharanis, which ought

religion.
tion,

to be read for their

own

salva-

they read only for the increase of their stipend and from a greedy desire

of money.

there

is

This division into

five

classes is according to the scriptures;

but

a popular division according to Vihars, and these Vihars being very

numerous, the separate congregations of the Bandyas, have been thus greatly
multiplied.^:

to the

or

In Patau alone there are fifteen Vihars.

five

Dhyani-Buddhas, called a Chaitya,

is

A temple to Adi-Buddha,
utterly

of Sakya and the other of the " Sapta


other chief saints and leaders of
fifteen

Buddha Manuski,"

Buddhism

are called Vihars.

distinct

from the

But the temples

Vihar, and of the form of a heap of rice or Dhanyarasya-akar.


as

well as those of

The names

of tbe

Vihars of Patan are as follows: Tankal- Vihar, Tii-Yilnir, Uak- Vihar, Bhu-

See farther on.

fin Nepaul

at present the Bandyas are divided pepularly into Vajra Acharya,


Sakya Vansi, Bhikshu or Biklm, and Chiva-bare.
The last derive their name from
living in a Vihar which has a Chaitya, vulgo Chiva, in its midst.
Others say that
Chiva in Chi vakabare is a corruption of Chailaka Bandya Potius, Bandyas wearing the
Chivara, a part of the monastic dress, a sense which would make the term signify
Bandyas adhering to their vows.
J Some years ago there were 5,000 Bandyas in the Valley of Nepaul out of a population of some 250,000.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
Vihar, Haran-Varna-Maha-Vihar, f

Rudra-Yarna-Muha-Yikar,];

Dhom- Vihar, UnYihar,

Sakya- Vihar, Guhya- Vihar, Shi- Vihar,


In short,

may

structure
tinction,

any Bandya

if

and

die,

53
Bkiksku- Vihar,

etc.

(see note 32).

son erect a temple in his name, such

his

be called such an one's (after his name) Vihar.

however, that a temple to an eminent saint

is

denominated

With

this dis-

Maha Vihar

one to an ordinary mortal, simply Vihar.

NOTES.
Here a Sloka of tke Sambhii Purana is quoted

(1)

was

my

upon

first

intention to have repeated

reflection, I believe it will

and

be better to observe, that the Sambhii Purana

Many

a work peculiar to Nepaul.

in the original paper;

it

on the margin of the translation; but,

it

Bauddha

other

scriptures,

is

however, which are

not local, and are of high authority, symbolize tke forming and changing powers
of nature by the letters of the alphabet
letters to a,

it,

and

Ji

and ascribe the pre-eminence among these

making tke mystic

syllable 6m,

which

is

not less reverenced

by Bauddhas than by Brahmanas. A, tke Bauddhas say, is the Vija Mantra of


the person Buddha; U, the Vij a Mantra of the person Dharma; and M, that of the
person Sangha and these tkree persons form tke Buddhist Triad.

The Bauddhas, however,

differ in their

mode

of classing tke tkree

persons.

According to tke Aiswarikas, tke male, Buddha, the symbol of generative power,
is

the

second

first

member

or an active creator

of
is

tke female, Dharma, the type of productive power,

and Sangha, their son,

and

ruler, deriving his origin

Buddha and Dharma.

Sangha, according to

an inferior member, of the triad.


(2)

Another sloka

text, in

which there

and Swabkavikas.

is
is

is

the

the third, and represents actual creative power,

is

from tke union of tke essences

all

tke sckools, though a member,

||

here quoted; but

it

will not justify the language of the

some confusion of the opposite doctrines of the Aiswarikas

In tke triad of tke

Prajna), tke type of productive power,

latter,
is

tke

the 'symbol of generative power, the second

tke female,
first

member

Dkarma
;

(also called

Upaya, or Buddha,

and Sangha the third; their son

as before, and the active author of creation; or rather the type of that spontaneous
creation,

which

from the union of the two principles of nature

results necessarily

before mentioned.

Buddha and Prajna imited become Upaya Prajna;


the school, and vercr as in tke text.
objects of

Bauddha worship,

see

I take tkis early opportunity to

not

contrast, tke

statements

or vice

versa,

according to

(For some further remarks upon tkese chief

Notes 12 and 29.)

remark tkat candid criticism will compare, and

made

in

Notes 10, 12, 17, 20, and 29, especially

witk reference to tke Swabkavika doctrine.

(See Note 10.)

Throughout classical and vulgar names are mixed.


% Vulgo Uku.
t Vulgo Kon.
%BaM and Bdhd or Bahal arc the vulgar names for great and common Vihars, or
Vihars with a I'liaitva, and those witk a Kutagar only, erected in the midst of them.
Temples to Manushi Buddhas and other Deities are called Kutagar commonly, though
Kutagar temples sometimes enshrine Dhyani Buddhas. A Vihar may be built round
either.
||

See Wilson's Essays and Lectures,

ii.

23

ff.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

54
The deduction

(3)

of the five

Dhyani Buddhae, and the

five

Dhyani Bodhisat-

twas, from Adi-Buddha, according to the Aiswarika Bauddhas, will be stated

and

It is a celestial or divine creation,

farther on.

is

here improperly mixed with

the generative creations, theistic and atheistic, of various doctors.


(4) See

Note 23.

The sloka quoted

(5)

worship,

of

is

from the

to be a faithful compilation

The

Kanda, which

Pivja

recent origin, and probably local to Nepaul.

latter of these is a

Buddha

was born

manual of

a mere

It professes,

however,

from the Guna-Karanda Vyiiha, and Karanda Yyiiha.

work

of respectable authority, and contains the following

Puja Kanda.

partial justification of the language of the


disciple Sarvanivarana

is

Vishkambhi,

as the son of

(Sakya, speaking to his

" In the very distant times of Vipasyi

says,)

Suganda Mukha, a merchant

in that birth I

heard from Vipasyi the following account of the qualities of Aryavalokiteswara

The sun proceeded from one of his eyes: and from the other, the
Mahadeva from between his shoulders, Brahma; from

(PadmaPani).

moon; from
his chest,

Vishnu

Prithvi

feet,

his forehead

This passage

added, that

is

is

from his mouth, Vayu

So many

from his navel, Varuna."

kiteswara's body.
it

from his teeth, Sarasvati

expanded

deities issued

from his

Guna-Karanda Vyiiha, wherein

in the

when Aryavalokiteswara had

created

Mahesa, they stood before him, and he said to the

Satyaguna and create:" and

from Aryavalo-

first,

Brahma, Vishnu, and


" be thou the lord of

"be thou the lord of Rajoguna and


preserve;" and to the third, "be thou the lord of Tamoguna and destroy." The
Guna-Karanda Vyiiha, is however a mere amplification of the Karanda Vyiiha,
and of much less authority. In a passage of the Saraka Dkara which is not
one of the sacred writings of Nepaul, but a work of high authority, written by
to the second,

Sarvajna Mitrapada, a Bauddha ascetic of Cashmeer


to issue

from the body of the supreme Prajna just

Vyiiha, they proceed from that of

The authority

(6)

for these ten

Padma

the Hindu
as,

deities are

Pani.

mansions

the Dasa Bhiimeswara, one of the

is

nine great works spoken of in the answer to the thirteenth question

The

treats professedly of the subject.


in

of

sundry works of high authority


the Chaitya

hemisphere

and which

thirteen mansions are, however, mentioned

and the thirteen grades of the superior part

Bauddha temple) are typical of the thirteen celestial


the text. The most essential part of the Chaitya is the

(or proper

mansions alluded to in
solid

made

according to the Karanda

but the vast majority of Chaityas in Nepaid have the hemi-

sphere surmounted by a pyramid or cone, called

Chudamani, and invariably

divided into thirteen grades.


(7) All this, as well as

manical writings.
tures.

There

is,

The Bauddhas seem

what

follows, is a

mere transcript from the Brah-

nevertheless, authority for


to

it

in the

Bauddha

and chronology of the Brahmans, and also a large part of their pantheon.
freely confess to

scrip-

have adopted without hesitation the cosmography

have done so at this day.

accepted by the Buddhists are, of males

The

Maha

They

favourite Brahmanical deities

Kala, Indra, Ganesa,

Hanuman,

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
and the

Of females

triad.

Lakshmi and

sidered by the Buddhists as the

and only entitled

Of

The Hindu

Sarasvati.

may seem fit

to he paid to faithful servants of

the origin of these deities, according to the

have already given one account, and referred to another.

three gunas and of the creation,

etc.,

by the Brahmanic

the Bodhisattwas, I look upon as modern

Buddhism, the Bodhisattwas

Bauddha hooks,

The notions

According to

inventions.

of the

triad as the delegates of

genuine

each in his turn, the active agents of the crea-

are,

and government of the world.

tion

An

(8)

important historical person, and the apparent introducer of Buddhism

into Nepaul.
(9) This
fesses to

by

triad are con-

mere servants of the Buddhas and Bodhisattwas,

to such reverence as

so high masters.

55

is

(See note 30).


a

most curious legend.

I have not yet seen the Tantra

whence

it

pro-

be extracted, and suspect that the legend was stolen from our Bible,

some

who

inhabitant of Nepaul,

Mosaic history of the origin and


formerly resident in this valley

had gathered a confused idea of the


mankind from the Jesuit missionaries,
perhaps the legend in question was derived

fall

or

of

from some of those various corrupt versions of the biblical story which have
been current among the Jews and Moslems of Asia
(10) This limited reply
is

the fault of

is

by the Buddhists,

called Prakriti

my

for

many

centuries.

as well as

The Swab-

by the Brahmans.*

havika school of Bauddha philosophy (apparently the oldest school)

have considered matter as the

have ascribed to

entity, to

sole

it all

seems

to

the attributes

one termed nirvritti, and the


it two modalities
To speak more precisely, the above is rather the

of deity, and to have assigned to

other pravritti.

Matter

friend and not of his books.

(See note 12.)

doctrine of the Prajnika Swabhavikas than of the simple Swabhavikas

for the

former unitize the active and intelligent powers of nature, the latter do not unitize

them

and prefer to

all

other symbols of those dispersed powers of nature the

letters of the alphabet generally,

of a,

xj,

and m.

Indeed,

it

is

and without much regard to the pre-eminence

probable that the mystic syllable Atjm

comparatively recent

importation

favourite type of creative

power with

sentations of

it

all

The

Buddhism.

into

Bauddhas

the

occur in a thousand places, and in as

altogether

is

Lotos

is

a very

and accordingly repre-

many

forms, in the

Bauddha

sculptures and architecture.

(11)

The

sloka

quoted

from a modern

is

not seen any adequate original authority;

maintain an eternal,

human
(12)

infinite, intellectual

soul an emanation from

him

manual of

have

but the Aiswarika Buddhists,

who

little

Adi-Buddha,

in all probability

of the four schools of

philosophy, and apparently the oldest, are divided into two sects

havikas simply, the other Prajnika Swabhavikas.

*Dharmma,

or that

which

and non-entity

is

Bauddha

one called Swab-

The former maintain that an

the system of nature, or of matter,

sustains, is the Bauchlha equivalent for the

Matra, or that which measures

made the

and considered Moksha a remanation to him.

The Swabhavikas, the name assumed by one

eternal revolution of entity

Puja.

all qualities in space,

the English 'matter.'

Brahmanical

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

56

exists.
The Prajnikas deify matter as the sole substance, and give
two modes, the abstract and concrete in the former, they unitize the active
and intelligent powers held to be inherent in matter, and make this unit deity.
Such is the abstract or proper mode, which is unity, immutability, rest, bliss.

which alone

it

The second is the contingent or concrete mode, or that of actual, visible, nature.
To this mode belong action, multiplicity, change, pain. It begins by the energies
of matter passing from their proper and eternal state of rest into their contingent

and transitory

state of action

and ends when those energies resume their proper

modality.

The proper mode

The powers

of matter cannot be described in their proper state of abstraction

In the

unity.

quality

is

called nirvritti;

latter state, all the order

mode

the contiugent

pravritti.

and

and beauty of nature are images of their

they are also symbolized by the Yoni, and personified as a female divinity

called Adi-Prajna and Adi-Dharina.

Man's

summum bonum

is

to pass

from the

transmigrations incident to the state of pravritti into the eternal rest or bliss

The

of nirvritti.

In the state of
lectual essence

triadic doctrine of all the schools is referable solely to pravritti,

nirvritti,

with some of the Aiswarikas, Buddha represents

and the then

sole entity

material essence exists biunchj with

With

one.

Buddha

in nirvritti, the

the Prajnikas, Prajna, in the state of

numen, Diva Natura

the

sum

of

intel-

with others of the Aiswarikas, Dharma, or

all

two being

nirvritti, is

the intellectual

the

and

in that state

summum

et

soktm'

physical forces of

matter, considered as the sole entity, and held to exist in the state of nirvritti
abstracted from palpable material substance, eternally, unchangeably, and essen-

"When

tially one.

pravritti,

associates

The

with

principle of

principle

and from that association

it,

is

male, Buddha.

feigned to be a female,

first

matter passes into the state of


first

proceeds from
the actual

results

it

and then

visible world.

the mother, and then the wife, of the

[For a glimpse at the esoteric sense of these a3nigmas, see note 29.]

The work

[13]

this essential

Buddha, the type of active power,

cited is of

exhibited in the text

is

but the mode


Bauddha works which treat

secondary authority;

to be found in all

of reasoning
of the

Swab-

havika doctrine.
[14] This is the name of the Theistic school of the Bauddha philosophers.
The Sambkii Purana and Guna-Karanda Vyiiha contain the least obscure enunand these books belong to Nepaul.
ciation of Theism
Other Bauddha scriptures,

however, which are not


interpretation.
is

the sole entity,

local,

contain abundant expressions capable of a Theistic

Bauddha philosophers who have insisted that matter


have ever magnified the wisdom and power of nature and

Even

those

they have reduced the difference of theism and atheism almost to a


nominal one so, at least, they frequently affirm.
doing

so,

The

all the schools is the want of Providence and of dominion in


though the comparatively recent Karmikas and Yatnikas
have attempted to remedy this defect. [See the following note.]

great defect of

their causa causarum,

appear to
[15]

Of two

of the four schools of

Bauddha philosophy, namely, the Swabthe two remaining schools

havika and Aiswarika, I have already said a few words


are denominated

the

Karmika and Yatnika

from

the words

Karma, meanino-

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
moral action

topics of these

nature

wisdom

and Yatna, signifying intellectual

two schools seem

its free-will, its

of

to

me

57

force, skilful

phenomena

to he confined to the

sense of right

and wrong, and

its

The proper

effort.

of

mental power.

human
To the

Swabhava, or Prajna, or Adi-Buddha, the Bauddhas, hoth Swabhavikas

and Aiswarikas, had assigned that eternal necessary connexion of virtue and
It remained for the Karmikas and Yatnikas
felicity in which they alike believed.

how

to discuss

each individual free-willed

man might most

surely hope to realize

that connexion in regard to himself; whether by the just conduct of his under-

seem

to

cultivation of his moral sense

by the proper

standing, or

have decided in favour of the former mode

Having settled these

the latter.

points, it

by linking them

to exalt their systems

was easy

to the

And

the Yatnikas

the Karmikas, in favour of

for the

Yatnikas and Karmikas

throne of the causa causarum

which they would be the more readily impelled,


faith the

in order to

to

remove from their

obloquy so justly attaching to the ancient Prajnika, and even to the

Aiswarika school, because of the want of Providence and of Dominion in their


first

That the Karmikas and Yatnikas originally limited themselves to the

cause.

phenomena

of

human

nature, I think probable, from the circumstance that, out

which

of some forty slokas

I have

had collected

to

illustrate

the doctrines of

these schools, scarcely one goes beyond the point of whether man's felicity is

And that when these schools go further (as I


?
have the evidence of two quotations from their books that they sometimes do),

secured by virtue or by intellect

the trespassing on ground foreign to their systems seems obvious

Avaddna, Sakya

says,

union of Upaya and Prajna

is

it is

said,

" Iswara

produced Yatna from Prajna, and the cause of pravritti and

manas

evil;

And

then declared to be a Karma.

work, in regard to the Yatnika doctrine,

all

thus in the Divya


arose

and from manas or 'mind' proceeded good and

lord of the senses;

and

"from the union of Upaya and Prajna,

the

and

this

same
Adi-Buddha)

(. e.,

in the

nirvritti* is

Yatna;

the difficulties that occur in the affairs of this world or of the next are

rendered easy by Yatna."

bably made to the

Impersonality and quiescence were the objections procause of the Prajnikas and Aiswarikas; and

it was to
remove these objections that the more recent Karmikas and Yatnikas feigned conscious moral agency (Karma), and conscious intellectual agency (Yatna) to have

first

been with the causa causarum (whether material or immaterial) from the beginning.

Of

all

the schools, the

Karmikas and Yatnikas alone seem

to

have been

duly sensible of man's free-will, and God's moral attributes.

The Karmika confession of faith is, a Purva janma kritam karma tad daivyam itikat.hyate" which
may be very well translated by our noble adage, " conduct is fate." Such
sentiments of human nature naturally inclined them to the belief of immaterial
existences,

and accordingly they will be found to attach themselves in theology


Aiswarika school.

chiefly to the

(16) This
nite

and

is

the divine creation alluded to in the third note.

intellectual

*Soe note 17

Adi-Buddha

possesses, as proper to his

for the sense of thpse cardinal terms,

own

The

eternal, infi-

essence, five sorts

BUDDHIST

58

PHILOSOPHT.

From these he, by five separate acts of Dhyana, created the five
of wisdom.
Dhyani Buddhas, to whom he gave the virtue of that jndna whence each derived
These five Dhyani Buddhas again created, each of them, a Dhyani
his origin.
Bodhisatwa by the joint
an act of his

efficacy of the

jndna received from Adi-Buddha, and of

own Dhyana.

The five Dhyani Buddhas are, like Adi-Buddha, quiescent and the active
work of creation and rule is devolved on the Bodhisatwas. This creation by
Dhyana is eminently characteristic of Buddhism but whose Dhyana possesses

creative

power

an eternal Adi-Buddha, say the Aiswarikas of the

that of

that

the Swabhavikas.

of any Buddha, even a Mdnushi


The Bauddhas have no other notion

by Dhyana,) which

is

Sdmbhu Parana

Buddha, say

of creation (than that

not generative.

(17) These terms are

common

to all the schools of

nirvritti is the state in

the Aiswarikas,

or mortal

which mind

Bauddha philosophy

with

exists independent of matter

With the simple


state in which it exists while mixed with matter.
Swabhavikas the former term seems to import non-entity the latter, entity. With
the Prajnika Swabhavikas, the former term signifies the state in which the active

pravritti, the

and

power of matter

intellectual

Moksha

of the

first is

Adi-Buddha

abstraction,

and

pravritti has

no pravdna.

pravritti,

am

(18) If so, I

afraid

the text in this place

is

In a word, nirvritti means

concretionfrom nirvana

is

formed

doctrine incidentally objected to

is

to the best

set off

nirvritti,

but

The doctrine of

few Bauddhas can be called wise.

that of the Aiswarikas,

The

visible nature.

of the second, absorption into

of the third, identification with Prajna.

Siinyata;

from

exists abstractedly

absorption into

advantage

the

that of the Swabhavikas and Prajnikas.

Sir

Jones assures us that the Hindus " consider creation (I should here prefer
the word change) rather as an energy than as a work." This remark is yet more
true in regard to the old Bauddha philosophers and the mooted point with them is,

W.

what energy creates

The

extrinsic?

no

old

an energy mtrinsic in some archetypal state of matter, or

Bauddha philosophers seem

sufficient evidence of

immaterial entity.

of them, at least, have united with that


operations

nor

is

to have insisted

But, what

dogma

is

a belief in moral

there one tenet so diagnostic of

and

that there

is

truly remarkable, some

Buddhism

and

as that

intellectual

which

insists

that

man

is

capable of extending his moral

True

it is,

as

Mr. Colebrooke has remarked, that the Hindu philosophy recognizes

this do-ma

pursued

it

their faith

coldly

recognizes

it,

and that

is

all

intellectual

whereas, the Bauddhas have

into its most extravagant consequences, and

and practice.

faculties to infinity.

made

it

the corner-stone of

(See note 20.)

(19)1 have not yet found that these Dhyani Buddhas of the Theistic school
They seem to be mere personifications, according to a Theistic
do anything.
theory, of the active and intellectual powers of nature and hence are called

Pancha
It

Bhiita,

may seem

Pancha Indriya, and Pancha Ayatana-Akara.


contrary to this notion of the quiescence of the five Dhyani

dhas, that, according at least to

some Nepaul works, each of them has a

BudSakti.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
Vairockana's

is

59
Ratna Sambhava's,
Tara.
But I apprekend

Vajra-Dkateswari; Akskobkya's, Lochana;

Mainukki; Aniitabka's, Pandara;

Ainogka Siddka's,

tkat tkese Buddka-Saktis are peculiar to Nepaul

and tkougk I kave found tkeir

names, I kave not found tkat tkey do any thing.

Tkere

indeed a secret and filtky* system of Buddkas and Buddka-Saktis,

is

in wkick tke ladies act a conspicuous part

dka

styled Yog'unbara; and

is

and according to wkick, Adi-Bud-

Adi-Dkarma, Jnaneswarf.

But

only keen recently revealed to me, and I cannot say more of


(20) According- to tke Aiswarikas

yata

tke Swabkavikas say, into

Tke Swabkavika

tke Prajnikas, into Adi-Prajna.

mean

It cannot

ness, since tkere are eigkteen degrees of Siinyata,

wkereof tke

so far

is

from being deemed notkingness tkat

Language

to be tke only real substance.

Bauddka

abstractions

Akasa and

doctrine of Siinyata

darkest corner of tkeir metapkysical labyrinth.

Akasa

system kas

tins

at present.

it

tke

strictly notking-

first is

Akasa

and

again and again said

it is

sinks under

Siinis

tke expression of tke

but by tbeir Siinyata. I understand sometimes tke place,

and sometimes tke form,

in

wkick tke

exist in tkeir state of separation

N. B. Tke images of

all

infinitely attenuated

elements of

all

tkings

from tke palpable system of nature.

tke seven great Manuski Buddkas, referred to in tke

answer to tke seventk question, are exactly similar

Sakya Sinka, tke

to tkat of

Tkis image very nearly resembles tkat of Akskobkya, tke

seventk of tkem.

Tke

second Dkyani Buddka.

differences

Wken

and in tke cognizances! (chinas.)

are found

only in tke

coloured tkere

is

supporters,

a more remarkable

Akskobkya being blue, and Sakya and tke otker six ALinuskis, yellow.
Tke Sambhu Parana says, manifested in Nepaul in tke form of flame (Jyotirupa.) According to tke same work, Adi-Dkarma's (or Prajna's) manifestation
diagnosis,

(21)

in Nepaul

speculation

in tke

is

(22) Tkis

is

form of water

(Jala suri'tpa).

true solution of a circumstance

tke

tkougk tke notion

is,

wkick kas caused muck

no doubt, an odd one

for a sect

wkick

idle

insists

on

tonsure

names in kis ckaracter of active creator and govTkree Dkyani Bodkisattwas preceded kim in tkat
remains to follow kim.

(23) Tkese are Padina Pani's

ernor of tke present world.


ckaracter, and one (tke fiftk)
I

(2-4)

kave already stated tkat tkese

genius of Buddkism, do notking


creative

power

is

communicated

wko

Bodkisattwas alone
It is a ludicrous

writers kave

Hindu

instance of

conformably witk tke quiescent

to tke Bodkisattwas

exercise tkat

made a fourtk

deities,

tkey are merely tke

medium tkrougk wkick

from Adi-Buddka.

It is tke

power, one at a time, and eack in kis turn.

Bauddka contempt

for

action,

tka,t

some recent

delegation of active power to tke tkree gods of tke

Triad.

(25) Until ke attained bodhijndna; and even tken, wkile yet lingering in tke
flesk,

ke got tke name of Sakya Sinka.

Tkis name kas caused some speculation,

* Tantrika S3*stem.

+ Mudnis, tke name of tke several (all) positions of tke kands


cognizances placed between the supporters or vakana.

Chinas, tkat of the

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

60

on the asserted ground of

They

Gautamavansa, iu which
(25

all

the places

numberless births and

details of Sakya's

the origin or actions of his six


other

Bauddha

scriptures differ

named

acts,

great predecessors

The
but

is

Lcdita Vistara gives

nearly silent as to

and the

like

(26) These works are regularly worshipped in Nepaul as the "


are chiefly of a narrative kind.

kind

now

is

extant in Nepaul

This

is

substance though not

have

its

form or reduction

Bauddha

scriptures) to

The Bauddhas of Nepaul hold

to

copies of

to

Calcutta.

reduced to writing, the books are

now worshipped under

of nine

Dharmas

it

Its

writing, are attributed (as are those

Sakya Sinha.

having systeniatised these words of the Buddhas, and his

The aggregation

it

"Whatever the Buddhas

Sakya

an object of worship with the Bauddhas.

said, (sugatai-desita) is

Dharma.

Nava Dhartna."

of the speculative

of philosophy rather than of religion, and its spirit

esteem, and I have sent three

of all the other

true of

is

the Itakshd Bhdgavati, consisting of no less than

is

work

The most important work

sceptical to the very verge of pyrrhouism.

in the highest

was the

as

scriptures.

They

125,000 slokas.

are Indian.

Sakya was once born.

also

This must be received with some allowance.

bis)

many

but

Sakavansa was an Indian race or family

also say that the

ample

The Bauddha

not being Indian.

its

which Sakya was born

as to the city in

is

having

earliest disciples

the

names of Sutra and

for ritual purposes

why

but

the

nine specified works have been selected to be thus peculiarly honoured I cannot

They

say.

though

are probably the oldest

and most authentic scriptures existing

in

Nepaul,

opposed to the reverence expressed for the

this conjecture is certainly

That work,

Itakshd Bhdgavati, by the Buddhists.

(as already stated) is of vast

extent, containing no less than 125,000* slokas, divided into five equal parts or

khands, which are


(27)

The three

known by
first

without right, and

names

of the five Pdramitds and the five Hakshds.

sexual

rendered,

all

commerce whatever.

destruction of

The ten

life, all

taking

are the cardinal sins

and will bear a very favourable comparison with the

of Buddhism,
of

all

the

sins should be

five cardinal sins

Brahmanism.

The Buddhas mentioned

(28)

Many

Buddhas

of mortal

mould

are

vastly numerous,

are innumerable.

Even the

often said to be the seventh and last

is

yet reached the supreme grade of the


is

and of various degrees of power


}

Sakya Sinha

Mahd

Ydnika.

Manushi Buddha who has

Maha Yanika.

In the Lalita

Vistara,

a formal enumeration of the perfections in knowledge and virtue requisite

for attaining to each of these three grades

pious array of
tive

scriptures

These degrees are three, entitled, Pratyeka Srdvaka, and

and rank.

there

Bauddha

the

in

of them, however, are evident non-entities in regard to history.

name

human

perfectibility

The

a monstrously
three grades are

impracticable and im-

known by

the collec-

of " Tri Ydna."

(29) Genuine

Buddhism never seems

to contemplate

any measures of acceptance

*See list of books at pp. 36-39.


The jPrajnd Pdramitdia found in five different
degrees of development ; of these the second, though distinct from, is often blended
with the first.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
with the deity
urges

its

which

it

teaches that

and thus

is

hetween

hut, overleaping the harrier

by

followers to aspire

man

is

own

their

capable, and

finite

ary omnipotence of the real Manushi Buddhas

Buddhism has no priesthood

and the plen-

celestial,

we must

thus too

account for

the saint despises the priest;

the saint scorns the aid of mediators, whether on earth or in heaven


(exclaims the adept or

Buddha

to the novice or

Bodhi-Sattwa)

the great secret (Sunyatd) of nature

know

become, on the instant, whatever priests have feigned of Godhead


identified

with Prajna, the sum of

the power and

all

and govern the world, and which,

tain

belong solely

to

matter

as

all

this,

and you

you become

wisdom which

the

sus-

they are manifested out of matter, must

not indeed in the gross and palpable state of pravritti,

but in the archetypal and pure state of


prdvrittika

" conquer

conquer the impor-

your mind to the meditation of abstraction, and you

tunities of the body, urge


shall, in time, discover

mind,

infinite

by attaining which man becomes God

explained both the quiescence of the imaginary

the fact, that genuine

and

efforts to that divine perfectibility of

nirvritti.

Put

off,

therefore, the vile,

mind

body, and the no less vile affections of the

necessities of the

(Tapas); urge your thoughts into pure abstraction (DJujdna), and then, as assuredly

you

can, so assuredly

you

shall, attain to

the

wisdom of a Buddha (Bodhi/ndna),

and become associated with the eternal unity and


is

to

the esoteric doctrine of the Prajnikas

but more timid and sceptical

it,

Such, I believe,

rest of nirvritti."

that of the Swabhavikas

is

nearly allied

they too magnify the wisdom and power of

nature so abundantly diffused throughout pravritti, but they seem not to unitize

wisdom and power

that

in the state of nirvritti,

as of a state of things concerning

vritti,

which, even though

it

and incline to conceive of nir-

which nothing can be predicated

be nothingness (Sunyatd),

is

otherwise doomed to an eternity of transmigrations through

nature:
nikas,

and while the Swabhavikas thus underrated the

it is

than the Prajnikas


dha)

is

they compensated

probable that

did, that prdvrittiJca

capable, even vpon earth.

person of the Prajnika Triad


the esoteric sense

is

this

is

It

all

omnipotence of which the wise

man (Bud-

has been already stated that the second

denominated Buddha and Upaya

Every man possesses

own

in his

of

which terms

understanding,

means

when

or

accomplished

till

pro-

expedient

person, a plenary omnipotence or divinity

begins even while he yet lingers in the flesh (in pravrittij


fully

Praj-

themselves by magnifying, more

(Updyajoi discovering the supreme wisdom of nature (Prajna), and of


this discovery, in his

man,

forms of visible

nirvritti of the

perly cultivated according to the rides of Buddhism, the

by

but

at least a blissful rest to

realizing
!

but which

he passes, by the body's decay, into the eternal

which
is

not

state of

nirvritti.

And as the wisdom of man is, in its origin, but an effluence of the Supreme
wisdom {Prajna) of nature, so is it perfected by a refluence to its source, but
whence Prajna is feigned in the exoteric system
without loss of individuality
ujanani sarva Buddhdto be both the mother and the wife of all the Buddhas,
:

ndm"

and " Jina-sundari

by a marriage.

;"

for the efflux is typified

by

a birth, and the reflux

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

62
The Buddha

is

wisdom of Buddhism (Bodhijndna) whose

the adept in the

duty, so long as he remains on earth,


are

willing to receive

communicate

to

is

his

wisdom

to those

first

who

These willing learners are the " Bodhisattwas," so

it.

from their hearts heing inclined to the wisdom of Buddhism, and " Sanghas," from their companionship with one-another, and with their Buddha or teacher,

called

in the Vihdras or coenobitical establishments.

And

such

is

The Bodbisattwa

has surmounted the very


is

member

the esoteric interpretation of the third (and inferior)

the Prajnika Triad.

Sangha continues

or

of

such until he

to be

grade of that vast and laborious ascent by which he

last

instructed that he can " scale the heavens," and pluck immortal

wisdom from
which achievement performed, he becomes a Buddha, that

its

resplendent source

is,

an Omniscient Being, and a Tathdyata*

of that gradual increase in

be subject to transmigration.

Bauddha
sense

title

implying the accomplishment

whose words have another, more

scriptures,

or ceases to

These doctrines are very obscurely indicated in the


obvious,

and very different

nor, but for the ambition of the commentators to exhibit their learning,

would

wisdom by which man becomes immortal

it

be easy to gather the esoteric sense of the words of most of the original
I never

scriptures.

was more surprised than when

my

old friend recently (after

a six years' acquaintance) brought to me, and explained, a valuable

upon a passage

in the

Prajnd Pdramitd.

all searchers after the doctrine of

and judge
scholar,

for themselves

am

and

and

indebted for

to the mediation of

my

old

to

all I

Let

me add

comment

in this place, that I desire

Bodkijnyana to look into the Bauddha scriptures,

remember, meanwhile, that I

am

not a Sanskrit

have gathered from the books of the Buddhists

Bauddha

friend,

and of

my

Pandit.

(30) Their physiognomy, their language, their architecture, civil and religious,

regard to women, and several less important traits in their


manners and customs, seem to decide that the origin of the greater part of the
Newars must be assigned to the north and in the Sdmbhu Purdna, a Baudtheir notions in

dha teacher named Manju Ghosha, and Manju Natha and Manjusri, is stated to
have led a colony into Nepaul from China ;f to have cleared Nepaul of the
waters which then covered it; to have made the country habitable; to have
built a temple to

brought with him)

Jyoti-rup-Adi-Buddha
as first

Raja of Nepaul.

and established Dharmakara (whom he

But

I nevertheless suppose (upon the

authority of tradition) that Nepaul received some colonists from India

some of the
direct

from India.

(whether

it

propagators of Buddhism

earliest

Be

that as

reached the valley

it

in

Nepaul came

From

Bhot

or China) seems to be unques-

Nepaul are written

the gradual decay of literature and of a knowledge

of Sanskrit

among the Newars has

translating

ritual

works into

and that

may, the Indian origin of Nepaulese Buddhism

direct, or via

tionable from the fact that all the great Saugata scriptures of

in the Sanskrit language.

to the valley

the

resulted the practice,

vernacular tongue

now very common,

and also

* Tathd, 'thus, absolutely, verily;' and gata, 'got, obtained


cessation from versatile existence, alias, nirvana pada.

;'

of

the usage of

the thing got being

tSee Fahien, pp. 112-115 for Manjusri; The place named is Pancha Sirsha Parvata,
which the comment says is in China. The words are both Sanskrit.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

63

adding to the original Sanskrit of such works comments in the vulgar language.

The great

however have never heen subjected to the former process


for owing to Sanskrit having always been considered by. the

scriptures

seldom to the

latter

Buddhists of Nepaul the language of literature, they have neglected to cultivate


their vernacular tongue

mar

(31)
of

Of

nor does there exist to this day a dictionary or gram-

Newari language.

of the

course therefore the


that

caste;

is,

Bauddhas of Nepaul have not properly any diversity


birth, and

any indelible distinction of ranks derived from

necessarily carried to the grave.

Buddha

followers of

seems

to

Genuine Buddhism proclaims the equality of

deny

them the

to

All proper Bauddhas

avocations, and abhors the distinction of clergy and laity.


are

B.mdyas

and

all

perly all ascetics or


Vihdras,

are called

of every Vihara

is

Bandyas are equal

They

as brethrui in the faith.

monks some solitary, mostly


The rule of these Viharas is a

all

privilege of pursuing worldly

rule of freedom

new

always open$ both to the entrance of

are pro-

Their convents

coenobitical.

and the door

comers, and to the

Each Vihara

departure of such of their old inmates as are tired of their vows.

has a titular superior called N;iyaka,|| whose authority over his brethren depends
only on their voluntary deference to his superior learning or piety.
held equally worthy of admission with men, and each sex has

The

Bauddha

old

it

will

who are

Women

named

correctly described in the text

be seen that there

is

are

Viharas.

scriptures enumerate four sorts of Bandyas,

Bhikshu, Sravaka, and Chailaka,


that description

its

Arhan,

and from

no essential distinction between

them, the Arhan being only segregated from the rest by his superior proficiency in
Bodkijnana.
trace in

awa}

the

gradual, and
altar,

Of

Buddhism, there remains hardly a


The very names of the Arhan and Chailaka have passed
names, and the names only, of the other two exist and out of the
these the proper institutes of

Nepaul.

now

total, disuse of

monastic institutes, an exclusive minister of the

denominated Vajra Achdrya, has derived his name,

in Nepaul, not only without sanction from the

Bauddha

office,

and existence

scriptures,

but in direct

opposition to their spirit and tendency.

Nepaul

is still

covered with Viharas

have long resounded with the

and children.

The

Bandyas, entitled,

but these ample and comfortable abodes

of industry and the pleasant voices of

superior ministry of religion

Vajra- Achdrya in Sanskrit;

ministry, such Bhikshus as


fession, are

hum

still

is

now

Giibhdl in. Newari:

competent to discharge.

and pursuits, whether

civil

women

hands of the
the inferior

follow religion as a lucrative and learned pro-

And

these professions of the Vajra-Acharya

and of the Bhikshu, have become by usage hereditary,


tions

solely in the

as

or religious, in Nepaul.

have

And

Buddhism of Nepaul there are exclusive ministers of


there many Bauddhas who retain the lock on the crown

all

other avoca-

as in the

modern

corrupt

religion or priests, so

are

of the head,

and are

priest for ever a priest" is a maxim which Buddhism utterly eschews.


Bandya
Ndyaka, the superior of a convent, is Khanpo inTibet, Therom Ceylon
and Arltat is Bahatun in Indo-China. I
is Bonze, in Japan, Bandida in Altaia
demur to the frequent use of the word piiest as the equivalent of any of these teims.

"Oncea
||

BUDDHIST

64
not Bandyas.

PHILOSOPHY.

Bauddhas are

These improper

according to their various avocations and crafts

Kami, craftsmen.

agriculturists; the

never dwell in the Viharas

Udds, Japu, Kami,

called

the

Udas

are traders

They comprise the untousured

etc.,

the Japu,

class

they

look up to the Bandyas with a reverential respect

derived from the misapplication of certain ancient tenets and follow those trades
and avocations which are comparatively disreputable (among which is foreign
commerce) while the Bandyas, who have abandoned the profession of religion,
;

practise those crafts

both

but

is,

which

most esteemed.

are

Agriculture

by the untonsured

in fact, chiefly followed

equally open to

is

class,

who have

thus

become, in course of time, more numerous than the Bandyas, notwithstanding


the early abandonment by the Bandyas of those monastic
enjoins, the resort of the greater part of

and their usurpation of

all

the liberal,

them to the
and many of

vows which

their faith

active business of the world,

the mechanical, arts of their

The Vajra-Acharya and Bhikshu are the religious guides and priests
both Bandyas and non-Bandyas.*
All Bandyas, whatever be the profession
country.

trade they hereditarily exercise, are


cate in
classes

the social

all

but

between the one

an insuperable
dhists, of

of the

barrier.

some one

Newar

of

offices

equal

still

life

and

of
or

they intermarry, and communi-

the like

is

true of all of the other

and the other, growing superstition has erected

class

To the above remarks

it

may

be well to add, that Bud-

or other of the above denominations, comprise the vast majority

race,

and that the minority, are mostly Saivas and Saktas

sense peculiar to themselves, and with

my

which

subject does not entitle

but in a

me

here

to meddle.

(33)

The names

but from Newari.

The Vihara

these examples.
stories

high

are almost all barbarous

I have not thought


is

the architecture

built
is

it

that

not derived from Sanskrit,


to

enumerate any more of

round a large quadrangle, or open square, two


Chaitya properly means a temple of

Chinese.

Buddha, and Vihara, an abode of

is,

worth while

ccenobitical followers of

open square in the midst of every Vihara,

Buddha. t

but those words always bear the senses here attached to them
never be construed temple

never templum Dei

vel

it is

Bitddhje.

At

The Chaitya has often

less appropriate to

To conclude with respect to the notes that portion of


my own no one can be more sensible than I am that the
:

How

a sad jumble of cloudy metaphysics.

but

am

how

far that of

my

and Vihara can

the base of the hemisphere of every Nepaul

been blended with sundry structures, more or

mine, and

a convent, or monastery, or religious house, but

Chaitya are placed the images of the Dhyani Buddhas.

is

In the

placed a Chaitya or a Kutagar

is

it

first

which

half contains

far the sin of this indistinctness is

original authorities, I cannot

ready to take a large share of

Buddhism.
this sketch,

to myself.

pretend to decide

In regard to

this,

the most

*Bandya has no correlative term, like Laicus of Clerus ; one of many arguments
in favour of the nonadmittance of that distinction by Buddhism, as elsewhere attempted
seeFahian pp. 12, 172, 175, and 289, for sundry notices of so-called Clerus
to be shown
ct Laicus.
Those passages seem to prove that the distinction is foreign to genuine
:

Buddhism.
t Fergusson, tree and serpent worship,

p.

79.

BUDDHIST
speculative part of Buddhism,

it

vestigation,

by those who have

is

my

and placed within the reach of

PHILOSOPHY.

65

sufficient happiness for

me

countrymen the materials

leisure, patience,

to

have discovered

more accurate

in-

and a knowledge of languages

for

for

the undertaking; and who, with competent talents, will be kind enough to afford
the world the benefit of so irksome an exercise of them.

But

I trust that the

latter half

of

the notes, which embraces topics more

practical

and more within the range of the favourite pursuits of

will not

be found wanting in distinctness;

and

warrant the accuracy of the information contained in

my

leisure,

can venture confidently to


it.

QUOTATIONS FROM ORIGINAL SANSKRIT AUTHORITIES.


Several distinguished orientalists having, whilst they applauded the novelty
and importance of the information conveyed by my Sketch of Buddhism,! called
upon me for proofs, I have been induced to prepare for publication the following
translation of significant passages from the ancient books of the Saugatas,
still

Nepaul

are extant in

in

which

the original Sanskrit.

me (whilst I was collecting the works* in quessome years ago by Amrita Nanda Bandya, the most learned Buddhist then,

These extracts were made for


tion)

or now, living in that country


I

drew

public,

my

sketch

they formed the materials from which chiefly


and they would have been long since communicated to the

had the translator

assured that

are

sufficiently confident of his powers, or sufficiently

enlightened Europeans could

indigestaque moles
instance,

felt

'

of these

original

Koros or of Upham.

'

be brought

original authorities

in a higher

'

to

tolerate

the

'

ingens

which however, in the present

and better sense than those of Csoma de


to question whether the sages who formed

Without stopping

the Bauddha system of philosophy and religion used Sanskrit or high Prakrit or
both, or seeking to determine the consequent pretension of Upham's authorities
to be considered original,t

it

may

be safely said, that those of

Csoma de Koros

can support no claims of the kind.

necnon, Transactions of Ben% Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society, London


gal Society, vol. xvi.
* The collection comprises, besides sixty volumes in Sanskrit, procured in
Nepaul
the very names of which had previously been unknown, some 250 volumes in the language of Tibet, which were obtained from Lassa and Digarchi. But for the existence of
tlie latter at Calcutta, Csoma de Koros's attainments in Tibetan lore had been comparatively useless.
The former or Sanskrit books of Nepaul are the authorities relied on
in this paper.
One complete set has been presented to the Indian Home Government,
another procured for the Asiatic Society, and most of the Sanskrit series for the LibraSince the first collection was made in Nepaul, very mainries of Paris and of Oxford.
new works in the Sanskrit language have been discovered and are yet daily under disThe
probability
now
is,
that the entire Kahgyur and Stangyur may be recovered
covery.
in the original language.
The whole series has been obtained in that of Tibet, 327
large volumes.
f Upham's authorities, however, even if allowed to be original, appear to consist
entindy of childish legends.
I allude
to the three published volumes.
The received
hypothesis, viz., that the philosophers of Ayodhyd and Magadha, (the acknowledged
founders of Buddhism) postponed the use of Sanskrit to that of Prakrit, in the orisinal exposition of their subtle system appears to me as absurd as it does probable that
their successors, as Missionaries, resorted to Prakrit versions of the original
Sanskrit
authorities, in propagating the system in the remotest parts of the continent
and in
;

PHILOSOPHY.

BUDDHIST

66

native works which the latter gentleman relies on are avowedly Tibetan

The

my

translations of

Sanskrit originals, and whoever will duly reflect upon the

dark and profound abstractions, and the infinitesimally-multiplied and microscopically-distinguished

Buddhism, may well doubt whether the

personifications of

language of Tibet does or can adequately sustain the weight that has been laid

upon

it.

Sanskrit, like

its

cognate Greek,

may

be characterised as a speech " capable of

giving a soul to the objects of sense, and a body to

those

who

are aware that the Saugatas taxed the

of

meta-

a like

power,

the abstractions

But, as the Tibetan language can have no pretensions to

physics."

whole powers of the Sanskrit

embody in words their system, will cautiously reserve, I apprehend, for the
Bauddha books still extant in the classical language of India, the title of original
authorities.
From such works, which, though now found only in Nepaul, were

to

composed

in the plains of India before

the accompanying extracts

may

lish "

and (as

drawn

the dispersion of the sect, I have

and though the

Eng-

merits of the " doing into

be small indeed, they will yet. I hope, be borne up by the paramount

I suspect)

unique authority and originality of

my

"original authorities,''

a phrase which, by the way, has been somewhat invidiously, as well as laxly,
used and applied in certain quarters.
It

is

still,

observe,

questioned amongst us, whether

dhism be the more ancient creed, as well

as

whether the

Brahmanism
latter

Bud-

or

be of Indian or

The Buddhists themselves have no doubts upon either


unhesitatingly
concede the palm of superior antiquity to their rivals
They
point.
and persecutors, the Brahmans; nor do they in any part of the world hesitate in
extra Indian growth.

pointing to India as the cradle of their faith.

Formerly we might be pardoned


origin of

surely

it

for building fine-spun theories of the exotic

but
Buddhism upon the supposed African locks of Buddha's images
is now somewhat too late,* in the face of the abundant direct evidence
:

which we possess against the exotic theory,

to go in

quest of presumptions to

the time-out-of-mind illiterate Scythians,t in order to give to

them the

glory of

On this ground, I presume the Prakrit works of Ceylon and Ava to be transa presumption so reasonable that nothing but the production
not originals
from Ceylon or Ava of original Prakrit works, comparable in importance witli the
Sir W. Jones
Sanskrit books discovered in Nepaul, will suffice to shake it in my mind.
had a copy of the Lalita Vistara whence he quotes a description of Dharma as Diva
that
assertion,
the, Buddhists
Sir W. Jones I believe to be the author of the
Natura.
committed their system to high Prakrit or Pali and so long at leasl as there were
not
presumption
was
wholly
unreaspnthe
no Sanskrit works of the sect forthcoming,
And Sir W. Jones was not unaware that Magadha or
It is, however, so now.
able.
Bihar was the original head-quarters of Buddhism, nor that the best Sanskrit lexicon
nor that the Brahmans themselves acknowledged
extant was the work of a BauddKa
But for his Brahmanthe pre-eminent literary merits of their heterodox adversaries.
ical bias therefore, Sir William might have come at the truth, that the Bauddha phil-

Ceylon.
lations,

osophers employed the classical language.


* Recent discoveries make it more and more certain, that the cave temples of the
Every part of India is illusWestern Coast and its vicinity, are exclusively Bauddha.
trated by splendid remains of Buddhism.
tThe Uighursof Push Balighad letters derived from the Nestorian Christians. Thence
Sramanism and Christian monachism may have met on the common ground of monaSramanism is nothing more than Tantrika Buddhism.
chism.

BUDDHIST

PHILOSOPHY.

6;

originating a system built upon the most subtle philosophy,


original records of

which

and

the copious

all

are inshrined in Sanskrit,} a language which, wherice-

soever primevally derived, had been,

when Buddhism

appeared, for ages proper to

the Indian continent.

The Buddhists make no


an extra Indian

at

Sakya Sihha
any

is,

serious pretensions to a very high antiquity

avowedly, a Kshatriya

historical existence, the

caste never call in question the

people, but only give a

manical one of their

more

affirm too, that all the six

it,

antique fact of a fourfold division of the


liberal interpretation to it

The records

the father-land of their creed.

Nor

is

which countries the people and

still

either Sanskrit or

there a single record or

monument

intrinsic or extrinsic evidence of

The speculations of

avowed

Buddhism

Tibetans, the Indo-

all

point to India as

Nepaul and in Tibet.

in

their mother-tongues are of the

translations

from

it

Mongol

by Indian pandit*.

of this faith in existence

which bears

an extra Indian origin.**

a writer of Sir

to prove, argumentatively,

of

Hindu

than the current Brah-

The Chinese, the Mongols, the

day.||

were

Saugata books treating on the subject of

Chinese, the Japanese, Ceylonese, and other Indian Islanders,

in both of

never hint

and, if his six predecessors had really

books which affirm

of Brahmanical or Kshatriya lineage.

stock, are

origin.

"W. Jones's day (Mr. Joinville). tending

from the characters of Buddhism and Brahmanism,

the superior antiquity of the former, have been lateky revived (see Asiatic Journal,

No. CLX.) with applause.


in the face of

But

besides that fine

such a mass of direct evidence as

of Joinville appear to

me

altogether based on errors of fact.

a character in few words),

cism in religion

drawn presumptions

we now

and whilst

is

are idle

possess, the reasonings

Buddhism

(to hazard

monastic asceticism in morals, philosophical scepti-

ecclesiastical history all over the

world affords abun-

dant instances of such a state of things resulting from gross abuse of the

reli-

X The difference between high Prakrit and Sanskrit could not affect this question,
though it were conceded that the founders of Buddhism used only the former and not
the latter a concession however, which should not be lightly made, and to which
In fact, it now appears that they used both languages, but Sanskrit
wholly demur.

only in the philosophical or speculative series of their Sastras,


The Brahmanical or Kshatriya family from which each of these Buddhas sprung
is expressly and carefully stated by the Bauddha writers, a fart which I hold to be decisive of this dispute, since if we would carry the etymon of Buddhism beyond the last
of these seven Buddhas, we cannot surely think of carrying it beyond the.iirst of them.
Seethe Bauddha disputation on caste, Royal Asiatic Society's Transactions.
** See Crawfurd's remarks on the purely Indian character of all the great sculptural
ami architectural monuments of Buddhism in Java. Also Barrow's remarks to the
same effect in his travels in China. The Chinese Pu-sa is VisvarApyd Prajnd or the
polyform type of "Diva Natura. " See Oriental Quarterly Magazine, No. xvi. pp. 218
222, for proofs of the fact that numberless Bauddha remains have been mistaken for
Brahmanical by our antiquaries, and even by the natives.
In the same work I have
proved this in reference to Crawfurd's Archipelago, Oriental Quarterly, No. xvi. pp.
||

232, 235.
I shown, from original authorities, how thoroughly Indian Buddhism
than it was immediately exclaimed, "Oh! this is Ne.paulese corruption
these are
merely popular grafts from Brahmanism."
The very same character belongs to
the oldest monuments of Buddhism, extant in India and beyond it
and
hav

Yet, no sooner had

is,

traced

that character to the highest scriptural authorities.

BUDDHIST

6&

PHILOSOPHY.

gious sanction, that ample chronicle gives us no one instance of it as a primitive


system of belief. Here is a legitimate inference from sound premises. But that

and not an original system, can he


Mends and of enemies.

in truth, a reform or heresy,

Buddhism was,

proved by the most abundant direct evidence both of

The oldest Saugata works incessantly allude to the existing superstition as the
Mdracharya or way of the evil one,tt contradistinguishing their reformation thereand the Brahmanical impugners of
of as the Bodhieharya or way of the wise
those works (who, upon so plain a fact, could not lie), invariably speak of Buddhism
;

as a notorious heresy.

An

section of the Saugatas alone, ever held the bald doctrine


and the Swabluivika denial of a creation of matter by the fiat

inconsiderable

of mortal souls

of an absolutely immaterial being, springs not out of the obesity of barbarian


dulness, but out of the over-refinement of philosophical ratiocination.

idea of the speculative tenets of


are bad indeed

Buddhism

is

but they are of philosophy "

fully subtle, sceptical too, rather

utterly
all

Joinville's

Many

erroneous.

of

them

compact," profoundly and pain-

than atheistically dogmatic.

somewhat miscellaneous in this preface, I must allude to


another point. The lamented Abel Remusat sent me, just before he died, a copy of
his essay on the Saugata doctrine of the Triad and Mr. Upham, I find, has de-

At

the risk of being

duced from Remusat's interpretation of that doctrine, the inference (which he


supports by reference to sundry expressions in the sacred books of Ceylon), that
I

am

Buddhism, in

in error in denying that

admits the distinction of Clems


distinction

but

it

may

et

be seen in

Laicus.
all its

its

first,

and most characteristic form,

It is difficult expressly to define that

breadth in Brahmanism and in Popery

whilst in Islamism, and in the most enthusiastic of the Christian sects, which sprang

out of the Reformation,


Christianity recognised

was a

society

as in place

it

is

wholly

not;*

it

lost.

According to

of peers, of brethren in the faith,

On

and character.

exclusive professional ones

my

view, Apostolic

the congregation of the faithful, the Church,

earth, there

all

essentially equal, in gifts,

were no indispensable mediators, no

and such alone I understand to be

priests.f

Again,

own nature, essenthe distinction of clergyman and layman, though we all know that

genuine monachism

all

over the world, I hold to be, in

its

opposed to
monastic institutions no sooner are rendered matters of public law and of exten-

tially

sive popular prevalence, than, ex vi necessitatis,

the

distinction in question

superinduced upon them, by the major part of the monks


becoming clergy.%

There are limits to the number of those

ftNamuchi by name,

chief of the Kakodemons.


to lay stress on his opinion,

laicising,

whom

and the

ia

rest

the public can

which is merely adduced


argument.
church holds that there is no virtue in any sacerdotal
f For example, the Anglican
function not performed by the successors of the apostles,' who are the only clergy.
% History informs us that, soon after monachism supervened upon our holy and
eminently social religion, there were in Egypt as many monks almost as peasants. Some
The community of
of these monks necessarily laicised, and the rest bcame clergy.
the Gosains and several others, of strictly ascetical origin, now in India, exhibit the same
necessary change after the sects had become numerously followed.
*

would not be understood

to illustrate

my

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
support in idleness

eome duty

and whoso would eat the bread of the public must perform

Yet who can doubt that the true monk, whether coenowho abandons the world to save his oiun soul as the true

to the public.

he

bite or solitary, is

clergyman

69

is

who mixes with

he

in respect to the people or laics has a distinctive function, and, it

an exclusive one
sects, then,

the former has no function at

the exclusive character of priest

all.

as sects are enthusiastic, they reject

Buddhism was

entirely monastic,

also in the nine

more or

Buddha

fullest

are

demand

Dharmds

(the oldest

less directly, or is clearly

monks

is

subject to the usual vows, (nature teaching to all

essentially peers,

and I

The true church, the congregation

piety.

with the clergy ;


distinct

Sane/ha,) is constantly said

greatly mistaken indeed if

body such

or, if

as

mean when we speak

(*. e.,

Vihdra) or in deserts,

the

to consist of such only

Buddha recognized an
Kirkmen)

The

first

he

is

absolutely
ordinarily

mention of an exclusive, profes-

sional, active, minister of religion, or priest, in the

(for so

claims of superior

of the faithful, (called

Bauddha

books,

comparatively recent date, and not of scriptural authority.

