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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

APPAREL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

ASSIGNMENT 1- STUDY THE QUALITY PROCEDURES IN A GARMENT UNIT

ORIENT CRAFT LIMITED-DENIM PLANT,


MANESAR 2011

SUBMITTED TO : MS.V.PRIYADARSHINI
SUBMITTED BY : ASINE AMON
SYMPHONY SATPATHY

1 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, HYDERABAD

Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This project consumed huge amount of work, research and dedication. Still,
implementation would not have been possible if we did not have a support of many
individuals and organizations. Therefore we would like to extend our sincere
gratitude to all of them.
First of all we are thankful to our faculty,ms.V.Priyadarshini for her logistical support
and for providing necessary guidance concerning projects implementation.
We are also grateful to seniors for provision of expertise, and technical support in the
understanding and acqiring the base information. Without their superior knowledge
and experience, the Project would like in quality of outcomes, and thus their support
has been essential.
Nevertheless, we express our gratitude toward our families and colleagues for their
kind co-operation and encouragement which help us in completion of this project.

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

INTRODUCTION

Quality is defined as Totality of characteristics of an entity (product, service etc.) that


bears on its ability to satisfy stated and implied needs.
Quality has an important role to play in the competitiveness of the apparel exporting
industry.

QUALITY ASSURANCE:
All those planned or systematic actions, necessary to provide adequate confidence
that, a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality.
Quality assurance refers to the assurance to customers that the product, parts,
components, tools etc. contain specified characteristics and is fit for the intended
use.
The assurance of quality is not the responsibility of a senior person or a department
only. Only the inspection department or its personnel cannot be held responsible for
assurance of quality. It is the responsibility of everybody connected with the
production, directly or indirectly and each and every department.

ROLE OF QAD:
QAD in an organization, works on improving the quality produced and monitor
systems of functioning. The main role of this department is to ensure no quality
issues are compromised with-in production. The department usually consists of a
quality/merchandise manager, fabric checker and a mechanic.

STEPS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE:

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V


First of all quality specifications for the product needs to be established, so that it can
meet the requirements of the customer.
Suitable quality standards for raw materials, parts, components, tools and equipment
etc. needs to also be determined in advance so as to manufacture quality product.
Proper inspection and testing procedures and methods needs to be evolved to check
the quality specifications of raw materials, parts, components, production processes
and methods and also final products.
With the help of inspection and testing, a manufacturer can determine whether they
all conform to the predetermined quality standards or design specifications or not.

BENEFITS OF QUALITY ASSURANCE:


Ensuring that even with turnover of personnel, quality is maintained.
Using entire quality control staff most effectively.
Getting the most of the investment by reducing rejection and rework done on
alteration.
Evaluate production, identify bad shipments and take corrective action.
Evaluate operators in all areas of production and take corrective action.

PROCEDURES TO BE FOLLOWED BY QUALITY ASSURANCE:


QAD should precisely focus on two areas:

Productivity
Quality

Both Productivity and Quality needs to go hand in hand.

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V


For this to be possible it is necessary that standardized procedures be followed in
the field of Quality Assurance.
The garment in its manufacturing process moves through the fabric, the cutting, the
sewing and finally the finishing department. Quality Procedures are to be followed in
each of these departments. Each department needs to treat the following department
in the chain as its customer and itself as the supplier to that customer. For example,
the cutting department needs to treat itself as the supplier to its customer, which is
the Sewing department.

INDULGE AND MONITOR QUALITY SYSTEMS


The Q/A dept is required to induce the Q/C dept to implement standard quality
systems required by buyers to improve and maintain a very good OQL.The
implemented quality system should bemonitored on a daily basis. So that the system
runs without any failure. Under no circumstances thesystems should be changed or
stopped.The quality system should be very strong so that nothing could penetrate
through and result in failure of audits or re-screening.

COMPANY PROFILE
Orient craft limited was established in 1978 and is one of the largest Export House in
India having a turnover of around 725 crores. It is dealing with US and European
buyers and is having 21 manufacturing units in and around Delhi. It is one of the
largest manufacturers of womens, mens and childrens woven (including denims)
and knit garments in India.

Orient Craft was setup by Mr. Sudhir Dhingra (Founder and Chief Managing Director)
in 1972 with 4 employees. Having employee strength of 25000 workers it is one of
the major companies in the garment sector of India.

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Orient Craft has clients from all around the globe, major comprising of big players
like Tommy Hilfiger, Gap, Macy's, Dillards, Marks and Spencer, Esprit, Armani,
DKNY, Ann Taylor, United Colors of Benetton, LEVIS, Debenhams and many more.
It has an annual turnover of Rs 800 crores of the woven and Rs 300 crores of the
knits section and Rs 40 crores of Denims unit. OCL has setup the largest plant ever
in Biwardi Rajasthan which has employed around 12000 employees.
Success of a business depends entirely on understanding the buyers needs and
satisfying the same fully. Infrastructure, Plant and Machinery, Expertise of highly
qualified professionals and commitment to quality have earned it a high degree of
trust to its valuable buyers.

Major Customers
Orient Craft stands true to the image of being 'the name behind names.

