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Sample Problem #1:

Pure solvent isopropyl ether at the rate of 600 kg/h is being used to extract an aqueous
solution of 200 kg/h containing 30 wt % acetic acid by countercurrent multistage extraction.
The desired exit acetic acid concentration in the aqueous phase is 4%. Determine the
compositions and amounts of the ether extract and the aqueous raffinate. Calculate the
number of stages required.
Equilibrium data for water-acetic acid-isopropyl ether at 20°C and 1 atm
Water Layer, wt % Isopropyl Ether Layer, wt %
Isopropyl Isopropyl
Acetic Acid Water Acetic Acid Water
Ether Ether
0.69 98.1 1.2 0.18 0.5 99.3
1.41 97.1 1.5 0.37 0.7 98.9
2.89 95.5 1.6 0.79 0.8 98.4
6.42 91.7 1.9 1.93 1.0 97.1
13.30 84.4 2.3 4.82 1.9 93.3
25.50 71.1 3.4 11.40 3.9 84.7
36.70 58.9 4.4 21.60 6.9 71.5
44.30 45.1 10.6 31.10 10.8 58.1
46.40 37.1 16.5 36.20 15.1 48.7

Solution: VN+1
V2 600 kg/h solvent
V1
1 2 N yAN+1 = 0
L0
200 kg/h feed LN
L1
xA0 = 0.30 xAN = 0.04
xB0 = 0.70

Total balance: L0 + VN+1 = Σ VN+1


200 + 600 = Σ L0 = 200
800 = Σ
Σ
A balance: L0xA0 + VN+1yAN+1 = Σ xAΣ
200(0.30) + 600(0) = 800xAΣ
0.075 = xAΣ
VN+1 = 600
Or by ratio and proportion:
L0 VN+1
=
x AΣ x A 0 − x AΣ L0
200 600
= xAΣ = ?
x AΣ 0.30 − x AΣ
∴ xAΣ = 0.075 xA0 = 0.30
1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5
1
0.4
0.9
0.3
0.8
0.2
0.7
0.1
0.6
0.0
0.5
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

From diagram above: N = 3.7


Extract composition: 8% acetic, 89% ether, 3% water
Raffinate composition: 4% acetic, 1.8% ether, 90.2% water