Achdrya

and

monks, tonsured,

Catholics, Lutherans, and

of the latter.

The

the church in this sense be synonymous

the primitive church of

we

all

C/tailaka,

mankind that wealth, women and

though of course acknowledging

this very circumstance

am

to

simple

rest, solitaries.

enumeration of these followers (Bhikshu, Srdoaka or Sramana*

wisdom and

me

||

being

not expressly treated), that the only true followers

the majority being coenobites, the

power, are the grand tempters,) resident in monasteries

from

of

if,

and highest written authorities), it is


deducible from the context, in a thou-

Arhata or Arhana or Arhanta) proves them to have been

and

But

In the Sata Sdhasrika, Prajnd Pdramitd, or Raksha JBhdr/avati,

sand passages (for the subject


of

who

able to go

and of an unboundedly enthusiastical genius,

did not recognise the distinction in question.

it

here they are.

affirmed

and

that in proportion

Whoever has been

suspicious of the validity of argumentative inferences, he

and

entirely monastic

and absurd

knows not

latter

be, also

in the above reflections can need only to be told that primitive

be satisfied that

facts,

may

and hate, (though nothing tainted with mon-

achism) the exclusive pretensions of the clergy

me

Amongst

objectless

is

that has glanced an eye over ecclesiastical history

along with

The

the world to save the souls of others?

called) first appears arrayed

is in

those of a

Therein the Vajra

with the ordinary attributes of

See Guizot's Civilization of Europe, ii. 61-63, & i. 86.


all the
Its distinguishing doctrine is that finite mind can be enlarged to infinite
As for the scepticism
schools uphold this towering tenet, postponing all others to it.
creation
providence,
marvels,
and
of the Swabhavikas relative to those transcendent
point to the
it is sufficient to prove its remoteness from "fiat Atheism," simply to
coexistence of the cardinal tenet first named.
Sramana includes the whole, and is equally ascetic; Sramani feminine, equal to monk
and nun. Sakya is often called the great Sramana.
the constitution of the church
Bunsen's controversy with Gladstone, and his work on
(published in IS 47) set this matter clearly in the light in which I viewed it; Bunsen
insists on the congregational church as the only true one, says the clergy church is pregnant with priestcraft and essentially untenable, contends that the future church must
be of the former kind, and adds that the reformation virtually extinguished the clergy
So Sakya argued and instituted in opposition to the cleric exorbitances of the
church.

||

B rahmans.
il

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

JO
a

Bat

priest.

his character

anomalous, as

is

and the learned Bauddhas of Nepaul

is

at the present

that of everything about

him

day universally admit the

falling

We have in these hooks, Bhikshus, Srdvakas, Chailakas,


from the true faith.
and Sdkya Vansikas,* bound by their primitive rules for ten days (in memory
tonsured, yet married ostenof the olden time) and then released from them

off

monks, but really citizens of the world.

sibly

From any

the above the Vqjra

of

Achdrya

he
drawn indiscriminately
is surrounded by un ton-

is

keeps the keys of the no longer open treasury; and he


sured followers,

who now

present themselves for the

trace with historical nicety

I pretend not to

time.

Bud-

and creed of millions up to the period of the dispersion


well aware, that the primitive doctrines were not, because they could

dhism as a public
but I

first

the changes which marked the progress of

all

am

institute

to, when what I hold to have been at first the closet specsome philosophers, had become the dominant creed of large kingdoms.

not be, rigidly adhered


ulation of

That the

latter character

was, however, assumed

by Buddhism

India for centuries! before the dispersion, seems certain

urge that the thing in question

is

and, as

in the plains of

many persons may

the dominant public institute, not the closet

speculation, and that whatever discipline prevailed before the dispersion must be

held for primitive and orthodox, I can only observe that the ancient books of the
Saugatas, whilst they glance at such changes as I have adverted

language of censure

and that, upon the whole, I

ion that genuine or primitive

Buddhism

rejected the distinction of Clcrus

by Upham,

is

generally inaccurate

et
;

do so in th

phrased

it

that the use of the

originally)

word

priest

and that the Sangha of the Buddhist triad

ought to have been invariably rendered by Remusat into


faithful' or 'church,'

to,

strongly incline to the opin-

I cautiously

(so

Laicus

still

'congregation of th

aud never into 'clergy' or 'priesthood.'

Remusat indeed

seems to consider (Observations, 23-29, and 32,) these phrases as synonymous; and
yet the question which their discrimination involves

our

own

religion, has

been

fiercely agitated for

is

one which, in respect to

hundreds of years; and

still,

by th

very shades of that discrimination, chiefly marks the subsisting distinction between
the various Churches of Christ

*An

Karli identifies the splendid Sdlivdhana with the head of the


The Sakya-Vansikas, or people of the rac
that of Sdkya Sinha.
of Sakya, appeared in Nepaul as refugees from Brahman bigotry, some time after BudSakya is universally allowed to have been
dhism had been planted in these hills.
the son of king Sudhodana, sovereign of Magadha, or Bihar (Kosala says Wilson, who
He is said to have been born in the "Sthanaof
calls it a dependancy of Bihar).
in Oude, as others say.
His
Kapila Muni," at Ganga Sagara, according to some
He may have been born
birth place was not necessarily within his father's kingdom.
when his father was on a pilgrimage to the shrine of the saint Kapila. Sakya died,
(Set
according to my authorities, in Assam, and left one son named Rahula Bhadra.
Csoma de Koros in No. 20 of Journal of Bengal Asiatic Society for origin of Sakya-VanTheir primitive sect was Tatta, their next Kapila in Oude, whence they migrated
sika.
The Sakas were Kshatriyas of the solar line, according to Bauddha
into Nepaul.)
authorities
nor is it any proof of the contrary that they appear not in the Brahmanical genealogies. See note in the sequel.
f Kven if we begin with Asoka we can hardly assign less than six to eight centuries
for Buddhist predominance, nor less than about double that duration for more or
less of prevalence in the plains of India. (See note at page 76.)

Saka

inscription

which

tribe,

at

is

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

at liberty, there-

adopt a sense which -would

fore, to

such as he alluded

works

to,

consist

and which, of course,

with

of phrases

found copiously scattered over the

consulted.

always rendered them advisedly into English, so as

priesthood, because I had previously satisfied myself,


tion that (hat cardinal tenet

diated by

its

was repugnant

me

Mr. Upham's

is

to

the genius of the creed, and repu-

but assuredly the determination


perfectly futile.

to exclude the idea of a

by separate inquiry and reflec-

may have been wrongly

This important point

primitive teachers.

determined by
as

Upham was
my interpretation

Following the authority he has relied on, Mr.

Such words

as

of

upon such grounds

it

Arhanta and Bandya, (which,

by the way, are the correct forms of the Barm3S3 Rahabun and the Japanese
Bonze,) no more necessarily

mean

clergy, than

priest,

milites as applied to Christianity, as little

Bhikshu, which means 'mendicant friar;' and as for the


putable
1

that

it

mean

does not

do the Latin Jideles and

can such a sense be ascribed to the word

literally priest,**

woid

and that

Sanylia,

it

does

it

is

mean

indis-

literally

congregation.'
If, as

liemusat and

Upham*

appear to

insist is the case,

every monastic follower

Buddha be a priest, then Bandya or Bonzef must be rendered into English by


the word clergyman.' But there will still remain as much difference between
Bandya and Sangha as, in Christian estimation, between an ordinary parson of
the present day, and one of the inspired primitive professors.
Of old, the spirit
descended upon all alike
and Sangha was this hallowed and gifted congregaof

'

tion.

apart.

But the glory has passed away, and the term been long
So

has, in part,

as a geneiic title,

and

for similar reasons, the

and Bhikshu, Sravaka, and Chailaka,| as

and set
But Bandya,

sanctified

word Arhata.
specilic

ones, are

still

** Observations,
p. 63.

* Bhikshu

now appears to be the word rendered priest by us in Ceylon. But it


unquestionably mendicant, holy beggar, as Thero is Ndyaka or Superior and Updsika
Servitor, of a Convent.
See Fabian, 12, 172, 234.
t The possible meaning of this word has employed in vain the sagacity of sundry
critics.
In its proper form of Bandya ( Vandya), it is pure Sanskrit, signifying' a person
ent tletl to reverence, and is derived fiom Vandaua.
Equally curio-is and instructive is it to find in the Sanskrit records of Buddhism
the solution of so many enigmas collected by travellers from all parts of Asia; e gnge,
Elphinstone's mound is a genuine Chaitya, and its proper name is Manik&laya, or th
is

The mound is a tomb temple.


The "tumuli eorum
place of the precious relic.
Christ i altaria" of the poet, is more true of Buddhism than even of the most percause
the
the
being probably
same, originally, in referverted model of Christianity
ence to both creeds, viz., persecution and martyrdom, with consequent divine honour*
The Bauddhas, however, have in this matter gone a step further in
to the sufferers.
for they worship
the descending --cale of representative adoration than the Catholics
the mere image of that structure which is devoted to the enshrining of the relics of
they worship the architectural model or form of the Chaitya.
their saints
The Chaitya of Sambhuna h in Nvpaul is affirmed to cover Jyoti rupya Swavambfiu.
nor was there ever anything exclusive of
or the self-existent, in the form of flame
theism in the connection of tomb and temple for Chaityas were always dedicated to
the Celestial Buddhas, not only in Ntpaul, but in the plains of India, as the
The Dhydni Buddhas appea:
Chaityas of Sanchi, of Gyd, and of Bag, demonstrate.
in the oldest monuments of the continent and islands.
+ Buddhist monachism agrees surprisingly with Christian, whether owing to Nest<>Thus there are several orders of monk*
rian infusion among the Uighurs or otherwise.
in both; in the former mendicant saints, naked or scantly clothed saints, and learned
;

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

72

every-day names of every-day people,


ascetics or

which

must be

priests, if it

so,

but as I conceive,

In the thick night of ignorance and superstition

monks merely.

envelopes Tibet, the people fancy they yet behold Arhatas in the

still

No

persons of their divine Lamas.

such imagination however possesses the heads

Buddha in Nepaul, Ceylon, or Indo -China though in the last


the name Arhata is popularly applied to the modern order of
country
mentioned
of the followers of

the clergy, an order growing there, as in Nepaul,

(if

my

opinions be sound) out of

that deviation from the primitive genius and type of the system
necessarily from its popular

as the rule of life

diffusion

which resulted

and practice of whole

nations.

my

In conclusion I would observe, that, in

apprehension, Remusat's interpreta-

tion of the various senses of the Triadic doctrine

the founder of the creed, and

all

rank of a Mahayanika Buddha

and by the

is

neither very complete, nor

In a religious point of view, by the

very accurate.

who, following his

by the second, the law

member

understood

is

have reached the

full

or scriptures of the sect

the faithful, or primitive church, or body

third, the congregation of

of original disciples, or any and

first

steps,

every assemblage of true,

i.

e.,

of monastical

observers of the law, past or present.

Dharma indicates the


Buddha is intellectual essence,
the efficient cause of all, and underived. Dharma is material essence, the plastic
cause, and underived, a co-equal biunity with Buddha or else the plastic cause, as
In a philosophical light, the precedence of Buddha or of

With

theistic or atheistic school.

the former,

||

before,

Sangha

but dependent and derived from Buddha.

compounded

of

Buddha and Dharma,

is

is

derived from, and

their collective energy in the

state of

action; the immediate operative cause of creation, its type or its agent.*

the

or

latter

atheistic

entity, invested

cause of

put

operation

Dharma

intrinsic activity

and

is

Diva

With

natura, matter as the sole

intelligence, the efficient

and material

all.

Buddha
first

with

schools,

derivative from

is

off

from

is

it

Dharma,

is

the active and intelligent force of nature,

and then operating upon

it.

embryotic creation, the type and

are spontaneously evolved

from

the union of

Sangha

saints like the Franciscans, Dominicans, etc., and all of


though hermits also be found.
Budhandtmaka iti Buddha, 'the intellectual essence is

Dharanitmaka

Dhirma,

is

the result of that

sum of all specific forms, which


Buddha with Dharma. *f The
both creeds are usually

social,

Buddha.'

the holding, sustaining or containing substance is


Dharma.' Again, Prakriteswari Hi Prajna, 'the material goddess isPrajna,' one of the
Dharma.
word
The
names of
Prajna is compounded of the intensive prefix pra,
and jnana wisdom, or jna, to know.
It imports the supreme wisdom of nature.
Dharma is the universal substratum, is that which supports all form and quality in
The Bauddha Dharma is the exact equivalent of the Brahmanical Mutra.
space.
Matra is that which measures space Dharma that which supports form and quality
in space; both are very just and philosophical ideas relative to what we call matter
and substance. The substans or supporter of all phamomena, whatever its nature, is
\\

iti

'

Dharma.
* Sanmdaydtmika

iti Sangha,
'the multitudinous essence is Sangha:' multitude is
the diaguosis of the versatile universe, as unity is of that of abstraction.
Upaya is the
*t Prajnaopayatmakam Jagatah, from Prajna and Upaya, the world.

energy of Prajna.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

73

above are the principal distinc tions ; others there are which I cannot venture here
to dwell on.

With regard to Remusat's remark, " on voit


meme niveau, comme les trois representations

que

les trots

noma

sont places sur

des

memes

etres

dans

les

le

planches

M. Hodgson avec cette difference que sur celles-ci, Sangha est a droite, et Dharma a
may just add, that the placing of Sangha to the right is a merely ritual

de

gauche" I

Dakshindchdras* and that

technicality, conformable to the pujd of the

all

the philo-

sophers and religionists are agreed in postponing Sangha to Dharma.


I possess very
sat

but

many drawings

exhibiting the arrangement mentioned by

Remu-

subservient to mere ritual purposes and consequently worthy of no

all

The Matantara, or variorum

serious attention.

text of the Pujdris of the present

day, displays an infinite variety of formula, t illustrated by corresponding sculp-

and

tural

pictorial devices,

to the walls

embodied in those works, aud transferred from them

and interior of temples existing

all

over the valley of Nepaul.

THE SWABHAVIKA} DOCTRINE.


Swabhava.
It

2.

whom

proper for the worshipper at the time of worship to reflect thus

is

I address
:

tions, first,

by

Swabhava

in this order

R,

L, earth

Sumeru
which

fire
;

my

worship isNhiipta;

recollecting that all things


:

from

from that of the

the

letter

and from that of the

is

sits,

vija

||

with their

am

Mount

so

also does

And

Y,

Mantras come from


air

from that of the

and from that of the

Surneru.

and above the

supremely exalted, Vajra Satwa.

that

V'y'a

of the letter

V, or B, water

letter S,

a lotus of precious stones,

from Swabhava,

lam

God (Iswara) to
myself.
Thus meditating, the worshipper shoidd make pujd to
for example, to Vajra Satwa Buddha, let him pay his adora-

and the object of

the celestials

letter

governed by

(Ashta Sdhasrika.)

Nirl;pta,

all

am

All things are governed or perfected by Swabhava;:): I too

1.

lotus, a

as all

Vajra Satwa, thence

letter

On the summit of
moon crescent, upon

(other) things proceed

called the

self-existent.**

(Pujd Kdnda.)
3.

All things and beings (in the versatile universe) which are alike perishable, false

as a dream, treacherous as a mirage, proceed, according

God

(nature), and according to others, from

Swabhava and Iswara

are

essentially

to some,

from Swabhava

(Iswara); and hence

it

is said,

one, differing only in name.*f

that

(Ashta

Sdhasrika.)
* The theistic sects so call themselves, styling their opposites, the Swabhavikas
and
Prajnikas, Vamacharas.
The Pawranikas, too, often designate the Tarrfrikas by
the Litter name, which is equivalent to left-handed.
t See the classified enumeration of the principal objects of Bauddha worship appended to this paper.
%Swa, own, and bhava, nature. Idiosyncrasis.
Root, radix, seed.
Intact and intangible, independent.
** This may teach us caution in the interpretation of terms.
I understand the doTna
to announce, that infinite intelligence is as much a part of the system of nature as
The mystic allusion to the alphabet imports nothing more than its being the
finite.
indispensable instrument and means of knowledge or wisdom, which the Buddhists
believe man lias the capacity of perfecting up to the standard of infinity.
*J See note on No. 3, on the Yatnika system.
(|

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

74
4.

At

the general dissolution of all things, the four elements shall be absorbe

in Sunydkdra-Akdsa (sheer space) in this order


in air,

and

earth in water, water in

fire, fire

Akasa, and Akasa in Sunyata, and Sunyata in Tathata,* and

air in

is Maha Sunyataf) and Buddha in Bhdvana, and BhaAnd when existence is again evolved, each shall in the infrom the other. From that Swabhava, which communicates

Tathata in Buddha, (which

vana in Swabhava.
verse order, progress
its

property of infinity to Akasa, proceeded into being, in Akasa, the letter A, and

the rest of the letters; and from the letters Adi-BuddhaJ and the other Buddhas;

and from the Buddhas the Bodhi-Satwas, and from them the

Such

their Vija Mantras.

is

the Swabhavika Sansara

constantly revolves between Pravritti and Nirvritti, like

five

elements, with

which Sansara (universe)


a potter's wheel. (Divya

Avaddna).
5.

Maha Sunyata

Iswara

it is

is,

according to some Swabhava, and according to others,

bike the ethereal expanse,

Vija Mantras of the

letters,

In that Maha-Siin-

and self-sustained.

Mantra of Upaya,|| and the chief

yata, the letter A, with the Vfja

6. Some say creation is from God: if so, what is the


Karma ? *f That which made all things, will preserve and

which governs
7.

bark.
8.

Who
The

is

communicates
its

odour

fragrance to

its
?

destroy

Yatna
them

or of
;

that

It is

him who

from Swabhava.

tears off its

(Kalpalatd.)

elephant's cub, if he find not leafless and thorny creepers in the green

wood, becomes

Swabhava.
9.

tree freely

not delighted with

use of

(Buddha Charitra Kdvga.J

Nirvritti governs Pravritti also.

The Sandal

of all the

became manifest. (Rakshd Bhagavatl.J**

Who

The crow avoids the

thin.

ripe

mango.*J

The cause

is

still

(Kalpalatd?)

sharpened the thorn

to the deer kind,

(ichchhd) of any
or designer.!*

Who

and to the birds


and

if

(Buddha

gave their varied forms, colours, and habits

Swabhava

It is not according to the will

there be no desire or intention, there can be no intender


Charitra.)

* Tathata, says the comment, is Satya Jnyana; and Bhavana is Bham or Satta, i. e.,
sheer entity.
f See note on quotation 1 of section on Adi-Buddha.
J Here again I might repeat the caution and remark at quotation 2. I have elsewhere
observed that Swabhavika texts, differently interpreted, form the basis of the Aiswarika
doctrine, as well as that the Buddhas of the Swabhavikas, win.) derive their capacity of identifying themselves with the first cattse from nature, which is that cause, are
as largely gifted as the Buddhas of the Aiswarikas, deriving the same capacity from
Adi-Buddha, who is that eaicse. See remarks on Renmsat in the Journal of the Bengal

Asiatic Society, Nos. 32, 33, ami 34.

A. Cunningham has found this literal symbolic representation of the elements, and
See his Bhilsa Topes, p. 355 f.
See the note
Updya, the expedient, the energy of nature in a state of activity.
on No. 6 of the section Adi-SangJ&i.
**Th.eBakshaBhdgavati is the same work as the Prajnd Paramita.
Yatna and Burma may here be ren*t See the note on quotation 9 of this head.
dered by intellect and morality.
History
but not correct.
*Z These are assumed facts in Natural
+* Here is plainly announced that denial of self-co
or personality in the
which constitutes the great detect of the Swabhavika philosophy:
causa
and if this denial amount to atheism, the Swabhavikas are, for the most part, atheists

also that of the triad at Bhilsa.


||

;.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
The conch, which

10.

among
be

is

worthy of

which

excellent things, and

itself insensate, yield?

is

all praise,

75
as the nioon, rated first

bright

benevolent to

all

sentient beings, though

it

melodious music, purely by reason of Swabhava.

its

(Kalpulatd.)

That hands and

11.

and belly and back, and head, in

feet,

whatever kind, are found

womb,

in the

the union of the soul or

(Atma) with body,

life

organs of

fine,

and
(Buddha

the wise have attributed to Swabhava;


is also

Swabhava.

Charitra Kdvya.)

From Swabhava

12.

preserved.

(nature)

all

things proceeded;

by Swabhava

all

All their differences of structure and of habits are from

and from Swabhava comes their destruction.

things are

Swabhava

All things are regulated (suddha)

by Swabhava.
Swabhava is known as the Supreme. (Pujd Kdnda, from the
Rakshd Bhagavati, where the substance is found in sundry passages.)
Akdsa

13.

by

own

its

eternal;

is

Swabhavika, because

it is

revealed by

its

preservation, and destruction


is

it

Buddhas

own
;

force

it is

it

and the

letters.

is

the essence

It is

is

and essentially

it is

The

uncreated or

five colours are

creation,

it is infinite

proper to

it;

and

Sunyata; self-supported; omnipresent:

to its essence belong both Pravritti and Nirvritti.


present,

it:

(Atma**) of

the essence of the five elements

(Bodhandtmika)

intellectual essence

the live

established, governed perfected (suddha),

it is

All things are absorbed in

force or nature.

This Akasa, which

is

omni-

intellectual,* because infinite things are absorbed into

it,

From the infinite nature of this Akasa were produced


moving things, each in its own time, in due procession from another, and with
proper difference of form and habits. From the secretf nature of Akasa pro-

declared to be infinite.

all
its

a moral ruler of the universe being a necessary sequel to it.


Excepting, however, a small and mean sect of them, they all affirm eternal necessary,
entity nor do any of them reject the soul's existence beyond the grave, or the doctrine
Still Newton's is, upon the whole, the right judgment, 'Deus sine.proviof atonement.
.'
The Swabhavika attempts to deify nature
dentia et dominio nihil est nisi
But, in a serious religious point of view,
are but a sad confusion of cause and effect.
I fail to perceive any superiority possessed by the immaterial pantheism of the Brahmanists over the material pantheism of the Buddhists. Metempsychosis and absorption
Both admit eternal necessary, entity or a substans for pheare common to both.
their denial also of

both admit intellect; both deny two classes of phenomena as well as two
them both affirm the hoinogeneousness and unreality of all phenomena,
and lastly, both leave the personality and active dominion of the causa causarum

nomena

substantes for

in obscurity.
** One comment

on the comment says, Atma here means sthan or alaya, i. e., the
ubi of creation, etc.
* Akdsa is here understood as synonymous with Stinyatd, that is, as the elemental
state of all things, the universal ubi and modus of primal entity, in a state of abstraction from all specific forms: and it is worthy of note, that amidst these primal prinIt is therefore affirmed to be a necessary ens, or
ciples, intelligence has admission.
eternal portion of the system of nature, though separated from self-consciousness or
In the same manner, Prajnd, the sum of all things, Diva natura, is
personality.
declared to be eternal, and essentially intelligent, though a material principle.
j- Secret nature of Akasa, that is, Akasa or Ether has no sensible cognizable properties such as belong to the ordinary elements.
The gradual evolution of all things in
Pravritti and their revolution into Nirvritti being perpetual, seem to prove that the
Buddhist Sunyata is not nothingness, but rather the utterly inscrutable character of
the ultimate semina rerum.

; ;

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

y6
ceeded

likewise, together with the

mobility

and from

with

air, fire

Tija
its

Mantra

own heat

of each one, air with its

and from

fire,

own

water with

its

and from water, earth with its own proper solidity or heaviness
own
and from earth, Mount Sumeru with its own substance of gold, or with its
of
kinds
various
the
all
sustaining power (Dhdtwdtmika) ; and from Sumeru,
and
flavours,
shapes,
colours,
the
variety
all
trees and vegetables and from them,
intrinsical coldness

fragrances, in leaves, flowers,

of

to burn)

fire

from

itself;

and

fruits.

Each derived

and the order of

its

its essential

property (as

procession into existence from the

manners
one precedent, by virtue of Swabhava,} operating in time. The several
two-legged,
of going peculiar to the six classes of animate beings (four-legged,
etc.)

and their several modes of

birth,

(oviparous, etc.)

all

proceeded from

Swabhava. From the Swabhava of each mansion or habitat (Bhuvana) resulted


the differences existing between the several abodes of all the six orders of animate
beings.

The existence

of the union of male


flesh, bones, skin,

womb

of the foetus in the

and female

and organs,

is

and

its

proceeds from the

Swabhava

gradual growth and assumption of

caused by the joint energy of the Swabhava of the

and that of time, or the Swabhava of the foetus, operating in time. The
maturity, and
procession of all things from birth, through gradual increase, to
foetus,

thence, through gradual decay, to death, results spontaneously from the nature of
as do the differences appropriated to the faculties of the senses
each being
;

and of the mind, and to those external things and internal, which are perceived
by them. Speech and sustenance from dressed food in mankind, and the want of
speech and the eating of grass in quadrupeds, together with the birth of birds
from eggs, of insects from sweat, and of the Gods (Devatds) without parentage
of any sort
Piijd

all

these marvels proceed

Kdnda, quotation

(Comment on

from Swabhava.

the

12.)

THE AISWARIKA* SYSTEM.


infinite, external, without mem1. The sell- existent God is the sum of perfections,
bers or passions; one with all things (in Pravritti), and separate from all things (in
Nirvritti), infiniformed and formless, the essence of Pravritti and of Nirvrittif.

(Swayambh it Pur ana

and of time says another comment thus time stands out


X By virtue of Swabhava
and both are quasi deified by
like spare, as a something superior to all phenomena,
;

Buddhists and by Brahmanists.


more Brahmanorum. That Buddhism forms an in By etcsetera, understand always
the multitude of terms
tegral part of the Indian philosophy is sufficiently proved by
and classifications common to it, and to Brahinanism. The theogony and cosmogony
additions only, which serve
of the latter are expressly those of the former, with sundry
to prove the posteriority of date, and schismatical secession, of the Buddhists. M. Cousin,
in his course of philosophv, notices the absence of a sceptical school amongst the
Indian philosophers. Buddhism, when fully explained, will supply the desideratum
and I would here notice the precipitation with which we are now constantly drawing
general conclusions relative to the scope of Indian speculation, from a knowledge of
the Brahmanical writings only writings equalled or surpassed in number and value
by those of the Buddhists, Jains, and other dissenters from the existing orthodox
*From Iswara, 'God.'
temof Vyasa and Sankara Acharya,
t Pravritti, the versatile universe; Nirvritti, its opposite, this world and the next.
action, occupation,
intensitive, and vritti,
Pravritti is compounded of Pra, an
from the root va, to blow as the wind; Nirvritti, of Mr, a privative, and vritti, as before.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
He whose image

2.

Siinyata,

is

who

J?

like a cypher'' or point, infinite, unsus-

is

tained (in Nirvritti), and sustained (in Pravritti), whose essence

whom
who
by

all

things are forms (in Pravritti), and

the Iswara, the

is

own

his

will.

who

is

is

he

Nirvritti, of

Adi-Buddha, was revealed

intellectual essence, the

first

This self existent

is

yet formless (in Nirvritti),

whom all know as the

only true Being;

and, though the state of Nirvritti be his proper and enduring state, yet, for the sake

become Pancha-jnauatmika, he produced the

of Pravritti, (creation), having

Buddhas

thus

from

premely wise, from


colours

of

air,

Suvisuddhadharma-dhatuja-jnana,

whom

the organ of hearing, and

Sambhava, from

whom

all

proceed the element of

water, the organ of taste, and

whom

whom

su-

all

proceed the element

fire,

savours

the organ of smell, and

whom

and from Krityanushtha-jnana,

outward things dependent thereon.

Buddhas are Pravritti-karmanas, or the authors of

all

proceed the element of

Amogha

proceed the element of earth, the organ of touch, and

the sensible properties of

five

sounds; and from Pratyavekshana-jnana, Ratna

odours; and from Santa-jnana, Amitabha, from

Siddha, from

the

proceed the element of AkiUa, the organ of sight, and

and from Adarsana-jnana, Akshobhya, from

Vairochana,

creation.

all

All these five

They

possess the five

The

jndnas, the five colours, the five mt&drds, and the five vehicles.*

five ele-

ments, five organs of sense, and five respective objectst of sense, are forms of

And

them.J

these five

Buddhas each produced a Bodhi-Satwa,

The

see Asiatic Society's Transactions, vol. xvi.)

karmanas, or the immediate agents of creation

become Sarvaguna, (invested with


produced
3.

all

fiat.

(Comment on

and each,

(for the

detail,

Bodhi-Satwas are Srishtiin his turn,

having

invested with the three gunas,)

quot. 1.)

All things existent (in the versatile universe) proceed from some cause (hetu):

that cause

things by his

all qualities, or

five

This

* See

is

is

the Tatkagata

(Adi-Buddha)

and that which

the cause of

is

the symbol of the Triad and of the Saktis.

Appendix A.

Manas, as the sum of the faculties of sense, be excluded, we may lender the
else we must say elements, organs, and objects.
t The five Dhydni Buddhas are said to be Pancha Bhuta, Pancha Indriya and
Paneha Ayatana dkdra. Hence my conjecture that they are mere personifications,
fit'

passage as here

according to a theistic theory, of the phenomena of the sensible world. The sixth
Dhydni Buddha is, in like manner, the icon and source of the sixth sense, ami its
object, or Manas and Dharma, i. c, the percipient principle, soul of the senses, or
internal sense, and moral phenomena.
Manas is the Bhutu, Dhdrana the Indriya,
and Dharma the Ayatana, or mind, mental apprehension and the appropriate objects
of such apprehension, or all things.
Mind is the seat of consciousness and perception;
whatever its essence, and is the elfective cause of all sensation and perception.
is compounded of Tafhd, thus, and gata. gone or got, and
This important word
is explained in three ways.
First, thus got or obtained, via., the rank of* a Tathdgata,
ohtained by observance of the rules prescribed for the acquisition of perfect wisdom
of which acquisition, total cessation of births is the efficient consequence.
Second, thus
gone, viz., the mundane existence of the Tathdgata, gone so as never to return, mortal
births having been closed, and Nirvritti obtained, by perfection of knowledge.
Third, gone in the same manner as it or they (birth or births) came the sceptical and
necessitarian conclusion of those who held that both metempsychosis and absorption
are beyond our intellect (as objects of knowledge), and independent of our eilbrts (as
objects of desire and aversion
as contingencies to which we are liable) and that that
which causes births, causes likewise (proprio vigore) the ultimate cessation of them.
;

)
;

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

78
existence

(versatile)

is

the

the cause of

cessation or

extinction of all (such)

(Bhadra Kalpdvaddna.)*
existence
which animates it, is an emana4. Body is compounded of the five elements soul,
(SwayamMu-Furdna.)
tion from the self-existent.
and have been burned in
5. Those who have suffered many torments in this life,
:

so said

Sakya Sinha.

hell, shall, if

both.

they piously serve the Tri Ratna (or Triad), escape from the evils of

(Avaddna Kalpalatd.)

Subandhu

6.

Raja

(a

of Benares)

was

childless.

He

devoted himself to the

worship of Iswara (Adi-Buddba ;) and by the grace of Iswara a sugar-cane was produced from his semen, from which a son was born to him. The race remains
to this day,
7.

Awn

When

and

became

is

called

Ikshava Aku.

(Avaddna Kalpalatd?)

void, perfect void, [Siinya, Maha Sunya] the triliteral syllable


manifest, the first created, the ineffably splendid, surrounded by all

all

was

the radical letters (Vija Akshara,) as by a necklace. In that Aum, he who is


present in all things, formless and passionless, and who possesses the Tri Ratna,
was produced by his own will. To him I make adoration. (Swayambhii-Purdna.)

THE KARMIKAf SYSTEM.

From the union of Upaya and Prajna,^ arose Manas, the lord of the senses,
1
so said Sakya
and from Manas proceeded the ten virtues and the ten vices
Sinha. [Divya Avaddna'].
.

epithet Tathdgata, therefore, can only be applied to Adi-Buddha, the self-existent,


cessation of
is never incarnated, in a figurative, or at least a re.stiicted, sense
human births being the essence of what it implies. I have seen the question and answer,
'what is the Tathdgata? It does not come again,' proposed and solved by the Rakshd
One of a thouBhdga/oaM, in the very spirit and almost in the words of the Vedas.

The
who

sand proofs that have occurred to me how thoroughly Indian Buddhism is. Tathdgata, 'thus gone, or gone as he came,' as applied to Adi-Buddha, alludes to his
voluntary secession from the versatile world into that of abstraction, of which no
mortal can predicate more than that his departure and his advent are alike simple
Some authors substitute this interpretation, exclusively appliresults of his volition.
cable to Adi-Buddha, for the third sceptical and general interpretation above given.
The synonym Sugata, or 'well gone, (or well got, that is, happily got so as never to
be lost or virtually got, that is, by rigid observance of the laws or rules prescribed,
for ever emit of versatile existence,' yet further illustrates the ordinary meaning of the
word Tathdgata, as well as the ultimate scope and genius of the Buddhist religion, of
which the end is, freedom from metempsychosis and the means, perfect and absolute
enlightenment of the understanding, and consequent discovery of the grand secret
What that grand secret, that ultimate truth, that single reality, is. whether
of nature.
all is God, or God is all, seems to be the sole proposition of the oriental philosophic
religionists, who have all alike sought to discover it by taking the high priori road.
That God is all, appears to be the prevalent and dogmatic determination of the Brahmanists ; that all is God, the preferential but sceptical solution of the Buddhists
and, in a large view, I believe it would be difficult to indicate any further essential
difference between their theoretic systems, both, as I conceive, the unquestionable
growth of the Indian soil, and both founded upon transcendental speculations, conducted in the very same style aud manner. See Guizot's Civilization, ii. 386. India
Ions; long preceded Europe in the paths of transcendental philosophy.
* Since ascertained that this passage was misquoted for me, and that it is in fact
equivalent to the Sarnath inscription, which should be rendered thus, "Of all things
cause-produced the causes hath the Tathagata explained. The great Sramana hath likeFor these causes of existwise explained the causes of the extinction of all things."
ence and non-existence see the next section.
fFrom Karma, morality, the moral law of the universe.

\ See the note on quotation 6


tation 1 of the Ydtnika system.

of the section

Adi

Saaigha.

Also the note on quo-

):

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
The being

2.

order

from

of all things

knowledge,

false

general notions

ception; from
it,

it,

impression

delusive

from them, particulars

objects] of the senses;

from them, contact; from indefinite sensation and perfrom

thirst or desire;

among animate

things

it,

system

is

all

the distinctions of genus and

is

the procession of

all

after the

manner and

things into existence from

and in the inverse order to that of their procession, thev retro-

And

grade into non-existence.


fore this

einbryotic [physical] existence; from


it,

from them decay and death,

Such

period peculiar to each.

Avidya, or delusion

from delusive impression,

from them, the six seats [or outward

birth or actual physical existence; from

species

79

derived from belief, reliance, \j)ratyaya,~] in this

is

called

the egress and regress are both Karmas,* where-

Karmika.

(Sakya to his

disciples

in

the JRakshd

Bhdgavati.)
3.

The

existence of the versatile world

and this

nation, or belief in its reality;

or

first

is

false

derived sheerly from fancy or imaginotion

is

the

first

Karma

of Manas,

act of the sentient principle, as yet unindividualized (?) and unembodied.

This belief of the unembodied sentient principle in the reality of a mirage

ded with a longing after

and a conviction of

it,

its

worth and

reality

longing is called Sanskdra and constitutes the secondf Karma of Manas.

is

atten-

which

When Sans-

kara becomes excessive, incipient individual consciousness arises [third Karma]


thence proceeds an organised and definite, but archetypal body, the seat of that
consciousness, [fourth
sible

Karma]

from the

and cognizable properties

of]

last results the existence of [the six sen-

naturalj

objects,

moral and physical,

[fifth

*The Dasa Karma are, 1 Sanskdra, 2 Vijndna, 3 Ndmanipa, 4 Shaddyatana,


5 Vedand, 6 Trishnd, 7 Upddand, 8 Bhava, 9 Jdti, 10 Jardmarana.
f The first, not second ; ten in all.
J So I render, after much inquiry, the Shaddyatana, or six seats of the senses exterand which are in detail as follows Rupa, Sabda, Ganda, Rasa,
nal and internal
:

Dharma. There
The whole category

Sparsa,

is

an obvious difficulty as to Sparsa, and some also as to Dha

theAyatanas expresses outward things: and after much investigation, I gather, that under Rupa is comprised not only colour, but form too, so
far as its discrimination (or, in Kdrmika terms, its existence) depends on sight; and
that all other wispecified properties of body are referred to Sparsa, which therefore
includes not only temperature, roughness, and smoothness, and hardness, and its opposite, but also gravity, and even extended figure, though not extension in the abstract.
Here we have not merely the secondary or sensible properties of matter, but also
the primary ones and, as the existence of the Ayatanas or outward objects perceived, is
said to be derived from the Indriyas, (or from Manas, which is their collective energy,
in other words, to be derived from the sheer exercise of the percipient powers the Karmika system amounts to idealism. Nor is there any difficulty thence arising in reference to the Kdrmika doctrine, which clearly affirms that theory by its derivation of
all things from Pratyaya (belief), or from Avidyd (ignorance).
But the Indriyas and
Ayatanas, with their necessary connexion, (and, possibly, also, the making Avidyd the
source of all things,) belong likewise to one section at least of the Swdbhdvika school
and, in regard to it, it will require a nice hand to exhibit this Berkleyan notion
existing co-ordinately with the leading tenet of the Sirdbhdrikas.
In the way of
ma.

of

explanation

may

observe,

first,

that the denial of material entity involved in the

Indriya and Ayatana theory (as in that of Avidyd) respects solely the versatile world
of Pravritti, or of specific forms merely, and does not touch the Kirvrittika state of
formative power and of primal substance, to which latter, in that condition, the qualities of gravity, and even of extended figure, in any sense cognizable by human faculdenied, at the same time, that the real and even eternal existence of a
ties, are
substance, in that state,

is

affirmed.

Second, though Dharma, the sixth Ayatana, be rendered by virtue, the appropriated

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

80
When

Karina.]

the archetypally embodied sentient principle conies to exercise itself

on these properties of things, then definite perception or knowledge


as that this

is

white, the other, black

is

produced,

wrong, [sixth Kar-

this is right, the other

Thence arises desire or worldly affection in the archetj-pal body, [seventh


ma.]
Karma,] which leads to corporeal conception, [eighth,] and that to physical birth,
[ninth.]
From birth result the varieties of genus and species distinguishing animated nature, tenth Karma,] and thence come decay and death in the time and
manner peculiar to each, [eleventh and final Karma]. Such is the evolution

of all things in Pravritti


Xirvritti

is

opposed to which

is

Nirvritti

ting the reality and stability of Pravritti, or, which

abandonment of Avidya;
and
and

when Avidya

for,

is

also,

of course,

Now,

derived.

therefore,

we

sentient principle, vanish with

and

system
4.

is

Nirvritti,

called

Karmika.

Since the world

cipient principle,

which divide the

it is

things into existence

is

all

it is

world

is

a substance

such affection and

universe, are

it

which are thence only

see that Pravritti or the versatile

the consequence of an abandonment of

"Pravritti

absurd ideas respec-

the same thing, the

is

existences,

quence of affection for a shadow, in the belief that


vritti is

all

relinguished or overcome, Sanskara

Karmas or acts of the


all mundane things and

the rest of the

all

and the recurrence of

the sheer consequence of the abandonment of

the conse-

and Nir-

And

belief.

Karmas; wherefore the

[Comment on quotation 2.]


Karma of Manas,

produced by the

or sheer act of the per-

The manner of procession of all


from the union of Upaya* and of Prajna, Manas

therefore called Karmika.


is

thus

proceeded; and from Manas, Avidya


kara, Vijnana; and from Vijnana,

Ayatana t and from them, Yedana


;

and from Avidya, Sanskara; and from Sans-

Namanipa
;

and from

and from Narnariipa, the Shad


it,

Trishna

and from

it,

Upadana

object of the internal sense, it must be remembered, that most of the SwdbhaviTcas,
whilst they deny a moral ruler of the universe, affirm the existence of morality as a
Others again (the minority) of the Swabhavikas reject
part of the system of nature.
the sixth Indriya, and sixth Ayatana, and, with them, the sixth Dhydni Buddha, or
Vajra Satwa, who, by the way, is the Magnus Apollo of the Tdntrikas, a sect the
mystic and obscene character of whose ritual is redeemed by its unusually explicit
enunciation and acknowledgment of a "God above all."
The published explanations of the procession of all things from Avidya appear to me
irreconcilably to conflict with the ideal basis of the theory.
*See Fahian, 159 and 291. See also Gogerly, p. 15, his enumeration is precisely ours,
though his explanation differs, and is I think unintelligible, as is also Colebrooke's.

See Ceylon Journal, No. 1.


t That is colour, odour, savour, sound, the properties dependent on touch, (which acre
baldness, and its opposite, temperature, roughness and smoothness, and also, I believe
They are called the seats of
gravity and extended figure,) and lastly, right and wrong.
In this quotation I have purthe six senses, the five ordinary, and one internal.
Their import may be gathered from the immeposely retained the original terms.
diately preceding quotations and note, which the curious may compare with Mr. Colebrooke's explication.
See his paper on the Bauddha philosophy, apud Trans. Roy..
The following are the details of the three catagories, viz
As. Society, quarto vol.
;

Bhutas.

Indriyas.

Earth

Skin

"Water
Fire

Palate

Air

Akasa

Nose
Ear
Eye

Ayatanas.
Tangible properties.
Savours.
Odours.
Sounds.
Colours, forms.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
and from

Bhava; and from

it,

rupya Manas,

[t. e.,

it

And

acter of the one or the other,

Such

and misery

is

and when Avidya

the cessation of

The

G.

He who
all

the

is

words and deeds partake of the charfelicity

being inseparably bound

Manas through Avidya


Now, since Avidya is a false
all mundane existence, when it ceases, the
from its illusion, is absorbed into Upaya

medium

of

cease with

is

Nirvritti

it.

Pravritti and Nirvritti

are

and

both Karmas.

2.]

wisdom

[Punya ParodaJ]
own heart, and

as to read his

even he cannot erase the characters which Vidhdtri% has written

[Avaddna KalpalatdJ]

the faithful servant walks behind his master

behind him when he stands, so every animate

being

walks, and stands

when he
is

bound in the ohains

of

(Avaddna Kalpalatd.)

Karma.
8.

the state of things under the influence of Avidya

Avidya

others,

Jati-

things into existence from

has received from nature such

on his forehead.

As

And from

Jaramarana.

actions of a man's former births constitute his destiny 4

5.

7.

it,

by the very nature of Karma.

all

[Another comment on Quot.

those of

as men's

and Manas, relieved

Pravritti

Prajna.f

and from

their lot disposed

ceases, all the rest

is also

world vanishes

is

to vice,

the procession of

knowledge, and

the sentient principle in organized animate beings] emanated

the ten virtues and ten vices.

to virtue,

Jati

Karma accompanies

everyone, everywhere, every instant, through the forest,

and across the ocean, and over the highest mountains, into the heaven of Indra,
and into Tdtdla (hell); and no power can stay it. (Avaddna Kalpalatd.)
Kanala, son of king Asoka, because in one birth he plucked out the golden
own eyes plucked out in the next and because

9.

eyes from a Chaitya* had his

he in that birth bestowed a pair of golden eyes on a Chaitya, received himself in


the succeeding birth eyes of unequalled splendour.

womb

of his

caused by the

Although

11.

son,

had acquired (Sakya speaks of himself) a perfect body,

even in this body, defect again appeared; because


residue of the sins of former births.

Perception or conscious sensation.

is,

fThe

as

still,

had yet to expiate a small

Ayata

Indriyas.

Manas

and include thought, considered

(Lalita Vistara.)

Bh-utas.

that

(Avaddna Kalpalatd.)

named Rahula Bhadra, remained six years in the


mother Yasodhara. The pain and anxiety of mother and son were
Karmas of their former births. (Avaddna Kalpalatd.)

Sakya Sinha's

10.

The sum of all phenomena which art


homogeneous and result from Manas h
one of the phsenomena of DivaNatura, or thought,

perception regarded as the sole measure of all things, thesole reality.


Up iya: see note on quotation ti of the section
Vdmdchdras gay, into Prajn

human

Adi Sangha.
ZDaivya, identified with Adi Buddha by the theistic, and with Fate, by the atheThe precise equivalent of the maxim itself is our conduct is fate.'
Brahma, but here understood to be Karma.

istic doctors.

'

i.

is the name of the tomb temples or relic-consecrated churches f the BudThe essential part of the structure is the basal hemisphere: above this a
square neck or Gala always supports the acutely conical or pyramidal superstructure:
and on all four sides of that neck two eye, arc placed, which are typical of omniscience.
'the
Whereverthe hemisphere is found, it is indisputable evidence of Buddhism, e.
In niches at the base of the hemisphere ar<
topes' of Manikydla aud of Pesh&war.

Chaitya

dhists.

</.,

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

82

THE YATNIKA* SYSTEM.


Iswara (Adi-Buddha) produced Yatna froin Prajna

1.

and Nirvritti

vritti

this

is

Yatna

and the cause of Pra

and all the difficulties that occur in the affairs of

world and the next are vanquished by Yatna (or conscious intellectual

effort.)

(Divya Avaddna.)

That above mentioned Iswara, by means of Yatna, produced the

2.

whence sprang the

Buddhas. The

five

five

Buddhas, in

of Yatna, produced the five Bodhisatwas

like

and they again,

five

Jnanas,

by means
by the same means,

manner,

i.

e.,

created the greater Devatas from their bodies, and the lesser ones from the hairs of
the bodies.

In like manner,

Brahma

created the three Lokas*[ and all

Among

mortals,

all difficulties

motionless things.

are

overcome by

moving and

YT atna;

for

by medicine, those of travelling


by equipages and want of paper, by prepared skin and bark of trees. And as all
our worldly obstacles are removed by Yatna, so the wisdom which wins Nirvritti
example, those of the sea by ships, those of

illness

for us is the result of

Yatna

because by

Since therefore

virtues acquired.

all

it

alone are charity and the rest of the

the goods of this world and of the next

depend upon Yatna, Sakya Sinha wandered from region to region to teach mankind

(Comment on

that cardinal truth.

That Adi-Buddha,

3.

whom

quotation

the

1.)

Swabkavikas

call

Swabhava, and the Ais-

warikas, Iswara, produced a Bodhisatwa, who, having migrated through the three
worlds, and through all six forms of animate existence, and experienced the goods

and

evils of

every state of being, appeared, at

last, as

Sakya Sinha,

to teach

man-

kind the real sources of happiness and misery, and the doctrines of the four
of philosophy

schools

;||

and then, by means of Yatna, having obtained Bodhi-

jnana, and having fulfilled

became Nirvana.

all

the Paramitas (transcendental virtues,) he at length

(Dir.ya Avaddna.)

Sakya Sinha, having emanated from that

4.

some,

Swabhava, and, according to

is

purpose of preserving

all creatures.

He

self- existent,

others, is Iswara,
first

which, according to

was produced

for

the.

adopted the Pravritti Marga (secular

frequently enshrined four of the fire Dhydni Buddhas, one opposite to each cardinal
point. Akshobhya occupies the eastern niche
Matnasambhava, the southern Amitdbha
the western; and Amoglmsiddha, the northern.
Vairochana, the first Dhydni Buddha
is supposed to occupy the centre, invisibly.
Sometimes, however, he appears visibly,
being placed at the right-hand of Akshobhya.
;

From

Yatna,

intellectual force and resource.'


and infernal divisions of the versatile universe.
conceive, is an attempt to remedy that cardinal defect of the older
$ This, as I
Swdbhdvika school, viz., the denial of personality, and conscious power and wisdom
in the first cause.
To the same effect is the Kdrmika assertion, that Manas proceeded from the union of Updya and Prajnd. Karma I understand to mean conscious
moral effort, and Yatna, conscious intellectual effort. Their admission in respect to

f The

human

'intellect,

celestial, terrene,

nature implies

its

free will, as their assignation to the divine

nature implies

its

personality.
Passages of this entirely pyrrhonic tenure incessantly recur in the oldest and
highest authorities of the Buddhists; hence the assertion of the preface that Sugatism is rather sceptical than atheistically dogmatic.
Expressly called by my Bauddha pandit the Swdbhdvika, Aisivarika, Ydtnika, and
Kdrmika systems; and the terms well denote the things meant to be designated:
see note at p. 23.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
character,) and in several births

of his actions in
in the Nirvritti

all

the three

Marga (ascetical

83

exercised Yatna and Karma, reaping the fruits


He then exercised Yatna and Karma
worlds.

or monastic character) essaying a release from this

virtues from the Satwa to the Dwapara Yuga,


Yuga, having completely freed himself from sublunary
cares, having become a Bhikshuka,** and gone to Buddha Gaya, he rejected and
reviled the Brahnianical penance, did all sorts of true penance for six years under

mortal
till

the ten

fulfilling

coil,

at last, in the Kali

the tree of knowledge on the banks of the Niranjana river; conquered the Narnu-

wisdom
to

among

hare

in
it

tiger

appears that

by means

Yr atna

of Y'atna the hare

6.

tiger

Nara Sinha, Raja of Benares, was a

Swama Raja, by means of Yatna,


Rajkumars, whom Nara Sinha had destined for

monster of cruelty.

threw the

prevails over physical force, knowledge,

(Bhadra Kalpdoaddna.)

and the Mantras.

up 100

with a

perfect of the Buddhas,

(Ananda Bhikshu and the rest,) granted


of millions of people, and gave Moksha*

Vistara.)

(Lalita

to himself.
fell

Hence

into a well.

deliver

the Bodhisatwas,

to the simple, fulfilled the desires

them and
5.

became the most

Bodhijnana,

obtained

chimara,*||

seated himself

Satta

compelled him to
a sacrifice to the

(Bhadra Kalpdvaddna.)
Sudhana Kumara found a beautiful daughter of a horse-faced Raja named
r
Bruina. By means of Y atna he carried her off, and kept her and was immor-

gods.
7.

talized for the

(Swayambhu Parana.)

exploit.

ADI-BUDDHA.f
1.

Know that when, in

the beginning,

all

was

perfect void

(Maha siinyata,;) and


was revealed in the

the five elements were not, then Adi-Buddha, the stainless,

form of flame or
2.

He

(form of

in

light.

whom

all

are the three ffimas,

things,)

became manifest

who

is

he

is

the

Maha

Miirti

and the Visvarupa

the self-existent great Buddha, the

Adinatha, the Maheswara.


**

Mendicant one of the four regular orders of the Bauddhas. See the preface.
*||A Daitya of Kdnchomapura, personification of the principle of evil. .Bodhijn&na
is the wisdom of Buddhism. Ananda was one of the first and ablest of Sakya's disciples.
The first code of Buddhism is attributed to him in conjunction with Kasyapa and Upali.
He succeeded the former as heresiarch.
* Emancipation, absorption.
\ Adi 'first,' Buddha 'wise.'
Eighdarkest corner of the metaphysical labyrinth.
t The doctrine of Sunyatd is the
I understand it
teen kinds of Sunyatd are enumerated in the Bakshd Bhdgavati.
to mean generally .spat !', which some of our philosophers have held to be a pie',
In the transcendental sense of the Buddhists, it signifies not merely
others a vacuum.
the universal ubi, but also the modus existendi of all tilings in the state of quiescence
The Buddhists have eternised matter or
and abstraction from phsenomenal being.
The energy of nature ever is, but is not ever exerted; and when
nature in that state.
not exerted, it is considered to be void of all those qualities which necessarily imply per:

ishableness, and, which is the same thing, of all those qualities which are cognisable
Most of
01 distinguishable, and hence the energy in that state is typed by sheer space.
the Buddhists deem (upon different grounds) all phenomena to l-o as purely illusory
those
of
energies
God
of
The phamomena of the latter are sheer
as do the Yedantists.
the former are sheer energies of Nature, deified and substituted for God. See note
The AiswarUcas put their Adi Buddha in
on <mot. 6 of this section Adi Sangha.
See Journal of As. Soc. No. 33, Art. 1.
place of the nature of the older Swdbhdvikas.
;

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

84
3.

He

being

is

the cause of

From

also.

existences in the three worlds

all

the cause of their well-

his profound meditation (Dhyana,) the universe

was produced

hy him.
4.

is

He

is

or passions

things are types of him, and yet he has no type: he

all

of perfections, the infinite, void

sum

the self-existent, the Iswara, the

members

of

the form of all things, and yet formless.


5.

He

without parts, shapeless, self-sustained, void of pain and care, eternal

is

and not eternal;* him I


6.

Adi-Buddha

of the

wisdom

(Kdranda Vyuhu.)

salute.

without beginning.

is

He

is

within, the essence

perfect, pure

He knows

of thatness, or absolute truth.

all

the past.

His words

are ever the same.


7.

He

is

without second.

Kutirthya deer.f
8.

who

make

(Ndma

He

Adi-Buddha, who

salutation to

in the greatest Siinyata, as the

in

the Nairatmya lion to the

is

one and sole in the universe

is

Adi-Buddha

is

whose name

is

Upaya

see our forms reflected, so

manifest

who have attained


the mirror we mortals

only to those

As

is

who became
Who is the Tathagata who
letter A.
the wisdom of absolute truth. (Ndma

gives every one Bodhi-jnana

9.

He

omnipresent.

is

sangiti.)

known

sangiti.)

known

by the thirty-two lakshanas and eighty anuvinjanas. (Ndma sangiti.)


10. As the rainbow, by means of its five colours, forewarns mortals of the coming
weather, so does Adi-Buddha admonish the world of its good and evil actions by
(in Pravritti)

means of
11.

his five essential colours.

Adi-Buddha

loves those

who

delights in

His majesty

serve him.

the assuager of pain and grief.


12.

He

is

(Ndma

sangiti.)

making happy every


fills all

sentient being; he tenderly

He

with reverence and awe.

is

(Ndma sangiti.)

the possessor of the ten virtues; the giver of the ten virtues; the

lord of ten heavens

lord of the Universe

present in the ten heavens.

