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SKIMMING AND SCANNING (RBS)

Skimming and scanning are two specific speed-reading


techniques, which enable you to cover a vast amount of material
very rapidly. These techniques are similar in process but different
in purpose. Both require specific steps to be followed.
SKIMMING is a method of rapidly
moving the eyes over text with the
purpose of getting only the main ideas
and a general overview of the content
1.-Skimming is useful in three different
situations.

Pre-reading--Skimming is more
thorough than simple
previewing and can give a more
accurate picture of text to be
read later.

Reviewing--Skimming is useful
for reviewing text already read.

Reading--Skimming is most
often used for quickly reading
material that, for any number of
reasons, does not need more
detailed attention.

2.- Steps in skimming an article

Read the title--it is the shortest


possible summary of the
content.

Read the introduction or lead-in


paragraph.

Read the first paragraph


completely.

If there are subheadings, read


each one, looking for
relationships among them.
Read the first sentence of each
remaining paragraph.

SCANNING rapidly covers a great


deal of material in order to locate a
specific fact or piece of information
1.-Scanning is very useful for finding
a specific name, date, statistic, or
fact without reading the entire article.
2.-Steps in scanning an article.

Keep in mind at all times what


it is you are searching for. If you hold
the image of the word or idea clearly
in mind, it is likely to appear more
clearly than the surrounding words.

Anticipate in what form the


information is likely to appear-numbers, proper nouns, etc.

Analyze the organization of the


content before starting to scan.
A. If material is familiar or fairly
brief, you may be able to scan
the entire article in a single
search.
B. If the material is lengthy or
difficult, a preliminary
skimming may be necessary to
determine which part of the
article to scan.

Let your eyes run rapidly over


several lines of print at a time.

When you find the sentence


that has the information you seek,
read the entire sentence.
3.-In scanning, you must be willing to
skip over large sections of text

A. The main idea of most


paragraphs appears in the first
sentence.
B. If the author's pattern is to
begin with a question or
anecdote, you may find the last
sentence more valuable.

without reading or understanding


them.
4.-Scanning can be done at 1500 or
more words per minute.

Dip into the text looking for:

A. Clue words that answer who,


what, when, why, how
B. Proper nouns
C. Unusual words, especially if
capitalized
D. Enumerations
E. Qualifying adjectives (best,
worst, most, etc.)
F. Typographical cues--italics,
boldface, underlining, asterisks,
etc.

Read the final paragraph


completely

3.-Mastering the art of skimming


effectively requires that you use it as
frequently as possible.
4- Skimming can usually be
accomplished at about 1000 words per
minute.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SKIMMING AND SCANNING


Skim means go over a surface
Scan (in reading) means observe
lightly, in terms of reading, to
something, specially to obtain
read and determine what the
information, when you scan you
main ideas are, and how they are look for the information you want
connected
and ignore the rest.
You might use scanning to:
You might use skimming to:
look up a word in a dictionary or see whats in the news in a
index
paper or on a website
find an address or a phone
browse through a book to see if
number in a directory
you want to read it
check what time your
look through the television
programme is on television
guide to see whats on one
look up details or prices in a
evening

catalogue
pick out the website you want
from options on a Google search

flick through a catalogue to see


whats on offer
look through the options given
on a Google search to see what
sites it suggests

PARAGRAPHS AND TRANSITIONS (WSC)

PARAGRAPH UNITY
In writing, unity refers to whether or not a piece of writing shares
the same focus, style, and tone throughout. It is important to be
sure that writing is unified at both the paragraph and essay level to
ensure that it flows smoothly and that readers do not become
confused. Each paragraph should focus on one main idea, with all of
its sentences working to illustrate, clarify, explain, or support that
main idea. The essay needs to have each paragraph illustrating,
clarifying, explaining, or supporting its main idea as presented in
the thesis statement. If your paragraph contains a sentence or
some sentences that are NOT related to the main topic, then we say
that the paragraph "lacks unity".

