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STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS

 

STRUCTRUAL SYSTEMS

DESCRIPTION

SCHEMTATIC

STRUCTURAL

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

BUILDING SAMPLE

DIAGRAM

FUNCTION

RIGID FRAME Rigid frame structures can be defined as the structures in which beams &

RIGID FRAME

Rigid frame structures can be defined as the structures in which beams & columns are made monolithically and act collectively to resist the moments which are generating due to applied load.

 

Rigid frame structures provide more stability. This type of frame structures resists the shear, moment and torsion more effectively than any other type of frame structures. That’s why this frame system is used in world’s most astonishing building Burj-Al-Arab

Advantages:

 

STRUCTURES

STRUCTURES -One of the best advantages of frame structures is their ease in construction. it is

-One of the best advantages of frame structures is their ease in construction. it is very east to teach the labor at the construction site. -Frame structures can be constructed rapidly. -Economy is also very important factor in the design of building systems. Frame

structures can be constructed rapidly. -Economy is also very important factor in the design of building
 
 
 

Rigid Frames

   

structures have economical designs. Disadvantages:

Burj Al Arab, Dubai

In frames structures, span lengths are usually restricted to 40 ft when normal reinforced concrete. Otherwise spans greater than that, can cause lateral deflections.

RIGID CORE The core structure form is the form in which the gravity and horizontal

RIGID CORE

The core structure form is the form in which the gravity and horizontal loading are carried by a single core and in this form, the slab are supported either at each level by cantilevers form the core or between the core and perimeter columns.

 

This system is a useful method of creating open floor plans in a very tall building, which might otherwise require columns between the core and perimeter.

Advantages:

 

STRUCTURES

-Effectively resists lateral loads by producing interior shear core exterior framed tube interacting system. -Interior columns are comparatively few and located at the core. The distance between the exterior and the core frames is spanned with beams or trusses and intentionally left column-free. -Serves as the major load taking element and to provide rigidity to resist

 
  Cheung Kong Center, Hong Kong
Cheung Kong Center, Hong Kong

Cheung Kong Center, Hong Kong

Lower Floors

 
  Cheung Kong Center, Hong Kong Lower Floors     Upper Floors     Arrangement of
 

Upper Floors

   

Arrangement of cores for the scheme design of a 75-storey building.

deflection caused by lateral load (wind). Disadvantages:

-Interior planning limitations due to shear core. -Outrigger structure does not add shear resistance. -As building height increases, the core, if kept consistent with the elevator, stair

well and other mechanical equipments does not have sufficient stiffness to keep wind drift at acceptable level.

sufficient stiffness to keep wind drift at acceptable level. BRACED CORE WITH HAT TRUSSES STRUCTURE Top

BRACED CORE

WITH HAT

TRUSSES

STRUCTURE

Top Hat trusses are used when a roof truss would be too tall if made in one piece. This can be due to a large span or a steep pitch or a combination of both. The system employed is to make up truncated trusses of a manageable height, and then a secondary truss is placed on top

height, and then a secondary truss is placed on top Plan Section Hat trusses involve the

Plan

height, and then a secondary truss is placed on top Plan Section Hat trusses involve the

Section

Hat trusses involve the perimeter columns of the building in resisting lateral loads, thus improving the overall performance of the building.

Advantages:

-The interior framing is designed sufficiently strong to resist gravity and lateral load on the building, while the hat truss deflect wind load. -Serves as the major load taking element and to provide rigidity to resist deflection caused by lateral load especially wind. Disadvantages:

-Limited only for 60 storey, unless other advance structural systems are incorporated in construction.

unless other advance structural systems are incorporated in construction. Shanghai World Financial Center, Shanghai, China

Shanghai World

Financial Center,

Shanghai, China

RIGID FRAME A construction principle and method wherein the building is designed in such a

RIGID FRAME

A construction principle and method wherein the building is designed in such a way like a hollow tube in order to help resist lateral loads.