(Ndma

sangiti.)
13.

By

reason of the ten jnanas, his soul

He
He is

lightener of the ten jnanas.


strengths,

and ten

vasitas.

is

enlightened.

He

too

is

the en-

has ten forms and ten significations, and ten


omnipresent, the chief of the Munis.

{Ndma

sangiti.)

in Nirvrttti; the other in Pravritti; and so of all the preceding contrasted epiAll
Pravritti, action and concretion.
Nirvritti is quiescence and abstraction
the schools admit these two modes, and thus solve the difficulty of different properties
existing in cause and in eifects.

*One

thets.

says, that Nairdtmya is ' Sarva Dharmdndm nirdbhdsa lakshanam, that


things are unreal; and that Tirtha means Moksha, and Kutiriha, any perversion of the doctrine of Moksha, as to say it consists in absorption into Brahma and it
explains the whole thus, He thunders in the ears of all those who misinterpret Moksha,
Another comment gives the sense thus, dividing
there is no true Moksha but SUmyatd.'
there is no dtmd (life or soul) without him: he alarms the
the sentence into two parts,
wicked as the lion the deer.' The first commentator is a Swdbhdvika ; the second, an

is,

Comment

'

all

'

'

one.

For a
White, blue, yellow, red. and green, assigned to the five Dhydni Buddhas.
detail of the lakshanas , anuvinjanas, balas, vasitds, etc , of the neighbouring quotations,
see Appendix A.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
He

14.

has

and

bodies,

five

(Ndma

Buddhas, without partner.

five

He

15.

the creator of

is

cherished by him.

He

unmade.

made

made.
16.

He

is

he

Aliter,

He is the author
He is the essence

and

five jnanas,

the chief of the Bodhisatwas are

Prajna, and of the world

the creator of

is

the world by the assistance of Prajna

He

is

straw of ignorance.

by reason

fire,

(Ndma

himself

himself un-

(Ndma

of virtue, the destroyer of all things.*

of all essences.

sangiti.)

the Vajra-atma (eternal being).

the instantly produced lord of the universe;

assumes the form of

the miikat of the

is

sangiti.)

the Buddhas

all

85

five sights

creator of Akasa.

the

of the Prajnariipi-jnana, to

He

consume the

sangiti.)

ADI PEAJNA,t OR DHARMA.


I salute that Prajna Paramita,

1.

who by

reason of her omniscience causes the

tranquillity-seeking Sravakasf to obtain absorption

ways

the

men have

wise

that

said,

the external and

animate nature, are produced by her

Buddha

Matra), of that

First

then

air,

Sumeru, the

to

whose

who

which

Prajna, the mother of

all

make

all

whom
all

Buddha (Buddha

and Bodhisatwas dedi-

salutation

to the

of precious stones,

sits

Prajna Paramita,

Lallita-

the gods (Prasu-bhagavatang,) and

Prajna Devi,

who

is

Nirrupya, and the universal mother.

Prajnarupya, the

sustaining the
in the

(Bhadra Kalpdvaddna.)

without beginning or end, (anadyanta.)


3.

of

are the residence of the thirty-three millions of gods

above these, upon a Lotos

||

the mother of

belonging to

internal diversities
is

service all the Sravakas

mansion of the moon (or a moon-crescent),

manner

to his genius

then water, then earth, and in the centre of earth,

fire,

sides of

(Devatas,) and

asan

who, by her knowledge of

(Panchavinsati Sdhasrika.)

cate themselves.
2.

of action, causes each to go in the path suited

the Prajna Paramita, the

(Pujd kdnda.)

Thou Prajna, art like Akasa, intact and intangible; thou art above all
He who devoutly
human wants thou art established by thy own power.
4.

serves the

serves thee
5.

good

Thou mighty
qualities;

distinction

Tathagata

object

of

and Buddha

my
is

(Ashta Sdhasrika.)

also.

worship!

the Guru

between thee and Buddha.

thou Prajna,
of the world.

art

the

sum of all
make no

The wise

(Ashta Sdhatrika.J

* The comment on this passage is very full, and very curious, in as much as it reduces
many of these supreme deities to mere parts of speech. Here is the summing up of the
comment
He (Adi-Buddha ) is the instructor of the Buddhas and of the BodhiHe is the creator and dessatwas. He is known by the knowledge of spiritual wisdom.
:

'

troyer of all things, the fountain of virtue.

'

Spiritual

wisdom

is

stated to consist of

Samddhi, Prajmi, Vimukti, aofiJn&na.


f Adi 'first,' Prajna 'supreme wisdom, nature:'

Sila,

see p. 12.
of one of the ascetical orders of Buddhists.
In this enumeration of material elements, Akasa is omitted: but it is mentioned,
and most emphatically, in quotation 4, as in the fifty other places quoted. In like manner, the five elements are frequently mentioned without allusion to the sixth, which
however occurs in fit places. Omission of this sort is no denial.
the other, advanced and resting on the bow of
i. c., one leg tucked under the seat
I

Name

||

the moon-crescent.

Kl

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

86
6.

who

thou

of thee
7.

thy worshippers, the benevolent, knowing thee

art merciful to

to be the source of

Bauddha

excellence, attain perfect happiness

by the worship

(Ashta Sdhasrika.)

who

Those Buddhas

Buddhas

are merciful, and

Thou

are thy children.

art

the Gurus of

the world,

such

all

good, and the universal mother (Saka-

all

lajagat Pita Mahi.) (Ashta Sdhasrika.)


8.

Every Buddha assembling

his disciples instructs

becomest multiformed and many named.


9.

Thou comest not from any

them how from unity thou

(Ashta Sdhasrika.)

any

place, thou goest not to

The Buddhas, Pratyeka Buddhas, and Sravakas,f have

10.

By

thee.

thee alone

What

11.

is

all
;

dom;

own

full

certainly be

was

will.

all

wisdom

Prajna,

Devi was revealed out of Akasa with


the Buddhas and Bodhisatwas, in whose

all

who

is

of absolute truth

the ever living (Sanatani);

hath revealed any attribute by

(Ashta Sdhasrika.)

Svinyata, Prajna

ever resides;

of the

No Purana

known.

Prajna, the mother of

Dharma

heart

devoutly served

all

These are truths revealed in

absorption obtained.

tongue can utter thy praises, thou of whose being (or manifestation)

When

the letter

wisdom,

is

no cause but thy

which thou rnayest


12.

the wise

(Ashta Sdhasrika.)

Sastras.

there

Do

place.

find thee ?* (Ashta Sdhasrika.)

nowhere

the

without the world and the world's


the giver and the ikon of that wis-

inscrutable;

the

mother of

Buddha.^

(Pty'd kdnda.)

13.

Prajna Devi!

the grandmother of
creatures

15.

art

the

mother (Janani) of

Bodhisatwas, and

thou art the goddess

great

all

the Buddhas,

all

grandmother of

all

(other)

(Pujd kdnda.)

(Isanf.)

Thou, Sri Bhagavati Devi Prajna, art the sum of

14.

mother of
verse

thou

the

the

all

sciences,

the

the Buddhas, the enlightener of Bodhijnana, the light of the uni-

(Gimakdranda Vyiiha.)

The humbler

of

the pride of

the giver of the quality of Satya

mi; the protector of

all

Namuchimara, and of

the possessor of

mortals; such

is

the

all

all

the sciences

Dharma Ratna.

proud ones;

the Laksh-

(Gunakdranda

Vyuha.)
16. All that the

Buddhas have

the rest of the Sutras,

is also

said, as contained in the

Dharma Ratna.*

Mahayana Sutra and

(Gunakdranda

Vyiiha.)

The force of the question is this, the wise certainly find thee,
+ The Buddhas are of three grades: the highest is Mahdydna, the medial, Pratyeka, and the lowest, Srdvaka.
These three grades are called collectively the Triyiina, or 'three chariots,' bearing their possessors to transcendental glory.
The Triydna are otherwise explained as three paths leading to different degrees of beatitude
suited to the different capacities of those who propose to follow them. The Mahdydna
the great or popular, or the great or most excellent.
% Sugataja, which the Vdmdchdras render, 'of whom Buddha was born;' the
sihiiiicJidras,
'born of Buddha, or goer to Buddha,' as wife to husband.
Bauddha personification of the principle of evil.
* Hence the scriptures are worshipped as forms of Adi
Dharma.
Sutra

is

Dak-

means

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
Because Buddha

17.

sits

87

on thy brow, the splendour thence derived to thy form

illuminates all the ethereal expanse, and sheds over the three worlds the light

of a million of suns

the four Devatas, Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesa, and Indra, are

oppressed beneath thy foot, which

he

who

shall meditate

is

O Arya

advanced in the Alir-Asana.

on thee in this form shall be relieved from

all

Tara

future births

(Sarakd Dhdrd.f)

Thy

18.

manifestation, say

hairs of thy

body

inhabitants, the

some of the wise,

sprang- Akasa, heaven,

greater

dharbas, and Nag-as.

is

thus

earth, and

from the roots of the

together with their

hades,

So too (from thy

hairs,)

wonderful to

Gan-

Siddhas,

Devatas, the lesser, the Daityas, the

were produced

tell!

the various mansions of the Buddhas, together with the thousands of Buddhas

who occupy

From thy own being were formed

them.f

things without exception.


19. Salutation

all

moving- and motionless

{Sarakd Dhdrd.)

Prajna Devi, from whom, in the form of

to

duction of the world was excellently obtained,

who

is

desire, the pro-

beautiful as the full

moon?

the mother of Adi Buddha, (Jinendra Matra,) and wife of (the other) Buddha,

who

is

20.

(Sddhana Maid.)

imperishable as adamant.

That Yoni, from which the world was made manifest,


In the midst of the Yantra or trikon (triangle)

Yantra.||

from that binda, Adi Prajna


side of

the triangle

Adi

revealed herself

Prajna produced

is

by her

is

the Trikonakara

a binda (point,cypher):

own

will.

From one

Buddha, and from another

side,

That Adi Prajna is the mother


Dharma, and from the third side, Sangha.
of that Buddha who issued from the first side; and the Dharma, who issued
from the second

21. Salutation to

revealed by her

the sustainer of

of the Buddha of
(Comment on quotation

side, is the wife

mother of the other Buddhas.

Prajna Paramita, the

own
all

will,

infinite,

out of the letter U.

things, (Dharmiki) the

the

first

side,

and the

19.)

who, when

all

was

void,

was

Prajna, the Sakti of Upaya,

mother of the world, (Jagan-mata

the Dkyanariipya, the mother of the Buddhas.

The modesty

of

women is

;)

a form

aphorism.
Sdhya, like other Indian sages, taught
(discourse,)
doubtful if he himself reduced his doctrines to a written code, though
the great scriptures of the sect are now generally attributed to him, though in fact
reduced to writing and systematized by his disciples Kasyapa, Ananda, and Upali.
Sutra is now the title of the books of highest authority among the Bauddhas.
f Composed by Sarvajna MUrapdda of Kashmir, and in very high esteem, though not
literally thread of

orally,

and

it

is

of scriptural authority.

X These thousands of BuddJuis of mortal mould are somewhat opposed to the so-called
simplicity of Buddhism II whatever werethe primitive doctrines of Sdhya it is certain
that the system attributed to him, and now found in the written authorities of the
sect, is the very antipodes of simplicity.
'well got from the rise
% Dharmodaya-satigata Kdmarupini, variously rendered,
of virtue,' 'well got from the rise or origin of the world;' also as in text, Dharmodaya, the source of all things, signifies like wise the Yoni, of which the type is a triThe tiiangle is a familiar symbol in temples of the Buddha Sukti*,
angle. See 20.
and of the Triad. The point in the midst represents either Adi-Buddha or Adi
Prajna, according to the theistic or atheistic tendency of his opinions who uses it.
Our commentator is of the Vdmdchdra or atheistic school, and such also is his
text.
(See Kavenshaw in the J.K.A.S. on the Khat Kon Yantra.)
See J.R.A.S. xiii. 1, 79, and 171.
||

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

88

of her, and the prosperity of

and the
is

all

She

earthly things.

is

wisdom

the

of mortals,

and the joy, and the emancipation, and the knowledge.

ease,

present everywhere.

Prajna

(Sddhana Maid.)
ADI SANGHA.*

That Amitabha, by virtue of his Siinta-jnana, created the Bodhi-satwa named

1.

Padma-pani, and committed to his hands the


2.

From between his (Padma-pani's) shoulders sprang Brahma from his foreMaha Deva from his two eyes, the sun and moon from his mouth,
;

from his teeth, Saraswati; from

air;

Lakshmi

from his

his hair, the Indras


3.

(Gunakdranda Vyuha.)
;

head,
the

lotos. f

feet,

the earth

belly,

(Gunakdranda

and other Devatas.

For the sake of obtaining

his

Nirvritti, I devote

from his knees,

Varuna;

from his navel, water

from the roots of

Vyiiha.)

myself to the feet of Sangha

who, having assumed the three Gunas, created the three worlds.
(Padma-pani)

4. lie

is

(P&jtt kdnda.)

the possessor of Satya Dharma, the Bodhi-satwa, the

lord of the world, the Maha-satwa, the master of all the

Dharmas.

(Gunakd-

randa Vyiiha.)
5.

The

lord of all worlds, (Sarvalokadhipa,)

the Sri-man, the

the Lokeswara, sprang from Adi-Buddha** (Jinatmaja.)

know
6.

for the

Sangha Ratna.

From the

which

is

P. S.

(Gunakdranda

union of the essences of

Such

is

Dharma
he

Raja,

whom men

Vyiiha.)

Upaya and

of Prajna* a proceeded the world

Sangha.

With

regard to the consistency or otherwise of the view of the subject

taken in the sketch of Buddhism, with the general tenor of the foregone quota-

Adi

'first,'

Sangha 'congress, union.'

is the fourth Dhydni or celestial Buddha:


minister.
Padma-p&ni is the prozsens Lints
Hence his identification with the third
of the existing system of worlds.
member of the Triad. He is figured as a graceful youth, erect, and bearing in either
hand a lotos and a jewel. The last circumstance explains the meaning of the celebrated Shadakshari Mantra, or six-lettered invocation of him, viz., Om! Muni r
horn! of which so many corrupt versions and more corrupt interpretations have
The
appeared from Chinese, Tibetan, Japanese, Mongolian, and other sources.
1.
in question is one of three, addressed to the several members of the Triad.

f Type of creative power.

Padma-pdni
and creator

is

his

Arnitdbha

dEon and executive

Om

Om

tri2. Om
sarva vidyc horn.
form Deity is in the all-wise (Buddha). 2. The mystic triform Deity is in Prajna
(Dharma). 3. The mystic triform Deity is in him of the jewel and lotos (Sangha).
But the prcesens Di/vus, whether he be Augustus or Padmt pdni, is everything with the
many. Hence the notoriety of (his mantra, whilst the others are hardly ever heard of,
and have thus remained unknown to our travellers.
** From Arnitdbha Buddha immediately
mediately from Adi-Buddha.
*a
The Prdjnikas read ' from the union of Prajna
Such is the Aiswarilea reading.
and Updya.'
With the former, Updya is Adi-Buddha, the efficient and plastic cause, or only the
former j and Prajnd is Adi DJwrma, plastic cause, a biunity with Buddha, or only a

Prajndye

horn.

3.

mani-padmc

horn.

1.

The mystic

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
tions, I

vika,

would observe, that the

ideal theory involved in the

Prajnika-Swabka-

and in the Karmika doctrines, was omitted by me in the sketch, from some

then remaining hesitation as


schools,

the

89

and no

Upon

other.

rest, I retain

to its real drift, as well

unchanged the opinions expressed

connexion with those

as its

connexion I have

this exclusive

still

some doubt.

in the sketch, that the

and Yatnika schools are more recent than the others

that

For

Karmika

they owe their

ori-

gin to attempts to qualify the extravagant quietism of the primitive Swabhavikas,

and even of the Aiswarikas

them

preference given by

The

final beatitude.

and

that their contradistinguishing

mark

respectively to mortals, or to intellect, with a

Swabhava

assertion of the Ashtasahasrika, that

is

the

view

to

or nature

immaBuddha

absolutely disposes of us, not less than the assertion of other works, that an
terial abstraction so disposes of us,

very logically leads the author of the

To oppose

Oharitra to deny the use of virtue or intellect.

these ancient notions

was, I conceive, the especial object of those who, by laying due stress on Kar-

ma

and

Yratna,

gave

latter entertained
will, as

we

are

improbable.

rise to the

Karmika and Yatnika

now

familiar with,

None such they could

it

is

but

its

principally to that

more

numerous phrases, a philosophical

among

enthusiastic contempt of

the Buddhists are ascribable

action

for

Their passionate love of abstractions

are so remarkable.

altogether

ideal theory or denial of the reality

its

prevalence and popularity

is

as I believe, they adopted the

if,

The

some of

versatile world, has, in

of the

But that these

not necessary to suppose, and

entertain

general principles of their predecessors.

foundation

schools.

such just and adequate notions of God's providence, or man's free

which these

quietists

another prop of this

is

theory.

product. With the latter, Updya is the energy of Prajnd, the universal material cause.
The original aphorism, as I believe, is, Prajnopdyutmctkam jagatah,' which I thus
From the universal material principle, in a state of activity, proceeded the
translate
This original Sutra has, however, undergone two transformations to suit it to
world.
the respective doctrines of the Triadic Aiswarikas and of the Kdrmikas.
The version of the former is, Updyaprajndtmakam sangha, that of the latter is, Updyaprajndtmakam manas. Of both, the Updya is identical with Adi-Bvddha, and the
But the result the unsophisticated jagat of the PrdjniPrajnd, with Adi Dharma.
kas, became Adi Sangha, a creator, with the Aiswarikas-; and Manas, the sentient principle in man, the first production, and producer of all other things, with the KdrmiAvidj/d, or the condition of mundane things and existences, is an illusion, alike
kas.
with the Prdjnikas aad with the Kdrmikas. But, whilst the former consider Avndyd
the universal affection of the material and immediate cause of all things whatever; the
latter regard Avidyn as an affection of manas merely, which they hold to be an immaterial principle and the mediate cause of all things else, Adi-Bvddha being their final
The phenomena of both are homogeneous and unreal
cause.
but the PrajnikttB
derive them, directly, from a material source
the Kdrmikas, indirectly, from an
immaterial fount.
Our sober European thoughts and languages can scarcely cope
with such extravagancies as these but it would seem we must call the one doctrine
material, the other, immaterial, idealism.
The phsenomena of the Prdjnikas arc sheer energies of matter those of the Kdrmikas, are sheer (human) perceptions.
The notions of the former rest on general grounds
those of the latter, on particular ones, or (as it has been phrased) upon the putting
the world into a man's self: the Greek "panton metron anthropos."
'

'

'

PHILOSOPHY.

BUDDHIST

9o

APPENDIX

A.

DETAIL OF THE PRINCIPAL ATTRIBUTES OF ADI-BUDDHA AND OF THE

EIGHTEEN SUNYATA.

THE THIRTY-TWO LAKSHANA.*


Chakrankitapanipadatalata.

17. Urnalankritarnukkata.

2.

Supratiskthitapanipadatalata.

18. Sinkapiirvardkakayata.

3.

Jalabuddhavaj rangulipanipadatalata.

19.

4.

Mridutarunahastapadatalata.

20. Ckittantarangata.

5.

Saptochhandata.

21. Rasarasagrata.

1.

Susambhritaskandhata.

Dirghangulita.

22. Nyagrodbaparimandalata.

7.

Ayataparshnita.

23. Usbnisbasiraskata.

8.

Rijugatrata.

24. Prabbutajihwata.

9.

Utsangapadata.

25. Prastarubarata.

6.

10. Urdhangaroniata.

26. Sinbabanuta.

11. Aineyajungliata.

27. Suklabanuta,

12. Paturubahuta.

28. Samadantata.

13. Koshagatavastiguhyata.

29. Hansa\dkrantagamita.

14. Suvaniavarnata.

30. Aviraladantata.

15. Suklachliavita.

31. Saraacbatwarinsaddantata.

16. Pradaksliinavartaikaromata.

32. Abbinilanetrata.

THE EIGHTY VYANJANA.


41. Suchasamudacharata.

1.

Atamranakbata.

2.

Snigdbanakhata.

42. Vyapagatatilakalagatrata.

3.

Tunganakbata.

43. Gandhasadrisasukumarapanita.
44. Snigdbapanilekhita.

4. Cbitrangulita.
5.

45. Gambbirapanilekbita.

Anupurvangulita.

6. Giidbasirata.

46. Ayatapanilekbita.

7. Nirgrantbisirata.

47. Natyayatavacbanata.

8.

Giidbagulpbata.

48. Birabapratibinibosthata.

9.

Avisbamapadata.

49. Mridujihwata.

10. Sinbaviki-antagainita.

50. Tanujibwata.

11. Nagavikrantagamita.

51. Megbagavjitagbosbata.

12. Hansavikrantagamita.

52. Raktajibwata.

13. Vrisbabbavikrantagamita.

53.

14. Pradaksbinagamita.

54. Vrittadansbtrata.

15. Cbarugamita.

55. Tiksbnadausbtrata.

16. Avakragamita.

56. Sukladansbtrata.

17. Vrittagatrata.

57. Samadansbtrata.

18. Mrisbtagatrata.

58. Anupurvadansbtrata.

* Reinusat in his

Melanges applie s

all

Madhuracharumanj uswarata.

these to Sakya.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
19. Anuptirvagatrata.

59 Tungauasikata.

20. Suchigatrata.

60,

21. Mridugatrata.

01. Visalanetrata.

91

Sucbinasikata.

Cbittrapaksbmata.

22. Visuddhagatrata.

62,

23. Paripiirnavyanjanata.

63. Sitasitakamaladalanetrata.

24. Prithucharuniandalagatrata.

64. Ayatakrikata.

25. Sarnakrarnata.

65. Suklabbrukata.

26. Visuddkanetrata.

GO. Susnigdbabbnikata.

27. Sukunmragatrata.

07. Pmayatabbujalatata.

28. Adinagatrata.

08. Samakarnata.

29. Utsahagatrata.

09. Anupabatakarnendriyata.

30. Gambhirakukshita.

70. Aparistbanalalatata.

31. Prasannagatrata.

71. Pritbulalatata.

32. Suvibhaktangapratyangata.

72.

33. Vitimirasuddhalokata.

73. Bbramarasadrisakesata.

34. Vitungakukshita.

74, Cbittrakesata.

35. Mrishtakukskita.

75,

Gubyakesata.

30. Abhayakukshita.

70,

Asangunitakesata.

37.

Akskobhakukskita.

S uparipiirnottamangata

77. Aparushakesata.

38. Gambkiranabhita.

78. Surabbikesata.

39. Pradakskinavartanabhita.

79. Srivatsamuktikanandyata.

40. Saruantaprasadikata.

80. Vartulacbibnitapanipadatalata.

THE FIVE VABANA.


1.

Sweta.

2. Nfla,

3. Pita.

4.

Rakta.

5.

Syaina.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

92

THE TEN JNANAS.


1.

Dulakliajnana.J

2.

Sarnudyajnana.J

7.

Sam vrittij nana.


Parachittajnana.

Arthajnana.

6.

3.

Nirodkajnana.}

8.

4.

Margajnana.J

9.

5.

Dharmajnana.J

10.

Kshayajnana.

Anutpadajnana.

THE TEN AKARA.


1.

PrithivyaMra.*

6.

Akasanirodkakara.t

2.

Jalakara.*

7.

Vayunirodkakara.t

3.

Agnyakara.*

8.

Agninirodkakara.t

4.

Vayvakara.*

9.

Jalanirodhakara.t

5.

Akasakara.*

10. Pritkivinirodhakara.t

THE TEN ARTHA.


1.

Pranartha.

0.

Kurmartha.

2.

Apanartha.

7.

Krikarartha.

3.

Sarnanartha

8.

Nagartha.

4. TJdanartha.

9.

Vyanartha.

10.

5.

Devadatartha.

Dhananj ayartha.

THE TEN BALA.


1.

Sthanasthanaj nanabala.

2.

Karmavipakajnanabala.

3.

Nanadhatuj nanabala.

4.

Nanavirnuktijnanabala.

5.

Sadindriyaparaparaj nanabala.

7.

Dhyanavimokshasamadhisamapattisan-

8.

Purvamvasanusmritijnanabala.

9.

Cbyutyntpattij nanabala.

klesa\*yavadanastlianajnanabala.

10. Asravakshayajnanabala.

6. Sarvatragamipratipattij nanabala.

THE TEN VASITA.


1.

Ayurvasita.

2. Cbittavasita.

6.

Janniavasita.

7.

Adkiinuktivasita.

3.

Parishkaravasita.

8.

Pranidhanavasita.

4.

Dbarniavasita.

9.

Karmavasita.

5.

Avadhivasita.

10. Jnanavasita.

THE FIVE KAYA,


1.

Dbarmakaya.
4.

2.

Sambbogakaya.

Mahasukbakaya.

3.
5.

Mrrnanakaya.

Jnanakaya.

Five in Pravritti.
% Five in Nirvritti.
* Evolution of the five elements in Pravritti.
T Revolution of the five elements in Nirvritti,
Five in Pravritti and five in Nirvritti and so of the Bala and Vasita.
||

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

93

THE FIVE CHAKSHU.


1.

Mansachaksku.

4.

Divyachaksku.

2.

Dkarniackaksku.

5.

Buddkackaksku.

3.

Prajnanackaksku.

THE EIGHTEEN SUNYATA.


1.

Adkyatinasiinyata.

10. Anavaragrastinyata.

2.

Bakirdkasunyata.

11. Anavakarasunyata.

3.

Adkyatmabakirdkasunyata.

12. Prakritisunyata.

4.

Sunyatasunyata.

13. Sarvadkarinasiinyata.

5.

Makasunyata.

14. Salakskanasiinyata.

G.

Parainartkasiinyata.

15.

Anupalambkasiinyata.

7. Sanskritasiinyata.

16.

Abkavasunyata.

8. Asanskritasiinyata.

17.

Subkavasunyata.

9.

Atyantasunyata.

18. Abkavasubkavasunyatii.

MATANTABA TWENTY SUNYATA.


19. Lakskanasiinyata.

20. Alakskanasiinyata.

APPENDIX

B.

CLASSIFIED ENUMERATION OF THE PRINCIPAL OBJECTS OF

BAUDDHA WORSHIP.
Ekdmndya,
Upaya.

Adi-Buddka.

M aka- Vair ockan a


Ekdmndyi.
Prajna.
Prajna-paraniita.

Dwydmndya.
1.

Upaya.*

2.

Prajna.*

1.

Prajna.

2.

Upaya.t

Trydmndya.
1.

Dkarma.J

2.

Buddiia.t

3.

Sangka.J

2.

Sangka.

1.

Buddka.

3.

Dkarma.

1.

Buddka.

2.

Dkarma.

3.

Sangka.

Paneha-Puddhdmndya.
4.

Amitabka.

2.

Akskobkya. l.Vairockana.

3.

Ratnasambkava.

5.

Aniogkasiddka,||

Pan cha-Prajn dmndyi.


4.

Pandura
Root of

2.

Lockana.

1.

Vajradkatwisvari.

Tkeistic

5.

Tara.

t Root of atkeistic doctrine.

theistic doctrine.

+ Atkeistic.

3. Mtiniakf.

diversely

so.

A sixtk is often added, or Vajra


tke famous Dkyani Buddkas.
Satwa.
Tke series of five is tke common exoteric one: tke sixtk seems to belong
rather to the esoteric system.
(j

Tkese

five are

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

94

Pancha-Sanghdmndya.
Padniapani.

4.

Vajrapani.

2.

Saniantabhadra.

1.

Ratnapani.

3.

Viswapani.

5.

Paneha-Sanghdmn dyi.
Bhrikuti-tara.

4.

Ugratara.

2.

1.

Sitatara.

Ratnatara.

3.

5.

Yiwatara.

Matdntara-Pancha-Biiddhdmndya.
1.

Vairocliaua. 2. Akshobhya. 3. Ratnasanibhava. 4. Amitabha. 5. Anioghasiddha.

Matdntara-Pancha-Prajndmndyi.
1.

Vajradhatwisvari.

2.

Locbana.

Mauiaki.

3.

4.

Pandura.

o.

Tara.

Matdntara-Pancha-Sanyhdmndya.
1.

Samantabbadra.

Vajrapani.

2.

3.

Ratnapani.

Padmapani.

4.

Viswapani.

o.

Matdntara-Pan cha- Sanghdmndyi.


1. Sitatara.

2.

Ugratara.

3.

Ratnatara.

Bbrikutitara. 5. Visvatara.

4.

Matdntara-Pancha-Buddhdmndya.
4.

Aniitabba.

Amogbasiddba.

2.

1.

Vairocbana.

Ratnasambbava.

3.

5.

Aksbobbya.

Matdntara-Pancha-Prajndmndyi.

4 .Tara.

Mainaki.

2.

1.

Vajradbatwisvari.

Pandura.

3.

5.

Locbana.

Shad-Amndya-Buddhdh.
2.

Aksbobbya.
1.

Ratnasambbava.

3.

Aniitabba.

4.

Vairochana.

6.

5.

Amogbasiddba.

Vajrasatwa.

Shat-Prajn dmndyi.
2.

Locbana.
1.

3.

Mamaki.

4.

Vajradbatwisvari.

Pandura.

6.

Tara.

5.

Vajrasatwatmika.

Sh at- Sanghdm n dya.


2.

Vajrapani.

Ratnapani.

3.

4.

Padmapani.

Samantabbadra.

1.

Mdnushiya-Saj)ta-Buddh dmn dya.


2.

Sikbi.

3.

Viswabbii.

1.

Vipasyi.

4.

Kakutsanda.

o.

5.

Viswapani.

Gliantapani.

0.

Kanakamuni.
7.

G.

Kasyapa.

Sakyasinba.

Matdntara-Mdiiushiya-Sapta-Bnddhdmndya.
4.

Kakutsanda.
6.

2. Sikbi.

1.

Vipasyi.

Kasyapa.

3.

Viswabbii.
7.

Kanakamuni.

5.

Sakyasinha.

Prqjnd-Misrita-Dydni-Nara-Buddhdmndya.
2.

8.

Aksbobhya.

Pandura.

* All

Dhyani,

0.

1.

Vairocbana-Vajradbatwisvari.

Locbana.

the Deities

4.

Aniitabba.

named above

as specified.

5.

3.

Amogbasiddba.

are Dbyani, or celestial.

Ratnasambliava.
7.

Mainaki.

The following

0.

Tara.

are Miimishfya

..

BUDDHIST

. .

PHILOSOPHY.

95

Dhydni-Nava-Buddhdmndydh.
4.

Arnitabha.

Akshobhya.

2.

Vajradbarma.

8.

1.

Vairocliana.

Vajrasatwa.

G.

Ratnasambhava.

3.

Vajraraja.

7.

Amoghasiddha.

5.

Vajrakarma.

9.

Dhydni-Nava-Prajndmndyi.
4.
8.

Pandora.

Lochana.

2.

Dhannavaj rini.

Vajradhatwisvarf.

1.

Vajraaatwatmika.

0.

7.

3.

Mamaki.

Ratnavajrini.

Tara,

5.

Karmavajrini.

!).

Dhydn i-Nia va-Sangli dmn dydh


4.

Padmapani.
8-

Vajrapani.

2.

Dharmapani.

G.

Samantabhadra.

1.

Ghantapani.

Ratnapani.

3.

Manipani.

7.

Viswapani.

5.

Karmapani.

9.

Misrita- Na va-Sa ngh dmn dydh


2.

G.

Maitreya.

Manjughosha.

4.
8.

Avalokiteswara.

1.

Samantabbadra.

5.

Ksbitigarbba.

Qaganaganja.

3.

Vajrapani.

Sarva-nivarana-visbkambbi.

7.

Kbagarbba.*

9.

Nava-DharmdmndydJi-Paustakdh (Buddha-Dhanna-sanglui-Marulale
Pujanakrame etan Mi'dam.)

Gandavyuha.

2.
C.

1.

Saddbarmapundarika.

Prajna-paramita.

Samadbiraja.

4.

5.

3.

Dasabbiiiniswara.

Lankavatara.

8. Lalita-vistara.

9.

Tatbagataguhyaka.

7.

Suvarna-prabba.

Na va-Bodh isat wa-Sa nghdmn dydh


4. Sitatara.
8.

2.

Maitrayaui.

Dipatara.

G.

1.

Bbrikutitara.

Vagiswari.

7.

Pusbpatiira.

3.

Dhupatara.

9.

5.

Ekajata.

Gandbatara.

Nava-Devi-Prajndmndyi.
2.Vajravidariui.

1.

Vasuudbara.

Parnasavari.

o.

3.

Gauapati-bridaya.

Grabamatrika.

7.

8.

8.

Maricbi.

Pratyangirab.

9.

4.

Usbni'sba-vijaya.

Dbwajagrakeyuri.

Misrita-Nava-Dharmdmndydh.
4.
8.

Pandura.

Locbana.

2.

Pratyangirab.

G.

1.

Vajradbatwiswari.

Vajraaatwatmika.

7.

3.

Mamaki.

Vasuudbara.

9.

5.

Tara.

Gubyeswan'4

Mdnushiya-Nava-Buddhdmndydh.
4.

Sikbi.
8.

2.

Ratnagarbba.

Kasyapa.

G.

1.

Dipankara.

Kakutsanda.

7.

3.

Vipasyi.

Kanakamuni.

9.

5.

Viswabbii.

Sakyaamha.

Man ush iya-Na va -Bitddh dm n dydh


1.

Dipankara.
G.

2.

Kakutsanda.

Ratnagarbba.
7.

3. Vipasyi.

Kanakamuni.

8.

4. Sikbi.

Kasyapa.

9.

5.

Viswablui.

Sakyasinba.

* Avalokiteswara is probably identical with Matsyendra nath, bhe introducer of Natlii.siu


into Buddhism, but not with Padma Pani, the fourth Dhyani Bodhisatwa, though now
Manjughosha is a
Maitreya is the Buddha next to come
usually so identified.
4-5 are
historical person and the apparent introducer of Saktiisni into Buddhism
;

Dhyinis, shadows like the rest.


X Guhyeswari is now worshipped by the orthodox as the Sakti of Pasupati Nath.
But the expelled Buddhists claim the goddess as their own and affirm that there is
a subterranean way from their great temple of Sanibhunath to hers.
116.
We have here nine mortal Biuldlias
For Ratnagarbha see Fahian, p.

BUDDHIST

96

PHILOSOPHY.

Manushiya-Nava-Prajndmndyi.
1.

Jwalavatf.

2.

Lakskanavati.

Kakudvatf.

0.

Yipasyanti.

3.

KantkanainaLini.

7.

8.

4.

Sikkamalim.

Makidkara.

9.

Viswadhara.

5.

Yasodkara.*

Na va-Bh ikshu- Sangh drum ayah


1.

Pradipeswara.

2.

Ratnaraja.

Sakalainangala.

6.

7.

3.

Makamatk

Kanakaraja.

8.

4.

Ratnadkara.

Dkarraodara.

9.

5.

Akasaganja.

Ananda.

Iti-Sri-Ehdmndyddi-Nardmndya-Devatdh Samdptdh

N. B.

Tke

autkority for tkese

details

is

tke

Pkarma Sangraka,

Bauddka system

raisonne of tke terminology of tke

EUROPEAN SPECULATIONS ON BUDDHISM.


In tke late M. Ahel-Rernusat's review of

ky Mr.

Prinsep,

J.

my

moins de lumieres,

est celle des

keen

quant aux incarnations,

1'essai

a,

Sakia

n'e'st

favoured

" L'une des

de M. Hodgson fournit

avenemens ou incarnations (avatdra).

de Tathdgata (avenu**) qu'on donne


et

I kave

there occurs (p. 2G3) tke following passage

croyances les plus importantes, et celle sur laquelle


le

||

sketch of Buddkism, (Journal

witk tke perusal of wkick

des Savans, Mai, 1831,)

or catalogue

of pkilosopky and religiou.

Le nom

point explique dans son memoire

religieux dont les reponses ont fourni la sukstance

le

de ce memoire, ne semkle pas en reconnoitre d'autres que celles des sept Bouddkas.

II est

du Tiket

pourtant certain qu'on en compte une infinite d'au tres

se considerent

eux memes comme autant de

et les

lamas

divinites incarnees pour le

salut des homines,"


I

confess

am somewkat

surprised

by tkese okseivations,

degree of useful mformation relative to Buddkism

and

London Transactions may

necessitatis)

ligkt, I

is

since

wkatever

essays in tke Calcutta

furnisk, tkey profess not to give any, (save ex vi

And

in

wkat

sober sense to regard " une infinite " of pkanioms,

chal-

concerning

pray you,

my

tke

'

veritaklo nonsense'

of tke system.

lenging belief in tkeir kistorical existence as tke founders and propagators of a

given code of laws?

Tke

Lalita

Vistara gravely assigns 505, or according to

anotker copy, 550, avatdras to S.'.kya alone.


task of collecting and recording
tities ?

or,

was

it

all

tkat

is

Was

I seriously to

incline to tke

attributed to tkese palpakle nonen-

merely desired tkat I skould explain tke rationale of tke doctrine

Tke Soutkinstead of seven, which latter is tke usual series, vide tke Amarakoska.
All depends on the Kalpas, each lias its own Buddhas, and
erns usually cite only four.
to the last or present Kalpa belong the four of southern notoriety.
* Yasodhara was tke wife of Sakya, and liakula their son.
Rakula therefore ought
but he Avas dull and little known whilst Ananda
to have been the ninth Sangha
was most famous and succeeded Sakya as Heresiareh after Kasyapa's speedy demise.
Printed from the Journal of tke Asiatic Society of Bengal. "Nos. 3'2, 33, and 34,
A.D. 1834.
**A radical mistake; sec the sequel.
:

||

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

97

If the latter only be the desideratum, here

of incarnation?

summary

is

what I thought I had already sufficiently explained.


Bauddha perfectibility has countless degrees, several of which
summit express attributes really divine, however short of the tran-

recapitulation of

The

scale of

towards the

scendental glory of a tathdgccta in nirvritti.


to persons subject to

Nevertheless, these attributes appertain

mortal births and deaths, of which the series

which

as is that scale of cumulative merits to

it

limited

is as little

But,

expressly refers.

the scale

if

of increasing merits, with proportionate powers in the occupiers of each grade, have

almost

infinite extent,

highest,

again in

and yet mortal birth cleave to every grade but the very

what wonder that men-gods should be common ? or, that the appearance
the flesh, of beings, who are far more largely gifted than the greatest
Such

of the devatds, should be called an avatar?

mortal advents

avatdras, in all their successive

they can reach the estate of a tathagata, are the arhantas, and

till

the bodhisativas, the pratyeha and ths srdvaka-Buddhas.

more than gods

When

men.

yet they were originally, and

I stated

that the divine

still

Lamas

They

and

are gods

quoad birth and death

are,

far

mere

of Tibet are, in fact, arhantas:

but that a very gross superstition had wrested the just notion of the character of
the latter to its

own

use, I

thought I had enabled every reader to form a clear

human

idea of that marvel

of

divinities of Tibet

How few

bility,

folly,

the immortal mortals, or present palpable

and easy the steps front a theory of human perfecti-

with an apparently interminable metempsychosis, to a practical tenet such

as the Tibetans hold!

But Remusat speaks of the incarnations of the tathdgatas:

and a radical one.

that mortal birth in

way,
once,

is

Tathagata

may

this is a mistake,

be such whilst yet lingering in the flesh of

which he reached

supreme grade

this

and

by that body's decay, the Tathagata has passed into

by the

here,

another very obvious foundation for the Tibetan extravagance


nirvritti,

but when

he can never

The only true and proper Buddha is the Maha Yanika or


Tathagata Buddha. Such are all the sapta Buddha
of whom it is abundantly
certain that not one ever was, or, by the principles of the creed, could be, incarnated.
be again incarnated.

'

Sakya's incarnations

Absolute

quietism

'

all

belong to the period preceding his becoming a Tathagata.

is

the enduring

state

of

Tathagata

and, had

it

been

Buddhism would have been justly chargeable with a more stupendous


absurdity than that from which Remusat in vain essays to clear it.
Plusieurs
otherwise,

'

absolus

plusieurs

infinis

'

there

are

and they

are

bad enough, though the

absolute infinity be restricted to the fruition of the subject.

But the

have been tenfold worse had activity been ascribed to these beings
then have had an unlimited number of
of the Buddhists

is

never incarnated

infinite ruling

nor the

finite of

an essential and consistent part of Brahmanism


tent part of

Buddhism

and there

is

providences

the Brahmans.

an

case

would

we

should

for

The

infinite

Avataras are

unessential and inconsis-

always this material difference

the avatara of the former and of the latter, that whereas in the one

it is

between

an incarna-

* Not a syllable is told of these mortal Bodhisatwas with the exception of the
Sikya's most famous disciple.

last,

of the supreme and infinite

tion
rule

PHILOSOPHY.

BUDDHIST

98

in the other, it

mated hy

its

own

spirit,

the infinite) and for

efforts to

creation or

for recognised purposes of

an incarnation of a mere

is

human

spirit

what purpose

(however approxiimpossible to

it is

I exclude here

say, consistently with the principles of the creed.

considerations

all

of the dhydni, or celestial Buddhas, because Pieinusat's reference is expressly to


the seven m&mishi or

human

ones.

never appear again

degree, in the

down

the precepts therein laid

as

in a

wisdom

beginning, of

obtained, degree

by

Bauddha scriptures, and by observance of


word by tapas and Dhyana,or severe ascetic
3rd. thus gone, that

who

and that that which

is,

gone as

hold that doubt

the ultimate cessation of them, whether that

likewise

will

perfection.

in the

the pyrrhonic interpretation of those

as well

by the attainment of

to say, (cessation of births)

is

manner described

purity and transcendental meditation.

came

manner that he (the Tathagata)

in such a

births having been closed

2nd. thus got or obtained, which

and explained in three ways

to its elements,

The word Tathagata is reduced


1st. thus (j one, which means gone

'

(birth)

the end,

causes births, causes

final close

Thus the epithet Tathagata,

immortality or virtual nothingness.

it

is

be conscious

'

so far

from mean-

ing 'come' (avenu), and implying incarnation, as Remusat supposed, signifies


the direct contrary, or

and

incarnation;

'

gone

for ever,'

this according

to

and expressly announces the


the

all

schools, sceptical,

impossibility of
theistic,

and

atheistic.
I shall not, I suppose, be again

asked

for the incarnations of

the Tathagatas.*

Nor, I fancy, will any philosophical peruser of the above etymology of this important

word have much

of his serious

shadows with the


it

the

'

infinite

To my mind they belong

really are.

closed

hesitation in refusing, on this ground alone,

attention to

infinity of

to

distinct

of

'

any portion

Bnddhist avatdras, such as they

the very same category of mythological

Buddhas, which

latter,

when

as a fact in relation to the belief of these sectaries, led

me

I first dis-

to

warn

my

readers " to keep a steady eye upon the authoritative assertion of the old scriptures, that

Sakya

is

the seventh

and

of the Buddhas,"t though I believe

last

that Sakya's six predecessors are voces etprceterea

The purpose

of

my two

essays

the leading and least absurd of the opinions


order to facilitate to

my

nihil.

on Buddhism was

to seize

and render

and practices of these

intelligible

religionists, in

countrymen the study of an entirely new and

subject in those original Sanskrit authorities

81

which

difficult

had discovered and placed

*To the question, what is the tathagata, the most holy of Buddhist scriptures
returneth for answer, "It dors not come again, it does not come again."
t Asiatic Researches, vol. xvi. p. 445.
"Nearly seventy volumes in Sanskrit, and some in the language of Tibet, were
The former had never been
sent by me to Calcutta between the years 1824 and 1630.
,1, by Europeans.
before heard of, nor the latter pos
[See the notices of the contents of the Tibetan works and their Sanskrit originals by
M. ('soma de Koros, and by Professor H. H. Wilson in the third volume of Gleanings,
and first volume of Journal As. Soc. Ed.]
Eventually I procured
See at pp. 137-139 of vol. i. for list of Sanskrit works.
from Lhasa the complete Kahgyur and Stangyur in 327 large volumes. The catalogue
thereof had previously been obtained, and its general character reported on before
('soma de Koros made his appearance.
<

'

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

99

within their roach, but no living interpreters of which,


to

them, in Bengal or

in

I had no purpose, nor have

to

I,

Bauddha philosophy or

of the

and, had I not been called upon for proofs

my

two essays contained,

But

the topic.

all to

scepticism of our day and race,

Royal Asiatic Society,

knew, were accessible

meddle with the interminahle sheer absurdities

religion

of the numerous novel statements

bably have recurred at

Europe.

have answered that

call,

had some years previously discovered the existence of

my two

a further consideration of

paper just mentioned, will

1 trust that

in Nepaul.

by the new

published essays, as illustrated

suffice to

literary

and furnished to tho

from those original works which I

copious selection

I should not pro-

sensible of the prevalent

remove from the minds of

my

continental

readers most of those doubts of Reinusat, the solution of which does not necessarily

imply conversancy on

not, however, be

my

part with details as absurd as interminable

answerable for the mistakes of

my

one, on the part of the lamented author in question, I have just discussed

of importance I have adverted

to

elsewhere

and

I can-

One

commentators.

signal

others

myself to

shall here confine

the mention of one more belonging to the review from which I have quoted.

In speaking of the classification of the people, Reinusat considers the vajra dchdrya
to be laics

the clergy.

which is so far from being true that they and they alone constitute
The bhikshuka can indeed perform some of the lower offices of reli-

gion:

but the

higher

dchdrya

vajra

solely

are

competent

to the

and, in point of fact, are the oidy real clergy.

clerus et laicus in this creed is altogether

discharge of the

That the distinction of

an anomaly, resulting from the decay of

the primitive asceticism of the sect, I have endeavoured to shew elsewhere, and

cannot afford room for repetition in this place.

The

critics

generally have been, I observe, prompt to adopt

they have carried their caution too

and suspicion over things

this creed, be

Buddhism

it

far,

uniformity
professed

its

may always

where

it

a great

be presumed to exist in

its

degree

reference to

may.

doctrine and discipline were fixed

and the con-

by means of one of the

most perfect languages in the world (Sanskrit), during, or immediately


age of

But

Allow me,

exemption therefrom.

shew the grounds upon which

arose in an age and country celebrated for literature

sequence was, that

caution relative

and by so doing, have cast a shade of doubt

sufficiently entitled to

then, to reverse the medal, and to


of certainty and

my

opposed to the original creed of the Bauddhas.

to local superstitions, as

after,

the

founder.

Nor, though furious bigots dispersed the

sect,

records, did they succeed in the latter attempt.


safely, but protection,

and attempted

to

destroy

its

The refugees found, not only

and honour, in the immediately adjacent countries, whither

they safely conveyed most of their books, and where those books
either in the original Sanskrit, or in

still

exist,

most carefully made translations from

it.

The Sata Sdhasrika-Prqjnd-Pdramitd, and the nine Dharmas, discovered by me in


Nepaul, are as indisputably original evidence of Buddhism as the Vedas and
Puranas are of Brahmanism. The Kahgyur of Tibet has been proved to have been

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

IOO

rendered into Tibetan from Sanskrit, with pains and fidelity

Burmese and Ceylonese he not originals,

hooks of the

in the earlier ages of

were translated
into

and

the numerous

if

certain that they

Buddhism, and that they were rendered

a language (high Prakrit) which, from

its close affinity to

that of the origi-

translators every facility

must have afforded the

nal hooks of the sect, (Sanskrit,)

it is

in the prosecution of their labours.

But

the Buddhists, whether of the continent or islands of India, or of the

if

beyond the former,

countries

still

possess

and consult the primitive

best age of their


is

church, how can Buddhism

practically used as the rule of

as to essentials at least.

And

life

and of faith,

is

told to the

present professors of this faith in diverse regions


of whatever he can glean from their books

composed

Hebrew

to exhibit a

fail

Nor

or Spain exclusively.
of one country
try professing

is

it,

than

it

In regard to Nepaul,

is it

much

less

by our

referred to

not without limit

closet students are

result of

as to say that the


for Italy, France,

of any

and every other coun-

is

superior to verbal evidence.

and where, on the one hand, the books

numerous and

difficult,

and respect an

the other hand, our personal inquirers have

time and opportunity at command, and


telligent witnesses,

just as

would be to allege the same of Christianity.

subject, whilst, on

new

entirely

is

is

absurd to affirm, that the Buddhism

Buddhism

Questionless, in the general case, documentary

But the superiority

it,

it

Dharmas were

the nine

Testament was composed in and

essentially unlike the

by the

nay, constituting the substance

and have exclusive reference to

New

Greek

and opinions,

rites

intelligent traveller

Paramita, and

the Prajna

in that country,

Old, or

it

common character

wherefore, I would fain know, should European

constituting the substance of whatever

absurd to insinuate, that

in the

the several countries where

in

from their study, incessantly prate about mere local

scholars,

scriptures of

made

their faith, either in the original language, or in careful translations,

can question and

cross-question in-

and cause reference to be made to the written

an appeal to the living oracles will

oft

authorities, the

times prove as valuable as

that of one to the dead without any other guide.

Let the

closet student, then, give reasonable faith to the traveller,

subject; and, whatever

theism,

him not suppose that

interrogated

even upon

this

be the general intellectual inferiority of the orientals

or the plastic facility of change peculiar to

of our day,
let

may

the living followers of

touching the creed they live and die in

not presume that a religion fixed, at

its

every

form of poly-

Buddha cannot be
;

and, above

earliest period,

profitably

all, let

him

by means of a noble

written lan-uage, has no identity of character in the several countries where


it

is

now

to this day,

lations

professed, notwithstanding

by

the possession and

that that identity has been

from them, which were made in the best age of

For myself, and with reference

guarded, up

use of original scriptures, or of faithful trans-

to

this church.

the latter point, I can safely say that

my

comparisons of the existing Buddhism of Nepaul, with that of Tibet, the Indo'binese nations and Ceylon, as reported by our local enquirers, as well as with
(

IOI

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
that of ancient India

itself, as

evidenced by the sculptures of Gaya,* and of the

cave temples of Aurungabad, have satisfied


identity of character in all times

me

that this faith possesses as

and places as any other we know, of equal

much
anti-

quity and dift'usion.t

P.S.

Whether

Rernusat's avenu be understood loosely, as meaning

as signifying

.strictly,

pretation of

'

come

the word Tathdgata;

announce that

all

reiteration

because Tathdgata

is

and contingency whatever

come,' or

designed expressly to
barred with respect to

is

They cannot come nor can anything come

the beings so designated.

'

to pass,' it will be equally inadmissible as the inter-

to pass affect-

ing them.

And

if it

be objected, that the mere use of the word avenu, in the past tense,

does not necessarily imply such reiteration and conditional futurity,

R^musat
on

me

me

clearly

meant

it

to

of these avenus ?

for the successive incarnations

used substantively, implies

that absolu,

But

propriety of speech.

mere mortals
infinites,

who

and

answer that

convey these ideas, or what was the sense of calling

I use it

'

It has

been suggested to

Perhaps

activity.'

so,

in Parisian

merely as opposed to relative with reference

I trust that the affirmation

are nevertheless inactive

there

are

may at least be

many

absolutes,

to

many

distinctly understood.

have nothing to do with the reasonableness of the tenet so affirmed or stated, being
only a reporter.
* See the explanation of these sculptures by a Nepaulese Buddhist in the Quarterly
Oriental Magazine No. xiv. pp. 218, 222.
+ As a proof of the close agreement of the Bauddha, systems of different countries,
we may take this opportunity of quoting a private letter from Colonel Burney,
relative to the 'Burmese Thilosopher Prince,' Mekkhara Men, the King of Ava's uncle.
"The prince has been reading with the greatest interest M, Csoma de Korbs's
different translations from the Tibet scriptures in your journal, and he is most anxious
to obtain the loan of some of the many Tibetan works, which the Society is said to
He considers many of the Tibetan letters to be the same as the Burmese,
possess.
He is particularly anxious to know if the monastery
particularly the b m, n, and y.
called Zedawuna still exists in Tibet, where, according to Burmese books, Godama dwelt
a long time, and with his attendant Ananda planted a bough which he had brought
The prince is also anxious to know
from the great pipal tree, at Buddha-Gaya.
whether the people of Tibet wear their hair as the Burmese do ? how they dress, and
how their priests dress and live ? The city in which the monastery of Zedawuna stood,
is called in the Burmese scriptures Tha/wotthi, and the prince ingeniously fancies, that
The Burmese have no s, and always use
Tibet must be derived from that word.
hence probatheir soft th, when they meet with that letter in Pali or foreign words
I enclose, a list of countries and
bly Thawotthi is from some Sanskrit name Sawot.
cities mentioned in the Burmese writings, as the scene of Godama's adventures, to
which if the exact site and present designation of each can be assigned from the
Sanskrit or the Tibet authorities, it will confer an important favour on Burmeseliterati."
It is highly interesting to see the spirit of inquiry stining in the high
The information desired is already furnished,
places of this hitherto"benighted nation.
and as might be expected, the Burmese names prove to be copied through the Prakrit
or Pali, directly from the Sanskrit originals, in this respect differing from the Tibetan,
which are translations of the same name.
( Dictionnairt
that which hath happened.
Avenu signifies quod evenit, eonUgU
Tathdgata; tathd thus (what really is), goto, (known, obtained.)
de Trevoux.)
,

(Wilson's Sans. Diet.)

Ed.

;
,

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

102

FURTHER REMARKS ON
Adverting again
I

to Reniusat's

Review

mention of the Avatars.