PARAGRAPH COHERENCE
A paragraph is coherent when it flows smoothly in a clear direction
and when all the sentences are logically arranged. Consistency in
tone, style, and point of view is also necessary for clarity and
coherence. There are several ways to undermine paragraph
coherence:

Organizing your sentences in an illogical sequence

Using weak transitions that fail to suit your purposes, or not


using transitions at all

Alternating between different tones and styles

PARAGRAPH COHESION

Cohesion is revising to make sure that your words, ideas, and


paragraphs fit together. Without cohesive sentences, readers feel
like they are reading a long list of unrelated ideas. They often have
trouble remembering what you said.
They also have trouble understanding how these ideas connect to
one another, which may mean that they dont understand the main
point in your essay. When your writing is not cohesive, its very
difficult to be an effective communicator.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF PARAGRAPHS


The
introduct
ory
paragrap
h

The topic
paragraph

The
comparing/
contrasting
paragraph

The
The
transition conclusion
al
paragraph
paragrap
h

This is
usually the
first
paragraph
you write
in a text or
document

Is the one
you will use
to transmit
a single
idea and its
supporting
details

This type of
paragraph is
very useful
to establish
what the key
relation is

It can help
you move
your text
from one
topic to
the next

As its name
implies, this
is usually the
closing
paragraph of
a document.

It should
not be
very long
or go into
much
detail

You must
start with a
topic
sentence.
This is what
is

If you want
to establish
how two (or

It is useful
if you are
writing at
length
about
different
topics

The

commonly
referred to
as the
main idea
of a
paragraph

between two
(or more)
items,
people, or
ideas.

more) things
are similar,
then you are
establishing
a
comparison

in the
same
document,
as a

conclusion
paragraph is
a way to
summarize
all the
information
that has
been
presented
in the

It states in
a brief,
broad
manner
what the
reader will
find in the
body of
the text

The
supporting
sentences;
that are
much
more
specific,
and must
reinforce
your main
idea

If you want
to establish
how two (or
more) things
are different,
then you are
establish

connector

document
and drive
your point
home

Use any of
the major
connectors
you would
use
between
paragraph
s:

reminds the
reader of all
the
important
points
he should
take away
from the
text.

THE COMMA
The comma is a much misused and often over used piece of
punctuation. The complexity of its usage stems primarily from the
fact that there are several different situations in which the comma
is the correct piece of punctuation to use. The trick is to identify
those situations so as not to use the comma in places where it
really should not be.

Use a comma to separate clauses in a compound sentence

Use a comma to separate elements of the same type: items in


a list, a series of phrases

Use a comma to separate an introductory element such as a


phrase or adverb from the main sentence

Commas also set off interrupting elements, such as example


introductions, transitional words or phrases, and
parentheticals to use a comma.

Use a comma to separate the elements of an address or a


date. Dont forget that in English, the order of the elements
may differ from the order in Spanish

THE SEMICOLON
The semicolon often works as a midway between a comma and a
period. It is a very useful punctuation mark for when you are writing
more than a few sentences. You can use it to clarify and organize
information; it can be used to separate sentences correctly in a
paragraph; you can use it to connect ideas

Use a semicolon to properly join two sentences that are


closely related. In this instance, the semicolon is acting as a
conjunction, and it creates a compound sentence

Uses a semicolon to join a sentence with an elliptical phrase,


that is, a phrase were important words were omitted because
they are provided by the first sentence

Use a semicolon to properly join a series of items, phrases, or


clauses, if the series themselves contain a comma. This is
very useful to avoid confusing or ambiguous paragraphs

References
http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/factsheet/en05skim-e3-f-skimming-and-scanning
https://www.aacc.edu/tutoring/file/skimming.pdf
http://www.howtolearn.com/2013/02/skimming-and-scanning-two-importantstrategies-for-speeding-up-your-reading
http://www.wheaton.edu/Academics/Services/Writing-Center/WritingResources/Paragraph-Unity-Coherence-and-Development
https://cstudies.ubc.ca/student-information/services/self-directed-writingresources/paragraph-unity
http://www.roanestate.edu/owl/connect.html

Vocabulary
Accurate: free from mistakes or errors; able to produce results that
are correct; not making mistakes
Subheadings: an additional headline or title that comes immediately

after the main headline or title; a title given to one of the parts or
divisions of a piece of writing
Pattern: a repeated form or design especially that is used to
decorate something; the regular and repeated way in which
something happens or is done; something that happens in a regular
and repeated way
Dip: to put (something) into a liquid and pull it out again quickly; to
move (something) into and out of something; to lift (liquid) out from
a container
Accomplish: to manage to do; to conclude successfully
Typographical: letterpress printing; the style, arrangement, or
appearance of typeset matter
Arranged: to move and organize (things) into a particular order or
position; to give a particular order or position to the parts of
(something); to organize the details of something before it happens;
to plan (something)
Statement: something that you say or write in a formal or official
way : something that is stated

READING

BUSINESS
SCRIPTS
AND

WRITING SCRIPTS FOR COMMUNICATION

EDWYN ORLANDO BRISEO HIGUERA

403 M

ADRIANA TORRES
23/02/15