Central Core

Central Core

-The tube system concept is based on the idea that a building can be designed to resist lateral loads by designing it as a hollow cantilever perpendicular to the ground. -This assembly of columns and beams forms a rigid frame that amounts to a dense and strong structural wall along the exterior of the building. -This exterior framing is designed sufficiently strong to resist all lateral loads on the building, thereby allowing the interior of the building to be simply framed for gravity loads. Interior columns are comparatively few and located at the core.

Advantages:

 

TUBE

-Exterior framing is designed sufficiently strong to resist all lateral loads on the building, thereby allowing the interior of the building to be simply framed for gravity loads. -Interior columns are comparatively few and located at the core. -The distance between the exterior and the core frames is spanned with beams or trusses and intentionally left column-free. -Maximum efficiency for lateral strength and stiffness. -Can be combined with the rigid core framing concept. Disadvantages:

-Prone to shear lag -Additional braces may alter window design complexity. -Strict informality of columns.

STRUCTURES

STRUCTURES
 
 
 
Perforated Tube

Perforated Tube

Sears Tower, Chicago

BRACED FRAME TUBE STRUCTURES -A structural system which is designed primarily to resist wind and

BRACED

FRAME TUBE

STRUCTURES

-A structural system which is designed primarily to resist wind and earthquake forces. Members in a braced frame are designed to work in tension and compression, similar to a truss. -It is a structural frame of linear members made rigid by a system of diagonal members and a central tube.

rigid by a system of diagonal members and a central tube. -To resist lateral forces without
rigid by a system of diagonal members and a central tube. -To resist lateral forces without
rigid by a system of diagonal members and a central tube. -To resist lateral forces without

-To resist lateral forces without sliding, overturning, buckling, or collapsing using a system of diagonal members. -Simple tube but with comparatively fewer and farther-spaced exterior columns. Steel bracings or concrete shear walls are introduced along the exterior walls to compensate for the fewer columns by tying them together.

Advantages:

-Maximum use of interior space. -Fewer perimeter columns. -Uses far less steel than the traditional rigid steel frame structure. -More natural lighting inside the building. -Provides maximum lateral stability. -Economic to construct and simple to analyze. -Environmental friendly. Disadvantages:

-Steel bracing may

affect the location of windows -Affect the exterior façade of the building. -Adaptability is limited.

windows -Affect the exterior façade of the building. -Adaptability is limited. Alcoa Building, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Alcoa Building,

RIGID FRAME The outrigger and belt truss system is one of the lateral load resisting

RIGID FRAME

The outrigger and belt truss system is one of the lateral load resisting system in which the external columns are tied to the central core wall with very stiff outriggers and belt truss at one or more levels. When the lateral load acts on the building, the bending of the core rotates the stiff outrigger arms, which is connected to the core and induces tension and compression in the columns

the core and induces tension and compression in the columns The outrigger and belt truss system
the core and induces tension and compression in the columns The outrigger and belt truss system

The outrigger and belt truss system is commonly used as one of the structural system to effectively control the excessive drift due to lateral load, so that, during small or medium lateral load due to either wind or earthquake load, the risk of structural and non-structural damage can be minimized. For high-rise buildings, particularly in seismic active zone or wind load dominant, this system can be chosen as an appropriate structure.

Advantages:

 

TUBE WITH

-

The use of outrigger

TUBE WITH - The use of outrigger

BELT TRUSSES

and belt truss system in high-rise buildings increase the stiffness and makes the

 

structural form efficient under lateral load.

-

Exterior framing can

consist of simple beam and column framing

without the need for rigid-frame-type connection, thus reducing the overall cost. Disadvantages:

-

The space occupied by

Chifley Tower,

Chifley Tower,

the outrigger trusses places constraints on the use of floors at which the outriggers

are located. Even in mechanical equipment

 

floors, the presence of outrigger truss members can be a major problem.

 

-

Architectural and

Sydney, Australia

functional constraints

may prevent placement of large outrigger columns where they could mostly conveniently be engaged by outrigger trusses extending out from the core