It is

no

than the omission of

less

Buddha)

'Sapta

dont

advanced

the following

is

" Les

all

The passage

Buddhas than the seven celebrated Manushis.


is

May, 1831

in the Journal des Savons for

with another omission more important than that of

find myself charged

allegation

REVIEW OF BUDDHISM.t

M. REMTJSAT's

sont connus des Chinois, et

noms de

ils

all

mention of any other

in

which

this singular

ces sept personnages (the

en indiquent une

infinite d'autres

Bouddhiste Xipalien ne parte pas."

le

My Essay in

London Transactions was the complement and continuation of


Remusat was equally well acquainted with both
he would have had me indulge in most useless repetition, he must have
the

that in the Calcutta Researches.


and, uidess
felt

convinced that the points enlarged on in the former essay woidd he treated

Why,

cursorily or omitted, in the latter.

then, did he not refer to the Calcutta

paper for what was wanting in the London one

Unless I greatly deceive myself,

who shewed clearly, and proved by extracts from original


Sanskrit works, that Buddhism recognises " une infinite " of Buddhas, Dhyani and
Manushi, Pratyeka, Sravaka, and Malm Yanika.* The sixteenth volume of the
I

was the

person

first

Calcutta Transactions was published in 1828.


essay, the substance of

In that volume appeared

which had, however, been

was published.

nearly three years before

it

of nearly 150 Buddhas

(p.

446, 449)

in the

my

first

hands of the Secretary

In that volume I gave an original

I observed that the

list

Buddhas named

in

the Buddhist scriptures were " as numerous as the grains of sand on the banks of
the

Ganges;" but

and history, the

rational curiosity

Samadhi Raja,
cardinal

that, as

list
;

in regard to chronology

would probably more than

on which account I suppressed another long

ichich

dogma

most of them were nonentities

actually furnished

was then

of Sugatism,

in

viz.,

my
that

hands, (p. 444.)

man can

By

list,

suffice to gratify

drawn from the

fixing attention on that

enlarge his faculties to infinity, I

enabled every inquirer to conclude with certainty that the Buddhas had been
multiplied ad libitum.

Bodhisatwas

By

tracing the connexion between the Arhantas and the

between the

latter again,

and third, degree of eminence and power


the

finite

becomes confounded with the

and the Buddhas of the

infinite,

man with

served in conclusion that the epithet Tathagata, a

pourtrays

this transition.

(London Transactions,

awkward opponents except


with a
been

in

'

to those,

tant pis pour les faits

!'

first,

I pointed out the distinct steps

vol.

synonym
ii.

part

Buddha

second,

by which

and

ob-

of Buddha, expressly

i.)

Facts and dates are

who, with Reniusat's compatriot, dismiss them

For years before

I published

my first essay,

had

made from the Buddhist pictures and


saturated, and which drawings have not vet

possession of hundreds of drawings,

sculptures with

which

this land is

been published, owing to the delay incident to procuring authentic explanations


t Printed from the Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society, No. 33, A.D. 1834.
* The triydna,
or three paths to bliss (of three different degrees) suited to
live capacities
of the several followers of this creed, want elucidation.
Mahdydna is elsewhere spoken ol as the humblest path some call it the highest.
According to usage in that matter provided.
;

off

the

The

BUDDHIST
them from
ledge, that

All the gentlemen of the residency can testify to

original sources.

the truth of this assertion


it is

and can

tell

who would

those

you break your shins against an image

of Nepaul, lest perchance

them endowed with

of

a multiplicity of

of all sizes

members

teeming fancy of any Brahman of MadhyaDesa!


is

it

literally thus,

six or ten

be wiser for the know-

often requisite to walk heedfully over the classic fields of the valley

These images are to be met with everywhere, and

many

IO3

PHILOSOPHY.

and

riot

principles of

first

in the production of

my

my

years, accable des richesses

Buddhas with three heads instead of one


The necessity of reconciling these things
Buddhism,* may reasonably account for delay
!

Meantime,

pictorial stores.

myself condoled with for

poverty

One

of these interminable trifles

sufficient to satisfy the

Start not, gentle reader, for

otherwise.

arms in place of two

with the so called

Buddha!

of a

and shapes, very

am

cannot but smile to find

and have been

really,

is,

for ten

by means

interesting result only have I reached

and that

when

strong presumptive proof that the cave

temples of Western India are the work of Buddhists

and that the most ap-

solely,

parently Brahmanical sculptures of those venerable fanes are, in fact, Buddhist.

hint to this effect

Pgave

(No. XVI. p. 219

zine,

so long ago as 1827, in the Quarterly Oriental

and can only afford room to remark

;)

Maga-

in this place, that

subsequent research had tended strongly to confirm the impressions then derived

my

from

number

The

very learned old friend Amrita Nanda.

of

Buddhas

existence of an infinite

the existence of the whole Dhyani class of Buddhas; the

personality of the Triad

philosophical and religious meanings

its

the classification

and nomenclature of the (ascetical or true) followers of this creed


tinction of its various schools of philosophy
faintly but rationally indicated

and, as the result of

Mmdebted

me and my
to

him and

never seen one line of

its

means of speaking

knowledge of which,

subject,t are matters for the

indebted to

philosophy with
consistently

for

his,

till

he sent

the

dis-

if

me

Re'rnusat

his essay

its

religion

upon the general

authorities, it is absolutely certain that

his

the peculiar tenets of each school,

the connexion of

the

all these,

be not wholly
I

am

on the Triad,

wholly
I

had

or any other continental writer's, lucubrations on

Buddhism.
I

have ventured to advance above that in the opinion of a learned

friend, the

Chinese and Mongolian works on Buddhism, from which the continental savans

have drawn the information they possess on that topic, are not per
to supply

As

me

any very

intelligible

this is an assertion

which

to propose the following.

jives

the subjoined sketch

of

views
it

of

may seem

Remusat

se

adequate

the general subject.


desirable to

support by proof, allow

observes, that a

the Buddhist cosmogony.

work

of the first order

"Tous

les etres etanl

contenus dans la tres pure substance de la pensee, une idee surgit inopinement

e1

See Erskine's Essays in the Bombay Transactions.


learned friend assures me that "a world of Chinese and Mongolian enigmas
have been solved by means of your general and consistent outline of the si/stcm, but
for which outline the said enigmas would have continued to defy all the Continental
CEdipuses." (Sir G. Haughton in epis. 16 January, 1832.)
*

+A

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

104

produisit la fausse luniiere

Quaud

s'imposerent reciproquenient des


deterniinees,

il

la fausse luniiere fut n6e, le vide et l'obscurittS

Les formes qui en resulterent etant in-

liniites.

De

agitation et niouvenient.

y eut

la

L'intelligence luniineuse

qui contient les niondes.

naquit

mens

contact niutuel du

feu et la lumiere, qui sont les principes des change-

le

lumiere precieuse engendre la liquidite qui bou-

La

et des modifications.

tourbillon de vent

principe de solidite,

Le

d'ou naquit la roue d'or qui soutient et protege la terre.

vent et du metal produit

le

e"toit le

illonne a la surface de la lumiere ignee, d'ou provient le tourbillon d'eau qui

em-

brasse les niondes de toute part."

Now

I ask, is tb ere a

man living,

not familiar with tbe subject,

a particle of sense from the above passage

who

illustration of a novel

see

wbat can be made of the enigma.

can extract

are not sucb passages, produced

veriest obscurations thereof

theme tbe

in

yen-king,

And

But

let

us

This apercu cosmoyoniqae of the Lang-

in fact, a description of the procession of tbe five elements, one from

is,

another, and ultimately from Prajnd, the universal material principle, very nearly

akin to the Pradhdna of the Kapila Sankhya.

modes

or states of being, one of

which

the other, the contingent, relative,

is

and

This universal principle has two

the proper, absolute, and enduring

transitory.

mode

These modes are termed re-

spectively Nirvritti and Pravritti.

The former
with

all

is

abstraction from

effects, or activity.*

effects exist

all effects,

When

or quiescence

the latter

that energy relapses into repose, they exist not.

when

is

the intrinsic energy of matter

concretion
is

exerted,

All worlds

and beings composing the versatile universe are cumulative effects and though
the so-called elements composing them be evolved and revolved in a given manner,
one from and to another, and though each be distinguished by a given property or
;

properties, the distinctions, as well as the orderly evolution

and revolution, are mere

results of

the gradually increasing and decreasing energy of nature in a state of

activity 4

Ujpdya, or

'

the expedient,'

the

is

name

of this energy

decrease of
increase of phenomenal properties
All phenomena are homogeneous and
properties.
;

tended figure, no

phenomenon, nor does


energy begins at a
decreases again to a
or property

air,

than colour and sound.

less so

it

increase of

decrease of

of intensity,

minimum. Hence

alike unreal; gravity

the second, has two


fifth,

and increasing

to a

it is

phenomenal

Extension in the abstract

belong properly to the versatile world.

minimum

has four; and earth, the

is

it

and exis

not a

The productive

maximum, thence

dkdsa, the first product, has but one quality


fire,

the third, has three

water, the fourth,

has live.*

also pp. 130, 187.


Bailly's History of Asia, pp. 114, 118, 124, 1S7, of vol. i
Also Goguet, 1. 170.
of ideas
world, cannot be truly alleged to exist.
J Causes and effects, quoad the versatile
There is merely customary conjunction, and certain limited effects of proximity in the
precedent and subsequent, by virtue of the one true and universal cause, viz, Prujad.
With the primitive Swahhavikas cause is not unitised for the rest, their tenets are
very much the same with those above explained in the text only their conclusions
It may also perhaps be donbted whether
incline rather to scepticism than dogmatism.
with the latter school, phenomena are unreal as well as homogeneous. In the text, I
would be understood to state the tenets of the Prajnikas only.
*There is always cumulation of properties, but the number assigned to each element

*See

Wondrous concord

is

variously .stated.

BUDDHIST

PHILOSOPHY.

105

These elemeuts are evolved uniformly one from another

and are revolved uniformly

the above manner,

in

in the inverse order.

Sunyatd, or the total abstraction of phaenomenal properties,


total

suspension of nature's activity.

is

the result of the

and the modus, of the uni-

It is the ubi,

versal material principle in its proper and enduring state of nirvritti, or of rest.

is

Avidya, which

is

mundane

the

this disposition to activity

entities, or

the

sum

of pheenomena,

hence their existence

is

is,

which

are regarded

remember that

is

also the

represents phsenomenal

it

ascribed to ignorance or Avidya.

extract from the Lang-yen-king, and

Avidya

of pravritti.

in other words

opposite of Sunyatd

the universal principle, or the

of

affection

universal principle in a state of activity, that


result of

The

with the sceptical few.

It is not nothingness, except

as

wholly unreal, and

we

revert to the

la pensee,*

l'intelligence

Now,

if

lumineuse,* and la lumiere precieuse,* refer alike to Prajna, the material prinof

ciple

all

shall find

things,

nothing

(which
to

left

personified as a goddess

is

impede a

-beyond some metaphorical flourishes analogous to


epithets

de

vent,

and

le

by the

tourbillon d'eau are the

principe de solidite

we

that variety of descriptive

by which he has characterised the one universal


and

religionists,)

of the author's meaning,

notion

distinct

principle.

Tow-billon

elements of air and of water, respectively

the element of earth.

is

" Tous les etres etant contenus dans la pure substance de Prajna une idee surgit

inopinement et produisit
ciple, or

abstraction and repose,


sive

la fausse

lumiere:"

that

goddess Prajna, whilst existing in

mundane

its,

was snddenly disposed


"

affection (Avidya.)

et l'obseurite s'imposerent

Quand

is,

to activity, or impressed
la fausse

reciproquement des limites."

disposition to activity, or this

was limited by the coming

mundane

the universal material prin-

or her, true and proper state of

affection,

with delu-

lumiere fut nee,

The

le

vide

result of this errant

was that the

universal void

into being of the first element, or dkdsa, which, as

the primary modification of sunyatd (space), has scarcely any sensible properties.

Such

is

the meaning of the passage " les formes qui en resulterent etant indeter-

minees," immediately succeeding the last quotation.


agitation et

mouvement," merely

refers to

perty of that element (air) which

is

air.

"

about to be produced.

Thence

(i.e.,

was the

De

la

naquit

le

Prajna

in

principle of solidity,

proceeded the wheel of gold which sustains and

protects the earth.

element of earth, stands

for that element;'

mount Mora, the distinctive attribute of which is proand sustaining power this passage, therefore, simply announces the evolu-

and the wheel of gold


tecting

y eut

" L'intelligence lumineuse etoit le principe

the form of light (her pravrittika manifestation)

Solidity, the diagnostic quality of the

il

from dkdsa) proceeded

de solidite, d'ou naquit la roue d'or qui soutient et protege la terre."

whence

"

mobility being the characteristic pro-

tourbillon de vent, qui contient les moudes."

the element of the circumambient

Its sequel again,

is

* Prajna is literally the supreme wisdom, videlicet, of nature.


Light and flame are
types of this universal principle, in a state of activity.
Nothing hut extreme contusion
can result from translating these terms au pied de la letlre, and without reference to
their technical signification.
That alone supremely governs both the literal and metaphorical sense of words.

pi

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

I06

appendage, mount Meru.

tion of the element of earth, with its mythological

But, according to

all

the authorities within

my

knowledge, earth

is

the

last

evolved

Nor did I ever meet with an instance, such as here


of the material elements.
occurs, of the direct intervention of the first cause (Prajnd) in the midst of this
"

evolution of the elements.

Le contact mutuel du vent

et lalumiere, qui sont les principes des

elements of
change.

stand by

which

air

This

and of earth produce

is intelligible,

which

changes and transformations.

Nor

Remusat's.

To

La

the igneous element

assumed by our author

is

Metal

for earth is

five,

and

its

is

ascribed the

as the principle of all

an obvious misapprehension of
element (earth) in the

so is the false allocation of this

less

general evolution of the


"

light,

beii

light is held to be a modification.

special property of heat,

and

le feu

g made for palpable mistakes. I underout of the element of air of that of fire, of

allowance

merely the evolution

it,

fire

du metal produit

et

The mutual contact of the


which are the principles of

changemens."

introduction here.

lumiere precieuse engendre la liquidite qui bouillonne a la surface de la

lumiere ignee, d'on provient

Prajnd
surface

of

form

the

(in

le

tourbillon d'eau qui embrasse les mondes."


light)

of

produces

the liquidity which boils on the

igneous light, whence proceeds the element of water embracing the

world.

This figurative nonsense,

when reduced

to

plain

evolution of the element of water from that of

upon the waters

like

prose,

a boat, according to the Buddhists

(embracing the world) of the text.


interference, a second time, (and

What

is

merely announces the

Our

fire.

terrestrial globe rests

and hence the

deserving of notice

in respect to earth, a third

eausans with the procession of the elements, one from another.


are silent in regard to

any such repeated and

creation properly so

to

trine

of

all

called

a tenet directly opposed

Swabhavikas.

the

Certain

material subtances in the versatile world


perception.

But

these idealists,

is

direct agency;

time,) of the causa

All

my

certaia.

authorities

which amounts
to the

in

fact,

fundameutal doc-

Buddhists hold the opinion, that

all

have no existence independent of human

that the Chinese author quoted by Mr. Reruusat

by no means

allusion

the direct

is

was one

of

His more immediate object, in the passage

quoted, evidently was, to exhibit the procession of the

five

material

elements,

To that I at present confine myself, merely observing of


the other notion, that what has been stated of the homogeneousuess and unreality
The doctrine of
of all phsenomena, is not tantamount to an admission of it.
one

from another.

vidyd, the

mundane

affection of the universal principle, is not necessarily the

same

with the doctrine which makes the percipient principle in man the measure of all
things* Both may seem, in effect, to converge towards what we very vaguely call
idealism; but there are

may

many

separate paths of inquiry

by which that conclusion

be reached.

Nepaul, August, 1834.


Manas, the sixtli element, is the percipient principle in man. The Chinese author
mentions it not, unless the passage beginning " la mme force, " and immediately
That passage
following that 1 have quoted, was designed to announce its evolution.
as it stands, however, does not assert more than the homogeneousuess of this sixth
element with the other tive.
1

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
resume

my

notice of Remusat's speculations on

IOJ

Buddhism

in the Journal d<

Savans.

On ne

Pie observes, "

seroit pas surpris de voir que,

tion* et la destruction des

mondes

soient presenters

dans ce systeme,

conime

les resultats

forma-

la

d'une revolu-

tion perpetuelle et spontanee, sans fin et sans interruption ;" and afterwards remarks,

" II y a dans le fond

du monde que

nieme des idees Bouddhiques une objection contre

tous les etres rentroient dans

menes cesseroient
terme ou tous

l'e'ternite'

theologiens de cette religion ne seinhlent pas avoir prevue.

les

le

repos reel et definitif

dans

et disparoitroient

que

les

Si

phemo-

de l'existence aljsolu, on concuit un

le sein

Buddha,

etres seroient devenus

les

l'instant

;i

monde

et oil le

auroit cesse

d'exister."

This Buddha,
nature est un

Now,

souveraine, dont la

iniinie, la cause

be such a supreme immaterial cause of

there

if

" l'intelligence

said, is

is

it

effet."
all

things,

what

is

meaning of alleging that worlds and beings are spontaneously evolved and
volved

or cease

and

endless,

what becomes

to the real definitive repose,

or

of the apprehension that they should ever fail

as certainly

God

re-

and, if these spontaneous operations of nature be expressly allowed to be

incessant

As

the

and the absolute existence, spoken

of,

they are

and customarily predicated of Diva natura by the Swabhavikas,

Adi-Buddha, by the Aiswarikas;

opposite opinions confounded

which two

to

as of

two

sects respectively the

by Remusat exclusively belong.

Again, " Tout est vide, tout est delusion, pour l'intelligence supreme (Adi-

Buddha, as before defined).


une

L'Avidya seul donue aux

sorte de realite passagere et

du monde sensible

clioses

Avidya, therefore, must

purement phenomenal."

according to this statement, be entirely dependant on the volition of the one supreme

immaterial cause: yet immediately

after,

it

is

observed, " on voit, a travers des

brouillards d'un langage enigmatique, ressortir l'idee d'une double cause de tout ce

(Adi-Buddha)

qui existe, savoir rintelligence supreme

But

the fact

stance, but a

is,

mode

Avidya,

ef/'ret.

that

Avidya

is

not a being, but

repeat,

is

all

Avidya ou matiere,"

not

phamoniena

"made

are, according to

homogeneous, and utterly unreal.

The

belonging to that

set of philosophers

who have

causes from the

two

distinct classes

it is

of

Avidyalists,
inferred

not a sub-

It is

a cause, but an

nothing primarily causal or substantial:


:

In other words,

an affection of a being

aomenon, or rather the sum of phenomena and


are."

et

not a material or plastic cause.

is

a plnu-

of such stuff as

dreams

it

this theory, absolutely

therefore, are so

two

phsenomena existing

effets

logiques"- and in the very next page


qui lient
*

effets

The question

and

is

rested.

materiels sont subordonnes aux effets psycho-

we

aux causes, tant dans

hear that
l'ordre

"on

appelle lois les rapports

physique que dans l'ordre moral,

of formation is a very different one from that of continuance.


Yet
would seem to have confounded the two. See the passage beginning "Mais
qui merite d'etre remarque."

ltciiius.it

ee

les

from

in the world, thai

they entirely deny the justice of the premises on which that inference

Remusat next observes, " Les

far

distinct substances

!;

BUDDHIST

108

ou, pour parler plus exactenient, dans

Now,

PHILOSOPHY.
unique,

qui constitue

phenomena

in the world,

l'ordre

there be really but one class of

if

either the material, or the immaterial, class


this doctrine, the question of

physical
I shall

that

phenomena, must,

phenomena

mere facon de parler.

And

in one essential sense, be a

are homogeneous, whatever they

can be allowed to be altogether so

and

if

it is

whose cardinal tenet

may

is,

think upon the further

actually such.

obvious

is

modification of matter
fifty

tem does not


and

name

existence

its

l'ordre

in the

Mind

is

e'est

only a peculiar

l'ordre

physique

Europe declared that " the universal

principles so essentially different

sys-

from one another

but that the whole must be of some uniform composition

system

so that the material or immaterial part of the

This notion, unless

Chinese language," the reason

denied.

is

unique de l'univers

of genius in

of two

consist
spirit

et

man

years since a

as matter

they seem, at least to be such as they

difficult as

or soul " have no

mind

of that at least

Not

hold

upon

indeed, therefore necessary " joindre la notion d'esprit " before these puzzles

is,

must be

who

the dependence or independence of mental

question of their reality or unreality

seem

consequently, with those

venture to assert, that with most of the Buddhists

all

It

l'univers.''
it

am

mistaken,

is

to be

is

superfluous."*

found at the bottom of most Indian

systems of philosophy, Brahmanical and Buddhist, connected with a rejection in

some shape or other of phenomenal

reality in order to get rid

different properties existing in the cause (whether

The

mind

or matter)

of the

and

in

difficulty

of

the effect^.

assertion that "material effects are subordinate to psychological"

is

no

otherwise a difficulty than as two absolutely distinct classes of phenomena, are

assumed

have a real existence

to

and I believe that there

Bauddha philosophers which has not denied the one


that the prevalent opinions include a denial of both.

is

scarcely one school of

or the other assumption

All

and

known phenomena may

be ascribed to mind or to matter without a palpable contradiction

nor,

with the

phenomenon which does not seem


Hence the doctrines of
phenomenal reality.

single exception of extent, J is there a physical

to countenance the rejection of

Avidya and of Maya


strain,

and

would ask those whose musings are in an impartial

whether the Bauddha device be not

to stave off a difficulty

as

good a one as the Brahmanical,

which the unaided wit of man

is

utterly unable to cope

with?
* A writer in the Edinburgh Review for January 1852, p. 192, says that to make immortality dependant on immateriality is most illogical.
f Remusat desired to know how the Buddhists reconcile multiplicity with unity,
relative with absolute, imperfect with perfect, variable with eternal, nature with

intelligence

answer by the hypothesis of two modes one of quiescence, the other of activity
But when he joins "l'esprit et
one of development, the other of non-development.
la matiere*" to the rest of his antitheses, 1'must beg leave to say the question is entirely
consideration
of the extract given in the
altered, and must recommend the captious to a
Not that I have any sympathy with
text from a European philosopher of eminence.
that extravagance, but that 1 wish merely to state the case fairly for the Buddhists.
which however cannot, and are not classed among phenomena
I Time and Space
by Indian or European philosophers. Limited time and space are considered quasi
I

phenomena

by'all.

Sec Ballantyne's Vedanta, p. 80 the very phrase " ignorance " or


tially the same and more precise than Mdyd,

Ajn&na

is

essen-

'

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
Questionless,

not easy,

it is

if it

lent to material and psychological

IO9

be possible, to avoid the use of worcta equiva-

but the tenet obviously involved in the formal

subordination of one to the oLher class of phoenomena,


tenet, that all

phoenomena are homogeneous,

trick of words, or creates an irreconcileable contradiction

and in

fact

Remusat has here again commingled

If I have been held accountable for

my

"des

substantial than

etre

Buddha."

Now,

some of the notions above remarked on, I

arguti.es mystiques."

Remusat expressly

comme

admettre,

d'

must crave leave

"M. Hodgson

qttil

nomine Adi-

to say that I never admitted anything of

four systems,

sufficiently difierent,

all

the Swabhavika and the Aiswarika.

viz.,

says,

base du systeme entier, l'existence

but, on the contrary, carefully pointed out that the " systeme entier

consists of

so

by quite

tenets held exclusively

souverainement parfait et intelligent, de celui

d'un seul

mere

between the two doctrines,

supposed opinions have been opposed by something more

a eu parfaitement raison

the sort

placed beside the

Buddhist philosophy.

distinct schools of

suspect that these

when

at once renders the former a

Remusat has made

and two of them, radically

It is

most apparent to

a melange out of the doctrines of

all

me

the four schools

that
;

and

there are very sufficient indications in the course of this essay that his principal

authority

was of the Swabhavika

sect.

In speaking of the twof bodies of


corps est identifie avec la science et la

(Prajna)."

He had

Now

law, science, and so forth,)


difficulty in

this

those

is

the same observation, "La loi meme est son


who are aware that Prajna (most idly translated
name of the great material cause * can have no

made

previously

principe et sa nature."

Buddha he remarks, that "le veritable


loi.
La substance meme est la science

the

reaching the conviction that the Buddhist authority from whence

assertion

of Prajna being the very essence, nature, and


belonged to the Swabhavika school, and would have laughed

was borrowed,

principle of Buddha,'

'

at the co-ordinate doctrine of his translator, that

cause, of

whom

nature (Prajna)

is

an

The Swabhavika Buddhas, who derive


with the

Jirst cause

Buddha

is

the sovereign and sole

effect.

from nature, which

their capacity of identifying themselves


is

that cause, are as all-accomplished

as

the

Buddhas of the Aiswarikas, who derive the same capacity from Adi-Buddha,

who

is

that cause.

In this express character of sovereign cause only,

is

the

warikas distinguishable amid the crowd of Buddhas of


interminable subtleties of the

'

systeme entier

'

Adi-Buddba of the Ais-

all sorts

that he

who

and such

shall not

are the

carefully

five bodies named by me


see page 92.
Prakriteswari iti Prajna; and again, Dhdranatmaka iti Dharma. Dharma is a
synonyme of Prajna.
Prajna means Supreme Wisdom.
Whose? .Nature's
and
nature's, as the sole, or only as the plastic, cause.
So, again, Dharma means mortality in the abstract, or the moral and religious code
of these religionists, or material cause, in either of the two senses hinted at above ; or,
lastly, material effects, viz., versatile worlds. These are points to be settled by the context and by the known tenets of the writer who uses the one or other word
and when
it is known that the very texts of
the Sw&bhavikas, differently interpreted, have
served for the basis of the Aiswarika doctrine, I presume no further co-veto can be required.
I
*

There are in fact

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

I I

this cardinal point of

mark

guide him

primary causation, will find

unconfusedly through the various labyrinths of the several schools.


like the following ?

Did Remusat never meet with passages

"And

others unavailing to

all

other things and beings proceeded from

as all

or nature, so did

Swabhava

have
Vajra, Satwa, Buddha, thence called the self-existent:' Even the Swabhavikas
Adi-Buddha.
their Dhyani Buddhas, and their triad, including, of course, an
Names, therefore, are of little weight and unmeasured epithets are so profusely
;

scattered on every

hand that the practised alone can avoid

their snare.

I did not

designated as Adi, or the

first
admit a Theistic school, because I foimd a Buddha
forth
so
and
eternal,
omniscient,
yclept
infinite,
nor yet because I found him
but because I found him explicitly contradistinguished from nature, and syste-

matically expounded as the efficient cause of

when

announced the

Nor should

all.

it

be forgotten that

fact of a Theistic sect of Buddhists, I observed that this

compared with the Swabhavika, both recent and confined.


and the three preceding letters, I have spoken harshly
of Remusat's researches, let it be remembered, that I conceive my labours to have
been adopted without acknowledgment, as well as my opinions to have been miseraeect was, as
If,

in the course of this,

bly distorted.

that

avow

is

me

indebted to

have been most courteously

for the

name

of

in the face of the

world

my conviction

Buddhism possessed by

views were thence derived

telligible

The

Such

the extent of the obligation.

golian works on

told, that

Adi-Buddha

"

" the learned of Europe are


inference

is

palpable that

insidious injustice compels

that,

me

to

whatever the Chinese and Mon-

the French Savans

may

contain, no in-

of the general subject before

my

essays

appeared, or could have been afterwards, but for the lights those essays afforded.
I

had access

to the original Sanskrit scriptures of

to

interpreted

me by

learned natives, whose

just understanding of their contents.

discovered very

many

at

expound

to

their first steps

For the

rest,

to

little

upon

merit, if I

who were reduced

from the most refined and copious of languages upon

most subtle and interminable of

hand

hereafter depended

wonder, therefore, and

things inscrutably hidden from those

to considt barbarian translations

the

No

the Buddhists, and they were

hopes

them the dark

topics,

and

who had no

through the most labyrinthine of human mazes.

and personally, there

living oracle ever

signification of the written

is

word

to guide

||

bienseance for biensSance, and a sincere

tear dropped over the untimely grave of the learned

Remusat.

+ Burnouf seems to hold that the transcendentalists had very early an atheistic and
a theistic section, the theistic being the Yogacharyas, whose founder was Arya Sangha,
and that a sect apart from both held the middle path, and were therefore called MAdhyamikas.

my

original authorities, which stand


because
The case is altered materially now;
far less in need of living interpreters, are generally accessible.
Ye Dharmdnityd
I
beg to propose, as an expcrimentum cruris, the celebrated text
||
If the several theistic, atheistic, and sceptical meanings
Sata Sdhasrika.
in these few words, can be reached through Chinese or Mongolian
translations uninterpreted by living authorities, I am content to consider my argument

of the

wrapped up
worthless.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

I I I

NOTE ON THE INSCRIPTION PROM SARNATH.

Number

have just got the 39th

hasten to

tell

of the Journal of the Asiatic Society and

you, that your enigma requires no (Edipus for

mandu, where almost every man, woman, and


repeat the confessio Jidei (for such

solution at

its

Bauddha

of the

Kath-

faith,

can

be called), inscribed on the Sarnath

Dr. Mill was perfectly right in denying the alleged necessary connexion

stone.

between the

No

may

it

child,

and the complement to

inscription,

such complement

is

needed, nor

produced by M. Csoma de Koros.

it

found in the great doctrinal authorities,

is

wherein the passage occurs in numberless places sometimes containing but half of the

dogma

complete

of the inscription;*

Even thus

teshdn Tathdgato."

cha yo nirodha, evam (rddi)


translation

"

Of

thus:

" Ye

Dharmd

hetu-prabhavd ; hetus

curtailed, the sense is complete,

Mahd

Sramana,"

without the "Teshdn


you may perceive by the following

as

things proceeding from cause, the cause

all

additional word, "

Of

all

is

Tathagata;"

or,

with the

things proceeding from cause, the cause (of their proces-

To complete the dogma, according to


The great Sramana hath likewise declared the

sion) hath the

Tathagata explained."

the inscription,

we must

"

add,

cause of the extinction of

all

With

things."

render this passage thus, " The causes of

the help of the commentators, I

all sentient

existence in the versatile world,

The Great Sramana hath

the Tathagata hath explained.

likewise explained the

such existence. "


Nothing can be more complete, or more fundamental, than this doctrine.

causes of the cessation of

asserts that

all

Buddha hath revealed the

as well as the causes of

its

The addition

mundane

complete cessation, implying, by the

to the eternal quiescence of Nirvritti,

vows.

causes of (animate)

which

latter, translation

the grand object of

is

by M. Csoma,

to the inscription supplied

cation merely of the general doctrine of the inscription.

It

is

all

Bauddha

the ritual appli-

explains especially

the manner in which, according to the scriptures, a devout Buddhist

from mundane existence,

It

existence,

may hope

by the practice of all virtues,


avoidance of all vices, and by complete mental abstraction. More precise, and as
usually interpreted here, more theistic too, than the first clause of the in-

to attain cessation

scription is

the terser sentence already given

to the Nepalese,

hagata:"

mood,

I used

Dharmd

viz.,

"

Of

understanding

with the

all

which likewise

by Tathagata, Adi-Buddha.

to reproach

is

more familiar

things proceeding from cause, the cause

my

old

friend,

atheistic tendency of his creed,

And

Amirta Nanda, (now

hetu-prabhavd hetus teshdn Tathdgato

is

the Tat-

whenever, in playful
alas

he would always silence

to the supreme, self-existent (SwayarnbhA)


*

viz.,

" insisting, that

me

no more)
with,

"Ye

Tathagata referred

Buddha.

is traditional not scriptural.


See pp. 79-80 for these causes, viz., Avidyd, Sanskdra, etc.
t The great temple of Swayambhu Natli is dedicated to this Buddha whence its name.
It stands about a mile west from Kathmandu, on a low, richly wooded, and detached

This curtailed version

and consists of a hemisphere surmounted by a graduated cone.


The majestic size, and severe simplicity of outline, of this temple, with its burnished
cone, set otf by the dark garniture of woods, constitute the Chaitya of Swayambhu
Nath, a very beauteous object.
hill,

I f

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

Nor did I often care to


word (Tathagata) as

had taught me

rejoin, that lie

tant

to strip the

dogma

of

impor-

so to interpret that

its necessarily theistic spirit

have already remarked in your Journal,* that the Swabhavika texts, differently
interpreted, form the

groundwork of the Aiswarika

It will not,

tenets.

Buddhism

therefore, follow, that the theistic school of

is

recognition upon the ground of original authorities; for the oldest

authority of

all

the aphorisms

and proved, by the

them by

this school

however,

not entitled to distinct

of the founder of the creed

are

and highest

justly

deemed,

upon

theistic school, to bear legitimately the construction put

proved in many ancient


commands a

the scriptural validity of which

books, both Pauranika and Tantrika,

necessary assent.

As

it

seems to be

supposed, that the theistic school has no other than Tantrika authorities for

sup-

its

mention the Swayambhu Parana and the Bhadra Kalpdoaddna, as


instances of the contrary. In a word, the theistic school of Buddhism, though
port, I will just

not so ancient or prevalent as the

atheis'.ic

and the sceptical schools,

is

as authentic

and legitimate a scion of the original stock of oral dogmata whence this religion
sprang, as any of the other schools. Nor is it to be confounded altogether with the

mummery

obscenity and mj'stic

vile

to

Tantras, though acknowledged to

of the

have considerable connexion with them.

Far

less is it to

be considered peculiar

Nepaul and Tibet, proofs of the contrary being accessible to

Buddha Dhydni

the Pancha

all

are inshrined in the cave at Bdgh,

and

Gyd ; as to which see my


A. Cunningham of Bengal, Wilson

temples surrounding the great edifice at


Pamlit's report

further on.

and Chapman of Madras, have


I

have myself seen a

fine

all

for instance,

minor

in the

Bauddha
of Bombay,

old

And

recorded opinions substantially the same.

image of Padma Pani, the aeon of the Dhydni Buddha

at Karnagurh on the Ganges. As I was looking over your Journal, my


Newari painter came into the room. I gave him the catch word, " Ye Dharnia,'
and he immediately filled up the sentence, finishing with Tathagata. I then

Amitabha,

uttered " teshan cha," and he completed the doctrine according to the inscription.

But

it

was

plement

to

he

no purpose that I

knew

it

tried to carry

him on through Csoma's

After I had explained

not.

its

meaning

ritual

com-

to him, he said,

the substance of the passage was familiar to him, but that he had been taught
to utter the sentiments in other

words, which he gave, and in which, by the way,

the ordinary Buddhist acceptation of Kusal

Kusal

out.

tum

vel

is

good.

mandatum

I will presently

Akusal

quod

is evil,

and

its

il'licitum vel

came

opposite, or Akusal,

in a moral or religious sense.

Quod

lici-

prohibitum.

send you a correct transcript of the words of the inscription,

from some old and authentic copy of the Rakshd Bhdgavati, or Prajnd Pdramitd,
as

you seem

to prefer calling

it.

So

will I of Csoma's

lay

my

hands on the Shurangamd Samddhi, which

At

all

events, I do not at once recognise the

dha work.

Meanwhile, you will

no pandit, but a perfectly


*t.

c,

J.

A. S. B.

notice, that as

illiterate

name

my

supplement so soon as

can

do not think I have by me.

as that of a distinct

Baud-

draftsman, above spoken

of, is

craitsman merely, his familiar acquaintance

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
with your inscription

And

dhists.

may

show how

serve to

I I

perfectly familiar

Bud-

to all

it is

here I would observe, by the way, that I have no doubt the inscrip-

tion on the Dehli, Allahabad,

and Behar

pillars is

some such cardinal dogma of

this faith.

am

no competent

assertion, that

but

used in the inscription, means not

as

Such

meaning

is its

where the sense

even larger, embracing the substance of

is

am

in question

"

all

inanimate as well

The universe

is

eter-

assured) to prove that the signification of ye

not always strictly relative, but often expletive merely

The points

infer-

The passage just quoted from the Sata Sd-

(without maker or destroyer.)

hasrika serves likewise (I

merely,

and

famous Ye Dharm&nitya of the Sata Sdhasrika,

in the

as animate entity, thus: "All things are imperishable," or,


nal,"

human actions

sentient existences in the three versatile worlds (celestial, terrene,

all

nal).

but I have competent authority for the

critic of Sanskrit,

Dharma,

undoubtedly

are,

but

is

let that pass.

existence in the Prdcrittiha or versatile

world, and cessation of such existence, by translation to the world of Nirvrifti;

and of such translation, animals generally, and not

human

beings solely, are capable.

Witness the deer and the chakwa, which figure so much

The

tales

of their

advancement

in

Bauddha sculptures
The word

to Nirvritti are popularly familiar.

nirodha signifies, almost universally and exclusively, extinction, or total cessation of


versatile existence

a meaning, by the way,

interpretation of dharma,

man

actions.

The

which confirms and answers

by general existences,

entities,

to the

and not by merely hu-

causes of versatile existence and of its extinction are given at

pp. 79-80.

worth while

It is scarcely

remark that there

to

cumber the present question with the further

Bauddha philosophers holding opinions which confound


universal entities throughout the versatile world, making

a sect of

is

onscious actions with

the latter originate absolutely and physically from the former, (see

Rmnusat

in the Journal,

It is not,

all

it

has,

may

Journal.*

Such

Dhdrandtmaha

(ens) is dharma.

mundane substances and existences,

is

the general

iti
1

dharma"
The sub-

physical and moral, in a word,

How many

meaning of dharma.

other meanings

be seen by reference to a note at the foot of p. 502, No. 34, of your

The

root

of the

might be expected from

word

is

Bauddha

dhri,

'

to hold.'

lexicographer.

the precise equivalent of dharma,

in space, and of the

Wilson's dictionary gives

This

is

essentially correct, as

The English word "substance"

which means that which supports

qualities

Brahmanic mdtrd, meaning that which measures space or

limits space, because space is only

speak here merely of etymologies.


*See

"

dogmata.

sustaining, essence

or

Nature as Amara Sinha's explanation of dharma.

is

remarks on

form and quality in the versatile universe, the sustainer (in space)

of versatile entity,
all things.

my

431.)

to very peculiar

the holding, containing,

stratum of

p.

however, admissible so to render generally received texts, as to make

them correspondent
1

No. 33,

p. 109, in notes.

measurable by the substances

it

holds.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

[4

Note.

If

Mr. Hodgson's general interpretation of dharma

seems most probable, though

its

agreeable to M. Csoma's supplement)

appears manifestly

least,

Adi-Buddha

Even

plural, cansas.)

if

is

its

the true one, (which

more

cannot mean " Tathagata or the

it

evident from the accusative hetun (which

we were

is

implication, in the present reading, at

For that

atheistic.

the cause,"

is

is

the sense of moral duties

specification in

word avadat

to strike out the

also

is

the former
Ceylon
some
or aha

still
which is on the inscriptions, and the latter repeated in
word of that meaning is plainly understood and this may help to shew that the
explication given by the Aiswarika Buddhists (as though the words were he'tus
and that the Buddhist system
te.diain Tathagatas) is a more recent invention,

of

properly recognizes

moral causes,

being superior to the sage expounder of physical and

no

whose own exertions alone have raised him to the


the Epicurus of this great Oriental system,

highest rank

of existences,

qui potuit reruni cognoscere causas,

Atque metus omnes

et inexorabile

fatum

Subjecit pedibus.

What

is

mere

figure of speech in the

Roman

of wisdom, becomes religious faith in the east

poet, to express the calm dignity

opponent of popular superstition and Brahmanical

supreme over

all visible

and

invisible things,

the elevation of a philosophical

viz.,

caste, to the character of a

being

and the object of universal worship.

W. H. M.

Note on the Note of W. H.

M,

My friendly and learned

to the comparative recency of the

since expressed

But he

by myself.

old or unquestionable basis

and ancient authorities in


fancies of

Sir

criticism, it

W.

is

Aiswarika school and

for

its

is

wrong

support.

So that

mouths of Buddhists,

it,

is

case.

As

the

to verbal

That

my
fact

terser text is

and I never

the inscription, or that I

causes of versatile existence, alluded to

had seen

by Sakya,

in the text

my

"Quotations

enumerated in

etc., as

Proof" under the head of the Karmika doctrine

ble

fair to revert to

ipsissimis verbis.

the causes of the extinction of such existence.


is

no

quoted popular words popu-

an unquestionable

form was that of

graved at Sarnath, are Avidya, Sanskara,

passage

long

surely scarce necessary to observe that the governing verb being

scriptural authority for

in

hardly

it is

Jones' day, under cover of a Latin quotation

said, either that this terser

The express

right as

in supposing that that school has

and omitted the nice inflexions of case and number.

familiar to the

is

find that opinion

both Mr. Csoma and myself have pi-oduced genuine

removed, the noun will take the nominative


larly

annotator

may

and

there, too,

may

See pp. 79-80 of this

be found

vol.

This

the true complement or exponent of the ye dharmd, and leaves no possi-

doubt as to

its

meaning.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

11$

NOTICE OP ADI-BUDDHA AND OF THE SEVEN MORTAL BUDDHA8,*


(With reference to Nepaul

chiefly)

FROM THE SWAYAMBHU PURANA.


The Swayambhu Purdna
was of

valley of Nepaul

mountains confining

relates in substance

circular form,

That formerly the

very deep water, and that the


forests,

giving shelter to

it

was beautiful

as the lake of Indra; south of

the Hemachal, the residence of Karkotaka, prince of the Nagas

and as many broad.

The

Countless waterfowl rejoiced in the waters.

was Naga Vasa;

of the lake

as follows

full of

were clothed with the densest

it

numberless birds and beasts.

name

and

In the lake were

many

seven cos long,

sorts of water-plants

but not the

Buddha arrived, with very many disciples and


Bhikshus, from Vindumati Nagar, in Madhya Desa, at the Lake of Naga Vasa,
After

lotos.

a time, Vipasyi

Vipasyi, having thrice

customary religious peregrinations.

in the course of his

W.

circumambulated the lake, seated himself in the N.


it,

(Vayukona)

side of

and, having repeated several mantras over the root of a lotos, he threw

the water, exclaiming, "

What

it

into

time this root shall produce a flower, then, from

out of the flower, Swayambhii, the Lord of Agnishtha Bhuvana, shall be revealed
the form of flame

in

Having

country.'*

of this prophecy,

it

was

according to the

fulfilled

of respectful followers,

Long

after the date

letter.

to

Naga

Vasa with a great

composed of rajas and persons of the four castes

Sikhi, so soon as he beheld Jyoti-rupa-Swayainbhii, offered to

(chatur varna).

many

become a cultivated and populous

repeated these words, Vipasyi departed.

Buddha, came Sikhi Buddha

After Vipasyi

company

shall the lake

and then

laudatory forms of prayer

and, having done

so,

then

rising,

him

he thrice walked round Naga Vasa,

thus addressed his disciples

"This place

shall hereafter,

by

the blessing of Swayambhu, become a delightful abode to those who shall resort
to it from all quarters to dwell in it, and a sweet place of sojourn for the pilgrim

and passenger

me and

my

apotheosis

depart to your

own

is

now

country."

near at hand, do you

all

waters of Naga Vasa, grasping in his hands the stalk of the

was absorbed
their master,
i.

e.,

the

into the essence of

threw themselves

self-existent

Buddha who
Madhya Desa

visited
;

many

disciples

Swayambhu.

into the lake,

the rest

Naga Vasa.

his life

Nepaul was long

was devoted

returned

Many

lotos,

and his soul

of his disciples, following

and were absorbed into Swayambhu,

home.

Viswabhu was born

Viswabhu was
in

the

third

Anupama-puri-nagar, of

His

to benefitting his fellow-creatures.

after that of Sikhi, and, like Sikhi, he

and

take your leave of

So saying Sikhi threw himself into the

visit to

brought with him a great

Bhikshus, Rajas and cultivators, natives of his

Having repeated the praises of Swayatnbhu-jyoti-rupa, he observed

own

land.

" In this lake

* Printed

from the Bengal Asiatic Journal, No. 29, A. D. 1834.


the lake was desiccated (by the sword of Manjusri says the myth probably earthquake) Karkotaka had a fine tank built for him to dwell in and there he
is still worshipped, also in the cave-temple appendant to the great Buddhist shrine of

When

Swayambhu Nith.

BUDDniST PHILOSOPHY.

A Bodhisatwa will,

Prajna-surupa-Guhycswari* will be produced.


her manifest out of the waters
will

become

with

replete

and

this place,

villages, towns,

and

through the
tirthas,

make
Swayambhu,

in time,

blessing- of

and inhabitants of various

Having thus prophesied he thrice circumambulated the lake*


and returned to his native country. The Bodhi-atwa above alluded to is Manju
Sri, J whose native place is very far off, towards the north, and is called Pancha Sirsha
and diverse

tribes."

Parvata, [which

Buddha

situated in Malta

is

Naga Vasa, Manju

to

Sri,

China Des.] After the coming of Viswabhu

meditating upon what was passing in the world,

discovered by means of his divine science that Swayambhii-jyoti-rupa, that


self-existent, in the

Naga Vasa.
spot,

and

Again, he

my name

is,

the

form of flame, was revealed out of a lotos in the lake of


reflected within himself

" Let

me

behold that sacred

will long be celebrated in the world;" and on the instant, col-

lecting together his disciples, comprising a multitude of the peasantry of the land,

and a Raja named Dharmakar, he assumed the form of Viswakarma, and with his

two Devfs

(wives,)

and the persons above-mentioned,

journey from Sirsha Parvata to Naga Vasa.

made
all

piija.

to the self-existent,

the while the aid of

set

out upon the long

There having arrived, and having

he began to circumambulate the lake, beseeching

Swayambhu

in prayer.

In the second circuit,

when he had

reached the central barrier mountain to the south, he became satisfied that that

was the best

place whereat to

draw

off the

waters of the lake.

Immediately

he struck the mountain with his scimitar, when the sundered rock gave passage to
the waters, and the bottom of the lake became dry.

the mountain, and

began

to

walk about the valley

He

then descended from

in all

directions.

As he

approached Gukyeswarf,|| he beheld the water bubbling up violently from the


spot,

and betook himself with pious zeal to the task of stopping

he commenced than

the

ebullition

of

the

water became

leaving bare only the flower of the lotos, the root of

it.

No

sooner had

less violent,

which

is

when,

the abode of

Guhyeswari, he erected a protecting structure of stone and brick over the recumform of Prajna, who is the same with Dharma and the
Adi-Buddha, according to the Triadists.
The type of AdiBnddha in Xepaul is fire that of Adi-Dharma, or Prajna or Guhyeswari is water or
she has no type, is of a secret form, i.e.., Guhyeswari, or lastly, according to the Tantras, her type is the Yoni, which, as well as the whole ritual belonging to it, is Guhya
or esoteric and concealed.
% The Tibetans identify Manjusri 'with Tim mi Sam bhota, minister of King Srongtsan, who lived in the seventh century, and was the great, introducer of Buddhism into
Tibet. Manjusri' s Tibetan name is Jam yang; Thumi is an incarnation of him.
The bracketed portions are from the commentators.
The site of the temple is near the centre of the valley, on the skirts of the lovely
grove of Pasupati and above 24 or 3 miles east from Mount Sambhii.
The fable
says, that the root of the lotos of Guhyeswari is at the former place, and the flower
the recumbent stalk being extended throughout the interval between
at the latter
Swayambhu or Adi-Buddha is supposed to reside in the flower, in the form of
them.
flame; Prajna, Paramita or Guhyeswari, in or at the root, in the form of water. The
temple of Guhyeswari has been appropriated by the Brahinans, who woiship this godBut it may
dess as the Sakti of Pasupati NAth, whose symbol is the four-faced Lingam.
be that the Buddhists are wrong in identifying Guhyeswari with Prajna, and that
Guhyeswari, the Sakti of Pa-upati NAth, is really one of the deities or Nathism
half orthodox (Goraksha nath) and half heterodox ^Matsyendra nath) divinity.
*

That

Sakti of

is

the mystic

Swayambhu

||

or

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

1 1

bent stalk, and called the structure, which rose into a considerable elevation as

it

neared the flower of the

constructed for that purpose a small

Parvata, (the western half of the


desiccated valley, Nepdld

yamhhii, and paid

was Swayambhii
since very

many

Sri, for the

'

'

place of

residence,

and

at length

which he gave the name of Manju Sri


and

of Sambhii Nath,)

hill

little

the sender

(to paradise,)

'

called the

who

Swa-

is

implying that the protecting genius of the valley

;
'

Thus the valley got the name

Adi-Buddha.

or

fit

to

hill,

Xe signifying

cherished

This work completed, Manju Sri

Satya Giri,

lotos,

began to look about him in search of a

persons had come from

Mount Sirsha

of Nepala

(or China)

and,

with Manju

Dharmakar Raja and his suite, Manju constructed a


way between Mount Swayambhii and Guhyeswari,]
himself, Manju Pattana, and established therein Dharmakar

residence of

large place of abode [half

and named

it

after

Maka China]

[of

as Raja, subjecting the

came from Sirsha Parvata

whole of the

Dharmakar'a

to

Manju Pattana.
[Thus was Nepaul peopled, the

rule,

inferior sort of people

and providing abodes

for

who

them

in

the city of

Sirsha,

and

its

which

is

in

Maha

first

came

inhabitants of which

China, and thus the valley got the

inhabitants, that

of

Nepali,

whose primitive

from Moimt

all

name

Nepala,

of

language was Chinese.*

much altered by the immigration of


Madhya Desa, and by the necessary progress of corruption and
change in a new country, till a new language arose in Nepaul by the natural
course of things. The primitive inhabitants of Nepaul were all of one caste, or
This language in course of time came to be

people from

had no

many

But

caste.

these, such as

became divided into

their descendants, in the course of time

castes, according to the trades

and professions which they followed

abandoned the world and shaved their heads became

Sramana, Chailaka, and Arhana, and took up their abode in


teries.
all

These four orders

all

monastic

and in

worldly commerce. But should any of them,

become worldly men, such


names.]

Manju

in Nepaul,

Sri,

still

monas-

excluded from

retaining the custom of tonsure,

having by such deeds as these acquired the highest celebrity

[ostensibly,

two Devis, and

forests or in

strictness absolutely

and of

are called Sravaka, etc. to a great extent of diverse

and

for the instruction of

mortal form and became nirvdn


his

Bhikshu,

in due course arrived at

after the disappearance of

Manju

the people] relinquished his

[but in truth departed for

Sri,

Mount

Pancha Sirsha Parvata.]

Karkut Sand Buddha came

some Bhikshukas, Dkarniapala Raja, and


from Kshemavatinagar, of Madhya Desa.

a multitude of

The beauty

the

Sirsha with

Some time

to Nepaul,

common

with

people,

of the country delighted

* Manju Sri or -Manju Ghosha (sweet voice) and Dharmakar are pure Sanskrit
words, which fact makes against the alleged location of Mount Sirsha (also Sans-'
krit)in China, and there are grounds for supposing that mount Sirsha was in Assam.
In the NTepaulese Vansavalis the first race of kings are apparently GwaHas and Saivas,
or rather Pasupatas, who worshipped Pasupati and received the throne from a Rishi called
Neyam. But this dynasty is open to doubt in all ways. The next dynasty is clearly
It is of the Kiranti tribe now locabarbarian and utterly alien to Sanskrit and India,
What says the
This evidence is indecisive.
ted in all the eastern part of Nepaul.
Skand Parana, and what is its age compared with that of the Sambhu Parana ? Physiognomy and speech decisively refer the Newars to the Tibetan stock.

Ql

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

Il8

him, and he remarked that in such a land the cultivator must be sure to reap
as

He

he sowed.

paid his devotions to Swayainbhii, and then launched out in

of the merits of

praise

Manju

Afterwards he per-

Nepaulese patriarch.

Sri, the

formed pujd to Guhyeswari, and then ascended Sankhocha mountain (Siva Pura :)
the prospect of that valley from that mount filled him with fresh delight, and he
Gunadhvaja, a brahman, and Abha-

again celebrated the excellence of the country.

yandada, a kshetriya, and others of

Kurkut Sand, here

followers of

Bhikshukas, in

order that

the four castes (chatiir varna,) respectful

solicited at his

hands the favour of being made

they might remain in this happy land, and by the

worship of Swayambhii attain to high merit and honour.


plied,

Kurkut cheerfully com-

and agreed to make a great many of the company Bhikshukas

and since

the mountain top afforded no water for that ceremony, he by his divine power

caused a spring to issue from the rock, and with

He

the requisite Abhisheka or baptism.


this spring

Vangmati

and then related

history of the valley watered


in Nepaul,

waters gave to his followers

its

the river that originated with

called

to his followers

by the Vangmati.

both the past and future

Then, having

Raja Dharmapal and some Bhikshus and common

left

folks,

behind him

who had come

with him, and desired to stay, Kurkut Sand departed with the rest of them to his
native city of Kshemavati.

were the

first

Many

paul.

[These companions of Kurkut Sand, or Krakucckand,

natives of the plains of India

(Madhya

l)esa)

who remained

of them, addicting themselves to the business of the world,

householders, and the founders of several towns and villages in Nepaul


others,

who adopted

When

these Madhyadesiyas had

in

Ne-

became
;

whilst

the ascetical profession, dwelt in the forests and Vihars.

become numerous

in Nepaul, they

and their

descendants were confounded with the former or northern colonists under the com-

mon

appellation of Nepali and

Newari

being

only separated and contradistin-

guished by the several trades and professions which they hereditarily practised.
Thus, in the early ages, Nepaul had four classes of secular people, as Brahman,
Kshetriya, Vaisya, and Sudra, and four ascetical classes, namely, Bhikshu, Sra-

mana,t Chailaka, and Arhanta, dwelling in

forests

and monasteries, and

all

were

Buddha-mdrgi. ]

ACCOUNT OF DHARMAKAR EAJA AND DHARMAPAL RAJA.


Dharmakar, the before noted [Chinese] prince of Nepaul, being disgusted with
the world, abandoned his sovereign power, and placed Dharmapal, the Raja of

Gaur-des, already
jects

mentioned, upon his throne.

with perfect justice and clemency, and made

Dharmakar, and regarded with equal favour

Dharmapdl governed
piija at -the

his subjects that

his sub-

Chaitya erected by

came from Mount

Malm China,] and those who immigrated from Madhya-desa.


account of prachanda deva. Prachanda Deva, a Raja of

Sirsha [or

which

is

of hia age and country.

*From

Gaur-dos,

adjacent to Madhya-des, and of the Kshatriya tribe, was the wise

At

man

length, being inspired with the ambition of becoming

Vach, 'speech.'

f Snlvaka and Sramana are equivalent.

9
;

BUDDniST
nirvdna, he abandoned

began

and

to

sway

his princely

wander over various

PHILOSOPHY.

I 1

and taking with him a few

and having made pujd to the Tri Ratna, or

devatd,

Swayambhii, and there performed


Parbat, and offered his prayers to

lighted

Sri,

Manju

Gunakar with the display of

a Bhikshuka

triad,

his

who accompanied Prachanda

Bhikshus

at the

to

he went to the temple of


then ascended Manju Sri

Some

others of those that

panions returned to Gaur-des.]

many Brahmans and

great

came with Prachanda

them

to

Nepaul pre-

where

in Nepaul,

third portion of Prachanda's

After a time, Santa Sri represented to his

com-

Guru

the sacred flame of Swayambhii with a covering


Gunakar was charmed with the proposition and proposer, and having

his desire to protect

structure.

the

becoming a Bhikshu,

after

[A

Nepaul received the tonsure, and became

they also remained and became Buddhists.

purified

disciple

One day Prachanda Deva eo deexcellent qualities, that Gunakar made

ferring the pursuits of the world, continued to exercise

him

and

pith,

same time with Prachanda, and took up their abode in the monas-

teries of Nepaul.

Gunakar

delighted

and

Sri.

and the said Raja Prachanda

tirtha,

and finished by becoming a

obtained the titular appellation of Santa Sri.


others

He

his devotions.

Manju

of Gunakar Bhikshu, a follower of

him

He was

the course of his peregrinations arrived at Nepaul.

in

with the beauty of the country, and having visited every

he

sages,

and pilgrimages,

countries, visiting all the shrines

him with
title

thirteen sprinklings of

sacred water (trayodasdbhisheka,) gave

of Dikshita Santikar Vajra Acharya.

dated the arrival of

the

people of

[From

these transactions

is

Gaur-des in Nepaul, and their becoming

Buddhists.]

account of kanaka muni. Once on a time, from Subhavatfnagar of MadhyaKanaka Muni Buddha, with many disciples, some illustrious persons, and a
countless multitude of common people, arrived at Nepaul, in the course of his
des,

religious peregrinations,

and spent some months in the worship of Swayambhii,

and the Tri Ratna, and then departed with most of

mained

in Nepaul,

[and these too, like


desiyas,

who became Buddha-margi and


all

his attendants.

few

re-

worshippers of Swayambhii

the preceding, soon lost their name and character as

and were blended with the Nepali or Newari

Madhya-

race.]

account of kasyapa buddha. Once on a time in Mrigadaba-vana, near BeKasyapa Buddha was born. He visited Nepaul in pilgrimage, and made

nares,

his devotions to
in Nepaul,

Sambhunath.

[Most of the people

account of sakya sinha buddha.


Stigara,* in the sthan of

Some

Kapila Muni,

staid

time

who

afterwards became a

after

Kasyapa's

visit at

Gauga

and city of Kapila-vastu, and reign of

Suddhodana Raja, of the Saka-vansa, was born


Siddha,

who came with him

and soon became confounded with the aborigines.]

Buddha with

(as the son of that

the

name

of

Raja) Sarvartha

Sakya Sinha.

Sakya,

with 1,350 Bhikskukas, and the Raja of Benares, several counsellors of

state,

* Ganga, Sagara, says Wilson, has no necessary connection with the ocean.
For the
But I doubt it' the site were so far from
of Kapila-pur see Laidlay's Fahian.
Timur, in his annals, says that he took it and speaks of it as though it were
the hills.
actually in the hills, a mountain fastness in fact.
site

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

120

and a crowd of peasantry of that kingdom, set out on the pilgrimage to Nepaul.
his devotions to the self-existent, in the form of flame, he went to

Having paid

the Chaitya or Puchhagra Hill,t and repeated to his disciples the past history of

Nepaul, as well as

Bodbisatwa

these that of Nepaul

history,

with many praises of Manju Sri

the world are twenty-four Piths, and of

Having

the best."

is

all

all

His companions,

he departed.

so said,

of the Chatur varna, or four castes, [Brahman, Kshatriya, Yaisya, and

who were

to the four orders, [Bhikshu,

and belonged

Siidra,]

whole future

its

he then observed, " In

Arhant,] being

much

and Sramana, and Chailaka, and

pleased with Nepal-des continued to dwell in

it

[and in

course of time were blended with the aboriginal Nepali's, and became divided
several castes, according to the avocations

into

Some time

after the date of the

which they hereditarily pursued.]

above transaction, Raja Gunakama Deva, prince of

Katkniaiidu, [a principal city of Nepaul,]

became the

disciple

of

above-

the

Guna Kama Deva, with the aid derived


mentioned Santikar Vajra Acharya.
the Nag Raja KarkotakaJ out of the
brought
Santikar,
of
merits
from the divine
lake or tank of Adhar, and conveyed him to Santipiir with much ceremony and
many religious rites. The cause of this act was that for many previous years there
had been a deficiency of
famine

with

and

its

rain,

whereby the people had been grievously distressed


was an ample supply of rain, and the return

consequence

of the usual fertility of the earth

Subsequently, Sri

and plenty of food.

Narendra Deva became Raja of Bhagatpattan, (or Bhatgaon

;)

he was the disciple of Bandudatta Acharya, and brought Aryavalokiteswara*


(Padma Pani) from Putalakaparvat (in Assam) to the city of Lalita pattan in
Nepaul.

The reason

years duration, and


like

happy

was a drought of twelve


The measure was attended with

of inviting this divinity to Nepaul


of the greatest severity.

results, as in the case of

conveying the

Nag Raja with

so

much honour

to Santipiir.

NOTE ON THE PRIMARY LANGUAGE OF THE BUDDHIST WRITINGS.


I

have read

With

article

n.

regard to the language in which the religion

and spread among the

is

of Sakya,

people,' I perceive nothing opposed to

in the fact that that language

There

||

of the 6Gth No. of your Journal with great interest.


'

was preached

my own

opinions

was the vernacular.

merely in your case, as priorly in that of Mr. Tumour, some misappre-

hension of the sense in

which

I spoke to that point.

t Part of Mount Sambhu, west of the great Chaitya also called Go-pucch.
And in the annals of Cashmir he figures
X Karkotaka is named in the SwnMtd.
The Nagas and Indra maintain still in Nepaul a deal
as conspicuously as in Nepaul.
of their pristine authority, and in connection one with the other for the Nagas are
;

invoked

for rain.

rains are deficient, in


The Nagas are still worshipped in Santipiir whenever the
conformity with this legend and with the original one of the lake as being the N&gvasa.
* Is Avalokeswara the same as Matsyendra Nath, whose arrival in Nepaul is referred
to the fifth century of Christ by well known memorial verses? The identification with
Padma Pani vests on Sastras of Nepaul and of China. SeeJ.R.A.S., new series, vol.

part

ii.,
|l

i.,

p. 137.

Printed from the Bengal Asiatic Journal, No. 68, A. d. 1837.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
The preaching and spreading
-

of the

religion

is

elaboration of those speculative principles from

In the one case, the appeal would be to the


wkilst I

am

to the people,

religion

which formed the

eschewed the Prakrits

was deduced.

think that those

basis of the popular creed,

were enounced,

I never alleged that the

Buddhists had

I only denied the allegation that they

had eschewed the

and I endeavoured, at the same time, to reconcile their use of

And

in the other, to the few.

and as propagandists used the vulgar tongue,

defended and systematised in Sanskrit.

Sanskrit

Buddhists as practical reformers addressed themselves

satisfied that the

philosophical dogmata

a very different thing from the

which the

many

drawing a distinction between the means employed by their philosophers

both,

by

to establish

the principles of this religion, and the means employed by their missionaries to

propagate the religion


Joinville

itself.

had argued that Buddhism was an original creed, older than Brahman-

ism, because of the grossness of

its

leading tenets which savour so

much

of

'

flat

atheism.'

I answered that

Buddhism was an innovation on the

existing creed, and that all

the peculiarities of the religion of Sakya could be best and only explained by
religions sanction, whence arose the
Bauddha aversion to gods and priests, and that enthusiastic selftaught by Buddhism in express opposition to the servile extant reference

advertence to shameful prior abuse of the


characteristic

reliance

of

all

Jones, again, had argued that the

things to heavenly and earthly mediation.

Buddhists used only the Prakrit,

i. e.,

Pali, because the

books of Ceylon and Ava,

(the only ones then forthcoming,*) were solely in that language or dialect.

answered by producing a whole library of Sanskrit works in which the principles


of

Buddhism

are

more

fully

expounded than

in all the legendary

tomes of Ceylon

and Ava; I answered, further, by pointing to the abstruse philosophy of Buddhism, to

admitted

the

With

preeminence, as scholars, of

most central and

their location in the

the Sanskrit at

expounders

its

command, I asked and ask

again,

and to

(Behar and Aiidh).

literary part of India

why men

so placed

and

gifted,

and having to defend their principles in the schools against ripe scholars from

all

parts of India (for those were days of high debate and of perpetual formal dis-

putation in palaces and in cloisters)


limited and feebler organ
available ?
is,

in

The presumption

my judgment,
backed

slabs,

as

discovered here.
of

Buddhism.

should be supposed to have resorted to a

when they had

the universal and

worth a score of any inferences deduceable from monumental

this

presumption

is

And,

if

the principles of this creed were not expounded and syste-.

Sanskrit

originals

and of

the

sophic founders of

Buddhism used

we

avowed Tibetan

judgment the extent and character of these works

to

make

of the

translations

In

Ne-

my

settle the question that the philo-

Sanskrit and Sanskrit only, to expound, defend

W. Jones had, however, in his possession a Sanskrit copy of the Lalita Vtsand had noticed the personification of Diva Natura under tin style of Arya Tara,

* Sir
tara,

Buddhism

by the Sanskrit records of

Those records came direct from the proximate head quarters

matised in the schools of India in Sanskrit, what are


paulese

more powerful one equally

that they did not thus postpone Sanskrit to Prakrit

122

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

and record the speculative principles of

their system, principles without

vulgar creed would be (for us,) mere leather and prunella

Nor

is

which the

this opinion in

the least opposed to your notion (mine too) that the practical system of

duced from those

was spread among the people

principles,

de-

belief,

of the spot, as well as

propagated to remoter spots, by means of the vernacular.


admitted that Buddhism was long taught in Ceylon without the aid of

It is

Books

and that the

book reached that island nearly 300 years

first

after the intro-

duction of the creed.

Here

is

a distinct admission of

Sakya

racter of the religion of

ultimate

imperfect

which regulated

I long since inferred

From

authorities of the sect

were transferred

and immediately to the proximate

directly

books of Ceylon have

now

in a

the authorities

metropolis

this

Nepaul, where and where only, I believe, they are


lations, the

from the general cha-

the protracted total want, and

and practice in Magadha, in Kosala and Hdjayriha,

word, in the Metropolis of Buddhism.


in question

viz.,

those standard written

supply, of

belief

what

in that island,

hills

of

If not trans-

to be found.

the appearance of being ritual collectanea,

all

legendary hearsays, and loose comments on received texts

To

rally be written in the vulgar tongue.*

all

which would natu-

however, we must add some

these,

very important historical annals, detailing the spread and diffusion of Buddhism.
Similar annals are yet found in Tibet, but, as far as I know, not in Nepaul, for what
reason

it is difficult

to divine.

But

these annals,

however valuable

written standard of faith

and until

mas\ produced from Ceylon,


of that island

drew

to us, for historical uses, are not the original

I see the

Prajnd Pdramitd and the nine Dhar-

must continue of the opinion that the Buddhists

their faith from secondary, not primary sources

the former were in Ceylon as elsewhere, vernacular

and Kosala, as they are

still

and that whilst

the latter were in MayadJia

in Nepaid, classical or Sanskrit

Certainly Buddhism, considered in the practical view of a religious system,

always appealed to the


sacred

texts (Sanskrit

common

sense and interest of the

many, inscribing

and Prakrit) on temple walls and on

pillars,

its

most

placed in

market, highroad and cross-road.

This material fact (so opposite to the genius of Brahmanism,) I long since
called attention to

and thence argued that the inscriptions on the

lata

would be

probably found to be of scriptural character.

The tendency

of

your

researches

to prove that the elaborate forms of the

Devanagari were constructed from simpler elements, more or


the popular Bkashas,

who

those

is

very curious

less

appropriated to

and seems to strengthen the opinion of

hold Hindi to be indigenous, older than Sanskrit in India, and not (as

Colebrooke supposed) deduced from Sanskrit.


letters before the

If

Buddhism used

these primitive

Devanagari existed, the date of this creed would seem to be

in the vulgar tongue are common in Nepaid, and frequently we


Sanskrit text with a vernacular running commentary.
f-They have one of the nine, mz., the Lalita Vistara; but M. Burnouf assures me, in
Now, as this work is forthcoming iu a faultless state in
a miserably corrupted state.
Sanskrit, I say the Pali version must be a translation.
*

Such works written

have

J
:

BUDDHIST
thrown back

remote

to a

asra,

PHILOSOPHY.

23

the Sanskrit letters and language must be

or,

comparatively recent.

Buddhism into far ages and realms but I am


Buddhism which has come down to us in the Sanskrit, Pali and
Tibetan books of the sect, and which alone therefore we- do or can know, is
neither old nor exotic.
That Buddhism (the doctrines of the so called sect nth
Buddha) arose in the middle of India, in comparatively recent times, and expressly
I can trace something very like

sure that that

out of those prior abominations which

had long held the people of India

in

cruel vassalage to a bloated priesthood.

The race

Sdkya Sinha (by the way, the Sinha proves

of Sdka, or progenitors of

that the princely style

was given

to

him

until he

have been Scythians or Northmen, in one sense

mans

in that

nomen

same

sense,

assumed the

with reference to their original

viz.,

gentis diffusissimce, cu/us

maxima pars

in

ascetic habit)

may

and so probably were the Brah-

montibus degit

(Brachmanes

seat.

reliqui circa

Gan-

gem.)
If one's purpose

and object were

to search

backwards

the original

to

hive

of

nations, one might, as in consistency one should,

draw Brahmanism and Buddhism,

Yyasa and Sakya, from Tartary. *

that quoad the

ded

man and

thing

All I say

Sakya Sinha and

is,

his tenets

they

known and

recor-

are indisputably Indian

and recent.
I incline to the

opinion that Hindi

independent, originally, of Sanskrit.

may

be older in India than Sanskrit, and

But were

this so,

and were

the Buddhists used the best dialect of Hindi {that however


Sanskrit, whateveritsprimal independence), such admissions

is

it

also true that

saturated with

would rather strengthen

than weaken the argument from language against the exotic origin of Buddhism.
According to this hypothesis, Hindi is not less, but more, Indian than Sanskrit
and, a fortiori, so

But, in

is

the religion assumed to have committed

very truth, the extant records of

its

records to Hindi.

Buddhism, whether

Prakrit, exhibit both languages in a high state of refinement

Sanskrit or

and though one or

both tongues came originally from Tartary, they received that refinement in India,
where, certainly, what we know as Buddhism, (by means of these records) had
its origin, long after Brahmanism had flourished there in all its mischievous rnio-ht.
P. S.

You

hope, excuse my having adverted to some other controverted


which your paper immediately suggested. These questions are

will, I

topics besides that

a good deal linked together

dence throughout

its

for instance, if

Buddhism

most authentic records that

it

is

furnishes internal evi-

the express antithesis of

That is from a country to the north-west of Hindostan a country beyond the Indus
in the widest sense, but not Turan orTartary as we call it, for nons of the Tartar races were literary, and even to this hour
the Turks only have some poor and borrowed pretensions to literature.
The ITighours got their alphabet from the Nestorians, and the Mongols theirs from the Uighours.
f According bo all Bauddha authorities tin- lineage of the whole seven mortal Buddhaa
is expressly stated to he Brahmanical or Kshatriya! What is the answer to this ?
+ Our own distinguished Wilson has too easily followed the continental European
writers in identifying the Saka vansa with the classical Sacse or Scythians, and Buddhism with Samanism. The Tartars of our day avow that thry got all their knowledge
from India; teste Kahgyvr ct Stangyur.

and no doubt the country called Ariana or Iran,

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

124
Brahmanism,

its posteriority of date to the latter is decided, as well as its jealousy

Nee

of priestly pretensions.

clericis infinita

out libera potestas,

only very precise and weighty evidence will

suffice

And

none such yet from Ceylon or from Ava.

be

a deduction which

is

set aside

to

I have seen

observed, I here advert

it

to authentic scriptural tenets, and not to popular corruptions resulting' from the
facile confusion of

We

the monastic with the clerical character.

by no means prepared to enter into a controversy on a subject


and accidental acquaintance nor will we arrogate to ourselves the distinction of having entered the lists already occupied by
such champions as Mr. Hodgson and Mr. Tumour, who have both very strong

Note.

on which

we

are

profess but a slight

As

arguments to bring forward, in support of their opposite views.

far as the

Dharmalipi could be taken as evidence the vernacularists had the right to


on the other hand there can be no doubt, as Mr. Hodgson says, that
disputation with the existing Brahmanical schools

and overcame, must have been conducted


tion

it

but

all scholastic

which Sakya personally

visited

The only ques-

in the classical language.

whether any of these early disquisitions have been preserved, and whether,
by Professor Wil-

is,

for example, the Life of Sakya, called the Lalita Vistara, found

son to agree verbatim with the Tibetan translation examined simultaneously by Mr.

Csoma, has a greater antiquity than the Pitakattayan of Ceylon ? We happen


moment two letters bearing upon the point in

fortuitously to have received at this

dispute from

which we gladly

alluding to the notice of the

Csoma

avail ourselves of an extract or

life

of

two

Mr. Tumour,

Sakya from the Tibetan authorities by Mr.

in the As. Res. vol. xx. writes

" The

Tibetan

life

is

apparently a very

meagre performance, containing scarcely anything valuable in the department of


history

whereas had the materials whence

was taken been genuine, the

it

would have been able to bring forward and


mation on the pilgrimages and the acts of Sakya

illustrate

lator

much

trans-

valuable infor-

in various parts of India during

Even the superstitious facts recorded are much


represented in the Pitakattayan. Thus the dream of

the forty-five years he was Buddha.

more absurd than they

Maya Devi
nancy,

is

are

of having been rubbed

having entered by the right side

Devi

!
'

'

by a Chhadanta elephant, during her preg-

converted into a matter of

Chhadanta

books Chhadanta

is

'

is

the

taken

name

fact,

.into

of Sakya,

the

literally as

womb

in the

form of an elephant

body of Maya

a six-tusked elephant, whereas

of a lake beyond the

the elephants are of a superior breed.*

'

or cavity of the

It is

by our

Himalaya mountains where

mentioned twice in the Mahdwanso;

chaps, v. and xxii."


If the rationality of a story be a fair test of its

deny, the Pali record will here bear


that
"

we have

life "

away

the

palm

genuineness, which few will

but

it is

much

to be regretted

not a complete translation of the Sanskrit and of the Ceylonese

to place side

by

side.

It is impossible that instruction

should not be gained

* Let zoologists say what they think of the rationality of this story.
I would add
that refilling of the sense of old legends is a common practise of later times.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

125

by such an impartial examination.


But to return to the subject under discusmy friend Mr. Csoma writes from Titalya in the Purniya district
sion
||

" In reference to your and Mr. Tumour's opinion that the original records of the
Buddhists in ancient India, were written in the Mdgadhi dialect, I beg leave to

add

in support of

is

it

it,

that in the index or register, (dkar-chhag)

stated that the Sutras in general

i. e.,

all

of the Kahgyur,

the works in the Kahgyur, except

the twenty-one volumes of the Sher-chhin* and the twenty-two volumes of the

rGyud

class,

after the

death of Sakya, were

first

and the Sher-chhin and rGyud in the Sanskrit


several other corrupt dialects.

It is probable that in the seventh century

wards, the ancient Buddhistic religion was


Sanskrit, before the Tibetans

own

written in the Sindhu language,

but part of the i-Gyud also in

commenced

its

and

after-

remodelled and generally written in


introduction by translation into their

country."

This explanation, so simple and so authentic, ought to set the matter at rest,
in the manner that the advocates of either view should most desire,

and that

shews that both are right


It is generally allowed that the Pali and the
Zend are derivatives of nearly the same grade from the Sanskrit stock
and the
modern dialect of Sindh as well as the Bhdshd of upper and western India present
for it

more striking analogies

to the Pali, in the

removal particularly of the

and the

r,

modification of the auxiliary verbs, than any of the dialects of Bengal, Behdr, or
Ceylon.

Plausible grounds for the existence of

\\

heart of Magadha, and the preference given

this

western dialect in the

may be
found in the origin of the ruling dynasty of that province, which had confessedly proceeded from the north-west. At any rate those of the Sdkya race, which
it

in writings of the period,

had emigrated from Sinde to Kapilavastu (somewhere

in the

Gangetic valley)

may

As an example of the information already obtained from Mr. Csoma's translated


sketch, we may adduce the origin of the custom seemingly so universal among the Buddhists of preserving pictorial or sculptured representations of the facts of his life.
After his death the priests and minister at Rdjagriha are afraid of telling the king Ajata
Satru thereof lest he should faint from the shock, and it is suggested by Mahakasyapa
by way of breaking the intelligence to him, that the Mahdmantra or chief priest should
"go speedily into the king's garden, and cause to be represented in painting, how Chomdandas ( Bhagavdn) was in Tushita : how in the shape of an elephant he entered his
mother's womb how at the foot of the holy fig-tree he attained supreme perfection
how at Vdrdnasl he turned the wheel of the law of twelve kinds, (taught his doctrines :') how he at Srdvasti displayed great miracles
how at the city of Ghachen he
descended from the Trayastrhisa heaven, whither he had gone to instruct his mother
and lastly, how having accomplished his acts in civilizing and instructing men in
his doctrine at several places, he went to his last repose in the city of Kusha in Assam." Now whether the book in question was written sooner or later, it explains the
practice equally and teaches us how we may successfully analyze the events depicted.
in the drawings of Ajanta, perchance, or the sculptures of Bhilsa, with a full volume of the life of Sdkya in our hand. Similar paintings are common in Ava, and an
amusing, but rather aprocryphal, series may be seen in Upham's folio history of
||

Buddhism.
*This exception embraces the whole speculative tenets or philosophy of Buddhism.

This

is

a daring hypothesis,

Where were

contrary, I think, to all legitimate presumptions.


the books remodelled, and why in Sanskrit if their prototypes were

Sanskrit.
||

also

See the Rev. Dr. Mill's note on this subject in the Jour. B. As. Soc. vol.
Professor Wilson's remarks, vol. i. p. 8.

Rl

v., p.

30

126

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

have preserved the idiom of

this native province

and have caused

with the religion which was promulgated through

We

by no means

are

it

to prevail along

means.*

its

of opinion that the Hindi, Sindhi, or Pali had an indepen-

dent origin prior to the Sanskrit.

The more the first of these, which is the most


modern form and the farthest removed from the classical language, is examined
and analyzed the more evidently is its modification and corruption from the ancient
stock found to follow systematic rules, and to evince rather provincial dialectism

may

(if I

use the word) than the

existent and written language.

mere engraftment of foreign words upon a pre-

The aboriginal terms

rather sought in the hills and in the peninsula

of Indian speech

must be

and populous

in the plains

dis-

of the north the evidences of their existence are necessarily smothered

tricts

by

the predominance of the refined and durable languages of the court, of religion

and of the educated

classes.

writer in the Foreign Quarterly has lately been bold

enough to revive the theory of Sanskrit being merely a derivative from the Greek
through the intervention of the Zend, and subsequent to the Macedonian invas

ion

The Agathocles'

that day alone with

coin ought to answer all such speculations.

appropriate

its

find

is

the Sanskrit as

precise derivative relation to

which we argue

symbols

proved
it

now

does

are not modern, but of that very period.

then in use
afforded

for writing Sanskrit

for

All

soma graven Brahmanical record of the same period

The Pali

of

have held the same

to

to

we

the records on

want

still

is

to

shew the character

and to add ocular demonstration to the proofs

by the profound researches

of philologists as to the genuine antiquity of the

venerable depository of the Vedas.

A DISPUTATION RESPECTING CASTE BY A BUDDHIST.

my

One day
krit,

what

Bauddha

learned old

friend brought

with such an evident air of pride and pleasure, that


it

my

" Oh,

contained.

friend !"

was

me
I

Sans-

little tract in

immediately asked him

his reply, " I have long been trying to

procure for you this work, in the assurance that you must highly approve the wit

and wisdom contained in

it

length obtained the loan of

nor even a copy of


1

it.'
I

it,

These words of

it

and, after

my

old friend stimulated

a task which

we

But

cannot let you have

full

my curiosity, and with a few

me and my pandit

his aid in

my

pandit (a

Brahman

fair

making a

accomplished within the limited period of

sion of the original, although

co-operation with us,

applications to the owner, I have at


it,

such being the conditions on which I procured you a sight of

engaged the old gentleman to lend

lation of it

many

for three or four days.

my

words
trans-

posses-

of Benares) soon declined

of indignation at the author and his

work

Notwith-

* This is Csoma in No. 14 of Jour. Bengal As. Soc.


But Wilson in the Hindu Drama
{ATotes on the Mrichhakatl) derives the Bihar dynasty from Andhra or Telingana.
If the Sanskrit literature be so old as alleged (tenth to fourteenth century b. c.) it
is most strange that we have no Brahmanical monument or inscription nearly so old as
The Rigveda Sanhita suggests at once that this cannot be
the Buddhist Pali ones.
referred to ignorance, and may be referred to the Sabtean genius of primitive Hinduism, which was averse to idols and temples.

PHILOSOPHY.

BUDDHIST

may

standing, however, the loss of the pandit's aid, I think I

the translation gives a fair representation of the matter of the original, and
altogether without some traces of
It consists of a

its

is

not

manner.

shrewd and argumentative attack, by a Bauddha, upon the Brah-

manical doctrine of caste

and what adds

the truth of the Brahmanical writings

is

to its

To an English reader

that, throughout,

the author's proofs

drawn from those

writings.

circumstance gives a puerile character to a

this

owing

all

is,

and turns their own guns against

lie possesses himself of the enemy's battery,

large portion of the treatise,

pungency

assumed, and that

of the erroneousness of the doctrine of caste are

them.

27

venture to say that

enormous absurdity of the data from

to the

His inferences, however, are almost always shrewdly

which the author argues.

drawn, and we must remember that not he but his antagonists must be answerable

To judge by

for the character of the data.


2>andit

a wise man

is

my Brahman

by this little treatise, it would seem that


no method of assailing Brahmanism comparable to that of "judging it out

the examination of Bauddha literature


there

the effect produced upon

in his generation, and accustomed for the last four years to

own mouth :" and the resolution of the Committee


make a thorough knowledge of Hindu learning the

Serampore College

of its

of the

to

basis of the education of

young apostles of Christianity

their destined

We

in India,

would thence appear

But to return to my little treatise.


all know that the Brahmans scorn to consider the Siidras as

most wise and

to be

politic.

of the

same nature

with themselves, in tbis respect resembling the bigoted Christians of the dark ages,

who deemed

in like

an European mind.

is,

to.

The Bauddha

it

treats

bears the closest resemblance to the style of argu-

European prejudice

need not point more particularly to the glorious passage


u
:

fed with the


treatise

which our author

in

admirable, and altogether worthy of

in covertly assailing the analogous

in the Merchant of Venice


senses, passions

my judgment,

in

Indeed

ment used by Shakespeare


already adverted

The manner

manner of the Jews.

this part of his subject

Hath not

same

commences

Jew

food, hurt

eyes, hands, organs, dimensions,

by the same diseases

in the sober

manner

? " etc.

of a title page to a book

but immediately after the author has announced himself with due pomp, he rushes
H in medias res," and to the end of his work maintains the animated style of viva
voce disputation.

Who Ashu

where, I cannot ascertain.

Mahd pandit,

or great sage,

Ghosha, the author, was, when he flourished, and

All that

is

known

of

him

and wrote, besides the

two larger Bauddha works of high

repute, the

in

little

Nepaul
treatise

names of which

is,

that he

now

was

translated,

are mentioned in a

uote.*

I,

my
*

Ashu Ghosha,
soul

and

all

my

first

invoking Manju Ghosha, the Guru of the world, with

strength, proceed to compose the book called

The Buddha Charitra Kdvya, and the Nandi-Mukhasughoslia

all

Vajra Suchi,f in

A vaddn-a,

and other

works.

t Burnouf has

said that the very term

Vajra proves this to be a very recent work.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

28

accordance with the Shastras (Hindu or Brahmanical Sdstras).


Allow then that your Vedas and Smritis, and works involving both

and Artha, are good and


still

what you

valid,

Brahman

say, that the

Dharma

and that discourses at variance with them are invalid,


is

the highest of the four castes, cannot he

proved from those hooks.


Tell me, first of

all,

what

Brahmanhood

is

or wisdom, or the ritual (dchdrd), or acts,

you say

If

were

at

first

became gods

Vedas that u the sun and the moon, Indra, and other

quadrupeds
even the

and some other deities were

vilest of the vile

(jiva),

clear that

it is

first

deities,

animals and afterwards

(Swdpaka) have become gods."

Brahmanhood is not life


proved from these words of the Mahdbhdrata
words

morality {karma) or the Vedas?-

such an assertion cannot be reconciled with the Vedas

it is life (jiva),

for it is written in the

body,

Is it life, or parentage, or

i.e.,

From these

a position which

is

further

"

Seven hunters and ten deer,


of the hill of Kalinjal, a goose of the lake Manasarovara, and a chakwa of Saradwipa, all these were born as Brahmans, in the Ktiruksketra (near Dehli), and
became very learned in the Vedas." It is also said by Manu, in his Dharma Sdstra,

"

Whatever Brahman learned

take chanty from a Sudra,

in the four Vedas,

life

for if it were,

with their anga and iipanga,

shall for twelve births be

hog, and seventy births a dog."

not

how

From

these

words

could such things be

an

it is

ass,

and

shall

for sixty births a

clear that

Brahmanhood

is

you say that Brahmanhood depends on parentage or birth (jdti); that


Brahman one must be born of Brahman parents, this notion is at
variance with the known passage of the Smriti, that Achala Muni was born of an
elephant, and Kesa Pingala of an owl, and Agastya Muni from the Agasti flower, and
If,

is,

again,

that to be a

Kausika Muni from the Kusa

grass;

and Kapila from a monkey, and Gotama Rishi

from creeper that entwined a saul-tree, and Drona Acharya from an earthern pot,
and Taittiri Kishi from a partridge, and Parasu Rama from dust, and Sringa Rishi
from a deer, and Vyasa Muni from a fisherwoman, and Kausika Muni from a
female Sudra, and Viswamitra from a Chdnddlini, and Vasishtha Muni from a

Not one of them had a Brahman mother, and yet all were notoriously
Brahmans whence I infer, that the title is a distinction of popular origin,

strumpet.
called

and cannot be traced to parentage from Written authorities.


Should you again say, that whoever is born of a Brahman father or mother

is

Brahman, then the child of a slave even may become a Brahman a consequence
to which I have no objection, but which will not consort with your notions, I fancy.
;

Do you
I

say, that

he

who

object that, since you

is

sprung of Brahman parents

must mean pure and

true

is

Brahman

Still

Brahmans, in such case the

in his new printed edition of it (original and translation) lias shewn that
the Vujra Suchi is at least a thousand years old, for in a work of Sankara acharya not
only is the term Vajra used, but strange to say, the first paragraph of his work is identical with one in the work before us, though of course differently intended as to scope
and purpose, Sankara only proposing to exalt his ideal of Brahmanhood by contrasting
But this shews what I have elsewhere reit with the ordinary and actual types.
marked, viz. that Saintism by its very genius and character (above ordinances) tends
to obliterate the distinctive marks of Brahmanism and Buddhism.

But Weber

BUDDUIST PHILOSOPHY.
breed of Brahraans must be at an end

129

since the fathers of the present race of

are not, any of them, free from the suspicion of having wives,

Brahmans

who

notoriously commit adultery with Sudras. Now, if the real father he a Siidra,
the son cannot be a Brahman, notwithstanding the Brahmanhood of his mother.

From
and

which

all

draw

Brahmanhood is not truly derivable from birth


from the Mdnava Dharma, which affirms that the

I infer, that

fresh proofs of this

Brahman who

eats flesh loses instantly his rank; and also, that

becomes a Sddra

in three days

or milk, he

man

as can fly like a bird, directly ceases to be a

by

selling

wax, qx

and further, that even such a Brah-

salt,

Brahman by meddling with

the

fleshpots.

From

all this is it

not clear that

that were the case,

if

it

Brahmanhood

is

not the same with birth

since,

could not be lost by any acts however degrading.

ever of a flying horse that by alighting on earth was turned into a pig

Knew you

Tis impossible.
!

Say you that body (Sarira) is the Brahman? this too is false; for, if body be
the Brahman, then fire, when the Brahman's corpse is consumed by it, will be the
murderer of a Brahmin and such also will be every one of the Brahman's rela;

who

tives

follow, that every one born of a

Vaisya,

would be a Brahman

his father

not

Brahman, though

being

less will this

his

performing

sacrifice,

bone of the bone, and

and causing others to perform

and giving charity, and other holy

other absurdity

mother were a Kshatriya or


flesh of the flesh of

a monstrosity, you will allow, that was never heard

read, receiving

the

Nor

consigned his body to the flames.

acts,

it,

Again, are

of.

reading and causing to

sprung from the body of

Brahman?

Is then the virtue of all these destroyed by the destruction


Brahman ? Surely not, according to your own principles and,
manhood cannot consist in body.
Say you that wisdom* constitutes the Brahman ? This too is
;

Because,
great

if

it

were

wisdom they

of the

body of a

if not,

then Brah-

Why ?

incorrect.

many Sudras must have become Brahmans from the


acquired. I myself know many Sudras who are masters of
true,

the four Vedas, and of philology, and of the M'undnsd, and Sdnk/iya, and

J aises/a'Jca

them is or ever was called a BrahmanBrahmanhood consists not in wisdom or learning.


Then do ycu affirm that the Achdra is Brahmanhood ? This too is false; for if
since many Xats and JBhats,
it were true, man)' Sudras would become Brahmans
and Jyotishilca philosophies

yet not one of

It is clearly proved, then, that

and Kaicartas, and Bhands, and others, are everywhere to be seen performing the
severest and most laborious acts of piety.

Yet not one

eminent in their Achdra,

Brahman

is

ever called a

of these,

who

from which

are all so pre-

it is

clear that

Achdra does not constitute the Brahman.

Say you that Karma makes the Brahman

I answer,

no

for

the argument

qsed above applies here -with even greater force, altogether annihilating the notion

that acts constitute the Brahman.


*

Perhaps

it

Do you

declare that

should rather be translated learning.


8

The word

by reading the Vedas a


in the original

is

jndna.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

13O
man becomes

Brahman ?

Tln3

is

palpably false

for it is notorious that

the

Rdkshasa Ravan was deeply versed

in all the four

Vedas:

the Pdkshasas studied the Vedas in

Ravan 's time

yet you do not say that one

them thereby became


Brahman by reading the
of

What

then

Brahman.

that, indeed, all

It is therefore

proved that no one becomes a

Brahman ?

If neither reading the Vedas,

Vedas.

this creature

is

and

called a

nor Sanskdra, nor parentage, nor race (Kula), nor acts (Karma), confers Brahman-

To my mind Brahmanhood
snowy whiteness of the Kund flower.

hood, what does or can?


quality, like the
is

Brahmanhood.

It consists of Vrata,

Dana, and Dama, and S/iama,


gods hold that

man

to be a

anil

merely an immaculate

is

That which removes

Sanyama.

Brahman who

It is written in the Vtdas that the

from intemperance and egotism

free

is

and from Sanga, and Parigraha, and Rdya, and Dwssha.


in all the Sdslras that the signs of a

mand

of the organs of sense, and

Brahman

mercy

it is

wiilten

these, truth, penance, the

are

as those

Moreover,

com-

a Chanddla are the vices

of

Another mark of the Brahman

opposed to those virtues.

sin

and Tapas, and Ntyama, and Upavdsa, and

a scrupulous absti-

is

nence from sexual commerce, whether he be born a god, or a man, or a beast.

Yet further, Sukra Acharya has said, that the gods take no heed of caste, but deem
him to be the Brahman who is a good man, although he belong to the vilest class.
From all which I infer, that birth, and life, and body, and wisdom, and observance
of religious rites (dchdra), and acts (karma) are all of no avail towards becoming a
Brahman.

Then

again, that opinion of your sect, that Pravrajyd

and that

lor

because,

him

service and obedience paid to

is

out

to be the

therefore the vilest,

Pdni Sutra

is

absurd; for

lowest and meanest of

after the dog, thus

" Shva,

if

were

to the

is

lips,

affect

last,

being mentioned in the

In truth, the order in

the relative rank and dignity

or are the teeth

we find the latter postponed to the


some grammar sentence ? Are the teeth

because

superior in dignity

former, for the mere sake


older than the lips

does your creed teach you to postpone Siva to his spouse?


is it

mentioned

of.

Parvati greater than Mahesa

of euphony, in

is

Indra would be made

correct,

Indra

beings,

are instead of pravrajyd,

Hiva, Mayhava."

which they are mentioned or written, cannot


of the beings spoken

prohibited to the Siidra

Sudra

forsooth, in speaking of the four castes, the

and

What

is

Brahmans

true that the Sudra

is vile,

used to repeat the Chatur

or

No; nor any more

and the Brahman high and mighty, because we are

Varna

be untenable, your deduction from

in a particular order.
it, viz.,

And

if this

proposition

that the vile Sudra must be co.tent to

regard his service and obedience to Brahmans as his onlv pravrajyd,

falls

likewise

to the ground.

Know further, that it


man who has drank the

is

written in the

Dharma

Sudrdni, or has been born of such a female,


yaschitta.

Sdstra of

Manu,

that the Brah-

milk of a Sudrdni, or has been even breathed upon by a

In the same work

it

is

is

not restored to his rank by prd-

further asserted, that if any

drink from the hands of a Sudrdni, he becomes in

life

Brahman

eat

and

a Sudra, and after death a

;;

BUDDHIST
Manu

dog.

PHILOSOPHY.

Brahman who

further says, that a

l$[

associates with female Sudras, or

keeps a Siidra concubine, shall be rejected by gods and ancestors, and after death
shall

go to

From,

hell.

Brahmanhood

all

these assertions of the

Mdnava Dharma,

a quality of good men.

Further,

who was born of


Brahman by dint

the sacrificial flame produced by the friction of wood, became a

and Vasishtha Muni, born of the courtezan Urvasi

Tapas;

of

and Visvamitra, born of a Chdnddlni;

a female spirit-seller
it

who

a Tapasyi

has conquered himself

and that he

then that he whose

and Rishyasringa Muni,

and Narada Muni, born of

all these became Brahmans by virtue


Brahmanhood depends not on birth ?

not clear then that

that he

who

life is

a Yati;

is

observes the

who

that he

Brahma

lineage

pure, and his temper cheerful,

is

the true

ba wanting to

and other

'

it, it

is

Brahman

and

There are these slukaa

contemptible and useless."

all

If the race be royal and virtue

Kathina Muni and Vyasa Muni,

though born of Sudras, are famous among men

sages,

is

It is clear

Goodness of disposition and purity are the best of

not alone deserving of respect.

is

Is

performs penance

Brahman.

is

Mdnava Dharma,

in the

of their Tapas.

It is also notorious

charya

that lineage (Kula) has nothing to do with the matter.

things

many

example, Kathina Muni,

for

and Vyasa Muni, born of a female of the fisherman's caste


;

merely

is

written in the Sdstra of Manu, that

it is

Sudras became Brahmans by force of their piety

born of a doe

clear that

it is

nothing indefeasibly attached to any race or breed, but

is

Brahmans

as

and many persons born in the lowest ranks have attained heaven by the practice
of uniform good conduct
particular race

Your

is idle

and

doctrine, that the

(sila).

To say

therefore that the

Brahman

Brahman was produced from

the mouth, the Kshatriya

from the arms, the Vaisya from the thighs, and the Sudra from the
be supported.

Brahmans

of one

is

false.

are

not of one particular race.

Many

feet,

cannot

persons have

who belonged to the Kaicarta Kid, and the Rajaka Kid, and the Chanddla
and yet, while they existed in this world, performed the Chiidd Koran, and
Munja-bandhan, and Dant-kdshtha, and other acts appropriated to Brahmans, and
lived
Kill,

after their deaths

became, and

still

famous under the name of Brahmans,

are,

All that I have said about Brahmans you must

know

Kshatriyas; and that the doctrine of the four castes

is

is

equally applicable to

altogether false.

men

All

are of one caste.

Wonderful!

You

affirm that all

men proceeded from one, i.e., Brahma; how


among them ? If I have four

then can there be a fourfold insuperable diversity

sons by one wife, the four sons, having one father and mother,
alike.

Know

too that distinctions of race

ferences of conformation and organization


different

among beings
:

must be all

are broadly

essentially

marked by

dif-

thus, the foot of the elephant is very-

from that of the horse; that of the tiger unlike that of the deer; and so
and by that single diagnosis we learn those animals belong to very dif-

of the rest

ferent races.

But

I never heard that the foot of a Kshatriya

that of a Brahman, or that of a Siidra.


of one race.

All

men

was

different

from

are formed alike, and are clearly

Further, the generative organs, the colour, the figure, the ordure,

the urine, the odour, and utterance, of the ox, the buffalo, the horse, the elephant,

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

132

the as9, the monkey, the goat, the sheep,

etc.,

separate these various races of animals:

but in

sembles the Kshatriya, and


I have instanced
I

now

ia

all

the diversities

known

are

among

figure,

Asoka,

How

we

then can

Tamdl, and Naykesar, and Shirish, and Champa, and

and

and bark?, and timber, and


and

their diversities

say they

Again, among trees the Jlata, and Bakula, and Palds, and

seeds,

and

juices,

and

the rest, are alike in flesh,

and excrements, and mode of

fruits,

and odours; but Brahmans, and Ksha-

skin,

and blood, and bones, and

figure,

they are of one

It is surely then clear that

birth.

are

others,

by their stems, and leaves, and flowers, and

clearly contradis'inguished

triyas,

by

but the Brahman, Kshatriya,

Vaisya, and Sudra are alike without and within.


are essentially distinct

Thus, the goose,

birds.

to be different

and colour, and plumage, and beak

to

re-

which separate diverse genera.

proceed to give some more instances from


etc.,

whereby

Brahman

those respects the

same race or species with him.

therefore of the

among quadrupeds

the dove, the parrot, the peacock,


of

furnish clear diagnostics

species or race.

Again,

tell

a Kshatriya

the

me,

is

a Brahman's sense of pleasure and pain different from that of

Does not the one sustain

same causes

as the other

Do

actions, or the objects of tho^e actions

in the

life

they

in the

same way, and

differ in

find death

from

intellectual faculties, in their

manner

of their birth, or in their sub-

Not a whit. It is therefore clear that they are essenIn the Udumbara and Panasa trees the fruit is produced from

jection to fear and hope ?


tially

the same.

the branches, the stem, the joints, and the roots.

from another, so that we

may

Is one fruit therefore different

that produced from the top of the stem the

call

Brahman fruit, and that from the roots the Siidra fruit? Surely not. Nor can
men be of four distinct races, because they sprang from four different parts of one
whence was
bodv. You say that the Brahman was produced from the mouth
the Brahmani produced? From the mouth likewise? Grant it and then you
;

must marry the brother


have place

in this

to the sister

world of ours,

all

a pretty business indeed

if

such incest

is

to

wrong must be ob-

distinctions of right and

literated.

Brahman

This consequence, flowing inevitably from your doctrine that the

The

proceeded from the mouth, proves the falsity of that doctrine.

between Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras,


servance of divers

rites,

and what are the signs of Brahmanhood

Brahman
is

is,

are founded merely

and the practice of different professions

proved by the conversation of Vaishampayana,


?

'

Whom

do you

Yaishani answered,

'

distinctions

'

call

The

on the

as

it

oK

clearly

Brahman

first

sign of a

that he possesses long-suffering and the rest of the virtues, and never

guilty of violence and

a sentient thing.

wrong doing

The second

sign

is,

that he never eats flesh

that he never takes that

another without the owner's consent, even though he find


third sign, that he masters

all

it

and never hurts

which belongs to
in the road.

worldly affections and desires, and

indifferent to earthly considerations.

The

fourth, that

a god, or a beast, he never yields to sexual desires.


following five pure qualities, truth, mercy,

whether he

The

command

fifth,

is

is

The

absolutely

born a man, or

that he possesses the

of tho senses, universal bene-

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
volence, and penance.*

acknowledge to be a

Whoever
Brahman
;

Brahmanhood depends not on


mance of certain ceremonies.
above noted, he

is

was but one

there

and

of rites

of

All are subject

The

otherwise he

is

to give

caste

him

is

women

in like

manner.

is

The

Brahman

and

if

be

it

who, on the other

Siidra

a Brahman.'

If a Siidra be superior to the allurements of the five senses,

charity

uniformly good

is

of

and have the same organs and

necessities,

aye, lower than a Siidra.

hand, possesses these virtues

Oh, Yudhisthira

Yudhisthira, formerly in this world of oure

same physical

on the perfor-

(Jdti), nor

virtuous, and possesses the signs

is

men were born

All

avocations.
to the

a Siidra

a Siidra.

is

division into four castes originated with diversity

But he whose conduct

senses.

'

If a Chdnddl

Oh

Brahmanhood

he possess them not, he

if

race (KtdaJ, or birth

Brahman.

caste.

and,

33

possesses these five signs of

is

a virtue that will be rewarded in heaven.

but only mark his qualities.

Whoever

Heed not

his

and

ever

in this life ever does well,

ready to benefit others, spending his days and nights in good

acts,

is

such an one

is

a Brahman; and whoever, relinquishing worldly ways, employs himself solely in the

Moksha, such an one

acquisition of

destruction of

also

and from worldly

life,

is

Brahman

affections,

passion and backbiting, such an one also

is

and

and whoever

refrains

and

evil acts

Brahman and whoso


;

free

is

from

from

possesses Kshe-

ma, and Dayd, and Dama, and Dan, and Safya, and Sauchana, and Smriti, and
Ghrind, and Vidyd, and

J'lj'ndn, etc., is

perform the Brahmacharya

thousand
all

sacrifices (yajna).

the Th-thas, and observed

an one

is

Brahman

Brahman.

Oh, Yudhisthira

one night, the merit of

for

And whoso
all

the

has read

all

if

a person

it is

greater than that of a

the

Vedas, and performed

commands and prohibitions

of the Sdstra, such

and whoso has never injured a sentient thing by

act,

word,

or thought, such a person shall instantly be absorbed (at his death) in Brahma.'

Such were
discourse

studying

and

if

the words of Vaishampayana.

that

is,

it,

all

my

friend,

Let them,

and take to the right way.

they approve

Oh,

my

design in the above

ignorant Brahmans and others should acquire

it not,

let

them neglect

its

if

they approve

wisdom by
it,

heed

it

admonitions.

OH THE EXTREME RESEMBLANCE THAT PREVAILS BETWEEN MANY OF THE


SYMBOLS OF BUDDHISM AND SATVTSM.
It is the purpose of the following

and inclination
that

prevails

resided myself
ties of

to follow

them

out, a

paper to furnish to those

who have means

few hints relative to the extreme resemblance

between many of the symbols of Buddhism and Saivism. Having

some few years

in a

Bauddha country,

have had ample opportuni-

noting this resemblance, and a perusal of the works of Crawfurd, of Raffles,

nd of the Bombay Literary Society, has

satisfied

me

that this curious similitude


'

* The word in the original is Tapas, which we are accustomed to translate


peance," and I have followed the usage, though "ascetism" would be a better word.
'

-The proud Tapasyl,


d repentance.

whom

the very gods regard with dread, never dreams of contrition

si

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

34

not peculiar to the country wherein I abide.

is

I observe that

my

countrymen,

to

whom

as

Saivism and Buddhism, never seems to have occurred, have in their examina-

any degree of identity between

monuments

tions of the
tion of

of India and

faiths in general so opposite to

its

Islands, proceeded

each other

upon the assump-

an absolute incommunity between the types of the two religions as well as

between the things

typified.

This assumption has puzzled them not a

as the evidence of their eyes has forced

little

the closest juxta-position which their previous ideas nevertheless obliged

sunder as far apart as Brahmanism and Buddhism

When

in the country in

which

I reside, I

incongruity

me

no satisfaction

Saugata temples

very penetralia of

and

access to the conversation, and buoks of the

was at

own

inclined to consider

my

obser-

these images often occupied the

in the

sequel I obtained sufficient

Bauddhas

Bauddhas contemptuously rejected the notion

being Saiva, and in the books of their

first

but upon multiplying

cause of the difficulty lay deeper than I had supposed.*


the

to

convince

The

me

that the

best informed of

of the images in question

faith they pointed out the

Bauddha

legends justifying and explaining their use of such, to me, doubtful symbols.
sides,

me

to

my

European works of which

access to the

in
to

out of an ignorant confusion of

arising

the two creeds by the people of this country


vations such a resolution gave

them

observed images the most apparently

Saiva placed in the precincts of Saugata temples,


the circumstance as an

so often

upon them the observation of images

Be-

have already spoken exhibited

the very same apparent anomaly existing in regions the most remote from

one another, and from that wherein I dwell.

monuments, sculptural

or architectural,

Indeed, whencesoever

Bauddha

had been drawn by European curiosity the

same dubious symbols were exhibited nor could my curiosity be at all appeased
by the assumption which I found employed to explain them. I shewed these monuments to a well informed old Bauddha, and asked him what he thought of them,
;

famous Tri-Murti image of the Cave temple of the West.

particularly of the

He

recognised

it

Bauddha image
As he did many many others
Of these matters you may perchance

as a genuine

declared by our writers to be Saiva!

hear hereafter,

suffice it at

present to say that I continued to interrogate

as to whether he had ever visited the plains of India, and had

remains of his
in

my

tell

youth

me.

He

my

friend

there found any

Yes, was the prompt reply, I made a pilgrimage to Gayah,

faith.

I then asked

replied

that

him

if

he remembered what he had seen, and could

he had, at the time, put a few remarks on paper

which he had preserved, and would give me a copy of, if I desired it. I bade him
do so, and was presented with a paper of which the enclosed is a translation. Let
me add that never having veiled Gayah, I cannot say anything relative to the
accuracy of

my

friend's details,

and that in regard to the topographical ones, there

are probably a few slight mistakes.


* Causes are not at present

the

common

origin of

Bud

my game

ilrism

am aware

that an accurate explanation

but consider the easy temper of superstition


and Brahmanism in India; the common tendency of
asceticism, etc. Even Christianity adopted many of the

both Saivaism and Buddhism to


rites and emblems of classic paganism.

BUDDUIST PHILOSOPHY.

from the Bauddha books of the drawings that accompany

my

35

would he

paper,

of more value than that

paper.
But, Sir, non omnia possumus omnes, and I
hope that a Bauddha comment on Brahmanical ignorance will he found to possess
some value, as a curiosity and some utility, for the hints it furnishes rela;

tive to the topic adverted to in this letter.

P.S.

Captain

Dangerfield's five images in the cave at Bag, and

Brahmans

told

Dhyani;"

as is the Captain's

of

Sakya Sinha;

him were the


or that of

five

Pandits, are doubtless the "

which the
Fancha Buddha

"Charan," said to be that of Vishnu, the Charan

Manju Ghosha.

engraved in the centre of each foot;

If it be the latter,

the former,

if

has the

it

it

has an eye

ashtmangal and

tahasra chakra.

Buddh Gayah, according


In Buddh Gayah there
is

to

to a
is

who visited it.


Maha Buddha in the interior

Nepaulese Bauddha

a temple* of

enshrined the image of Sakya Sinha

before the image

which are the images of three Lokeswaras, viz.,

hari

is

Haiti hala Lokeswara, Ilari hari

vahana Lokeswara, and Amogha pasa Lokeswara.f

Buddha, the Brahmans


Sinha they denominate

call

ple of

Maha Buddha
:

and near

is

to

This temple of

Maha

the temple of Jagat Natha, and the image of Sakya

Maha Muni; J

of the three

a small stone temple in

them on tbe

left

Lok Natha, one they

call

Ma-

On

the south side of the tem-

which

are the images of the seven

ha Deva, one Parvati, and the third their son.

Buddhas

of which

a Chaitya of stone, close

three other images, of

Hala hala Lokes-

The Brahmans call six of


but know not what to make of the

wara, Maitreya Bodhisatwa, and Dipankara Buddha.


the seven Buddhas, the Pandiis and their bride,

seventh Buddha, or of the remaining three images.


* The word in the original
Buddha in the city of Patan,

Kiitagar, and I understand that the temple of Maha


in this valley, is built after the model of the. Gayah

is

If so, the latter is of the same general form with the Orissan Jagannath.
The
Patau temple is divided in the interior into five stories. Sakya Sinha, the genius
loci, is enshrined in the centre of the first story
Amitabha, the fourth Dhyani Buddha,
a small stone Chaitya, the third
occupies the second story
the Dharma Dhatu
mandal, the fourth and the Vajra Dhatu mandal, the fifth and highest story, and
the whole structure is crowned, on the outside, by a Chura Mani Chaitya.
t Hala hala Lokeswara, a form of Padma P;'uii, the fourth Dhyani Bodhisatwa,
and active creator and governor of the present system of nature. Three Dhyani Bodhisatwas preceded him in that office, and one remains to follow him.
+ This name is equivocal: the Brahmans mean 1 suppose, to designate by it the chief
The Bauddhas recognise it as just, since the Tri-Kund Sesh, and
of their own Munis.

temple.

many of their scriptures give this name to Sakya Sinha.


The Bauddha scriptures say that one form is common to all the seven great ManThe figure I have given of Sakya has the Bhumisparsa Mudra, or
ushi Buddhas.
The Gayah image of him is said to have the Dhyan
right hand touching the earth.
That is, the two hands open and laid one onMudra for the position of the hands.
the other and

both resting on the doubled thighs, the figure, sitting tailor-wise.


nothing improper in giving that Mudra to Sakya or other Manushi Buddhas,
and almost all the images of Sakya that I
but usually it is appropriated to Amitabha
have seen are characterised by the Bhumi-sparsa Mudra, Sakya's image is generally
supported by lions, sometimes however by elephants, Sakya's appropriate colour is yellow or golden, which colour, like the other characteristics, belongs also to the remaining
six <n eat Minushis.

There

is

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

I36
Upon

the wall of the small temple containing the Sapta Buddha, and immediately

above their images

is

an image of Vajra Satwa,t one head, two hands, in the right


left a bell, with the lock on the crown of the head,

hand a Vajra, and in the


twisted into a turban

the

Brahmans

call this

image of Vajra Satwa Maha Brahtemple of Maha

of fifteen yards, perhaps, east of the great

ma. At the distance


Buddha is another small temple

which

in

of the feet of Sakya Sinha graven on

is

placed a circular slab having the print

The

it.

feet are

known

to be those of Sakya,

because the stone has the eight mangals, and the thousand-fold chakra upon it.
The Brahmans of Gayah call this Charan, the Charan of Vishnu, but they
are silent

when the mangals and

chakras are pointed out to them as decisive proofs

of their error.

Somewhat

further (perhaps 150 yards) from the great temple of

dha towards the

east, is a

Kund

called

Maha Bud-

Pani Hata, and at the eastern corner of

the well is the image of Maitreya Bodhisatwa.

Pani Hata because Sakya produced the spring of water


by striking his hand on the ground there. That water has eight peculiar qualiThe Brahmans say that the Kund is Saraswati's, and insist that Maitreya's
ties.

The Kund

image

is

is called

the image of Saraswati.

Maha Buddha

temple are

many

At

little

distance to the north of the great

small Chaityas,|| which the Brahmans call Siva

Lingas, and as such worship them, having broken off the Ckura

Much

astonished

was

I to find the great temple of

Brahman worship, and Brahmans

ignorantly falling

my

down

Mani from each.*

religion consecrated to

before the

Gods

of

my

fathers.

The purpose

of

my

paper

is

to

show that very many symbols, the most appaand purely Bauddha; and that, there-

rently Saiva, are notwithstanding strictly


fore, in

the examination of the antiquities of India and

ourselves, because on the sites

its islands,

we need

not vex

of old Saugata temples we find the very genius

loci

far less need we


arrayed with many of the apparent attributes of a Saiva God
infer from the presence, on such sites, of seemingly Saiva images and types, the
;

presence of actual Sivaism.

t Vajra Satwa is a Dhyani or celestial Buddha. There is a series of five celestial


Buddhas, to whom are assigned the five elements of matter, the five organs of human
There is also a series of six Dhyani
sense, and the five respective objects of sensation.
Buddhas, which is composed of the above five, with the addition of Vajra Satwa, and
to him are ascribed intellectual force and the discrimination of good and evil.
are portions of the eight Bodhisatwas.
These are symbols of the Vitaragas, which
See N aipaiya Kalyana, in Jour. Ben. As. Society.
The Chaitya is the only proper temple of Buddhism, though many other temples have
been adopted by the Saugatas for enshrining their Dii Minores. In Nepaul, the Chaitya
is exclusively appropriated to five Dhyani Buddhas, whose images are placed in niches
around the base of the solid hemisphere which forms the most essential part of the
Almost every Nepaul Chaitya has its hemisphere surmounted by a cone or
Chaitya.
The small and unadorned Chaitya might easily be taken
pyramid called Chura Mani.
It was so mistaken by Mr. Crawfurd, etc.
for a Linga.
* The like metamorphosis of the Chaitya into a Lingam and its worship as the latter,
may now be seen in numerous instances in Nepaul, e.g., at Kali's temple on the road
side near Tnndi Kh^l.
_

||

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

37

Crawfurd, standing in the midst of hundreds of images of -Buddhas, on the plat-

form of a temple, the general form and structure of which


strated that

it

was consecrated

of Sivaism to conduct

him

was Hara himself!

place

conclusion, that the presiding Deity of the

to the

Nay, further, though he was persuaded that the an-

cient religion of the Javanese

was Buddhism, yet having always found what he con-

ceived to be the unequivocal indices of the presidency of the


in

demon-

irresistibly

to Saugatism, could yet allow certain appearances

Hindu

destroyer,

the great Saugata temples, he came to the general conclusion, that " genuine

all

Buddhism

" is

I thought

no other than Sivaism.

when

had shewn no

reliance

could be placed upon the inference from seemingly Saiva symbols to actual Siva-

had smoothed the way

ism, I

Bauddha

fine

edifices at Java,

whereat the majority of

number and weight prove Buddhism,

indications both for


sively

admission that those cave-temples of the

for the

west of India, as well as those

are

Bauddha and

exclu-

notwithstanding the presence of symbols and images occupying

the post of honour, which, strongly to the eye, but in fact, erroneously in these

seem

cases,

to

imply Sivaism, or at least a coalition of the two

For such

faiths.

a coalition at any time and in any place, I have not seen one plausible argument adduced; and as for the one ordinarily derived from the existence of supposed Saiva

images and emblems in and around Bauddha temples,

these

dhism

gy

it

is

both erroneous in

However probably borrowed from Sivaism,


images and symbols became genuinely Bauddha by their adoption into Bud-

and

fact,

insufficient

were

it

true.

just as the statue of a Capitoline

of

Jupiter became the very orthodox

Paul, because the Ilomanists chose to adopt the

St.

orthodox sense.

And were

this explanation of the

in sites

which were beyond doubt consecrated

than

is,

it

would

still

say

it is

are

effi-

idol in

an

existence of seeming Sivaism

Buddhism,

far less satisfactory

a thousand times more reasonable than the sup-

position of an identity or coalition*

which

to

Pagan

between two

creeds, the speculative tenets of

wide asunder as heaven and earth, and the followers of which are

pretty well

known

to

have been, so soon as Buddhism became important, furiously

opposed to each other.

Upon

the whole, therefore, I

deem

it

certain, as well that the types of

and Buddhism are very frequently the same, as that

more or

less,

and generally

Of the aptness

Sivaism

the things typified are, always

radically, different.

of our writers to infer Sivaism from apparently Saiva images

and emblems, I shall adduce a few striking instances from Crawfurd's second
volume, chap,

i.,

on the ancient religion of the Islanders

and

avoid odium, I speak rather to his engravings, than to his text;


state matters,

Let

me

He had

to save time

and

shall

and

merely

without arguing them.

add, too, that Crawfurd's mistakes could not well have been avoided.

no access to the dead or living oracles of Buddhism, and reasoning only

* In regard to those cave-temples of the Western Continent of India, called mixed


Saiva and Bauddha, the best suggested solution is successive possession but I believe
them to have been wholly Buddhist.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

I38

from what he saw, reasonably inferred that images, the most apparently Saiva, were

what they seemed

really

be

to

and that Saiva images and emblems proved a

Saiva place of worship.

In his chapter already alluded


to be " a figure of

wara.

Plate 28

Bkagawan

Maha Deva

Pani

is

(the

feigned by the

Bauddha

Dhyan

is

in fact,

is,

It

is

said

Sinha-Natha-Lokes-

is,

in fact,

Lokeswara

it for

to

be.

car.''

It

Sakya meditating, and the

sition

of

force to force.

in truth, Nainuchi Mara,

proceeding to interrupt the

and plate 22 gives a continuation of

biting

frustration of

this exploit, exhi-

Namuchi's attempt by the oppo-

The whole legend

||

know, since

Again, the principal peris,

personification of the evil principle,)


;

Siva, I do not

Amitabha Buddha, whose son Padma

Bauddha mythologists,
said to be "Siva in his

Sakya Sinha

of

Mr. Crawfurd could take

placed a tiny image of

is

sonage in plate 21

It

Pani, in his character of creator and ruler of the present

How

system of nature.
in the forehead

No. 27

there are several engravings.

" a representation of Siva."

called

is

Padma

or

to,

as a devotee."

is

to be

found in the

Sambhu

purana.

The same work contains likewise the elucidation of


could

make

which Mr. C.

plate 24, of

nothing.

Of the remaining
subjects, very able

plates,

work,

and of the text of

would be

it

this chapter of

easy, but

it

would

to

Mr.

me

C.'s,

on other

be wearisome,

to furnish the true explanation from the books or oral communications of the

dhas of Nepaul, to the more learned of


C's book are perfectly familiar.

At

p.

209, vol.

to the

ii.,

he observes

images of Buddha,

temples as

the

in

Baud-

the subjects of the plates in Mr,

One quotation from Mr. C.'s text, and I have done.


" The fact most worthy of attention, in respect

that they never appear in any of the great central

primary objects of worship, but in the smaller surrounding ones,

seeming themselves

but always

is

whom

to represent votaries.

numbers together,* seeming,

They
in

are not found as single images,

a word, to represent, not Deities

themselves, but sages worshipping Siva."

The whole

secret of this marvel

is,

that the temples seen by Mr. C. were not gen-

uine Chaityas, but either composite Chaityas, or structures

appropriated to the Dii majores of Buddhism.


structure exclusively appropriated to the
in niches

round the base of

its

still

less exclusively

The genuine Chaitya

is a solid

Dhyani Buddhas, whose images are placed


Manushi Buddhas and Dhyani and

hemisphere.

Manushi Bodhisatwas and Lokeswaras, with

their Saktis, are placed in

various hollow temples, less sacred than the Chaityas.l

and around

These Bodhisatwas and

At Kurnagush (the ruins near Bhagulpur) there is a fine and perfect image of FadAmitabha in the forehead.
The Pujari to me called it a Krishna,
and was astounded when he heard my explanation and whence derived.
See Jour. Amer. Ori. Soc, vol. ii., part ii, pp. 31-35, for another version of this

ma

Pani, with

||

story.
* And

why not ? for Buddha is a mere title and though there are but six Dhyani
Buddhas, there are hundreds of M&nushis, which latter are constantly placed about
temples in vast numbers always as objects, though not, when so placed, special ones,
:

of worship.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

39

Lokeswaras never have the peculiar hair of the Budclhas, but, instead thereof, longbraided locks like Siva; often also the sacred thread and other indications apt to be
set

down

Such

"strong as holy writ," of their being Brahmanical Deities.

as proofs,

indications, however, are

and the instances of plates 27 and 28,

delusive,

shew how Mr. 0. was misled by them.

By

the way, Mr. C.

biassed by his theory to discover Sivaism, where

is

we have an odd

not and could not exist, of which propensity

be an oversight or misprint) in

may add

Vishnu, not Siva, and I


the Hindoo Pantheon, the

219

p.

by any means,

not,

it

is

Gods of

that in adopting as Dii minores the

Bauddhas have

did

no one needs be told that Hari

for

it

instance (unless

entirely confined

themselves to the Sectarian Deities of the Saivas.

P.S.
paul,

theistic sect

it is

great haste

of

Buddhas having been announced

presently inferred that this


:

Mr. Crawfurd's book

an image of Akshobhya, the


I

first

is

as discovered

(loco citato) affords a

in

Let us not be

a local peculiarity.

very

fine

Xe-

in too

engraving of

Dhyani, or Celestial Buddha, (see plate 29,) and

have remarked generally that our engravings of Bauddha architecture and sculp-

ture,

drawn from the Indian cave temples, from Java,

nutest particulars, to the existing Saugata

ments prove here,

monuments

(as at Java,) the Foreign

etc.,

conform, in the mi-

of Nepaul

and Indian

origin of

which

monu-

Buddhism, ani-

mals, implements, vehicles, dresses, being alien to Nepaul, and proper to India.

THE PRAVRAJYA VBATA OR INITIATORY RITES OF THE BUDDHISTS


ACCORDING TO THE PUJA KAND.
If

any one desires to become a Bandya (monastic or proper Buddhist) he must

give notice

whom
give

thereof, not

him

full

The Guru,

the Pravrajya Vrata.

and perform the Kalasi


sel

more than a month or

less

than four days, to his Guru, to

he must present paun, supdri, dakshind, and akshat, requesting the Guru to

ptijd,

which

of water and puts into

live confections,

and

five

it

flowers,

is

a lotos

and

he assent, must accept the offerings

if

as follows

made

The Guru

takes a kalasi or ves-

of gold or other precious metal, and

five trees

(small branches), and five drugs,

fragrant things, and five Brihi, and five Amrita, and five

and

five

five

threads of as

many

then makes pvjd to

diverse colours.
lie next seats

it.

Above the

vessel he

Ratna, and

places rice, and

the aspirant before the vessel

in

the

Vqjra dsan fashion and draws on the ground before the aspirant four mcmdafa or

which are devoted to the Tri Ratna, and the fourth


Then the aspirant repeats the following text 'I salute

circular diagrams, three of


to the officiating

Guru.

Buddhanath, Dharma, and Sangha, and entreat them to bestow the


Vrata on me, wherefore I perform this

rite to

them and

to

my

Pravrajija.

Guru, and present

X As for example, Sakya Sinha in the great temple of Gya, which is a Kutagar, and
wherein Sakya appears as the genius loci.
j See also pp. -J-J1--J, for a singular error into which apparently Mr. C's pursuit of his
Flowers not offered by Hindoos to their Gods,
theory could alone have led him.
and therefore Buddha was a sage merely, and not a God!!

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

140

Reciting this text and

these offerings.'

the aspirant, with

This ceremony

his means.

above related

Gwdl Dan

is

is

is

called

this day's

On

Gwdl Dan.

the Kalasi pujd and

Demi pujd

are performed, so here again

former

ceremony

Sustaka dsan

is

\0^

all kits is

as-

made Niranja-

is

is,

dled and

?m^

spread

a light is kin-

shown

to

him,

and some mantras repeated to him.

two unbaked bricks,


and above them the Su-

the

it,

Vajra

Then

Rdkshd

performed, that

stakaismscvihed, thus is

Then the

seated.

pirant

na, that

on the ground, and above

head a Vijra

in the

in

thus

is

As

but the as-

upon which the aspirant

The

the Sustaka dsan.

mony

The

the next day the ceremony

seated in the

Vajra dsan manner, in

of

each hand,

in

a Bandya.

repeated, with the under-mentioned variations only.

on the

occasion

first

five supdris

make him

to

above mentioned he gives to the Guru, and dakshind proportioned to

offerings

pirant

holding

Guru

joined hands, begs the

is
is,

upon the aspirant's

placed and the

Guru

reads some mantras.

Next comes the

cere-

Loha Rakska, that is, the Guru takes three iron padlocks, and places
one on the belly and the two others on the shoulders of the neophyte, repeating
some more mantras, the purport of which is an invocation of divine protection
from ill, on the head of the aspirant. This rite is followed by the Agni Rakof the

sh4, that

and

is,

utters

Next
Kalasi

is

the

Guru puts

a cup of wine (surd-pdtra) on the head of the Chela

some prayers over him.


performed the Kalasi-Abhisheka or baptism

that

is,

holy water from the

Guru on the Chela's head and prayers repeated over


him after which, the Ndyaka Bandya or head of the Vihar (Abbot or Prior,)
comes and puts a silver ring on the finger of the aspirant. The Nayaka, or superior
is

sprinkled by the

aforesaid, then takes four seers of rice

and milk mixed with flowers, and sprinkles

Next the Nayaka performs


Guru Mandal before mentioned,

the wbole, at three times, on the aspirant's head.

the Vajra Raksha, and then makes pujd to the

which ceremony completed, he rings a

bell,

and then sprinkles

rice

on the aspirant

and on the images of the Gods.

Then the

aspirant, rising, pays his devotions to his

a small present and a plate of rice to him, and


departs.

The

This second day's ceremony

third day's

is

is

called Ddsala.

denominated Pravra Vrata,* and

Early in the morning the following things,


of the Tri

Ratna

or

Guru, and having presented

having received his blessing,

viz.,

is

as follows

the image of a Chaitya, those

Triad, the Prajna Paramita scripture, and other sacred

scriptures, a kalas, or water-pot filled

with the

ter of curds, four other water-pots filled

The monastic vows properly

so called.

articles before

enumerated, a plat-

with water only, a Chivara and Newas, a

;;

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

I4I

Pinda patra and a Khikshari, a pair of wooden sandals,! a small mixed metal

pounded sandal wood,

plate spread over with


is

inscribed, a golden razor

and a

and

silver one,

in

which the image of the moon

lastly, a plate of dressed rice, are

is seated in the Siistak Asan and made to perform worGuru Mandala, and the Ckaitya, and the Tri Ratna and the Prajna
Paramita Sastra. Then the aspirant, kneeling with one knee on the ground with

collected,

and the aspirant

ship to the

Guru

joined hands, entreats the


soever

needful for

it is

him

to

make him a Bandya, and to teach him whatThe Guru answers, O disciple
if you

to

know.

'

desire to perform the Pravrajya Vrata,

of the Chaitya and of the Tri

Ratna

you must observe the

cha Siksha, the fastings and the vows prescribed


nor amass property of any kind

nor go near

nor touch any intoxicating liquors or drugs

of all devote yourself to the worship

first

women

Pan-

five precepts or

you must hurt no

living thing

nor speak or think evilly

nor be proud of heart in consequence

of your observance of your religious and moral duties.'

Then the aspirant pledges himself thrice to observe the whole of the above
upon which the Guru tells him, If while you live you will keep the
above rules, then will I make you a Bandya.' He assents, when the Guru, having
precepts

'

again given the three Rakshas above mentioned to the Chela, delivers a cloth
for the

loins to

him

to

put on.

Then the Guru brings the

aspirant out into

the court yard, and having seated him, touches his hair with rice and

oil,

and

The Guru next puts on the ground a little pulse


Then the Guru gives the
and desires the Chela to apply it to his own feet.
Chela a cloth of four fingers' breadth and one cubit in length, woven with threads

gives those articles to a barber.

of five colours,

his head.

makes

and which

is

Then he causes

piijd to

especially manufactured for this purpose, to bind

the aspirant to perform his ablutions

name

the hands of the barber in the

the barber to shave

all

of

after

round

which he

Viswakarma, and then causes

the hair, save the forelock, off the aspirant's head.

Then

the paternal or maternal aunt of the aspirant takes the vessel of mixed metal above

noted and collects the hair into


nails

pared

when

The

it.

aspirant

is

now bathed

again and his

the above party puts the parings into the pot with the hair.
follows, after which the aspirant
Then the Guru causes him to eat, and also

Another ablution of the aspirant


within, and seated.

is

taken again

upon
him the Pancha Garbha, and says to him, Heretofore you have lived a householder; have you a real desire to abandon that state and assume the state of a monk ?
The aspirant answers in the affirmative, when the Guru or Nayaka,* or maternal
sprinkles

'

uncle, cuts off with his

own

hand, the aspirant's forelock.

a tiara adorned with the images of the

five

Buddhas on

his

Then the Guru puts

own

head, and taking

+ These, with the. water-pot or Gahdhar and an umbrella constitute the equipments
The chivar and nivds are the upper and lower garments.
of a Bauddha ascetic.
The pinda patra is the begging platter khikshari, the appropriate baton or distinctive
staff (carried in the hand and surmounted by a model of a Chaitya).
The Mani or
prayer-cylinder, which is so univei'sally in the hands of the Tibetan monks, is not in
The chivar andnivds are of a deep red color.
use in Nepaul.
* Nayaka is Abbot, that is, head of the Religious House into which the neophyte
:

purposes to enter.

Tl

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

142

the kalas or water-pot, sprinkles the aspirant with holy water, repeating prayers

same time over him.


The neophyte is then again brought below, when

at the

four

Nayakas

or superiors of

proximate Viharas and the aspirant's Guru perform the Pancha Abhisheka,

Guru

the

takes water from the kalas and pours

into a conch

it

i.e.,

and then, ringing

a bell and repeating prayers, sprinkles the water from the conch on the aspirant's

head

Nayakas, taking water from the other four water-pots

whilst the four

named above, severally baptize the aspirant.


up, when the Nayakas and Guru invoke the
'

May you

be happy as he

man, the lord of

all,

the

The musicians present then

strike

following blessing on the neophyte

who dwells in the hearts of all, who is the universal AtBuddha called Ratna Sambhava.' The aspirant is next

by the Nayakas and Guru above stairs, and seated as before. He is then made
perform pujd to the Guru Mandal and to sprinkle rice on the images of the Dei-

led
to

ties.

The Guru next gives him the Chivara, andNivasa, and golden

the aspirant thrice says to the Guru,

state of a householder for this

abandoned the

Upon which

'

the aspirant's

former name

who am

Guru,

I,

whole

birth,

is

earrings,

when

such an one, have

and have become a monk.'

relinquished and a

new

one given

him, such as Ananda Shali Putra, Kasyapa, Dharma Sri Mitra, Paramita Sagar.

Then the Guru


a golden

tiara,

causes

him

to perform pujd to the Tri Ratna, after having given

and repeated some prayers over him.

following praises of the Tri Ratna: 'I salute that


the three worlds,

whom Gods

and

men

alike worship,

who

is

apart from the world,

long-suffering, profound as the ocean, the quintessence of all good, the

Raja and Munmdra, the destroyer of

who

is

placing
'

void of avarice and lust,

my

head on his

I salute that

who

desire
is

the mother of

all

Dharma

and vice and darkness

I ever invoke him,

feet.'

Dharma, who

who, by the testimony of

is

affection,

the ikon of wisdom.

is

the Prajna Paramita, pointing out the

them

perfect tranquillity to all mortals, leading

is

and

him

The Guru then repeats the


Buddha who is the lord of

all

into the paths of perfect

the sages, produced or created

the Bodhisatwas and Sravakas.

I salute

way

of

wisdom

who
that Sangha, who
all

things

Avalokiteswara and Maitreya, and Gagan Ganja, and Samanta Bhadra, and Vajra

Manju Ghosha, and Sarvani varana Viskambhi, and Kshiti Garbha and
The aspirant then says to the Guru, I will devote my whole life
Then the Guru gives him the Das
to the Tri Ratna, nor ever desert them.'
Siksha or ten precepts observed by all the Buddhas and Bhikshukas; and commands his observance of them. They are 1 Thou shalt not destroy life 2. Thou
4. Thou shalt not lie
3. Thou shalt not follow strange faiths
shalt not steal
Pani, and

Kha

Garbha. 't

'

t These are nine Bodhisatwas, whereof the first, or Padma Pani, is now lord of the
ascendant, and as such constitutes the Sangha of the present cycle, and is therefore
But there
associated to Buddha and Dharma of the triad as the third member of it.
is confusion of celestial and mortal Bodhisatwas, and so also in the general enumeration.
The Padma Pani here spoken of is probably Ava(See and compare pp. 95 and 96.)
a mortal clearly, and
lokiteswara, who seems to be the same with Matsyendra Nath
Of the rest all but four
therefore improperly identified with Padma Pani, a celestial.
or five are mortal Sanghas.

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
5.

Thou

of heart

slialt

Thou

7.

not touch intoxicating liquors or drugs

shalt not be

shalt avoid music, dancing, and all such idle toys

shalt not dress in fine clothes, nor use perfumes or ornaments


sleep in lowly places

Thou

10.

43

Thou

6.

9.

Thou

8.

proud

Thou
and

shalt sit

shalt not eat out of the prescribed hours.

The Guru then says, All these things the Buddhas avoided. You are now become a Bhiksku and you must avoid them too ;' which said, the Guru obliterates
the Tri Ratna Mandala. Next, the aspirant asks from the Guru the Chi vara and
'

Nivasa, the Pinda Patra and Khikshari and Gandhar, equipments of a


cetic

Bauddha

as-

they are an upper and lower garb of special form, a begging platter, a

short staff surmounted

by a Chaitya and a waterpot.

and sandals

it.

to complete

The

Add
make

thereto an umbrella

Mandala and places


Uruba-Kund, and some khil, and some rice, and assuming the Utkutak Asan, and joining his hands, he repeats the praises of the Tri
Ratna above cited, and then again requests his Guru to give him three suits of

in it five flowers,

and

aspirant proceeds to

five

the Chi vara and the like

number

of the Nivasa

as attending the palace, another for

He

nary wear.

also requests

cups, of Pinda Patra,

one for

occasions of ceremony,

wearing at meals, and the third for ordi-

from his Guru the

One

and of Khikshari.

like

number

of

Gandhar

or drinking

entire suit of these the aspirant then

assumes, receiving them from the hands of the Guru, who, previously to giving

them, consecrates them by prayers.

ved the Pravrajya Vrata,

The aspirant then

says,

'

Now

I have recei-

I will religiously observe the Sila-skandha the

Samddhi-

skandha, the Prajnd-skcmdha, and the Vimuktiskandha.'

Then the Guru

gives

him

him

a pair of

and near

to

wooden

him with
him once again and gives

four sprinklings of holy water and presents

an umbrella having thirty-two


sandals

radii.

Next he

sprinkles

after which the Guru draws on

the ground linearly,

each other, seven images of the lotos flower, upon each of which he

puts a swpdri, and then

each as he proceeds.

commands the

When

cha Raksha Sastra on

aspirant to traverse them, placing a foot on

the Chela has done

his head, sends

image of Sakya Sinha, to

offer to it

him

so,

the

Guru

into the sanctum,

Pan-

placing the

where stands the

pdn, and supdri, and dakshind.

All this the

Chela does, and likewise performs the Pancha Upacharya puja; when, having

cumambulated the image, he returns to the Guru.


Then the Guru performs the ceremony called Shik Adhivasan, which

The

ball of five-coloured thread

deposited in the kalas,

is

like

it is

Guru and

clue in his hands, repeats prayers


it

He

in the kalas.

to the Khikshari

gives

it

thus

being

twisted thrice

then unrolled and carried on to the Chela and

manner round the Khikshari he holds

tinued unbroken to the

is

in the first day's proceedings as

taken out of the kalas and one end of

round the neck of the kalas


twined in

mentioned

cir-

and then

rolls

whence it is conThe Guru holding the

in his hands,

delivered into his hands.

up the thread and then redeposits

next performs the Pancha Upacharya puja to the kalas and

next he gives flowers and a blessing to the aspirant

him the Abhisheka,

invests his neck with a cord

the thread just adverted to;

places the

next he

composed of a piece of

Pancha Raksha Sastra on

his head,

and

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.

144
repeats over
is

made

him some

The Mandal

prayers.

to perform the

Maha

is

In a large earthen vessel four seers of dressed

Bhatmas, and a noose and a mask faced

tity of

tity of flesh in the

presenting to the

mouth of it, are placed


mask the Naived and a

he holds in his hands so that

it

when the

then obliterated,

Bali ceremony, which

like

is

rice,

thus

aspirant

and a quarter of the quan-

Bhairava,* having a small quan-

and the aspirant makes puja to Bhairava,


light,

shall fall

and pouring out water from a conch

The Guru

into the vessel.

repeats

mantras, and invoking the Devatas and Nagas, and Yakshas, and Rakshasas, and

Gandharvas, and Mahoragas, and mortals, and immortals (Amanushas), and Pretas,

gas,

and Pisachas, and Dakas, and Dakinis, and Matrika Grahas, and Apas Marand all motionless and moving things, he says, Accept this Bali and be
'

propitious to this aspirant, since the sacrifice has been performed according to the
directions of

the Balis of

Vajra Sahva.

Maha

Such

is

In like manner

the Sarva Bhuta Bali.

Kala, and of the Graha, and of the Pancha Raksha, and of the

Graha Matrika, and

of

Ohand Maha Rakshana, and

of the guardians of the four

and of Ekavinsati, and of Basundhara, and of the Chaitya, and of Pindi Karma, and of Amoghpasa, and of Sarak Dhara, and of Tara, and of He vajra,
and of Kurkulla, and of Vajra Krodha, and of Marichi, and of Ushnisha, and of
quarters,

Hariti, are performed.

kha

Next the

which are poured as

Balis denominated the

In the conch are put

Bali, are thus performed.

Tyaga

flesh,

Bali,

and the San-

and blood and

spirits,

before, into the great vessel, whilst the Deities of all the six

Then the Pancha Upachara puja is made


is commanded to perform the Chakra puja,
which completed, he returns to his seat. The Chakra puja is that which is made
The Guru then
to all the images in the Vihara by going round to them all.
causes the aspirant to perform the Guru Mandal puja and afterwards to sprinkle
quarters are invoked with prayers.

in the vessel, after

rice

on

all

which the aspirant

the images, which done, the aspirant gives Dakshina to the Guru, and

the Guru, in return, gives the aspirant a small quantity of rice and a

Then the Guru

ney.

causes

him

trifle

perform the Des-Bali-Yatra, which

to

aspirant removes the great earthen vessel with

its

contents,

and distributes the contents in small quantities to


evil spirits throughout the

and Pisachas, and other

all

city

them, returns with the empty vessel.


Then the Guru and ten Nayakas take the aspirant

by means

of
is,

mothe

of carriers,

the shrines of Daityas,


;

to

and having distributed

make

the circuit of

all

the shrines in the neighbourhood and to present at each, offerings of rice, and

pan, and supdri, and flowers after which tbey go to the Chela's home, when
his relatives come out and give him four seers of rice, and then conduct the aspi;

rant and the rest within and feed

them with Mil

or rice and milk.

then returns to the Vihara, and the Chela remains at home.

The Guru

Then the

aspi-

Thus far all is conducted according to the Tauranik exoteric and purely Buddhist
what follows is derived from the Tantrik esoteric, and not purely Buddhist ritual.
what follows rests on customary authority only,
Here end the scriptural injunctions
and has reference to the fact that in Nepaul the Buddhists have long since abandoned
Tonsure is the only mark of the old monastic habits still rethe monastic restraints.
*

ritual

145

BUDDHIST PHILOSOPHY.
rant must, at
for four

days

events, practise mendicity

all

but

at the

if

monastic profession he must

dhyaya,

(the latter

and the other rules of his order,

end of that time, he


go

to his

Guru

at

feel

no serious

'O Guru

say,

I cannot

pray take back the Chivara and other ensigns of monachism

me from

vered

replies,

me

the Sravaka Charya, teach

the

Maha Yan

remain an

Maha Yan

But

Charya.

cannot be relieved from observing the following commandments:

Not

life.

Not

to steal.

to

commit

adultery.

To be clement

tuous liquors and drugs.

The Guru

Vrataishard;

you abandon the Pravrajya,

if

Not

Not

to speak evilly.

The

returns to his seat,

yon

to take spiri-

The observance

to all living beings.

you

shall

aspirant then washes the Guru's feet, and having done so,

when

the

in the first day's ceremonies,

Guru having prepared the materials of piijd noted


makes piijd to the Kalas, after which he makes piijd

to the vessel, holding the aspirant's

shorn locks.

He

then draws Mandals for the

Tri Ratna and for himself, and makes the aspirant offer pujd to

he obliterates the whole and says,


adopted the

still

Not to destroy

of the above rules shall be a pravrajya to you, and if you obey them,
attain to Mukti.'

Puja

ascetic,

and, having deli-

Charya.'

'Truly, in these degenerate days to keep the Pravrajya

adopt then the

Upa-

his instructor in the forms of pii/i, according to the

is

Kand) and addressing the Guru, must

the

call to

the Vihara and to his

Maha Yan Charya;

'

You have abandoned

all

four

the Bhiksku

when

Charya and

attend to the obligations to the latter, as just ex-

plained to you.'

The badges of monachism are then taken from the aspirant by the Guru, who
him the Pancha Rakska as before related, and then sends him to make the
Chakra puja, which done, he causes him to perform the Guru Mandal puja, and
then to sprinkle rice on the Deities. Then the Guru Mandal is erased, the aspiraut
makes an offering to the Guru, and the Guru gives him his blessing. The Guru

gives

then sends the aspirant to throw into the river the hair shaven from his head

and on his return makes the

Agam

puja and Kuinarf puja

when

the whole

is

con-

cluded by a feast.*
P.S.
in the

Since the above

papers were written, I have perused Mr. Tumour's essays

Bengal Asiatic Journal, and I

fully

admit (as anticipated by Mr. Prinsep

that the honours of Ceylonese literature and of the Pali language are no longer
disputable.

may add

in regard to the latter point, that recent research has esta-

blished the following very curious fact,w'z., that the Sanskrit Buddhist

covered by

me

in Nepaul, are

sages in various Prakrits

Hindoo Drama wherein

Pali

this

now found to
among the rest

mixture of

works

dis-

be copiously interspersed with pas-

pretty much in the manner of the

less finished dialects

with the Sanskrit

is

of

common occurrence.
tainedby the Nepalese Bandyas, who are now divided into Vajra Acharyas, Bhikshukas,
Sakyavansikas, and Chivaha Bares.
* In the above Snivakcharya and Bhikshucharya are made equivalents, equally representing the strict rule opposed to Maha Yan charya as the designation of the lax rule
or that of the non-monastic many. This sense of the latter term is contrary to some authorities. The Triyana are elsewhere speciiied as Pratyeka, Sravaka and Maha, but
in another sense a scripture of the highest class or that treats of transcendental
topics

is

called a

Mahayana

Sutra.

Comparative Vocabulary of the several Languages or Dialects of the Eastern Sub-Him&layas, from the Kdli or Gh6tjra,
written

Buffalo

and spoken Tibetan for comparison, by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

to the

Dhansri, tvith the

Tibetan, written.

Lepcha,

BhtUdni or
LhOpa.

Tibetan, tpoker

Plantain

(InalS

Kardiing

La

River

Changp5

Hyung

Ohhu kyong

Ongkyong

Chua. Wo-hong

Laum

Lam

Chhd

Chhd

Chha

Vom

Yiim

Pig-pa

Kop-pa

Pdko.

Nam

Nam

Nam

Lam

Road

Tahi
Pngspa
Nam khah

Salt
.Skin

Sky

Kompo

Beu
Sah6r

Sun

Karma
Dob
Nimo

T.,r

Jik

iBnii

Star

Karma

rDo

Shingdong

Shing

YOlteho

Thdnjr

Kyong

Water

Chhri

Chhu
Thomd
GnyS
Khd

Chhii

fjonshing

Dova

Na
Khyod
Khyod chag
Khocbag

Khenio
Khonjo

Nahi. Nayi
Klivodkyi

El

'7:-

Ehah:

VJadbtmA
K liynd cliaggi
Khochaggi

fOblg
yNyia

Moko

Hadosa
Heusa

Kheno

Am

Khiine in

M6so

Kayii pongsa
Hayii pongsa
IToyii pongsa

Anigen

A'in ko

Kit"

Thit. Thi-t

Nyet

Nyetsh

Pha IP
Pha gndn

Li ah

Tiiksh

Oyd

Tarok'
kyok'
Kakeii

Ouh

Ka

Gnd

lyud

Thdmbd

inrtr.

Sum

ehii

chii

Hip chii
Gimp chii

hchii'

drOva thdmbd

Simd

Ang

in

in

chi

ko
ko

Ai
Thd

Them
GnS

Id

Khiinchi

Ektai. Tai'

Uaaat

Nyi

shii

Slim elm

Hip

Thi"

Gni

ping

Phunglu

Wo

Thi"

ping

mha

gu

mo

Gni IS
Kdnld

Chhang gu
Wily'll

Hos
Kan kiirik
Ndng kiirlll
Hos kiirik
Gnou

mo

Kdn mo

Ndwo
Ho chii

Thild
Gni molo
Kerne molo
Thnmdla

LTll

Wuping gu

Ghrik. ^Ri-k Chhi'


Gni. j>Ni

*Ri

Kri.

Hari

Gov

ki

Gaiv ki
Hurdv ki

Ilun-d kr. Mt'rok.i

Kan kiirikiim
Nang kiiiikum
kiirikiini

Kdt"

Ni

Gndsh

chii

Onap
Qyd.GyathdmbMlyd

chii

Gnd
Tiikya

Nush

Yet sh'
Phdng sh

kyot

Hi

in).'.

ReyS
/Tibet
Phdngyd
Thibong. Gip Kip
1

Gi.

Yd

L<S

Ld

child

Sa

Le. In

Kd. Rem
Nan. Liang4

Mo. Nin
Nu. Manii

[10+10

d.

Khii

Prd
brlib,
Kiih
Chiwai

Ld
Ba-gnd Ond

Bu-li'

Pi"

Nvi eho. Khechik Khakdt


Ni bong
Khe phddani
Khakdtsa kati Slim hong, 3 tens
Kha nydt
Li gip_, 4 tens
Khe pheddngeiim KhanvetsakdtiGna gip, 5 tens
Khd gnd
Khd pha gndn Thi bong gip, one

Nald.

Kyis. Ois. S.

Ndmi
Gnd
Ndng

Chha ping

Jiping "giS
Ch Imping g

Myaucho. Moyo soThennd

ir

Di

Taya

Wo

Ji

Aild
Thd IS

Soru

Stiniiigi

Ndm khdn

Kyii

Chha

Bhiiga
Lhiing

Ndsa

Gnd
Kdn

Ji

Kiisyul

Sindd

Ld

Lau.

Klienih' in

Kati

Chiih

Chiih

Nyi

shii

Naa. Las.

By,

Khiind

Ki

Ka

Kyi.Oi. Hi. Yi.


La.Tu^Dii.Ka.Sii

To

Swd

Chdn
Sak"

Chdla
Sarang
Bui

Sdn

Zhyi
Tiik

Una

Bundled

Khiinchi
Ingd in

Kayii.

chi
cha

Chik
Nvi

Dun
Qvd
Ouh

oZhibchii

Fifty

in

Khdnd

Khananin

Qua

Sumchu

Forty

A'nka

Khand
Moko
Ankan

Thii

Nvi

Dhini

Tdmd
Gnd

Khdnih'

linik. r/Ru-k

oClni.

Dili

Dhong

Ingd

Tdrgya

PfrS.

Kfwd

Anigd

Una

rfGii

Thirty

Yiimbd

td

Hiyii
Hdyti
Kaseusu

Kh6
Qnd
Khi

Chik
Nvi
Zhvi

(Dun

Ten
Twenty

Lung

Sum

IZhi

/>H

Bhiigiiri

Sdngyen

Pukuri
Karcbin

Hobo

Go
Hau
Heu

Gndnjo yi
Khenjo yi
KhoDjo yi

../S,

Seven
Eight
Nino

Tundi. Miin

Khd

Khworing Khong
Gniti
Khyo ti
Ohhdgi
Kbwoti
Kheugi
Gnu chdgi
Nirdtf
Kliyeriti
Khou cbdgi
Khworiti Khong gi

Gndyi
Khd yi
Kl^yi

Mil

cho

Dd. Gang, S.

Chhii

Khu

Kho
Na chag

Ohd

Nam

Chdgii

Kvrf'

Kyu
Gni

Gni
Khyo

Khold

Chdchd
Dhi

Nam
Keh'va

Ar;hd
Kling

Village

Troo

Mocha

Khwdng
Kydn

Chdchd
Dfbhf

si

Pachdm

OsSk
Khdsdvi

Sachak
Sathdng

Sob

Tooth

Eala

GhySm
Yiim
U'hdk bd

Hong-kii

Saho

Athiin. Kdnibd Horik.


Ta liang

Dnil

Snake.

Gnak

seh

Riik

Nhe

Nis.

Limbu,

Cbyd

Pv.

Rd

Giin

Kuh

Sdnho

Chuh

Chan
Yoh
Glib

Nhi

ehii
Kuti
Sang sdnho. Nief
Bokal cha shii Ni sdnho. Siiyd
tartt
Bokal nhi
Su sdnho. Pi-yd
Bokal ni shii chii Pi sdnho. Gnidye
Bokal gnd
Gun sdnho. Sat chi caret
Ld
Yd. Ld. B6
Yd

(
c

c
c
c
1

Klidk ndshi

Khdk

lnshisasika

Swaikd

Kwd. Kyd

Wdjd

{ElmcLLlloi

vowol

Chu =

and so of 20, 30, 40, which also give the radicals of the decimal scale, and show how
scrvili'S lire always drupt ill eolnjiouuds.
See and compare all.
I'omi.iire ^1-^-11, lluniii-se To, with the neuter sign f.-u ~ Ne.wari ept, G vet K, final of Tibetan
Serpa and
So also is initial ka of Leneha 7 to 10.
In Newdri the numeral adjuncts
variable. Hie ft heec, hma ; hoc, /fit, sufftxed as in the other iiualitivi
The varied position and optional
use of these luMendu rente iimeh Isise semblance of diversity.
Pfta pre-lixed here, like sh post-fixed in the Linibii columns, is not radical.
Pha is equal to the silent b of
mitten Tibetan. B*KB&, in the Magar column, are equivalent to the Lepcha Pha, that is, pre-fixed
" '1 the Gurung columns. The mutation throughout is very instructive:

"A.Vi/ft

5 tens,

Limbu gip = Kiranti hip, got from 40, jnst as Gyarungp^ for four got from plisi 40. Bong equals Oip.
Corruption merely of Suryi.
mas. et foem. ; f?u neuter. Jihma, myself Jigu, my goods. Hma and gii are affixed to every quali*
tive whatever.
See note voce long.
Anuswar merely, and for instr. and abb alike
also yaken, whieh likewise expresses, with, or sulh of
Urdu ; the Latin c

Sma

'

Chinese ^ll tau, equals

first,

a verb to

second a prep, to (going to.)

Comparative Vocabulary of the languages of Hor Sokyeul and Sifdn, by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.

SSipa.
salki

khord-khwd
w?

li

me

tliii-k.il

pvd-pyd

khoro-gwd
tabrii,

sakorsu

phyli
ripat

si-m(

gwaA

("bull

Crow

zyah) sa-lo
khdrd

|lr.y

nh6khw

Dog

khikhd
V.

OUTO-ll

chitun
1.1. [iliun!

llidbochd

Eyo

Illltil

I'cliild

Father

kwil
kbdld
chiehlik
kkdil

jiikd
tsall

hompa

kachu

BTODfl

of head

lipa/i

liar

tholfr-gwd

kbu-krU)
yd-bour

Hog
1

[.

Bono

Homo

pa-syiiug

Iron

tlniniar

Loaf

Man

Kluin
nidehi

Monkey
MmIIht
Mountain

Mouth

Mo

ikbi,

spvaA
,l/'i, Mi

vkhi

tavli

khd-khwd

rliito

'maA
Night

aaliil

Oil

ehingyii
snrnii

caret

clu.braA
griA

wnssii, um'i

choA
Skill
Sl.v

1',,

rapl

niuhto

tkdug-grd

brigi

thold

ghada

small

Thorhu.

"-''

t'Hinc-

Will,-. ill, uutHiili-khiii


ki'ki
Within, inside-

gachi

zyangkii

khd kho

lig-di

pneu-80

ka
neng

d'rithu

tir tbii

thang-ti

riDffblS

bratliii

uu

kou-ti

jh
ti.-ri

ohhin yftbi

in

k thatba

tameh

r.

syu

to"

trinini

TllMH. DOM,

cbou

Howf
Whyf

nikanjii

caret
tharichhiii

mka-

hi

mangwa, mftng

hi ni

lull,

puthi kd
pichhd

Thifl

el

Thai

tl

llllll

Gold

Hot

fii

Ripe

thusu, tmisit,

thi

ma

ban us moh

igwan edng-

Wake

pyang-di [-di zhirdo


liou-ti (good) kwipau
Byou-ti(8mall)kwicbem
sphwa leu
disduk
khang-ti
taskom'
wii-ti

dridra
lira lira

dridra

yd
kah kah
wiiA

w&h

tiip-zlii

drazo

gyiik pa

dnehuA

kaiLirhrtiig

toiuos
ta-zo
ta-uiot

kari

na brfda

nanijongsi
id

gnajeu

wtitbi

giirgyuu
tarven

friron (g

liikou

hiidi

Weep

hi nid

caret
caret

lie silent

Speak

kwor,

Come

hai

la

m6

syacha, hima

thii

hiong

tenzi, tizzi

hou
1

1,

ti

myii

hi Ion
bfil ckhen
the"

lang(get up)dougwAA

gaye"

che

kiich-chur
kuch-cbe*A
kurn-chur

la-ti

Handaomo
Ugly

Iniuked

Black

payokh

chhagan

Move, walk dakan

ting-di
ting-di
khidi

myu

pi-di

Take

demami
debi

the

Mm*

jadjh
da-gatcb

Strike
Kill

Bring

"nesne*

khak-bd

kam-syiir

lihiimi. gnouiiind phyiin phii

lihiimani.

dzi-la

da-kha

gnoma mam phyu

yabii?+t

kbanj^h
i

tashin
td-khyii (cuivifl)

gwrmkbe. tdahthit

rabwo

zbi

tu-khong unihi)

I.ll'l

lip

'

sam tenchd
ta-yiu. uap-e

kaprom'

kherii

dallii

dangn
dati-tlifi

kokshust

khabd n(
thai-ilyu

But ka is aho used with rerba, e.g. t Jong = it is,


is, in Bodo (Du of Newari and Tibetan du-g) is ku-m-dong in Gyiiniug.
Ka prefix becomes pa, according to that alliterative principle which prevails so greatly, though invgularly.
Give to me: take from me. Bin, Ling, a general tense.
One solicit* the
g Be, Ya, have a special sense.
tier commands.

the Persian hast, nest, exactly.

and medial.
by the Latin appendage.

verbs the analogous prefix ta vel da

is

usually added.

||

terra, indicated

(See note at

Wfl-khi, taVj h'mga

ta-chi

Tell, relate kiirr

numerals

y:i.

I'ut du\

diina

to the

tachimoyu

w
w

la-chhd

Understand akhchan

added

ga
ps

na-sya
trulhd

la-le

Hear

as that

thadyu

t.i-.-lu

kho kbo

*" Initial

thathadyii

syo

kyok po
nak po

dangwA
thdinft

uap-shdA, tayin
ka-piin. papii||
yeyen, da-chii

ire"

tamgyo
dag-h(cuivis.)
kwdgah (mihi;

ia

yA-giiz)

caret [chili

trang bo [-mano chu chu

J Horizontal and perpendicular hetweenity.


In all these tongue* there is a special and general
H-Qumret In* hu, come not, in Kalmak.

bo worde

h..p- qufipotbo

ka-kas'lo

These are the positive and negative forms of the substantive verb
t Bi, an in-fix, medial ma, pre-tix.

pre-fix o( all th*

ma

ma-kas'to
ka-nak'

'

(il

Run

gus-go

[(goodjkhu-ti
chang bend houti (good)
imUivii" (hml)hunti inyu(bad)ma-kumchhur

Straight

deundaA

gromo
choso

Bitter

gnor

che"

nnmalum; machoso
thu-thu
nyok-pa

i-sman

the* th<5

ammahalon

tfika

ki

>iakal)ni

Bbiihrin

>gii*tan

depart dakan
Stand up toron
Sit down
ajon

gaye" nytSr
liavandriijtaraisbta kiirkd

reT-di

uyiiphtl

arzan

(in,

ohki, hiong
eii
hhfing bejio botikhou. houti kasne*
I.I:

am

*t L

eang-di.yaiiL'kalarlarlt
5

haniild

kn

thtfnbo
hirhi

chuginda
shAsha

kho khd

chink

Whito

Round

khwa

st

kuht

thye", khyfi

thei

n.

mei

thft:

Whlch.whojkoirf
ta
Wbfttf kya
n
Anything

Anybody

cliiingbo. pru

Ti-ti.

Which, who, jon


Which, wlio, ton

Bad

ti-ti

S-juave

thi

sugnng
nig tlniiig

tha
pwi tha

thuzyo [mob
[chat yenichhin

gnowa, goo

Or

diir

brfttai

Cg

etibj

eomli

changii
pingbo
tlionypo

wongchitha

ah men

Caret

Ah, rel

bdt ka, 1

phil

thungbii

6H

brobo

How muobP

kvuku
nang

lithii

Img4

Much

(i

tlul

kfaolfl

Little

So,

dd

total

Fur
Near

leu

shidxi

t6io

k51

Below
Between

" ten.")

To

With, cum. latin


Snth in Hindi
find

Chi

Da. Chdro So. Tyol

Yiken. Nipo

Urdu

Menne

Without,
I.a.

Ka

La

Mo. khep mo.


kiithung tho

Now

Dengtsi'>.lla.l-I>:ng

Then

Detail

WhunP

Qang

T..-ilav

During
Sang. Tbolv

To-

tat.

Nam.

Thiriug

Sing

Taring

Dharing

Thoraug

Nabah
Khachd

Liili

DIM

Alim. Aba

Dang
Ilena

Whero P
Above
Below

Khem

pha

A'pbi

fe

1*5

Denrkke

Ain

Ai

Tandik

Mang koleng
Akhomang

Tili

lyase

Mebma
Kdtuii

Wada

Hacko

Phate-

Pil.

Ni

Miyanu

Kh/icho
Kaui
Tong. Ch6. Yogi Tying
Wfj. Syd. Magi
Wag

Kind

Saba. Sabi

Atfing

Kh&d&nii

Atiin. Tal.

ApldngTknng

Madhani
Mdyuni

Hndma

Hero
There

Hande
Khwomlo

Alo

Thindi
Thi dwi
Kha dwi

t<5

Ten kha. Ting

Wdh

Woba

Achtim

Md

Cheul.Sadain
Abik. Ackdk

Toying

Moyang

Jll [WITH
Without, ou

Bar, du
Phyi, rohua

Bhar
Chi

Within
Far
Near

N6. Nt6

Tharing
Thani

Par

P.ini

Ning
Ring

l.iltlo

Nydng

Much

Mang. Tunio.

How much P

Tsatn. T-.'iniv

HadiStaug

Niguva
Ma gda
Kbit ebwe

Khindi
Thendi
Dinda
KhachO.Khinda

Kulnm

Phi
Rinrbo

Thak ninibo
Chayak chik
A'li

Bahar

Ning
Thi ring
ThA ni
Nvdng bo
Mang bu

Sarong

Kiisi gang.

Maram

MSnkio
Neng dang
Miaa

Athol

Ag yap
Satet

Kindd

Kijeu
KatC

PhindiS

O'M

Olom

Kajd

A'khen
Aphi dong ba
Khem pha ib tug ba
Kon pha dong ba
A*pha

Salom

0'de\ Do
DindS
Kaudo. Kdnda Kite bt5

Salom
|

Why P

Kha

in

King

Shii

mat

Tup. In
M<5 tup.

I'd

In

Men

Men

Mil

Ma

Yang

Dang.

Mo

This
That

Di

Diraug

Phi-di

I'lii

ivl.

Thiuda?

corr

Which?
WhatP

Who?
Auy

thing

Any body

ang

Thd yambdkle

Gungari
Mang gyer

Ukung

Tiin^ gycr

yil

Nekti

Tharing
Jyat na

Chichi

U'clit

Badho

Lhini
Gade
Khiju

Do

m<5ye

Kbain siiko
Khoin suko

Worn

auko
A'inedko

Chdapi
Khatpa

Kharnso

O'k

Men

Men. Ni

Thi

Mo

Yang.

Ang

Yen. Den.

Bi

Wi

Di. Didi

Kon

Phe. Pbedi

Khen

Swin?

Kadi

A'tiP

The

Thi dang

U'di

Ware

Khen

Kho

Kkangi

Swin
Kbing

Kadi
Kang cbi. Kan

Sare

Th<S

Kha.

Khi chui?

Shii

Tigi

Ka

To

ThS
Hat
ThJ
Hat

Di.

Sii

Di
Dimin

Khang
Kha.
Chizhig
Sii/liiu'. Kbachig

Sii.

dinniL'

Khai nang
Sui nang

Eat!

S."..

S,i

Ktindochi
Kaye".

Ka

Shdri.
imclii

Tham

Tola

Tha
Thong

Sah
Thdng

Z6.

Chun

Ho

re

Tigi
lii

Cho

Thing

Thiing

Sleep

NyiS

Nyol

NyS
Lhdng

D4

Imsac

Si

caret.

Gwet

G&

Then

I'ya. Iaa

Wake

chui

Khi
Khi

lo

OhiS

Thung

chan

Khi chui?

Ho

Ko
De

I) rink!

tO ad

Waapa

Mi
Ang

Or

Which,
Which,

'l'lv?

n'h.'- joknia
|

Yea

Hong

Udiiug yi

Gniing
Poka.

Nyet

Tilaan,

Enjflitl.

Wool)
Be silent
Bpeak

Khrog
Mod, Hmr6n

Como
Stand up

tonny

corrf

Lap

V/Iiiin. rll.-g

I'bin.

Obdng

BS.

Bak

Hon Len. Yd
Dung

KhigSod. /.liiitn s,i


Bring
iKbydrg, -h v b B -v, five-come
Biik wing, give-go
Talr. .away
AKIiiir. AKhvcr
l
Uftup,ral*Dl ADege.81on.
Kh r
Bear, carry ( *N v"b
(
Nyon
Nynn. r/Son
Qui
Som
Undonrnsd
Some. Go,
,.,

(.Shod. /ilMihud

Good

Baiang-po

llinl

Nong-po
iIimii:]..,

Hot

Tnha-jiM. Hi.; -|i,,Siniiibi.

"

Hyumbo

"**

ThAng bo

NAng

R^r

zlii

ltiri

Gfrmo

Tbdxi

TdpcbJ

,,i,v

Libub

p6

Nhyam
Itfm

bo

Arhen. Khenbo

bii

Thiiin bu

A'tAn. Tiinbo

Thhubo. Tho

Ath6.Th.ibo

Duzbi yeupo
op
!K
oab them
1

;!

Qyamo

TbiStbombo
Utto

GvA m6

Nenma

Brfiko

\.-.\u'

Tilting clih5

Kliiilu'uu

KhAkum

Kb.i

Tok

To

To

kiing

kom

ki

imiM-i

.illv

ili-

in !

i.'iuf.

.it,.

Ton kyongphali

Ai".p'i|'
Asap. SApbo
\-viim. Syiimbo
;
I

Aebim. Chimbo
IV
O'ngnd
Tidok. Kridoi

the rerbftl radical,

KK

Mi.J

nosUutd.

Tin' latttt ibowt plainly tha Tflwtao


'!

i.t
i

r(5rbo

tin- mlji'i tiviil

iirirly

-,miiiu..ii,

Chimbo

Mini- Timbo'

it ia hot,
Imin i>f u.'i.U l>y humus l-I |>iv- .m-l ]i"-.t-h\i-., nuit>- liihiIuTht prft>ftZM an- oflt'll omittutl, as Ke-goba, Qoba, good, in l.iintu.
Mil, cM, AiW*, through the columns. The roat of thsoiflerencca b< long-

inB of

throughout 01 v.ry

1>'

Aryiim.

Mfl

Achiin.

i.

tin-

Le md

BoDibo
Gonto yeupo

)hho*npoBombo llombo

i;.ptii

Klinkn

Ldmo. Simbu

Chung bo

;,f.

'M)i'iilili-

Klial.ti

Arhiiiii. Ithumho
Azeu. Zeubo
Amyen. Myenbo
Akbam. Kiiambo
Krop
Akrini. Krimbo

Tippi5
Oirbii

I'lnin rliung

in . is

A/yen. Zyenabo
Ahyiim. flyiimbo

Mh&mteiii Mh<.>ur Anniu. MAubo

K.i.i

Ohing
Hun
Aryum.Ryiimbo

MArao

Thombo
MAbo

win

mo
mo

Khyii

jiuS

li\:il,

in

1'

MA bo

'

Mb

lomu

Noh

Mdvyo
Ntimmo
[Umbo
Thimuo
Thenbo

Srobbo. Rldpo

Ma

Nyen

tang.

U&po

Grub

Uml

GnS mo

.llmngii

Lap

Tek po

Hunger

Som

Lomu

cant

Bimbo
Tbdn riling

'

Mm

Nyon

Lap

Chochopo

\N

Nyon
Syea

give-cune

non, give-go

ifuliuf

Fnt
TbJn

CMn

lift

An.'ik. N'ukbn
A'diim. Dumbo
A'heur. Heurbo
Phfing phiing

Lmnpo

Bu

TM

Khiir hyup,

Kfi

Ohhtfug. i'lim

I'

liak song, five-go

Kh(ir

N&kpo

Lovol

Oyap

B.i di,

TyokW

"ui

Squaro

Sot

BSsyu.give-come

Karpa

......

ni

Bak

Seh

tfakjK)

/..li.ngl.hi.

mud

Lyo

Len.

Diing

Niikjipi

T(i

!i.

Nang

Ling
Diing
Syet

Kfikpo

EUngpo

It.

X.m. Hi

.Karpo

Tliuiunw.

Bin

Bo. Bi

Nngpn

Long

Small

rfKurpo
tfukpo

Bhort
Short

TAngo
K6k [6k

iGdrbo. Tuflpo

ll

Deung

Ndng. B4. Bak

/..iil.t

TMngbo

Dnnpo

Straight

r.'.-ti

Deu
Dyu
Pan kyap

Chobo
Gnormo

"""^"'

jiffi-?

Red

or

move

GnSn

Dong
Chdng

(li.i.ib..

Khiiko

wiiitu

Luk. Ding

Zieinbo

Dsolmo. *Ttigpo Jobd

Orooknd
Mark,

di, corns,

Mil cho bo

'in' P".

caret

Bitter

Wy

aba

Nfa

Teu

Gniinii.i

Bwoot
s..iir

ll.nl

S6ng
Long

Xhyangmo
Tenmo

Haw

<

Ohwe

l.-ip.

leppo
Dukpo

Cold

l.'i,,.

Syd

Gyok

Kill

'I'll], ril.il.-

H4M'

Sakmi
Li

Syok
Long
Det

Del

'

''''"" } """-

from em

Strike

Lepche,.

Rhiop
chiim

Di=move

Oyd

1>bul
*%
Tong

'""'

(livo I'

cord

Oyiige.

i-Gvug

Itun

T " "'

Gnu
Khd

here

JOro

walk

M.,i..,

Khdrd

'

ADdg

down

Sit

Gniini

Chum
Syd

Hong. Byon

Ono

S6ng. Oro. Oyu. Oyd. Song


Long
ACIihar

Go

BhMnior Lhipa

Strpa.

Tibetan, tpoktn.

torittin.

Shum

Ngii.

Bunwaj

>iffiinitii - of the Li pcha tongoe.


ir-Hmmfad, with the ponti?e form eophoni

;'

PART

II.

ON THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.*

clear

of the

outline, illustrated

Himalaya ,

is,

many

graphy, which derives so


in return to render

tion of its

own

by a sketch map of the principal natural divisions

and long has been, a great desideratum;

for physical geo-

from the other physical sciences,

aids

is

expected

back to them, without unnecessary delay, a distinct demarca-

by that alone researchers in so many departments


phsenomena they are conversant with to their

provinces, since

are enabled to refer the respective

appropriate

manner that

local habitations, in

shall be readily intelligible

causally significant, and wholly independent of the shifting and

unmeaning arron-

dissements of politics.

our knowledge of the large portion of these mountains, lying

It is true, that

beyond the

limits of British dominion, is far

ledge any thing like complete of our

own

from complete.

hill-possessions ?

But

and,

if

is

our know-

we

are

to

wait until Nepal, Sikim, and Bhutan become thoroughly accessible to science,

must we

may

indefinitely postpone

not

(I think) be

The

a work, the most material part of which

performed with such information as

we now

possess ?

of geography, ordinarily so called, are wearisomely insignificant

details

but the grand features of physical geography have a pregnant value, as being alike
suggestive of

new knowledge, and

ready retention of old.


exhibit

men
I

them

facilitative

of the orderly distribution and

purpose to adhere to those grand features, and to

in that causal connexion

which gives them

their high interest

with

of cultivated minds.

had been

for several years a traveller in the

of that tyranny of the senses,

which

the conviction that the mighty

of this stupendous scenery with

without a plan.

My

first

step

Himalaya, before

I could get rid

so strongly impresses almost all beholders

maze

is

quite

towards freedom from this overpowering obtru-

*ExtracteJ from the Selections from the Records of the Government of Bengal, No,
(Reprinted from the Jour. As. Soc. Bengal for 1849.)
The compound is Himalaya, not Himalaya as
place of.
Hima 'snow,' Alaya
The synonymes Himaehala and Himodaya (whence the Classic
usually pronounced.
JEmoolus) mean, respectively, 'snowy mountain' and 'place of appearance of snow (udaya).
xxvii, Calcutta 1857.

'

'

GEOGEAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

was obtained by steady attention

siveness of impressions of sense

Himalayan waters flows more or

vast volume of the

the

Himalaya, but so that the numberless streams of

to the general direction of the

the mountains are

to the fact, that

less at right angles

directed into a few grand rivers of the plains, either at or near

My next step

the confines of the two regions.

was due to the singular significance


whose " Sapt Gandaki " and

of the topographic nomenclature of the Nepalese,

" Sapt Kausika


"J

rivetted

me

the Himalayas, urging

operated this marked

my

attention

upon the peculiar aqueous system of

thenceforward to discover,

if possible,

them into a limited series of distinct main rivers.


was achieved when I discovered that the transcendant

My

so as to bring
last step

what cause

convergence of innumerable transverse parallel streams,


third and

elevation

and

forward position, at right angles to the line of ghats, of the great snowy peaks,
presented that causal agency I was in search of;

the remotest radiating points

of the feeders of each great river being coincident with the successive loftiest masses*

belonging to the entire extent of the Himalaya.

It

was

in

Nepal that

tion of these problems occurred to me, and so uniformly did the

this solu-

numerous routes

I possessed represent the points of extreme divergence of the great rivers

feeders as syntopical with the

have

satisfied

myself upon the subject,

had not so decidedly

insisted

by their

highest peaks, that I should probably long ago


if

my

then correspondent, Captain Herbert,

on the very opposite doctrine

to

wit, that

the

great peaks intersect instead of bounding the principal alpine river basins.

Captain Herbert's extensive personal conversancy with the Western Himalaya,

added
of

to his

my own

high professional
views.

But the

made me

for a long time diffident

progress of events, and

increasing knowledge of

attainments,

other parts of the chain, seeming to confirm the accuracy of those views,
to

me more

were

not,

officer's

carefully to investigate

whether the

facts

it

occurred

and the reason of the case

upon the whole, demonstrative of the inaccuracy of that able and lamented

dogma.

Doubtless the Western Hirualaya presents appearances calculated

to sustain Captain Herbert's opinion, whilst such persons only as are

to deal with the classifications of science, will

expect

by point with those natural phenomena, which

it

is

them

to

unaccustomed

correspond point

at least one chief merit of

such arrangements, merely to enable us readily to grasp and retain.


the entire body of facts

now within

our ken

is

H.'s doctrine,t and that that doctrine suits

Geology and Geography,

is,

I think, certain

ceed to attempt the proof of

upon the whole opposed


ill

and

But that
to Captain

with the recognized axioms of


I shall with diffidence

now

pro-

it.

JSee Journal Asiat. Soc. of Bengal, No. 198, for December 1848, p. 646 &c.
*This expression is used advisedly, fr every pre-eminent elevation of the Himais not so much a peak as a cluster of peaks springing from a huge sustaining and
connected base. But observe, some of the peaks are not advanced before the ghatline, but thrown back behind it, as Chumalari and Devadhunga or Nyanam.
These
do not influence the aqueous system of the Indian slope of Himalaya see on, to
remark on Chumalari. This is a new inference from new facts in part.
The Western Himalaya, as it approaches the Belur, is in many respects anomalous,
owing, as I conceive, to the crossing of that meridional chain.
The true and normal

laya

Himalaya

is parallelic or runs west and east.


t Journal No. 126, extra pp. 20 and 22.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

may

question than
readers
it

is,

tyro in geology, I shall not dwell further on the" theoretical side of the

but the

be requisite to

facts,

facilitate

quoad Nepal

and the following obseiwations,

always remembered
lish the general

and complete the apprehension of

at least, I trust, that

may

my

render sufficiently indisputable

it

being

that I deal with generals, not particulars, aiming to estab-

accuracy of

my main proposition,

viz.,

that the great peaks, bound

instead of intersecting the alpine river basins, and that, in truth, the peaks

bounding

my

sketch map, rude as

create the basins,

whereas their

The whole Himalaya extends from 78

intersection

deg. to

by

so

would destroy them.

94 deg. of longitude, comprising

peak of Jamnoutri peak of Nanda-devi (A),


peak of Dhoula-giri (B), peak of Gosain-than (C), peak of KangchanJ (D), peak
of Chumalhari (E), peak of the Gemini
which peaks include and constitute
the following peaks and basins:

(a),

(e)

the following alpine river basins,


that of the

viz.,

that of the Ganges, that of the Karnali,

Gandak, that of the Cosi, that of the Tishta, that of the Monas, and

that of the Subhansri (pars).


position of these

The subjoined

table exhibits the elevation

dominant peaks, with the authority

for both.

and the

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

Gnari, extending (from the Belur) easterly to the Gangri boundary range

or
of

Lake Mapharn

Utsang, thence stretching to the Gakbo River beyond Lhasa

and Kharn, which reaches from the Gakbo River


range of China and Tibet.

we

leading into Tibet,

westward

with their casual distribution,

1st,

Yiinling, or limitary

to the

to the regions south of the line of ghats

clearly defined, the several

have,

divisions of the Himalaya,

from the

Thus reverting

||

the

alpine basin of the

natural provinces or

as follows,

peak of Jamnoutri to the peak of Nanda-devi (Juwar or Juwahir),


words, from east long. 78 12' to 79 50'

commencing

Ganges, extended from the


other

or, in

2nd, the alpine basin of the Karnali,

reaching from the peak of Nanda-devi to that of Dhoula-giri, or from 79 50' to


83

3rd, the alpine basin of the

to that of Gosain-than, or

Gandak, stretching from the peak of Dhoula-giri

from 83 to 86

4th, the alpine basin of the Cosi, ex-

tending from the peak of Gosain-than to that of Kangchan, or from 80 to 88


10'

5th, the alpine basin of the Tishta, reaching from

that of Chumalhari. or from 88 10' to 89 18'


nas, stretching
to

92

50'

the peak of

6th, the

from the peak of Chumalhari

Kangchan

alpine basin of the

to that of Gemini, or

to

M6-

from 89

18'

and, lastly, the alpine basin of the Subhansri, of which the western

limit is the Gemini, but the eastern peak

somewhere about 94

50',

is

unascertained.

It

should be sought

between which point and the extreme eastern limits

Himalaya must be the basin of the Dihong. That the above distribution
Himalaya into natural districts is, upon the whole, as consistent with the
as it is eminently commodious and highly suggestive, I have no hesitation

of the

of the
facts

upon the

trench

men who

are

my present essay to undue limits, or


Waugh and the other able professional

Lest, however, I should extend

of asserting.

province of Colonel

now engaged upon

alpine valley of the

the western

say nothing further of the

hills, I shall

Ganges and those west of

it,

nor upon those lying east of

Sikim.*
If

and

my

main assumption be

valid, it will

better furnished ones than

expositions will be

mine

be easily worked out by abler hands

wherefore the

following

chiefly confined to the three great

Karnali, the Gandak, and the Cosi.


sively

In the

first

central

of these basins

more detailed
basins

we have

of

the

(succes-

from west to east) the Sarju, the Gori, the Kali, the Sweti-ganga, the Karnali

proper, the Bheri, and

the Jhingrak or Rapti.f

And

it is

certain that,

whereas

See Routes from Kathmandu to Peking in sequel and paper on Horsok and Sifan.
Sifan is the eastern boundary of Kham, which commences, on the line of route from
Nepal at Sangwa, the 51st stage, and extends to Tachindo, the 104th and political
boundary of Tibet and China. The Yiinliiig chain seems to run along the western
||

verge, of Sifan.

* In the sequel I shall give the river basins of the Western Himalaya upon the
authority of Dr. Thomson, in order to complete the enumeration of Himalayan disDr. T. 's river distribution proceeds
tricts, but simply as results, and without discussion.
on the same principle as mine, which was published three years prior to his. I think
he has needlessly increased the number of basins and thereby almost marred the effect
of the causal connection of them with the geological structure of the mountains.
+ This identification is probably erroneous, though adopted by Buchanan.
The
Jhingrak with a higher source is turned into the Karnali by the Dhoula-giri ridge
the proximate Raputi is not so influenced, owing to its lower source, and hence
has an independent course through the plains to the Ganges, like the Gumti, etc., as
enumerated in the sequel.
;

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

these streams drain the whole alpine valley of the Karnali, so their most westerly source

and course

most easterly

confined on the west hy the Nanda-devi peak, as their

is

wholly unite within the


they are

known by one name, even

nominated by the

collective

lowers into Kenar).

These rivers do not

of Dhoula-giri.

though their tendency to union

hills,

Sarju or Kali or Ghdgra.

is

hy that

limited on the east

is

in the plains,

In the

name

Karnali

is

where

is so

decided, that

their collective appellation

the whole of them are universally de-

hills

of Karnali (corrupted by Tlennell and his fol-

the proper nanie of this noble river, the Karnali

branch being by far the largest, the central, and most remote of origin.

It rises

in Tibet, not far from one of the sources of the Sutlej, and has a considerable Trans-

Himalayan course

No

westward of the Taklakhar

to the

more

natural district can be

above defined.
Britain,

Baisi, or

''

where

quits Tibet.

it

Kali-Kumaun, belonging

to

twenty-two Bajes of Nepal, with Yiimila or Jiimla,

we

In the second basin, or that of the Gandak,

have, succes-

from the west, as before, the Barigar, the Narayani, the Sweti-gandaki, the
These are the " Sapt Gan-

Marsyangdi, the Daramdi, the Gandi, and the Trisul.


daki

pass,

than the alpine basin of the Karnali, as

It includes the political divisions of

and of the

Ddti, and Sallyan.


sively

distinct

or seven

Gandaks

of the mountains at

of the Nepalese, and they unite on the plainward verge

They

Tirbeni above Saran.

drain the whole hills between

Dhoula-giri and Gosain-than, the Berigar, and one head of the Narayani, rising

from the former


its affluents

barrier,

from the

and the

Trisul,

Nor does

latter.

with every drop of water supplied by

a single streamlet of the Trisul arise east of

the peak of Gosain-than, nor one driblet of the Berigar deduce itself from the

We have thus in the

westward of Dhoula-giri.

alpine basin of the

Gandak another

admirably defined natural division comprised within two great proximate HimaThis division

layan peaks.

named, vernacularly, the Sapt Gandaki.

is

cludes the old Choubisi or twenty-four Bajes, and belongs to the

It

in-

modern kingdom

of Nepal.

Our

third sample of

Himalayan natural province, conterminous with the

utmost spread of the feeders of a large

snowy peak,

is

feeders These are as follows

the Likhu, the

Dud

Cosi, the

the

is

and bounded on either hand by a prime

Gandak

,has seven principal

Milamchi, the Bhotia Cosi, the

Arun, and the Tamor.*

rising from Gosain-than, is the

gchan,

river,

the basin of the Cosi, which, like the

Of

most westerly, and the Tamor,

And

the most easterly feeder.f

those

Tamba

Cosi,

these, the Milamchi,


rising

from Kan-

two great peaks, with the pre-

eminent ridges they send forth southwards, include every drop of water that reaches
the great Cosi of the plains through

its

as in the case of the Gandak, unite at

the

hills, so

peaks and

seven alpine branches.

All these branches,

(Varaha Kshetra above Nathpiir) within

that the unity of this alpine basin also

is

as clear, as are its limitary

its extent.

Tamor, Hindi equivalent to Tamvar, Sanskrit. So Dhoula-giri for Dhawala-giri,


I have throughout adopted the vernacular forms of
for Jamnavatari.
words as being more familiar and quite as correct.
t See J. A. S. No. 189. Route from Kathmandii to Daijeeling.
*

and Jamnoutri

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

b
The

alpine basin of the Cosi

is

denominated by the Nepalese the Sapt Kausika,

or country of the seven Cosis.

It comprises the

Limbiis, and Kala Makwanis, and

is

modern kingdom

old Rajes'of the Kinintis,*

included, like the

two

prior basins, in the

of Nepal.

The country drained by the above three

rivers

(Karnali, Gandak, and Cosi)

includes the whole of Nepal and the proximate part of Kiiinaun, or, in other

words, 800 miles of the central and most characteristic portion of the Himalaya.

Wherefore

it

legitimately presumable that, whatever

is

divisions, is true of

is

true of

its

natural

those of the residue, quoad ruling principle and geological

causation.

Now

if

the above facts relative to these

(and that they are

why

to inquire

three rivers be justly represented

in the main, I confidently assert),

so,

we

are led irresistibly

the numerous large feeders of the rivers, instead of urging their

impetuous way from the snows to the plains by independent courses, are brought
together upon or near the verge of the plains ? how unity is effected among them,

maze of ridges they traverse, and despite the straightdownward impulse given them at their sources ? I answer, it is because of
despite the interminable

the superior elevation of the lateral barriers of these river basins, between which
there are synclinal slopes of such decided preponderance, that they over-rule the

how

effect of all other inequalities of surface,

vast soever the latter

may some-

times be.

These lateral barriers of the river basins are crowned by the pre-eminent
Himalayan peaks, that the peaks themselves have a forward position in respect
to the ghat-line or great longitudinal

watershed between Tibet and India, and that


from these stupendous peaks, ridges are sent forth southwards proportionably immense. Thus from the peak of Kangchan is sent forth the ridge of Singilela, which

towers as

loftily

Western Sikim,

over

all

as does

This Singilelan

the other sub-Himalayan ridges of Eastern Nepal and

Kangchan

prolongation

over

itself

the waters. of the Cosi and of the Tishta.


stretching south from the great peak of

waters of the Cosi and of the Gandak.


as effectually sunders the waters of the

all

the other Himalayan peaks.

speak) of

(so to

Kangchan

entirely

similar ridge, that of

separates

Dayabkang,f

Gosain-than, as entirely divorces the

Another

like ridge rising

Gandak and

from Dhoula-giri

Another startmanner wholly separates the proximate feeders of


the Karnali and of the Ganges whilst yet another originating with Jamnoutri
of the Karnali.

ing from Nanda-devi in like

wholly separates the Ganges from the Jumna.


Equally
ridges,

the

effective

which run

with the divergent power of each of these supremely peaked


and at right angles to the ghat-line of

parallel to each other

snowy range, upon two

river-basins, as just noticed, is of course the convergent

* The classical Cirrhatce, and a' once dominant and powerful race, though
they have
long since succumbed to the political supremacy of other races first the Makwanis
and then the Gorkluilis.
t Hence the name Dhailn'mg, erroneously applied by Colonel Crawfurd to the peak
Dayahhang, 'the destroyer of pity,' from the severity of the ascent.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.


power of two ridges upon the

single contained river-basin.

The

synclinal lines

from the inner laces of the two adjacent ridges draw the waters together;
because these ridged peaks are the
of

all their

the snows,

loftiest

and,

masses of the entire mountains, the effect

other masses, even that of the spine of Himachal or the ghat-line of

is

over-ruled or modified, so that in the most rugged region on earth

a very limited series of distinct main rivers appears in the plains from innumerable

independent alpine feeders, in the manner which


of referring to

its

all

behold, but few indeed think

cause.*

with

It is inconsistent

all

we know

of the action of those hypogene forces

raise mountains, to suppose that the points of greatest

which

intensity in the pristine

marked by the loftiest peaks, should not be surrounded


by a proportionate circumjacent intumescence of the general mass and, if there be

action of such forces, as

such an intumescence of the general surface around each pre-eminent Himalayan


peak,

it

will follow, as clearly in logical sequence as in plain fact it is apparent,

that these grand peak-crowned ridges will determine the essential character of the

aqueous distribution of the very extended mountainous chain (1,800 miles) along

which they occur at


tributed into a small

Now,

that

in fact, pretty regularly

dis-

certain palpable and tolerably regular intervals.

the infinite volume of the Himalayan waters

number

thoroughly explicable upon

of large rivers,

my

of intersecting, the river-basins,

we

is,

all see

and, whereas the fact

is

assumption, that the great peaks bound, instead


it is

wholly inexplicable upon Captain Herbert's

assumption that the said peaks intersect the basins.

The above

are

normal samples

very observable that, whereas

all

of

Himalayan water-distribution, and

it is

those principal streams which exhibit the uniti-

zing principle so decidedly, take their origine in the alpine region, at or near the

snows, so the inferior streams, which rise from the middle region only, show no

such tendency to union, but pursue their solitary routes to the Ganges
example, the Mahanada, the Konki, the
(

Willa, and the

Ramganga.

Here

is

as for

Bagmatti, the Guniti, the Raputi, the

both positive and negative evidence in favour

of the doctrine I advocate, as furnishing the key to the aqueous system and natural
divisions of the

Himalaya;

for the

upper rivers do, and the lower rivers do not,

stand exposed to the influence of the great peaks.

The petty streams

of the lower region, or that next the plains,

which water

the Dhiins or Maris, traverse those valleys lengthwise; and as the valleys themselves

run usually parallel to the ghat-line of the snows, such


these petty streams.

In the central, as in the western,*

bogue into the rivers of the

is

hills,

also the

direction of

they usually disem-

first class.

* Since this was written a new peak of transcendant height has been determined,
which yet does not influence the river basins of the Indian slope. The reason is that
this peak is thrown back behind tbe ghat-line like Chumalhari, as to which see on.
Such facts need not affect the justice of what is written above, but must be regarded

as exceptional, at least for the present.


* J. A.S. No. 126, p. xxxiii.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

I have observed that the three great river basins of the

Cosi extend throughout Nepal, and truly so


space drained

which the

by

But

feeders.

its

deltic basins of the

the most conspicuous in Nepal

Gandak.

many

Karnali, Gandak, and

for a river basin includes the widest

results

Himalayan

between the plainward

intervals

it

necessarily from the

manner

in

rivers are formed, that there should be

Of

apices of these deltic basins.

these intervals

that which intervenes between the Cosi and

is

This tract, watered by the Bagmatti, deserves separate mention on

accounts, and

it

may

be conveniently styled the valley region, since

tains not only the great valley of

Nepal proper, but

it

con-

also the subordinate vales of

Chitlong, Banepa, and Panouti.


It has

been already remarked, that the classifications of physical geography, as of

the other sciences, do not constitute a perfect " open sesame " to the mysteries of
nature, but only a material help to their study.

This observation I will illustrate

by a few comments on the basin of the Tishta,


tend

for;

but contend

for,

somewhat anomalous
impugn the doctrine I con-

lest the

instance of that basin should be captiously quoted to

not as exhibiting in every instance an absolute confor-

mity with natural arrangements, but as doing

all

that can be reasonably expected

way, and as furnishing, upon the whole, a generally

in that

significant,

and practically

I have stated above, that the basin of the Tishta extends

Kangchan
miners

Between

to that of Chumalhari.

call " a fault "

truthful, causally

useful, indication of those arrangements.

in the ghat-line of

from the

peak of

two peaks there occurs what


the snows, which line, after proceeding
these

Easterly from the Lachen pass to Powhanry,J dips suddenly to the south for

N.

nearly forty miles, and then returns to Chumalhari.

Chunibi

is

of the Tishta

which
that

is

cuts off the Chiimbi district from the

the Machii of Campbell, which

may

and the basin

thus narrowed on the east by this salient angle of the snows,


Tishtan basin, instead of allowing

basin to stretch easterly to the base of Chumalhari.

but which

triangular space called

thus detached from the Himalaya and attached to Tibet

is

Chiimbi

is

drained by

doubtfully referred to the Torsha of the plains,

possibly be identical with the

Hachu of Turner and Griffiths, and


But besides that these points
feeders of the Tishta rounds Pow-

consequently with the Gaddada of the plains.


are

still

unsettled, one of the

transnivean

Waugh's outline of the snowy range of Sikim, J. A. S. loc. cit.


Embassy to Tibet and J. A. S. Nos. 87 and 88, with sketch maps annexed.

X Vide

Rennell is not easily reconAlso Pemberton's large map of the Eastern frontier.
I had identified the lakes of Cholanni, which give rise to the Tishcilable with them.
lakes.
I
Turner's
But
now
learn
from
Hooker,
that
the latter lie a good deal
ta, with
east of the former, and I am satisfied that Campbell's Machii is distinct from Turner's
Hachu. We need, and shall thus find, space in the hills, correspondent to that in the
plains watered by Rennell's Torsha and Saradingoh and Gaddada and Suncosi.
The
The Machii, (Maha tchieu of Turner) rises from the west flank of Chumalhari
Hachu of Turner is a feeder joining his Tehin chii from the west the Chaan chu of
Turner is the Sunc6si (the Eastern Suncosi, for there are two there, besides that of Nepal, ) of Rangpur, his Tehin chu is the Gaddada, and his Maha chu the Torsha.
The
Aran has its rise in the broken country of Tibet lying north-east and west of the
sources of the Tishta and south of the Kambala, or great range forming the southern
boundary of the valley of the Yaru
this broken country Dr. Hooker estimates at
from sixteen to eighteen thousand feet above the sea.
It is a good deal terraced near
;

Hirndchal.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.


haniy and

way

or another, the Tishta

from Kangchan
Chiimbi and
singular as

is

from a lake (Cholarnii) approximating to Chunialhari

rises

to

all

may

much

be said, without

tract,

so that, one

violence, to spread

basin

its

Chumalhari.
the adjacent parts of the plateau of Tibet constitute a region as

the access to

it

from Sikim by the Lachen

pass.

mounted, you at once find yourself, without descent, upon

swardy

That pass

sur-

an open undulated

through which the eastern transnivean feeders of the Tishta and

of the Arvin sluggishly and tortuously creep, as though loath to pass the Ilinia
laya, towards

which indeed

it

how

not easy to perceive

is

they are impelled

the plateau of Tibet generally sloping on their right to Digarchi, and seeming to
invite the streams that

way. This is however of course a water-shed, though by no


means a palpable one and we know by the signal instances of the vast rivers of
South America and those of North-eastern Europe, how inconspicuous some;

times are the most important water-sheds of the globe.

The sources and courses


by Dr. Hooker, my

of the feeders of the Tishta will shortly be fully illustrated

whom

enterprizing and accomplished guest, to

Lachen pass and

tion relative to the

Sikim, which state

is

am indebted for the above informaand whose promised map of

its vicinity,

the political equivalent

for the basin of the

Tishta, will

leave nothing to be desired further on that head.*

But the Himalaya must


its

length

necessarily be contemplated in its breadth as well as

and we have therefore

still

to consider

what

regional divisions belong

to these mountains in relation to their breadth, or the distance

The Himalayan mountains extend from the great bend


bend of the Brahmaputra, or from Gilgit
length

is

1,800 miles.

maximum, about

ninety miles

which
sions

may

to

Their mean breadth

purposely omitting the questions


the

between the ghat-

snows and the plains of India.

line of the

(reckoning from the ghats and

is

of axis and count erslope) about ninety miles;

minimum, seventy

110, and the

miles.

The mean breadth of

be most conveniently divided into three equal portions, each of

These transverse climatic divi-

will therefore have thirty miles of extent.

must

of the Indus to the great

Brahmakiind, between which their

be, of course,

more or

less arbitrary,

and a microscopic vision would

be disposed to increase them considerably beyond three, with reference to geological, to

botanical, or

to zoological,

tain Herbert's distribution of geological

and Dr. Hooker's of botanical, I


regions I

have

am

alreadyf denominated

phenomena.

But upon comparing Cap-

phenomena with my own


satisfied

of zoological,

that three are enough.

the lower, the

These

middle, and the upper.

They extend from the external margin of the Tarai to the ghat-line of the snows.
The lower region may be conveniently divided into
I. the sand-stone range
with its contained Dhuns or Maris II. the Bhaver or Saul forest III. the Tarai.
The other two regions require no sub-divisions.
The following appear to be

those demarcations by height which most

*The

fitly

indicate the three regions

reader will observe that this paper was written in 1846.


S. for December 1847 and June 1848.

i J. A.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALATA.

to
Name.

Lower

Elevational limits.

Level of the plains to 4,003

region

Central region

measured
is

sea.

10,000 to 16,000f feet above the sea: highest peak

Upper region

It

above the

f -et

4,000 to 10,000 feet above the sea.

needless to remind those

who

is

23,002

feet.

are conversant with physical geography,

f
that in passing in a tropical country, by a long and gradual ascen , from near the

sea level to several (4-6) miles above

it,

one iumt necessarily meet with regions

equivalent, quoad organic phsenomena, to the three great zones of the earth, or the
tropical, the temperate,

and the

arctic; and, in fact,

our three regions above indicated

Correspond in the main with those zones, and might be


desirable to avoid terms involving theory,

it is

But

will suffice.

to be

more

to resume.

It is

named

after

them, but that

those designating mere facts

thus made apparent that the Himalaya, or,

precise, the Indian slope of the

of natural and

when

Himalaya, admits of a double

series

convenient divisions, those of length being coincident with the

basins of the main livers, and those of breadth with a triple division on the scale of
elevations, from that of the plains to that of the perpetual snow,

which

latter tallies

pretty nearly with the

mean

teen thousand

But, as the plains are customaiily divided into the upper,

central,

feet.

height of the passes into Tibet, or sixteen to seven-

and lower provinces, so the Himalaya, in reference to

when

Conveniently divided,

may

length,

its

be

larger divisions than those of the river basins need

to be spoken of, into the western, embracing the basins of the Jhilum, Chinab,

Bias, Ravi, Satluj,


tral,

Jamna, Ganges, Ghagra, within the British

territories

the cen-

including the basins of the Karnali, the Gandak, and the Cosi, within those of

Nepal; and the eastern, embracing the basins of the Tishta, Monas, Subhansri,

and Dihong, which include Sikim, (now half British), Bhutan, and the

And

of the disunited lawless tribes lying east of Bhutan.


that, in respect of climate, the

and mountains correspond,

it

is

territories

very observable

above suggested analogous divisions of the plains

for the

more you go westward

in plains or mountains,

the greater becomes the dryness of the air and the extremes of heat and cold.

But the grand determiner


Himalaya,

is

elevation,

which

of climate, as dependent on heat, in


acts so powerfully

and uniformly, that

all

parts of the

for every thou-

sand feet of height gained, you have a diminution of temperature equal to 3 3 or


3|

of Fahrenheit:

consequently the transverse regions, notwithstanding their

proximity, show, upon the whole, a


incident to the

than

is

they

may

is

be.

somewhat

But

much more

palpable

lengthwise divisions of the chain,

variety of

how remote

climate

soever

in reference to moisture, the next element of climate, the case

altered, for every

movement towards the west (N.W.) along the

lengthwise development of the Himalaya, carries you further and further out of
It is
% This is aliout the average height of the ghats and of the perpetual snow.
also nearly the limit of possible investigation, and of the existence of organic phseno-But the upward limit need not lie rigorously assigned
mena.
4,000 is the limit
of snow-fall to the south, well tested in thirty years
4,000 is also that point which
best indicates the distinction of healthful and malarious sites.

GEOGRAPHY OP THE HIMALAYA.


which

the line of the rainy monsoon,

The

II

the grand source of supply of moisture.

is

third determining and very active cause of climate operates throughout the

chain, determining chiefly the specific differences.

It consists in

height, and direction of the ridges interposed between


direction of the S.

W.

monsoon

or rainy

for,

the number,

any given position and the

each of these ridges, crossing more

or less directly the course of the vapour from the ocean, has a most

marked

effect

in diminishing the quantity of rain and moisture behind such covering ridge, so
that,

inasmuch as by receding from the plains towards the snows, you interpose
ridges, you find not only temperature falling with eleva-

more and more of these


tion

gained (as a general rule,) but also greater dryness of

sunshine, (and so far

more heat)

air, less

moisture,

more

and, as a general consequence, a gradual diminu-

tion of that excessive natural vegetation, arboreal

versal characteristic of these mountains; yet

still

and other, which

is

the uni-

with greater power in the

cli-

mate of these remoter districts of ripening grains and fruits of artificial growth,
owing to the diminished rain and increased sunshine of summer, and in spite of
the general decrease of the temperature of the

heat and moisture to which

we owe

air.

That combination of

tropical

the generally " gorgeous garniture " of

moun-

tains so stupendous has, at low elevations, the bad effect of generating a malaria
it, and
fatal to all but the peculiar tribes, whom ages untold have been inured to
whose power of dwelling with impunity in such an atmosphere is a physiological fact

of very great interest.

The

tribes adverted to are called

name of malaria.
The whole of what I have denominated

Awalias, from

dival,

the

the "lower-region," as well as

all

the deep

beds of the larger rivers of the "central region," lying much below what I have
given as the elevational demarcation of the two regions, or four thousand feet, are
subject to the dioal.

After what has been stated,


rain-fall,

and moisture, could,

if

it

will be seen at once, that tables of temperature,

given, only hold true of the exact spots where

they were registered.

The

latitude in a small

degree, but in a far greater, the longitude, or posi-

the number of intertion with reference to the course of the rainy monsoon
posed ridges crossing that course and the elevation, are the circumstances determining the heat and moisture, that is, the climate, of any given spot of the Eastern,

Central, or

Western Himalaya.

There are amazing differences of climate in

very proximate places of equal elevation, caused


ridges,

and

also, as

by

their relative position to covering

has been proved experimentally, by the effects of clearance of

the forest and undergrowth, and letting in the sun upon the

The general

course of the seasons

is

soil.

the tropical, with cold and dry weather, from

October to March, and wet and hot weather from April to September, correspondent
The springs and autumns, howto the duration of the N.E. and S.W. monsoons.
ever, are

more

clearly

marked than the

latitude

would promise, and from the middle

of September to the
of March to the middle of May, and again, from the middle
From the middle of December
middle of December, the weather is delightful.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

12
to the end of February

is

the least agreeable portion of the year, being cloudy and

make the wet tell disagreeably, which it does


The general character of the climate

rainy or snowy, with cold enough to

not do in the genial season of the rains.


is

from

derived

combined

its

For
day and night, and that about " tempe-

and great equability and temperateness.

months the thermometer hardly ranges

rate" of Fahrenheit, or the perfection of temperature


is

The wind

enjoyable in the world.


the "

Phagwa "

of electricity

unknown
must be

of the

is,

in and close

N.W.

and altogether, the climate

so that

would be

it

Epidemics are very rare

difficult to cite

endemics almost

a Himalayan, disease, unless such

Goitre is more or less prevalent, but not


The general character of the surface in all

a perpetual succession of vast

is

very narrow interposed glens.


in fact, only

ridges,

also are small

or three in

But

it

accom-

parts of the

highly sloped, and having

Gilgit to

There

are,

Brahmakimd, or those

latter only sixteen miles in either

and very infrequent.

Western Nepal (Pokra),

whole nearly.

often

Valleys properly so called are most rare.

two throughout the great extent from

Cashmere and Nepal, the


Lakes

The quantity

on the whole, small, and storms are nearly confined to the setting

called dyspepsia.

Himalaya

when

generally moderate, except in March,

is

plains reach us, but shorn of its fervour.

of the rainy season.

panied by cretanism.

of

one of the safest (I here speak of the central and normal region) and most

Three or four

diameter.

in Kiimaiin,

and two

in both cases juxta-posed, constitute the

seems certain that lakes were more frequent in some prior

geological era, and that the present valleys of

Cashmere and Nepal once existed in

a lacastrine state.

The Himalayan

remarkable for the absence of chasm and rupture,

ridges are

and their interminable uniform

lines,

with the similarity of tone in the verdure of

the ceaseless forests, (owing to the rarity of deciduous trees), detract

from those impressions of grandeur and beauty, which mountains

and so magnificently clothed are calculated


division of the Himalaya,

shall

The

transverse or climatic

though of course most noticeable and important in

reference to organic phsenomena,


ones.

to convey.

however say

is

little

worth attention,

also

the

of

geology

in regard to inorganic

or of the botany

Himalaya, abler pens than mine having now treated the subject.
space

may

somewhat

so stupendous

of

A little

the

more

be given to the ethnology and zoology, both as matters I myself am

more conversant with, and which

still

have a deal of novelty in reference to geo-

graphical distributions particularly.

Every part of the chain abounds


zinc, sulphur,

and

plumbago, in

insipid, are generally diffused,

flame issuing in the fashion

which

superstition

mineral

is

snows.

has

and I

and copper

consecrated.
:

salt is

also the precious metals.

lead,

Mineral springs, both hot and cold, sapid

am aware

of other instances of lambent

the well-known Jwalamukhi

of

very rare as a deposit

So

in minerals, particularly iron

less degree.

There

is

of the Punjab,

no lime-formation,

unknown, though

it

and the

abounds across the

Minerals and mineral springs are most

frequent in the central region, so likewise the iron and copper veins: organic

fossil

remains and the small traces of coal, almost or quite peculiar to the lower region,

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.


arid far

may

more abundant

N.W. than

to the

may be added

It

that granite

is

much more

extensively developed

had been supposed, and that igneous rocks are by no

in the upper region than

means

the middle region that of

the lower region that of the sandstone formation and of

gneisses and schists;


diluvial debris.

to the S.E.

granites and gneisses

be called the locale of

13

In geology the upper region

so entirely wanting:

indeed, igneous action

displayed to a stupendous

is

extent in the hypogene rocks, both stratified and unstratified, of the upper and
Slight earthquakes

There are no volcanos, active or extinct.

central regions.

are very frequent

severe ones, rare

In botany the upper region

is

very severe ones, unknown.

that of Junipers, Cypresses, Cedars, Larches,

Yews, Poplars, Boxes, Dwarf Rhododendrons,

Hollies, Willows, Walnuts, Birches,

and, in general, of the superior Conifers, particularly to the S.E., for to the

N.W.

they descend into the middle region, even the stately Cedar, which however

unknown

east of Kiimaun.

and Willows

It is the region of Oaks, Chesnuts,

recur.

is

In the second or central region* Birches, Hollies,

Horse Chesnuts, Magnolias,

Laurels, Alders, Tree Rhododendrons, Cherry and Pear Trees

(large

and wild),

Oleas (forest trees), Maples or Sycamores, Thorns, Ashes, Elms, Horn-beams,


Elders, Taper and

Wax Trees,

which has succeeded

Tea Allies, (Eurya and Thea

and peculiar Palms (Chamoerops,

The

also,t as

an importation

to perfection, but chiefly below 4,000, Tree Ferns,

third or lower region

is

etc.),

and the inferior

that of Sauls (Shorea)

some few

sorts of Pines.

Sissus (Dalbergia), Acacias

and Mimosas, Tunds (Cedrela), Cotton Trees (Bombax), Tree Figs (Elasticus, Indicus, Religiosos, etc.),

common Palms
more

Buteas, Dillenias, Duabangas, Erythrinas, Premnas,

(Phoenix),

etc.,

rarely than above perhaps, though the Tree and

and small bamboos, may

some

but rare and poor, with recurring Tree Ferns, but

common

Ferns, like the great

be said to be borderers, denoting by their point of

contact the transition from the lower to the central region.

Pinus longifolia

recurs in the lower region, descending to the plains nearly in Nepal, but most of

the other Conebearers in Nepal, and

still

more, east of

region, abundant as they are therein in the

it,

eschew even the central

Western Himalaya.

So likewise the

Tree Rhododendrons in the Eastern Himalaya are apt to retire to the northern
region,

though

Himalaya they abound

in the Central

In zoology, again, to

habitat of the Bhotiaa (Cis-Himalavan,

Kathbhotia,

whole

etc.,)

line of the

in the central region.

begin with man, the northern region

who with

called

their allies the

is

the exclusive

Palusen, Rongbo, Serpa, Siena,

Thakoras and Palrias extend along the

ghats, and who, with the name, have retained unchanged the

lingual and physical characteristics, and even the manners, customs,


their transnivean brethren.

each in their

own

province

Bors and Abors, the

To

and

dress, of

tbe central region are similarly confined, but

from east to west, the Mishmis and Mirris, the

Kapachors, the Akas, the Daphlas, (east of Bhutan), the

* X.B.
Central in length is called, central only, or central Himalaya; central of
breadth, central region.
+ Both tea and coffee plantations are now well advanced in the Eastern Himalaya,
with the surest prospect of success. In the Western Himalaya that success is now a fact
accomplished.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

14
Lhopas

(in

Bhutan), the Lepshas or Deunjongmaro (in Sikim), the Limbusor Yak-

tkumbas, the Yakhas, the Khorahos or Kirantis, the Miirmia or Taniars, the Pahi

Newars, the Sunwars, the Chepangs, the Kusundas, the Vaj*us

or Padhi, the

Kayus, the Giirungs, the Migars. the Khas or Khasias

or

(in Nepal), the Kohlis,

the Doms, the R.ijhis, the Haris, the Garhwalis, the Kanets, the Dogras,* the Kakkas, the

Bambas, the Gakars, the Dardus, the Dunghars (west from Nepal).

To

the lower region again, and to similarly malarious sites of the middle region, are
exclusively confined, the
it),

Kocches, the

Bodos, the Dhimals, (Sikim and east of

the Kichaks, the Pallas, the Tharus, the Denwars, the Kiimhas, the Bhramus,

the Dahis or Daris, the Kuswars, the Thamis, the Botias (not Bhotia) (in Nepal),
the Boksas (in Kiimaun), the Khatirs, the Awaus, the Janjohs, the Chibs, and
the Bahoas (west of Kiimaun to the Indus).

The Himalayan population


fold division of

is

intensely tribe-ish, and

the aboriginal Indian and

Indo-Chinese populations,

or unbroken tribes, such as the Khas, Magar,

Bodpa,

etc.

viz.,

first, into the

Chepang, Kusunda, and Ilayu

dominant

Gurung, Newar, Murmi, Lepsha,

second, into the broken tribes, such as nearly all those

as well as the

men

susceptible of a three-

is

pregnant significance, and quite analagous to what holds true of

termed Awalias,t

third, into the tribes of helot crafts-

Of the mountains

Chun ha,

Of the valley of Nepal.

of Nepal.

carpenters.

P6, executioners and workers in bamboo.

Kulu,

Sarki, curriers.

curriers.

Kami, blacksmiths.
Nay, butchers.
Sunar, gold and silver smiths. Chamakhala, scavengers.
Gain, musicians.
Bong, Jugi, musicians.
Bhanr, ditto, but prostitute
Kou, blacksmiths.
their women.
Dhusi, metallurgists.
Awa, architects.
Damai, tailors.
Agri, miners.

Kumhal

or

Kiuari,

Bali, agriculturists.

tters '

Nou, barbers.

Kuma,

poLters.

Sangat, washermen.

makers of shrouds.

Tatti,

Gatha, gardineis.

Sawo, bleeders

&

suppliers of leeches.

Chliipi, dyers.

Sikami, carpenters.
Dakami, house builders.

Lohongkami, stone
*

Cunningham

cutters.

Dardurs (Darada) and the Donghers to the upper region, as also the Kauets, who extend northward, beyond the HimaThey are of mixed
laya, wheie they even form "the mass" on either side the Satluj.
origin, like the Khas of Nepal, the Dogras of Punjab, and the Gadhi of Chamba.
t A list of Awalias 1 Kocch, 2 Bodo, 3 Dhimal, 4 Garo, 5 Dolkhali, 6 Batar or
Bor, 7 Kudi, 8 Hajong, 9 Dhanuk, lOMaraha, 11 Ain't, 12 Kebrat, 13Kichak, 14Palla,
15 Tharuh (not own name in Sallyan), 16 Boksa (Kumaon), 17 Dahi or Darhi (allied
to Bhramu), 18 Thami, 19 Pahi or Pahri (allied to Newar and Murmi), 20 Kumha (not
own name), 21 Botia (allied to Kuswar), 22 Kuswar, 23 Denwar (allied to two last),
24 Bhramu (allied to Dahi), 25 Vayu (not Awalias but broken tribe), 26 Chepang, and

The

late Captain

27

Kusunda

(ditto).

(in epist.

refers the

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

15

The position and affinities of the List are still (o me an enigma, as they were
when I adverted to them in my work on the Koceh, Bodo, and Dhimal. As blacksmiths,* carpenters, curriers,

their services are,

etc.,

and ever have been, invaluaTheir manners have

ble; yet they are degraded to the extent of being outcasts.

and their tongues nothing, and their physical attributes not much,

little,

Of

and lineage.

their race

more recent immigrants from the north, and

tribes are clearly the

are distinguished

to

d note

the other two masses of the population, the unbroken


in general they

by languages of the simpler Turanian type, whereas the languages

of the other or broken tribes are of the complex or pionornenalized type, tending,
their physical attributes, towards a -simulation with

like

monstrated by their relative position to be of

the Dravirian or

These broken

Ho, Sontal or Munda, sub-families of the tons of Tur.

far older date in the

the

tribes are de-

Himalaya

as in

Indo-China, and perhaps also in India, than the unbroken; and altogether, the
phsenoinena of ethnology in the Himalaya warrant the conclusions, that the

swarms from the great Turanian

layas were peopled by successive


its tribes

are

several others of the

Munda

shown

have

May

1833.)

In reference to

the north and


The Khas, Kanets and Dogras, and

of the south.}

Western Himalaya, are

Tartars by the mother's side, but Aiians


as I

in

my memoir

mixed breed; aboriginal

on the military tribes of Nepal.

European

those

clearly of

(Brahman and Kshetriya) by the

may remark

gration,

and

father's,

(J.A.S.B.

speculations touching the peopling of the

Indian continent which have been lately raised, chiefly on the basis of
bularies, I

Hima-

and that

traceably akin alike to the Altaic branch of

still

the Dravirian and

to

hive,

my

generally, that very remotely sundered peiiods of

voca-

immi-

from the north by no means involve totally different routes of immigration,


races so trenchantly

still less

demarked from

all

the priorly recognized ones

as have been lately assumed and denominated Gangetic, Lohitic, Taic, &c.

day multiplies the proofs of

affinity

Every

between the Himalayans and the recognized

sub-families of Altaia, Indo-China, and Draviria

whilst, abating the single fact

of the Brahoi tribe having lingual affinities with the Turanians, I see no safe

ground

assuming that the sons of Tur entered India generally or exclusively

for

by the well-known route of the immigrant Arians, or by any yet more southerly
The hundred gates of the Himalaya and of its off-shoots have stood open
route.
in all ages

beyond them, in

all

ages,

have dwelt the diversely tongued and fea-

tured tribes of the vastest, and most erratic, and most anciently widespread, but
still

and

single branch of the

human

feature, characterising that

countries,

so

believe

that

race

and, as I find similar diversities of tongue

branch alike
the

former

in

the Cis and Trans-Himalayan

have been peopled from the

by successive incursions along the whole Himalayan ghat

which there

is

line, of races

yet no sufficient ground for contra-distinguishing from

all

latti r

and tribes
the here-

the unbroken tribes, the Magar alone have their own miners and smiths.
See also a note
See and compare what is told of the old mines and miners of the, Altai.
work
on the Kocch Bodoand Diurnal.
in my
Nilgirians,
essays
on
the
on
also
two
Vayu
See
J.A.S.B.,
and
and Balling
paper
J
tribes, iu the same Journal ^1857).
*

Of

all

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

tofore recognized ones of the north.*

any

route, appears to

of the sons of
earliest
is

African immigration at any time, and by

a sheer assumption.

Tur entered by the Arian

route,

But

it

may

well be, that some

and that these were among the

immigrants, whose more westerly abode and point of entrance into India
indicated

still

me

by the higher structured tongues of

But we must not

their

complex tongues

forget that there are

presumed descendants.

at the eastern as well as

at the western extremity of the Altaic region (in its wide sense)

known

these tongues are most imperfectly

that

many

of

that Sifan and Central Himalaya and

Indo-China are now known to be tenanted by races speaking tongues of the complex type, some even more complex than the Dravirian, and more allied to the

Gond,

Ho and

differences

Sontaltype

and, above

that the essential character (including

all,

and resemblances) of the above adverted to several sub-types of lan-

guage, embracing the true

affiliation of

the races using them,

is

yet to be deter-

So that we can only now safely say that the general relationship of all the
sons of Tur in and beyond India is as certain as their more special and close

mined.

affinities are

But

uncertain.!

to proceed

sively belong,

with our zoological enumerations.

among

To

the upper region exclu-

the ruminants, the bisons (poephagus) and musks, the wild

goats (ibex, hemitragus) and wild sheep (pseudois, caprovis)

the marmots and

pikas (lagomys)

among

replace its

among

the rodents,

take the place of the bisons of the

In the middle region, true bovines (bos)


upper legion

plantigrades, the bears proper (ursus).

bovine and caprine antelopes (budorcas, capricornis, nemorhedus)

musks and wild goats and sheep common rats and mice, and hares and
and sun bears (helarctos) its
its marmots and pikas
;

porcupines and hedgehogs

true bears; whilst the deer family,

sented onlyj

ox-family

is

family, here

unknown

to the upper region,

is

here repre-

by the anomalous stilt-horns (stylocerus). In the lower region the


the deer
represented by bibos and bubalus (splendid wild types)
;

abundant, by rusas, rucervi, axises, and stilt-horns to boot

the

more particularly to the writings of Prof. Max Midler and Dr. Logan
one can more freely than myself admit the scholastic attainments and skill in the
science of grammar of the former, or the immense and skilful industry of the latter.
But I demur to their inductions, nor can I see the advantage of multiplying nominal,
We must have first
that is to say, undefined or crudely defined ethnological groups.
a just definition of the family, and thereafter, by and bye, definitions of the several
* I allude

No

sub-families already recognized, when the definition of the rest may follow.
See the essays on the Yayu and Balling now published in the Jour. As. Soc. Bengal,
[a.d. 1857].
"tin my papers on the Nilgirians and in those on the Vayu and Bailing, above alluded
to, I have classed the Himalayans under the two great divisions, of such as use pronomenalized and complex and such as use non-pronomenalized and simple tongues. In the
memoirs on the Vayu and Bailing, I have analysed their languages as exemplars of
The double pronomenalization of those
the complex type of speech in Himalaya.
two tongues, indicates their close affinity to the Ho-Sontal group of languages of the
plains.
1 1 am fully aware that Rusas (samber) are found in the western hills, but a careful
consideration of the facts in that part of the Himalaya, with due advertence to the
known habits of the group, satisfies me that these Deer have been driven into the westFor some remarks on this subject,
ern hills by the clearance of the Tarai and Bhaver.
see J.A.S. of Bengal No. 211, for January 1850, page 37.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.


antelopes by tetracerus, or the four-horned kind

and spiny hares (caprolagus)

rats (rizomys)

bears (melursus)
all

add to

all

which that

the

bambu

rodents by the

and the bear family by the honey-

to this region are exclusively confined

the large pachydernies, such as the elephant and rhinoceros

also (semnopithecus et inacacus),

though not

so

and the monkeys

The

exclusively in their case.

by ounces, by foxes of a
weasels proper, and by the ailuri or catlories

carnivora, again, are represented in the upper region

large sort (montanus),

by the

in the middle region,

by the wild dogs (cyon), the marten-weasels, leopards,

thick-tailed leopards (macroceloides), wild cats (murmensis, pardochrous, ogilbii),

chances or Lybian lynxes (Lybicus), zibets, screwtails (paradoxurus), and priono-

dons; and in the lower region by

hyenas, wolves,

tigers, leopards,

jackals,*

insectivorous foxes (kokri), bear-badgers (ursitaxus), sand-bears (arctonyx), urvas,

mangooses, helictes or Oriental gluttons, small civets (viverrula), hirsute screwtails,

Zibets

and sharp-faced cats (celidogaster).

and chauses recur

region frequently, and one small species of mangoose (auropunctata)


in special spots of the central region.

The

otters in the

Among

indigitata

in the lower,

this

found

upper region are re-

presented by the small golden and brown species (aurobrunnea)

by monticola and

in

is

by the large Chinese

in the central,

species (Sinensis).

the squirrels, the great thick-tailed and large purple species (macruroides

the small lokries (locria et locroet purpureus) belong solely to the lower region
ides) to the central; and the Siberian, to the upper; whilst flying squirrels, a nu;

merous

group,

(magnificus,

senex,

central region, so far as appears.

pteropines,

all

chrysothrix, alboniger), are confined to the

In the bat group, the frugivorous species, or

are limited to the lower region, whilst the horse shoes (rhinolophince)

specially affect the central region;

and the bats proper

(vespertilionina?)

to be the chief representatives of the family in the northern region.


class of birds,

The

we may select,

seem

From

as characteristic of the three regions, the following

the
:

true pheasants [phasianus], the tetrougalli, the sanguine pheasants [itha-

"inisl, the

horned and crested pheasants

region, are replaced

[ceriornis,

by fowl-pheasants [galophasis]f

lophophorus] of the upper


in the mid-region, and

by

have made their way (like crows and sparrows) to the most populous spots
of the central region, but they are not proper to the region, nor Indian foxes, though
some of the latter turned out by me in 1827 in the great valley of Nepal have multiAb his disce alia. Tigers, for example, are someplied and settled their race there.
But ample experience justifies
times found in the central and even northern region.
my asserting that they are wandering and casual intruders there, whereas leopards are
As a sportsman during twenty years,
as decidedly fixed and permanent dwellers.
and cocks, fallen in with innumerable leopards,
1 have, whilst shooting pheasants
whose fixed abode in numberless locales was pressed on my attention involuntarily.
But I never fell in with a single tiger, and I know them to be wanderers and
* Jackals

intruders.
t The influence of longitude

on geographic distribution might be singularly illustrated,


thus, for exdid space permit, from numerous Himalayan groups, Galline and other
ample, a black-breasted Ceriornis is never seen east of tbe Kali, nor a red-breasted one
whilst a black-backed one
west of it. So of the black and white-crested Gallophasis
With reference to the
is never seen west of the Arvin, nor a white-back east of it.
more dominant influence of latitude, or what is the same thing, elevation, I may add
that the Rasores of the three transverse regions exhibit an exquisite sample of gradaPhasianus, Gallophasis and Gallus
tion from a Boreal or Alpine to a tropical type
:

cc

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

among the

In like manner,

fowls proper (gallus) in the lower.

partridges (perdi-

the grouse and snow-partridges (lerva and sacfa) belong exclusively to the

cinse),

upper region
central

the chakors (caccabis) and the tree partridges

(arborieola) to the

and the francolines (francolinus) to the lower, though the black species

of this last form are also found in the

(Hodgsoni) to the central

pigeon group

In the

mid-region.

blanched pigeons (leuconota) belong solely to the upper region

and the green, the golden, and the banded

chalcophaps, macropygia) almost as entirely to the lower

the

the vinous pigeons


(treron,

the trerons alone partially

entering the central tract from the lower.

The splendid Edolian shrikes (chibia, chaptia, edolius) belong exclusively to


lower region. They are replaced in the central tract by plain dicrurines,
The cotton-birds (campephaga) of the
and in the upper by plainer lauians.

the

south are replaced by gaudy ampelines (cochoa) and leiothricinians


pteruthius, cutia) in the middle region

Among

the north.

(leiothrix,

but both groups seem excluded from

the fly-catchers the gaudy or remarkable species and forms

wholly or chiefly to the lower region, as tchitrea, rhipidura, cryptolopha,

belong

myiagra, hemichelidon, chelidorhynx

whilst those which approach the warblers

(niltava, siphia, digenea) belong to the mid-region

European types

Among
tributed

and the plainer and more

are alone found in the northern.

goat-suckers and

the

fissirostres,

but

rollers, bee-eaters,

swallows are pretty generally dis-

eurylaimi, trogons,

and

all

such gaudy types

belong to the south, with only occasional alpine representatives, as bucia

merops.

The

tenuirostral birds belong distinctly to the

have representatives or summer visitants in

Upon

the whole, however,

belong to the south

may

it

all

is

of

lower region, yet they

three, even

among

the sun-birds.

be safely said that the sun-birds (nectarinia)

the honey-suckers (tneliphagidse) to the centre and south

the creepers, honey-guides, nut-hatches, and wrensj to the north and centre.

and

The

sylvians or warblers are too ubiquitarian, or too migratory for our present purpose

even Boreal types being


bills,

common

in the lower region in the cold weather.

barbets, parroquets (paheornis, psittacula) belong to the lower region,

they have a few representatives in the central


peckers abound in

the lower and

none in the upper.

central regions, but are rare

common and numerous

in the

Hornthough

Woodupper.

True cuckoos (cuculus)

are as

in the central region as

walking cuckoos (phsenicophaus, centropus, &c.) are in

(species and

individuals)

the southern, where also the golden (chrysococcyx) and dicrurine cuckoos (pseudornis) have their sole abode

region are
pies,

all allied to

whilst

what few of the group belong to the upper


Of the conirostral group, the ravens,

the European type.

choughs, nut-crackers, and conostomes of the upper region are replaced in

the central region by tree pies (cissa, dendrocitta), jays, rocket-birds (psilorhinus),
being thoroughly normal forms of their respective regions, and Gallophasis being as
intermediate in structure and habit as in locale.
Sacfa and Crosoptilon are more properly Tibetan.
J I have in this paper followed, without entirely approving Mr. Gray Junior's classiThe geographic distribution is now
fication of my collections in the printed catalogue.
But I will recur to the subject in a separate paper
attempted for the first time.
devoted to it.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

and in the

pie-thrushes (garrulax), timalias, and hoopoe thrushes (pomatorhinus)


lower region by the common Indian crows (culminatus et splendens), grackles,
;

pastors,* stares, vagabond-pies and

dirt-birds

Thrushes proper,

(malococercus).

with rock-thrushes, ousels, myophones, zootheres, tesias, and hypsipetes are aa


abundant in the central and upper region as bulbuls, orioles, pittas are in the central

and lower.
and

finch family the haw-finches, bull-finches, gold-finches

In the

as

(loxia) are

cross-bills

corvine-cono-

are the

to the upper region as

strictly confined

The former are replaced in the central


and siskins; and in the lower
(montifringilla)
wood-finches
buntings,
the
by
regicra
The raptorial-birds are in general to cosmoregion, by the weavers and munias.
stomes, nut-crackers, choughs and ravens.

politan to subserve the purposes of geographic distribution.

marked

Still it

may

be re-

that the archibuteos and true eagles belong, quoad breeding at least, to
the crested eagles (circseetus,) the neopuses and hawk eagles
region

the upper

(spizsetus) to the central

Among

the lower.

and the pernes

(halicetus et panclion)

the vultures the distinction

is

and haliasturs to

more marked

for the

eagle

the large European


vultures (gypaetus) belong exclusively to the upper region
and the small
neophrons
vultures (fulcus et cinereus) to the central; and the
abounds
Himalaya
The
lower.
the
to
Indian vultures (Bengalensis et tenuirostris)
;

in falconidce, all the occidental types

and species being found

there,

and many more

deserves special remark that whereas the former


nisus, etc.) affect the upper
(imperial;*, c/in/seetos, lanarius, peregrinus. pahunbarius,
the oriental types (hypotrwrchis, hahastar, ierax, hyptiopus

peculiar and oriental ones

and

it

and central regions,


lower region.
velhaza, elanus, poliornisj are quite confined to the

regularly in
Those perfect cosmopolitans, the waders and swimmers, migrate
may
general,
in
and,
Tibet,
and
India
of
plains
the
April and October, between
in the Tarai.
abundant
most
though
mountains,
the
in
wanting
be said to be
purpurea,) and
herons (nubilis et cinereus ;) the great storks (nigra et

The great
the Tarai# are never seen in the
great cranes (the cyrus, culung, and damoiselle) of
green and the maroon-backed
little
the
mountains, where the egrets alone and
represent the

group.

first

But the

soft-billed smaller

waders

(scolopaciclce) are

which the woodcock^ abounds, breeding


sufficiently common
and rarely the lower region, from
central,
the
frequenting
and
region
upper
in the
Geese, ducks, and teals swarm in the Tarai, where every
till April.
in the mountains, in

October

may be seen from October till


occidental type, so to speak, for they are ubiquitous,
in the mountains the
whereas
types;
April; and* many oriental non-migratory
mergansers

(orientalis)

thatvery scantily
*

and the corvorants {Sinensis

with a few

rails,

ibisbills,

et

When Darjeeling was established, there was not a


Now there are a few crows and sparrows, but

seen

pygmmts) only are found, and

porphyries, hiaticulas, gallinules,

crow or pastor or sparrow to be


Enormously abunno pastors.

lower region, this sufficiently proves they are not native to the cen1855.
Sparrows first seen
of Nepal.
Crows soon made their appearance.
June at an elevation
Schlagintweit procured a woodcock with its nest and young
t
They are frequently got, and snipes also, in the scrub
of about 12,000 to 13,000 feet.
rhododendron thickets near the snows.

dant

as all are in the

tral tract,

though common in the great valley

m
,

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

20

and sandpipers, out of the vast host of the waders. J In the way of general remark
I may observe that the zoology of the Himalaya is much richer in the multitude
of its divers forms (genera and species) than in individuals of the same form, and
that

it is

remarkably

allied to the zoology of the

may be seen at
As you pass northwards,
tend much to approximation

Malayan

islands, as

once by a reference to the excellent work of Horsfield.

towards and across the snows, the forms and species

with those of our European home

But

must hasten from these

but the species are not often absolutely identical.

zoological details to

make some remarks on the


many ways interesting

sub-divisions of the lower region, a subject which, though in

and important,

is

so little understood, that

the celebrated

Mrs. Somerville, in

her excellent treatise of Physical Geography, has represented the Tarai as being
within, not only the Bhaver, but the Sandstone range.

All observant persons


into the

Himalaya

distinguished by

who have

proceeded from any part of the plains of India

are sensible of having passed through an intermediate region

many

peculiarities

and,

if their

route have lain to the north-

west, they can hardly have failed to notice successively the -verdant Tarai, so
unlike the arid plains of

way unique
range of

hills.

Upper India

and the Dhiins or

The

still

wont

the vast primaeval Saul forest, so every

from the

last tract

by a low

natives of the plains have in all ages recognized these several

distinct parts of the lower

are

valleys, separated

Himalayan

region,

which they have ever been, and

to frequent periodically, as strangers

and

foreigners, in order to graze

innumerable herds of cows and buffaloes in the Tarai, or to procure the indispensable timber

and elephants peculiar to the Bhaver, or to obtain the much-prized

drugs and dyes, horns and hides, (deer and rhinoceros,)


of Saul

and of Cheer), and timber of the Dhiins.

Nor

rals
is

and dhiinas

(resin

there a single tribe of

Highlanders between the Cdsi and the Sutlej which does not discriminate between
the Tarai or Tari, the Jhari or Bhaver, and

the Dhiins or

Maris.

Captain

Herbert has admirably described* the geological peculiarities and external aspect

His

of each of these well-known tracts.

between the Kali and the Sutlej

he affirms to be equally applicable to


Sutlej

details are, indeed, confined to the space

but the general characteristics of these tracts


all

the country between the Mechi and the

and Captain Parish, whilst confirming Herbert's statements, makes them

so likewise as far

westward

as the Beas.f

good from his own personal researches

mine

to Kali), I can confirm from

What

Captain Herbert states as holding

in regard to the

in regard

to

Western Himalaya

(Sutlej

the Nepalese portion (Kali to

Mechi), but with this reservation that no more in the Western than in the Ne For an ample enumeration of the mammals and birds of the Himalaya, (150 sp. of
the former, and 650 of the latter,) see separate catalogue printed by order of the TrusFor addiThe distribution is not there given.
tees of the British Museum in 1845.
of Natural History and Zoology Journal
tions to the catalogue since 1845 see A and
of London, and Bengal Asiatic Society's Journal, and second catalogue of British
Museum, published in 1863.
Physical Geography, vol. i. p. 66.
* J. A. S.B., number 126, extra pp. 33 and 133, ct scq.
t J. A. S.B., numbers 190 and 202, for April 1848-49.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.


palese

Himalaya does the Sandstone range, with

21
Dhuns, prevail

contained

its

throughout or continuously, but only interruptedly or with intervals


the Sallyan-niari, the

and thus

Gongtali-mari, the Chitwan-mari, the Makwanpur-niari,

and the Bijaypur-rnari of Nepal (which are mostly separate), represent with perfect general accuracy the

westward.

Deyra, Kyarda, Pinjor, Patali, and other Dhuns to the

The accompanying

sectional outline will give a

more

distinct idea

than any words could do of the relations of the several parts of the lower IliniaDisposition of parts in the lower region of the Himalaya.

The

Sandstone

Tarai.

range

&,

Mountains of
central region.

Dhun.

the plains.

layan region to the plains on the one hand, and to the mountains on the other,

The continuous

according to Captain Herbert's views.


level of the plains

the dip on the

left,

basal line represents the

the Tarai; the ascending slope in the centre,

Dhuns

the Saul forest; the dip on the right, the

the Tarai sinks below the level of the plains

It is thus seen that

or Maris.

that the forest forms a gradual even

ascent above that level ; that the Dhiins continue the ascent to the base of the
true mountains, but troughwise, or with a concave dip
are contained between the
tains.

The Tarai

is

and, lastly, that the

an open waste, incumbered rather than clothed with grasses.

by

It is notorious for- a direful malaria, generated, it is said,

and swamps
bottom

attributes derived,

third,

Dhuns

low Sandstone range and the base of the true moun-

from innumerable

from

first,

rills

its

low

site

its

excessive moisture

second, from

its

clayey

percolating through the gravel and sand of

the Bhaver, and finding issue on the upper verge of the Tarai (where the gravelly
or sandy debris from the mountains thins out), without

channels for their waters into the plains.

The forest

the Tarai, though

is

it

be as dry as the Tarai

wet.

power

is

to form

onward

equally malarious with

The dryness

of the forest is

caused by the very porous nature of that vast mass of diluvian detritus on which
it rests,

and which

is

overlaid only

by

a thin but rich stratum of vegetable mould,

everywhere sustaining a splendid crop of the invaluable timber tree (shorea robustaj,

whence

this tract derives its

name.

siderable height, though rich in fossils.

hundred

feet

above

its

The Sand-dove range


It does not rise

immediate base, and

is

speak) in the vast mass of debris through which

in
it

is

of very incon-

more than three

some places half buried


penetrates.*

to six

(so to

The Dhuns are as

* The low range which separates the Dhun and Bhaver,


on the high-road to
Kathmandu, consists almost wholly of diluvium* rounded pebbles loosely set inocheroua

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

11

They

malarious and as dry as the Shaver.

are

from

five to

ten (often

less, in

one

instance more) miles wide, and twenty to forty long, sloping from either side towards
their centre, and traversed lengthwise

commonly

by a small stream which discharges itself


thus the Raputi of Chitwan-mari

into one of the great Alpine rivers

into the Gandak, and that of Bijaypiir-mari into the Cosi.

falls

Dhuns

of the Maris or

stratum

is

is

parallel to the ghat line of the snows,

The

direction

and their sub-

a very deep bed of debris, similar to that of the Bhaver, but deeper, and

similarly covered

by a rich but

superficial coating of vegetable

mould which,

if

not

cultivated, naturally produces a forest of Saul equal to that outside the Sandstone

then in like manner harbouring elephants, rhinoceroses, wild bulls

range, and
(bibos),

wild buffaloes, rusas, and other large deer (rucerw), with creeping things

(pythons)

gigantic as

as

the quadrupeds.

The height

Captain Herbert estimates at 3,000 feet above the


adjacent
sea,

and that of the Dhuns

and 1,500 above the

plains.

heights of the lower region, and


to 4,000 feet

above the sea

These measurements indicate


it is

above the

sufficiently the

observable that no elevation short of 3,000

suffices to rid the

have assigned 4,000

healthful and temperate mid-region

and that below

much

2,000 above the plains

(at least the great one), at 2,500

cursed bv that poisonous~atmosphere.

why

of the Sandstone range

atmosphere of the lower Himalaya

Thus, the Tarai, the Bhaver and the Dhuns are alike and universally

from malaria.

reasons*

sea, or

it,

And

this (by the

feet of elevation as
;

that above

the tropical region, though

it

it

way)

is

one among several

the southern limit of the

being the arctic or boreal,

must never be forgotten that

of the tropical characters, especially in the course of the seasons, pervades

the whole breadth

(and length likewise)

decrement of heat, and

also that,

of

the Himalaya, whatever be the

from the uncommon depth of the glens in which

the great rivers run, and which, in the central and even upper region often reduces
the height of those glens above the sea below the limit just assigned for salubrity,

such glens are in both these regions not unfrequently as malarious as

is

the whole

lower region.f
such as forms the great substratum of the Dhun and Bhaver. The sandstone
formation only shews itself where the rain torrents have worn deep gullies, and it
Crude coal,
there appears as white weeping sand, imperfectly indurated into rock.
shale, loam, are found in this quarter, but no organic fossils, such as abound to the
westward.
a
By "diluvium" I merely mean what Lyell expresses by "old alluvium." I advert
not to the deluge, but simply imply aqueous action other than recent, ordinary aud extant.
* That 4,000 feet of elevation form a good demarcation of the tropical and temperate
regions of the Himalaya, is well denoted by the fact, that this is the point where snow
ceases to fall, as I have ascertained in the Central and Eastern Himalaya by the obserWhat I mean is, that snow just reaches that limit and never
vations of thirty years.
It may be otherwise in the Western Himalaya, where
falls beyond it or below it.
snow is more abundant at equal elevations. The small or hill species of bamboo, which
prevail from 4,000 to 10,000 of elevation, mark with wonderful precision the limits
of the central healthful and normal region of the Himalaya. These most useful species
(there are several) would doubtless flourish in Europe.
t Thus the valleys of the Great Rangit and of the Tishta, near and above their
junction, are not more than 1,000 feet above the sea, at a distance nearly intermediate between the plains and the snows, and in the midst of the central region; and
clay,

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.


But the above

how

noticeable soever to the west of the Mechi, are

of that river,

where a

sandstone formation

where the

23

characteristics of the sub-divisions of the lower

skilled eye alone

Himalayan

by no means

region,

so to the east

can painfully detect the traces of the

(without which there can be, of course, no Dhuns,) and

Tarai, considered as a trough running parallel to the mountains, form

no marked feature of the country,


all.

is

And

as,

if indeed in that sense it can be said to exist at


even to the westward, the Sandstone range, with its contained Dhuns,

by no means constant,

it

may

be desirable to attempt to characterise the lower

region considered as a whole, without reference to local peculiarities or too rigidly


defined sub-divisions. Now I conceive that the lower region owes its distinctive
character, as a whole, to the vast mass of diluvial detritus,

which was shot from

the mountains upon the plains, like gravel from a cart, at some great geological

epoch, and which has been, since

its

deposit, variously

and often abraded both

degree and direction, by oceanic, and, in a far less degree, by ordinary floods.
there was, at the epoch in question, no sandstone range to intercept the
.spread of the debris, this debris

of less thickness

would

in

Where

downward

necessarily be carried further south, and be

where there was such a

barrier, it

would be

carried less far

southward and be accumulated in greater thickness, especially within the barrier


and, in like manner, where no sandstone range existed, but only spurs, sent forth,
like bent arms,
still

upon the plains from the mountains, the embayed detritus would

be deeply piled and lofty within such spurs,* and thinly and unequally spread

without them, by reason of the action of the spurs on the currents.


as from

Gowhatty

to Saddia, there

was not room upon the plains

and deposit of the descending Himalayan

detritus,

owing

to other chains, both parallel and proximate to the

Again, where,

for the free spread

to large rapid rivers

and

Himalaya, the pha?nomena

created elsewhere by the more or less unrestricted spread of the Himalayan detritus

over the plains would necessarily be faintly,

if

at

all,

traceable.

Lastly, if at the

time of the descent of the debris, there existed a great dip in the Gangetic plains
those valleys are consequently as malarious as the Tarai.

So also the valleys of the


of theTrisul below Nayakot, and many others well known to me.
In my recent expedition in the Tarai east of the Mechi, with Dr. Hooker, that
accomplished traveller first detected traces of the sandstone formation, with imperfect
coal, shale, etc., in a gully below the Pankabari Bungalow, as well as at Lohagarh.
The
sandstone rock barely peeped out at the bottom of the gully lying in close proximity with
the mountains, so that nothing could be more inconspicuous than it was as a feature
in the physiognomy of the country.
* There is a signal example of this on the road to Darjeeling vid Pankabari, where
the debris, embayed by a curving spur, is accumulated to several hundred feet, and
where, moreover, there is outside the spur a conspicuous succession of terraces, all due
to oceanic forest, and clearly shewing that the subsidence of the sea b was by intervals,
and not at once. Constant observation has caused the people of the Tarai to distinguish three principal tiers of terraces, from the prevalent growth of trees upon
each.
The highest is the Saul level, the middle the Khair level, and the. lowest the
Sunkosi

at

Damja and

Sissu level ; Shorea, Acacia and


levels as above enumerated.
b I do not imply by this phrase

Dalbergia being abundantly developed on the three

any reference to the theory that the sea has sunk and
not the land risen. 1 think the latter much the preferable hypothe is, but desire merely
to infer a change in the relative level of the two, and to link my fains upon the string
of an intelligible system.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

24

from north-west to south-east, the lithologic character, as well as the distribution,


of the debris, would be materially affected thereby; for the subsiding oceanic current

would have a

from the former to the

set

and here

to lash the gravel into sand,

latter quarter,

and would continue

to deposit both in a series of terraces, there

perhaps utterly to displace both, in the latter quarter long after the former had

Now,

emerged from the waves.


great part submerged

that the Himalaya really was, at one time, in

that the vast mass of detritus from the Himalaya at pre-

sent spread over the plains in its vicinity

founts of the deep were broken up

forthcoming,

is

comminution

now found

was

proportion and distribution and state of

in unequal

as for example, deeper piled within than without the Sandstone

range and the embaying spurs, and

also,

more gravelly and abundant

west, more sandy and scant to the south-east


plain really

now

much bent

all

these are

facts suggesting

presumptions relative to the

them

are incontrovertible

but to observe how, at the grand epoch adverted

ral causes

was

to the north-

and, lastly, that the Gangetic

the Himalayan feeders of the Ganges are in the

over to the eastward

past, as legitimate as the extant

we have

has a great oblique dipt from the Sutlej at Buper to the Brahma-

putra at Gwalpara, whereby


plains so

by the ocean when the

so spread

that this huge bed of detritus, every where

necessarily modified

indicated, in order to

come

lower Himalayan region,

by the peculiar

to,

and

features of the scene, as above

at a just conception of the aspect

all

the action of gene-

along the line of the mountains.

and character of the

Thus the

longitudi-

nal trough parallel to the mountains, and exclusively denominated the Tarai by

Captain Herbert,

may

to the north-west

have been caused by the

set of the

sub-

but however caused,

siding oceanic current from north-west

to south-east;

exists as a palpable definite creature, only

beneath the Thakorain and Kumaun,

faintly traceable beneath Nepal,

But the great bed

of debris

is

than those pointed out, whether


stone range, as

is

and

is

wholly

lost

beneath

Siliiin

and Bhutan.

everywhere present, and with no other distinctions


it

be divided into Bhaver and Dhiin, by the Sand-

usually the case west of the Me"ehi, or be not so divided

to the absence of that range, as

it

is

is

always the

fact east of the

owing

Mechi. Again, every

* Captain Herbert has given statements of its depth to the westward, where there is
To the eastward, where there is none, I fount] it on the right bank
a Sandstone range.
at fifteen miles lower down, 60 to 70
of the Tishta, under the mountains, 120 feet
There was here no
at fifteen miles still further off the mountains, 40 to 50 feet.
feet
interruption to the free spread of the detritus, and I followed one continuous slope and
i
The country exhibited, near the rivers especially, two or
eve l the main high one.
three other and subordinate levels or terraces, some marking the effect at unusual floods
of extant fluviatile action, but others unmistakeably that of pristine and oceanic forces.
I could not test the sub-surface depth of the bed.
I measured heights from the river.
There was everywhere much more sand than gravel, and boulders were rare.
+ Saharunpiir is 1,000 feet above the sea; Miiradabad 600 Gorakpur 400 Dumdanga
My authorities are As. Res. vol. xii., J.A.S. B.
Gwalpara 112.
312; Rangpur 200
The oblique
No. 126, Koyle's Him. Bot., Griffith's Journals, and J. Prinsep in epist.
dip to the plains towards the east seems to be increasing, for all the Himalayan rivers
descending into the plains, as they quit their old channels, do so towards the east only.
I would propose, as an interesting subject of research, the formal investigation of this
fact, grounding on Rennell's maps and noting the deviations which have occurred since
he wrote. The Tishta which fell into the Ganges now falls into the Brahmaputra.
;

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.


tohere there

is,

at that point

where

bed,

and

whether

bed of gravel and sand thins out, a

it

of hill-waters through the said

and that constantly moist tract

is

the Tarai,

runs regularly parallel to the line of mountains and be distinctly

it

troughed, as to the
or of

parallelism,

Why

beyond

their issue

this vast

by the percolation

constantly moist tract, caused

1%

Westward

is

the case, or whether there

troughing, as to the Eastward

is

be no such regularity,

the case.

porous debris, which every where

that vast mass of

constitutes

appropriated domain of the Saul forest, and that imporous trough outside of

which every where

constitutes its drain, should as far

Eastward

as the

the
it,

Mechi,

them developed parallclly to each other and to the line of the mounbeyond the Mechi Eastward to Assam (exclusive) they should exhibit
little or no such
parallellism, but should rather show themselves plainwards,
like an irregular series of high salient and low resalieiit angles resting on the mounbe both of

tains, whilst

tains, or like small insulated plateau,* or

both the latter cases by low

swampy

a volume to illustrate in detail.

For the

foot-notes.

rest, it

pearances of the Bhaver

and

plains,! surrounded in
it

would require

have given a few conspicuous instances in the

must

and

high undulated

land analogous to the Tarai,

suffice to

observe that such are the general ap-

Tarai to the

Westward and

to the

Eastward

the general causes of the differences have been pretty plainly indicated

that

above, where the necessary effects of the sandstone range, of the mountain spurs,

and of the Eastern dip of the plains upon those oceanic

forces, to

which

all

phaenoniena of the region owe their origin, have been suggested.

Throughout Assam, from Gwalpdra


neither Bhaver nor Tarai

is

and

if

to Saddia,

we

Major Jenkins assures me there

look to the narrowness of that valley

between the Himalaya and the mighty and impetuous Brahmaputra, and consider
moreover the turmoil and violence of the oceanic current from the N.W., when
progress

its

conceive

was

how

all

staid

by the locked-up valley of Assam, we

distinctive

no

loss to

marks of Bhaver and Tarai should here cease

to be

shall be

at

traceable .%
It will
f

be observed that, in the foregone descriptions of our Himalayan rivers,

have not adverted (save casually in one instance,

in

order to correct an error

Parbat Jowar, on the confines of Assam and Eangpur, is one of the most remarkabel
It is considerably elevated, quite insulated, remote from the
mountains, and covered with saul, which the low level around exhibits no trace of. Parbat Jowar is a fragmentary relic of the high level, or Bhaver, to which the saul tree
adheres with undeviating uniformity.
+ Conspicuous instances occur round Dinajpur and north-west and north-east of Siligori in ltangpur, where are found highly undulated clowns, here and there varied by
flat-topped detached hillocks, keeping the level of the loftiest part of the undulated
surface. Looking into the clear bed of the Tishta, it struck Dr. Hooker and myself at the,
same moment, how perfectly the bed of the river represented in miniature the conformation of these tracts, demonstrating to the eye their mode of origination under the sea.
* The climate of that portion of the Eastern Himalaya, which is screened from the
south-west monsoon by the mountains Sonth of Assam, is less humid than the rest,
The fact, that much
precisely as are the inner than the outer parts of the whole chain.
less snow falls at equal heights in the humid Eastern than in the dry Western
Himalaya,
depends on other causes. Darjeeling hasuot half as much snow as Simla.
*

of these small plateau.

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

26
as to the true

I confess

it

name

And

of the Kali) to their partial Trans-Himalayan sources.

seems to me, that perspicuity

on that feature of our

by no means served by undue insistency

is

Captain Herbert was thus led to travel beyond his

rivers.

proper limits with a result by no means favourable;

appears to me, that he

for, it

has confounded rather than cleared our conceptions of Central Asia as the Bam-i-

dunya (dome of the world) by attemptingistic part of it,

to detach

therefrom that most character-

the plateau of Tibet, because certain Indian rivers have (in part)

Tibetan sources

My

theory of water-sheds does not incline

far into regions too little

known,

me

to venture so

allow of the satisfactory settlement of the

to

question, and the less so, inasmuch as the rivers I have to speak of
afford so plausible an excuse for so doing

and Brahmaputra alias Sanpu. f


draw much water from Tibet, draw
line

and

all

as if I

had to

would not

treat of the Indus, Sut-

The Arun and the Karnali, though they


more from the "pente meridionale" of the

lej,*

Himalaya, or the ghat

far

South of

it

and

this is yet

more true of the

Ganges, the Monas and Tishta, though they also have partial Trans-Himalayan

To

sources.
rivers

The Monas.

It

wholly drained by

Yamdotso

the several Himalayan

those sources of

above treated

I will

of,

is

now summarily

by much the
It

it.

has

(it

is

vel Palte vel Yarbroyuni,

advert

largest river of Bhutan,

two Tibetan

said)

which

is

West

The Tishta

is

viz.,

that of Cholamu.

named, and they

the

vel Labnak-tchu, strangely

also a fine river, draining the

verging on the plains.

call

them)

which

state is almost

Lake

sources, one from

other, from considerably

These feeders I take to be identical with Klaproth's

of Palte.

Mon-tchu and Nai-tchii

must

a real lake, and not an island sur-

rounded by a ring of water as commonly alleged


to the

(so I

though he has dislocated them.

whole of Sikim, save the

The Tishta has one Tibetan

To speak more

lie close

under the Ni

precisely, there

W.

tracts

source, also, from a lake,


are several lakelets

so

shoulder of Powhanry, some thirty

miles AV. and forty S. of Turner's lakes.

The Arun

is

the largest of

all

the

Himalayan and three Trans-Himalayan


* Recte

Himalayan
feeders.

rivers,

with abundant Cis-

One, the Western,

rises

from

SaMj

vel Satrudra.
+ Dr. Gutzlaff, once read a paper before the Geographical Society of London, and
reverted to Klaproth's notion, that the Sanpu is not the Brahmaputra.
But Mr. Gutzlaff overlooked J. Prinsep's important, and 1 think decisive argument on the other side,

that the Brahmaputra discharges three times more water than the Ganges, which it
could not do if it arose on the north-east confines of Assam, notwithstanding the large
Y.'.rii or Yeru (Eru) is the proper name
quantity of water contributed by the Monas.
of the river we call Sanpu, which latter appellation is a corruption of the word Tsanga
po, referring either to the principal province (Tsang) watered by the Yarn, or to the
junction therewith, at Digarchi, of another river called the Tsang, which flows into
the Yam from the Nyenchhen chain or Northern boundary of Southern Tibet.
Eru
But words beginning with the vowels a and e, take
vel Aru is the proper spelling.
initial y in speech.
1 take this occasion to observe,
in reference to the Vanido lake
above mentioned, that it is not, as commonly described and delineatedin our maps, of a
round shape, but greatly elongated and veiy narrow. It is stated to me on good autlio
rity to be eighteen days' journey long (say 180 miles), and so narrow in parts as to be
budged. It is deeply frozen in winter, so as to be safely crossed on the ice, whereas
the Eru river is not so, owing to the great force of its current
a circumstance proving
the rapid declivity of the. country watered by this great river.
a
[Tsang po means simply 'river,' and should not be called Sanpu but Tsang po. J.S.]
viz.,

27

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

the " pente septentrionale" of the ETimalay a,in the district of Tingri or Pekku; another,
the Northern, from a place called Durre; and a third, the Eastern, from the undulated terraced and broken tract lying N. and a little W. of Cholainu and S. of Kambala, or the great range

which bounds the valley of the Yard* on the

S.

from

W.

of

Digarchi to E. of Lhasa.

The Kamdli

is

much

larger than the Alpine Ganges, and nearly equal to the

Ariin, perhaps quite so.

Nanda-devi

and

It drains

by

feeders the whole

its

Dhoula-giri peaks, and has itself

one

Himalaya between the


considerable

Tibetan

source deduced either from the north face of Ilimachal near Momonangli, or from
the east face of that crescented sweep, whereby Gangri nears Ilimachal, and whence

the Karnali flows eastward to the Taklakkar pass.

The Ganges also has of late been discovered to have one Tibetan feeder, viz.,
the Jahnavi, which after traversing a good deal of broken country in Gnari,
between the Sutlej and the Himalaya, passes that chain at the Nilang Ghat to join
the Bhagarathi.J
I will conclude this paper with

Andean and Himalayan

following amended comparative table of


Humboldt having apprised me that Pent-

the

peaks, Baron

measurements, as formerly given by me, have been proved to be quite


erroneous, and Colonel Waugh having recently fixed Kangchan and Chumalhari
land's

with unrivalled precision and accuracy


Chief peaks of Andes.

Feet.

Aconcagua

23,000

Chief peaks of Himalaya.

Jamnoutri

Feet.

25,669

Ckimbarazo

21,424

Nanda-devi

25,598

Sorato

21,286

Dhoula-giri

....27,600

Illimani

21,149

Gosain-than
Devadhiinga

24,700
29,002

Descabasado

21,100

Kangchan

28,176

Desya-cassada

19,570

Chumalhari

23,929

Devadhiinga vel Bhairavthan vel Nyanam, half way between Gosain-than


jy.2?.
'abounding in snow.'
and Kangchan, is 29,002, ft. determined in 1856. Kang-chan,
words; the other
Tibetan
are
These
Chuma.'
of
Chumalhari, 'holy mountain
equal
Jamnavatari
mode,
e.g.,
Prakritic
the
in
down
set
but
names are Sanskritic,
to Jamnoutri, etc.

Postscript. That sensible and agreeable writer, Major Madden, in a


(May 1840) to Dr. Hooker, notices " the disgraceful state of our maps

letter

of the

*
The valley of the Yard is about sixty linear miles from the Sikim Himalaya (LiDamsen, is so rugged,
chen and Donkia passes); but the intermediate country, called
Damsen is
terminus to the other.
that it is ten stages for loaded yaks from the one
whole
of Utsang or Centhe
stated to be one of the most rugged and barren tracts in
Hooker.
tral Tibet, a bowling wilderness.
JMoorcroft's Travels, J. A, S.B. No. 126, and I.J. S. Nos. 17-18.
Nature, has given some further corrections of those
Humboldt, in his Aspects of
There are three peaks superior to Chimbarazo, but inferior to Aconoagua.
heights
_

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HIMALAYA.

28

Himalaya, which insert ridges where none

and omit them where they

exist,

show an

utter ignorance of the

meaning of Indian words."

It is the express object of the

above essay to contri-

bute towards the removal

of the weightier of those blemishes of our maps,

do exist

and moreover,

without neglecting the

in regard "to all names,

lesser,

by exhibiting,

in their true

and causal connexion, the

Major Madden supposes

great elevations and the river basins of the Himalaya.


that the term Hyvindes,

applies to Tibet, points to that region as the

which he

pristine abode of the

Huns.

But

to the language of

Tibet.

It is the

guage*

for the Sanskrit

Parbatia tongue
lately (181G)

is

Hyun-des

this is a mistake.

Himyades, or land of snow.

Satliij to

a term

The Khas

term in the

race were

they are so

the Tishta:

unknown

or Parbatia lan-

Its co-relative

Khas-des, or land of the Khas.

dominant from the

is

Khas

in the

equivalent

still

till

from the

Hence the general prevalence of geographic terms derived


By Hyun-des the Parbatias mean all the tracts covered

Kali to the Mechi.

from their language.


ordinarily with
line

snow on both

and by Khas-des,

all

sides of the crest or spine of

Hemachal, or the ghat

the unsnowed regions south of the former, as far as

the Sandstone range.

The Brahmans and those who

use Sanskrit call the Hyun-des, Blnitant or

appendage of Bhot, and hence our maps exhibit a Bhutant in what Traill denominates (A. R. vol. 1G) the Bhote perganahs of Kiimaun. But Bhutant is not
restricted

by the Brahmans

one spot within them.

We

Himalaya.

entire line of the

extended meaning of the word, since

to the

Deb Rajah's

Western Tibet

is

territory,

told him, lie

continently gives this term as a


call their

distinctive affixes, as
alias

Bhutan

it

the

name

if I

were

Gyannak

east,

some

or Chinese, and thereupon he in-

of place.

neighbours by the generic name Gya, to which they add

Gya-nak, black Gyas,

alias

Chinese; Gya-ver, yellow Gyas,

With

in search of them in Tibet, I should look for

that country, as I would for the Scythians

among

or Sogland was, I conceive, the original Zakeia, the

the Indian Sakas and Tibetan Sog vel Sok.


in Tibetan such being

Moorcroft's Giannak

Far to the

Russians; and Gya-gar, white~f Gyas, alias Hindus.

Huns,

any

has long been restricted by us

(recte Blnitant).

the ne pins ultra of abuse of words.

Bhotia must have

The Tibetans

or

far less to

situated along the

might create confusion however by recurring

to his

in

Kiimaun merely,

to such perganahs in

It includes all the districts similarly

still

the

Sog

first

reference to the

them among the Hor


vel Sok.

known

of

Sogdiana

historic seat of

Horsok, as one term, means Xomade,

the condition of those

two

tribes in Tibet.

For a sample of this tongue, which has a primitive base, but overlaid by Pracrit,
No. 191, June 1848.
of men, but only to that
% Observe that these epithets do not refer to the colour
the Chinese are fond of black clothes and the Indians universally
of their dress
almost wear white ones. The like is probably equally true of similar designations of
Turanian tribes in various other parts of the vast Tartaric area {e.g. Red Karens),
though Ethnic theories have been spun out of the other interpretation of thes^ dis*

see J. A. S. B.

tinctive terms.

ABORIGINES OF THE HIMALAYA.

29

ON THE ABORIGINES OF THE HIMALAYA.

2.

The following paper was written


Society of Bengal, as a

in 1847.

summary view

It

was then presented

to the Asiatic

of the affinities of these tribes as deduced

from a tolerably copious comparison of their languages or

dialects.

Accordingly, I submitted a comparative vocabulary of twelve of the dialects found


in the Central* sub-Himalayas, inclusive; for comparison's sake, of the written as

well as spoken language of Tibet,

guage

unuttered
to be

it

in both forms; first, because

is

and second, because

letters,

compared

being of

it

exist only (with

much importance

employed

all

to give this lan-

in the former state

with many

the dialects or tongues with which

two exceptions)

it is

in the latter or unwritten

and

primitive state.

With

regard to the English vocables selected, I have adopted those of Mr. Brown,

in order to facilitate comparisons

him

with the Indo-Chinese tongues, as exemplified by

but, to his nouns substantive, I have

and

adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions,

added some pronouns, numerals, verbs,


adjectives, under

the impression that

nothing short of such a sample of each of the parts of speech could at


for the attainment of the

end in view.

all suffice

Geographically or topically, I have confined

myself to the East of the river Kali or Ghagra, as well because the dialects prevailing to the

Westward

of that river are for the most part extremely mixed,

and indeed almost merged in the ordinary tongues of the plains of Hindusthan,
as also because I have
is

no immediate access to the people of the West.

The case

very different in the Eastern sub-Himalayas, where I was domiciled, and where,

as will be seen, the Indian Prakrits have hardly been able to

zable impression

sole exception of the

I have omitted.

make

a single cog-ni-

upon any of the numerous vernaculars of the people, with the


I

Khas

or Parbattia Bhasha, which, as being a

have likewise,

for the present,

of a genuinely aboriginal character,

mongrel tongue

omitted some interesting tongues

which are spoken East of the Kali, either by

certain forest tribes existing in scanty numbers, nearly in a state of nature, such as

the Chepang and Kiisunda, or


as the

by certain other peculiar and broken

tribes,

such

Hayu, the Kiiswar, the Botia, the Denwar, Durre" or Dahri, Bhramu, Tkaru,

and Boksa,

who

cultivate those

low valleys from which malaria drives the ordinary

of the Himalaya, as divided lengthwise (north-west to southWestern and Eastern.


I now regard it as divided into Western (Indus
to Kali), Central (Kali to Tishta), and Eastern (Tishta to Brahmakund) portions.
The
present paper treats of the Central Himalaya. Breadthwise the chain is regarded as divided into the Northern, Middle, and Southern regions, the word region being always
added to contra-distiuguish'the latter demarcation. Himalaya properly speaking is the
perpetually snowed part of the chain.
I used to contra-distinguish the lower part or
But objections having been raised, I now
southern slope by the term sub-Himalayas.
acquiesce in the term Himalaya as applied to the whole.
The exceptions are the Ncwari and Lepsha, which form the topic of my second essay.

*I

formerly spoke

east) into

'

ABORIGINES OF THE HIMALAYA.

30

by several races of kelotic craftsmen* whose habitat is general"


That ordinary population, exclusive of the now dominant Khas or Parhattias Proper,! above alluded to, consists, between the Kali and the Dhansri, in Nepal,

population, or, lastly,

Sikim, and Bhutan of

Ois-Himalayan Bhotias vel Tibetans, called Piongbo,

1st.

Siena or Kath Bhotia, Palu Sen,J


4th.

Giirung,

Yak thumba

Magar
9th.

5th. Miirmi

Lepcha

Serpa or Sharpa
6th.

Newai

or Deiinjong-maro

Sunwar 3rd.
Limbu vel
Bhiitanese or Lhopa vel

etc.;

2nd.

7th. Kiranti

10th.

8th.

Dukpa.||

I have enumerated the races as they occur, in tolerably regular series, from

west to

my

named
east, of

though confined therein to the juxto-nivean

limits,

whilst the participation of the Gurungs and


recent

first

whole extent, west and

given and definite locations of old standing

east, in

are found pretty generally diffused throughout the

political

successes of

the

but the

tracts or

Cachar region

Magars, or military

now dominant Khas,

tribes, in the

has spread them

also, as

peaceful settlers, in no scanty numbers, easterly and westerly, from the Kali to the

Mechi.

The

have a more restricted fatherland or janam bhumi,


Magars and Gurungs, not a century back, or before

rest of the tribes

and indeed the

locale of the

the conquests of the House of Gorkha,

proper habitat of these two tribes

is

was

similarly circumscribed

to the west of the great valley,

again, (the valley), and its whole vicinity, is the region of the

wars

for the

tract

Murmis and Ne-

whilst the districts east of the great valley, as far as Sikim, are the abode

of the Kirantis and Limbiis, as Sikim


or

which

Bhutan that

of the

constitute, together

Lhopas

is

that of the Lepshas, and

or Diikpas, usually styled Bhiitanese

with the Siinwars,

who

Deva Dharma
by

us.

These

again are mostly found west of the

great valley and north of the Magars and Gurungs, near and

among

the cis-nivean

Bhotias, the principal alpine tribes of the sub-Himalayas between that western

point (the Kali) where the aboriginal tongues are merged in the Prakrits and that
eastern limit (the Dhansri) where they begin to pass into so-called monosyllabica
tongued races of presumed Indo-Chinese origin4 The sub-Himalayan races I have

just

enumerated inhabit

all

the central and temperate parts of these mountains, the

juxta-nivean or northernmost tracts being

left

to the

Rongbo

vel Serpa vel

Palu

See p. 14, part ii. of this volume, supra, and note.


Highlander,' but this general sense of the word is restricted by
+ Parbattia means
invariable, usage to the Khas.
The Newars of Nepal Proper call the cis-nivean Bhotias, Palu Sen, and the transThe Chinese call the Mongolian Tartars, Tha Tha.
nivean, Tha Sen.
Lhopa is a territorial designation, Dukpa a religious, that is, the country is called
Lho, and the sect of Lamaism prevailing in it, Dvik. Klaproth's Lokabadja, and BitThe postfix ba means of, or beter's Lokba, are both equivalent to Bhotan vel Lho.
longing to, so that Lokba, recte Lhopa, is a Bhiitanese man or native of Lho.
for the people who call
Bhotia is the Sanskrit, and Tibetan the Persian, name,
themselves Bodpa, or Bod, a corruption possibly of the Sanskrit word Bhot.
a
+ More recent researches induce me to demur entirely to a trenchantly demarked monosyllabic class of tongues, and to adopt the opinion that India (Dravirian) and the
countries around it on the north aud north-east were peopled by successive incursions of affiliated tribes of Northmen, among whom I see no sufficient reason to segregate from the rest, as is commonly done, the Bod pas of Tibet, the Eastern Himalayans,
nor even the proximate Indo-Chinese or people of Western Indo-China.
'

||

'

'

'

ABORIGINES OF THE HIMALAYA.

Sen, and the southernmost parts, as well as the low valleys of the interior and cen-

being abandoned to the Kiiswars, D6nwars, Burro's, and other malaria-

tral region,

The people

defying tribes, which, for the present, I do not purpose to notice.

occupy a highly healthful cliinate^but one


of exact temperatures as various as the several elevations (four to ten thousand

under review therefore may be said

to

and which, though nowhere troubled with excesby excessive moisture, and by the rank vegetation that moisture
generates, with the aid of a deep fat soil, save in the Cachar or juxta-nivean region, where the lower temperature and poorer scantier soil serve somewhat to break
feet) of the ever- varied surface;

sive heat,

is

so

the prodigious transition from the thrice luxuriant sub-Himalayas to the thrice
arid plains of Tibet.

That the sub-Himalayan races are


origin, are facts long ago indicated

all closely affiliated,

and are

by me,* and which seem

cient evidence from the comparative vocabularies

now

of northern

all

to result

furnished.

But

with

suffi-

to it lingual

evidence in a more ample form will however in due time be added, as well as
the evidence deducible from the physical attributes, and from the creeds

and legends of these

must suffice

It

races.

customs

at present to observe that the legends of

the dominant races indicate a transit of the Himalaya from thirty-five to forty-five
generations back

say 1,000 to 1,300 years, and that

because the transit was certainly

made

prefer the remoter period

before the Tibetans

had adopted from India

the religion and literature of Buddhism, in the seventh and eighth centuries of

our era.

This fact

is

religious tenetsj of the

as clearly impressed

upon tho crude

dialects

sub-Himalayans as their northern origin

is

and cruder

upon

their

peculiar forms and features, provided these points be investigated with the requisite care

for superficial attention is apt to rest solely

cently as imperfectly imported

among them, and upon

of their mixed and varying physiognomy.

upon the Lamaism re-

the merely exceptional traits

That physiognomy

exhibits, no doubt,

generally and normally, the Scythic or Mongolian type (Blumenbach) of


kind, but the type

is

often

much

human

softened and modified, and even frequently passes

into a near approach to the full Caucasian dignity of head

and

face, in the

same

perplexing manner that has been noticed in regard to the other branches of the

Allophylian tree, though

among the

Cis- or Trans-Himalayans there

is

never

seen any greater advance towards the Teutonic blond complexion than such as
consists in occasional

ruddy moustaches and grey eyes among the men, and a good

In the great valley of Nepal, which has a very central position aud a mean elevation of 4,500 ft., the maximum of Fahr. iu the shade is 80.
* Illustrations of the Languages &c. of Nepal and Tibet, and Res. A.S.B, Vol. XVI.
1827.
t Of these religious tenets, the full description given in my work on the Koech.Bodo,
The Bonpa faith of Tibet (the
and Dhimal, may be accepted as generally applicable.
old creed of that country) and the Shamanism of Siberia are both more or less cultivated types of the primitive creed, subsequently largely adopted into Br&hmanism and
Buddhism. The exorcist of the Murmi or Tamar tribe is still called Bonpa, aud every
tribe's chief priestly agent is an exorcist, variously named.
See Prichard, Vol. IV. pp. 323, 344, 356, and Humboldt's Asie Centralc 2.62
Who could suppose the following description refercd to a Scythic race ?
and 133.
l
Gcvs albo colore est atque pulchritudine ct forma insignc."

ABORIGINES OF THE HIMALAYA.

32
white skin

Hindus

is

unknown, and the

but

all

layas, whilst the

are of this pale

many

tint is not

brown

much

pure

less decided than in the high caste

or isabelline

in the plains of

women.

deal of occasional bloom upon the cheeks of the children and

hue

India are

and the sub-Hima-

in Tibet

much

The broken or

darker.

depressed tribes above alluded to passed the Himalaya at various periods, but

all

long antecedent to the immigration of the dominant tribes, and prior to the least

and the lingual and physical traits of these broken tribes,


might be expected, constitute several links of connexion between the Altaic

whisper of tradition
as

tribes

The general

on the north and the Dravirian on the south.

Himalayans, both of earlier and later immigration

is

as follows

description of the
:

head

and face

very broad, usually widest between the cheek-bones, sometimes as wide between
the angles of the jaws forehead broad, but often narrowing upwards chin defec;

tive

mouth

large and salient, but the teeth vertical

and the

lips

not tumid

gums,

especially the upper, thickened remarkably

eyes wide apart, flush with the cheek,

head

nose pyramidal, sufficiently long and

and more or

less obliquely set in the

where

elevated, save at the base,

it is

depressed so as often to let the eyes run to-

and furnished with

gether, coarsely formed and thick, especially towards the end,


large round nostrils
deficient

hair of head copious and straight

stature rather low,

and slow in

intellect

and

feeling,

but muscular and strong.

of the

and body

face

Character phlegmatic,

but good-humoured, cheerful and tractable, though

somewhat impatient of continuous toil. Polyandry yet exists partially, but is falling out of use. Female chastity is little heeded before marriage, and drunkenCrime is much
ness and dirtiness are much more frequent than in the plains.
rarer,

however, and truth more regarded, and the character on the whole amiable.

The customs and manners have nothing very remarkable, and the creed may be
best described

Indifferency is the only, but heretofore effective ob-

by negatives.

by Brahmanical, Buddhist, or Christian teachers, so that


the Scottish phrase " we cannot be fashed " seems best to describe the prevalent
The whole popufeeling of the Himalayans on this, as on many other matters.
stacle to indoctrination

lation

is

intensely tribual,

some races

still

bound together by a common

appellation,

as the Kirantis for example, being nevertheless divided into several septs, dis-

tinguised from each other

by strongly marked dialects, non-intermarriage, and difwhich bear distinct names are still more pal-

ferences of customs, whilst the tribes

pably separated in those respects.

But the

barrier of caste, in the true sense,

is

unknown, and on the other hand there exists not in any tribe, race or nation,
any notion of a common human progenitor, or eponymous deity.* The general
" Arva in annos
status of all the tribes and races is that of nomadic cultivators.
mutant
cestors

et

snperest ager "

when they

burst

is

as true

the

now

of the Himalayans as

barriers of the

such as the NtSwar, have long become stationary cultivators


are

still,

for the

most

part, pastoral.

it

Roman Empire.
;

was

of our an-

few

tribes,

and the Giirungs

There are no craftsmen, generally speaking,

* The instance of the Gorkhalis, who undoubtedly derive their appellation from
the demi-God Gorakh (Goraksha) Nath, isonly a seeming exception, recent and borrowed.

ABORIGINES OP THE HIMALAYA.

35

among them for ages unpotters, &c, and the women of

proper to these tribes, stranger and helot races, located


told,

being

their smiths, carpenters, curriers,

each tribe being

The Newiirs alone have

domestic weavers.

its

that wholly exotic

and they alone have made any attempts

which they have followed

and

arts, in

fine

chiefly Chinese, but also Indian, models.

Before concluding this notice of the Alpine Indian aborigines,

summarily the limits and physical

to define

a literature,

at the

it

may

be as well

characters of their original and

adopted abodes, or Tibet and the Sub-Himalayas.

is

a truncated triangular

plateau, stretching obliquely from south-east to north-west,

between 28 and 36

Tibet

of north latitude and 72 and 102 of east longitude.

extreme, owing to
the

its

enormous

vaster height of those

still

snowy

extreme rarification of

as a consequence of all these

ness of its vegetation.

It is

barriers

feet, to

which surround

atmosphere, to

its

on every

it

and sandy

saline

its

and a reciprocating cause

soil,

by the Yiinling

east

the most part perpetually snowclad, and of which the very passes on

low bare

hills,

and

partially divided in its length

proaching the elevation of

which ranges stand

Tibet

is,

for the

most

its

poses the province of

all

west of which, to the Belur, com-

a desert,

has formed in

all

the province of Khani, pro-

all east of it, to Sifan,

vinces extending respectively to Bukharia and

nowhere

parallel ranges ap-

and between the third and fourth of


of Lhasa and Digarchi.*
These capitals are

capitals

Nan, and

by several

and however secluded,

is

to China.

Tibet,

however

on every side accessible

ages the great overland route of trade, and

the grand ethnic, as well as commercial, highway of

may

mankind

aridity.

Llence

regard.

Its

480 miles

and since the historic

we

even be called

its

central posi-

from 35

snowy

girdle

and

it

its

such
bleak

length

is

about 1,800 miles, and

maximum

breadth about

the long sides of the triangle are towards India and Little Bukharia

Beliir,

to 36

ling, reaches

N.

the truncated apex towards

Great

Bukharia,

within the limits of Tibet, has an extent of only one degree, or


lat.

whereas the base towards China, along the

through 8 or from 28 to 36 N.

in the north-east corner of

its

learn the supreme importance of Tibet in every ethnological

maximum

the short one, towards China;

where the

sera, despite

arid,

and hence

tion between China, India, and Great Bukharia having really rendered
for ages, before

part,

much by

barriers,

its

both in the central province of the Utsang,

all

and

bounded on the south by the Hernachal, on the north

the south average 16,000 to 17,000 feet of elevation.

it

and

too, to the excessive scanti-

a plain and a single plain, but one extremely cut up by ravines, varied

is

side,

an uncommon absence of rain and cloud,

by the Kuenlun, on the west by the Belur, and on the


all for

and dry in the

elevation, averaging 12,000 feet above the sea, to

which on the south reach 29,000


to the

It is cold

the overland routes, and

Kharu,

which

is

lat.

line of the

Yun-

Just beyond the latter point,

Siling or Tangut, the converging point of

I should prefer to include ethnologically

De Koros from

within

native written authority apud J. A. S. B.


Iu the next plateau of High Asia, or that of Little Bukharia, the vast desert of Cobi or Gobi, which occupies the whole eastern half of that plateau, has ever formed,
and still does, a most formidable obstruction to transit aud traffic.

keI

ABORIGINES OF THE HIMALAYA.

34

Tibet, but for the high authority of Klaproth,


tinct* language

graphy,
Little

||

insists that

Siling or

Tangut being open to the plateau of Tibet

we have

here a dis-

line in physical geo-

as well as to those of

Bukharia and Songaria though demarked from China both on the north and

by the

east

who

and race, though certainly no such separating

K'i-lian

and Peling

respectively.

South of the whole of Tibet, as above defined,

lie

the Sub-Himalayas, stretching

from Gilgit to Brahmakund, with an average breadth of ninety miles, divided

cli-

matically into three pretty equal transversal regions, or the northern, the central,

and the southern, the

first

which commences

of

Hemackal, and

at the ghat line of

the last ends at the plains of Hindostan; the third lying between them, with
the great valley of Nepal in its centre.
sixteen miles

extreme length

in

and from 4,200

That valley

is

of a lozenge shape, about

and breadth, cultivated highly throughout,

The only other valley in the whole


which is smaller and higher,

to 4,700 feet above the sea.

eastern half of the Sub- Himalayas is that of Jurnla,

(Hordeum

yielding barley

celeste,) as the

great valley, rice.

the large but single vale of Cashmere and the Duns, both too well

The sub-Himalayas form a confused congeries of enorof which cross each other in every direction, but

quire further remark.