Abercrombie & Fitch


Ann Taylor
Bandolino
Banana Republic
Betty Barclay
Calvin Klein
Carters
Chicos
Club Monaco
Debenhams
Diane Von Furstenberg
French Connection
GAP International
George
J-Crew
J Jill
Kell wood
Kohl
Levis
Liz Claiborne
Macys
Marc Jacobs
Marks & Spencer
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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

May department stores


Michael Kors
Mufti
Next Retail Ltd
Pepe jeans
Polo Ralph Lauren
Reebok
Spykar
The Jones Group
Tommy Hilfiger
United colors of Benetton

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

PROCESS FLOWCHART OF THE COMPANY

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

MERCHANDISING DEPARTMENT
Merchandising Department is the most important department of an export house.
The merchandisers relate and negotiate within and outside the company i.e., with the
other departments and buyers/suppliers respectively.
Activities of a merchandiser

Sampling
Fabric sourcing
Accessories sourcing
Gather Test reports
Production targets and its achievements
Quality Check
Report maintenance
Forwarding

Package File consist of following reports

List of orders pasted on the left hand inside cover of the file.
Tech pack.
CAD marker-costing and factory costing.
Trim pro forma invoices from the supplier.
Confirmation of the trims
Commercial invoices (C.I.)
Confirmation of the CI from the store
Order chart from the buyer
P.O. copies from the buyers
Fabric order confirmations with approved fabrics swatches
Time and action calendar.
Hard copy of all incoming and outgoing crucial and important mails that may

be required for future references (buyer related)


Mills fabric reports-checking, testing
Internal fabric reports-checking, testing
Buyer approved
Trim card
Shade bands
Wash swatch/wash mocks
Embroidery/printing
Minutes of Pre-production meeting (PPM)
Hard copies of in/out mails with respect to production-either with
PPD/QA/factory-all concerned and important mails.
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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

Size set-passed comments- (buyers)


Pilot-approval comments
Internal quality audit reports before final inspection.
Packing list
Invoice received from shipping department for the purpose of shipment.
Dispatch details i.e. date dispatched to which destination, vehicle number,
number of cartons, number of pieces and sending factorys name.

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

SAMPLING DEPARTMENT
Here the work of a garment manufacturing unit is done on a small scale or it is a mini
production floor. All the functions ranging from cutting to finishing are being done.
Sampling is done to get approval from the buyer based on the samples made and for
the product development team. The sampling section followed the make through
system for production of garments.
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Working of Sampling Department

Getting clarifications about style details from merchandiser.


Getting PPA (Pre Production Approval) from Buyer through Merchandiser.
Checking patterns workability before starting cutting as sometimes the

patterns specified do not result in a desired garment or desired measurement.


Preparation of different samples during different stages of production and get

the buyers approval.


Informing quality related problems, encountered during preparing samples, to

QC.
Revising the specification of the buyer.
Minimizing operations and consumption.
Innovation of new methods for completion of operations more efficiently.

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN DEPARTMENT


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CAD department as the name suggests is for marker making by aid of computers.
This department is crucial as in achieving the target of the company by reducing cost
by efficient markers. The efficient estimation of the fabric which will be used in
making a sample is done here. It has computers which are connected to the network
so anybody can open the file and operate the system. It uses TUKA CAD for marker
making.

The CAD Department has four sections

Pattern Making Section


Marker Making Section
Marker Quality Assurance (QC inspection)
For any unwanted discrepancies visually inspect the marker supplied by the
CAD department.
The length and width should be at least 2 cm less than the fabric laid length
and one inch less than the fabric width respectively.
All sizes in lay slip are there in the marker and the ratio specified is accurate.
The marker should be placed on the spread with one edge parallel to the level
side of the spread leaving 1 cm on either side in the length and 1 inch in width
on the unleveled side.
No marker should be creased, damaged or has over lapped / missing parts.
When marker length is shorter than the lay length, the pattern master does
manual marking.
Horizontal matching
Vertical matching
Remnant fabrics have to be utilized.
The count of the garment parts is checked.
The alignment of the parts is also inspected.

The QC handles a spec sheet in order to check the above in detail.

Grading section

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FABRIC STRORE AND ACCESSORY STORE


All the raw materials are ordered and purchased by the stores department and then
issued to the various departments. When any department wants to get any material,
they inform the stores department, which then checks the material availability which
is done by issuing an Indent. If certain items are fully/partially not available then the
source is identified and purchase order is placed as per the terms and conditions,
once quality approval is received from the concerned authority, to selected supplier
on the basis of previous track records and price quotations.
Fabric Sourcing
Store Department deals with the processing of inventory.

Requisition of material
Acquisition of Material
Issue of Material

Acquisition of Material
After delivery first fabric is checked at the gate physically. If there are any
discrepancies in any of the details then needed steps are taken for the same. Else, a
request is sent to the fabric store and the material is delivered there.
Entry is done in the designated register, and then fabric goes through various
inspections. Fabric rolls are checked according to the four point system.
Issuing of Material

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

Fig Issuing of material

TRIM STORE
The trims store is another store where the trims such as thread, zipper, buttons, and
labels etc. are stored and issued as per requirements.
Process Flow of the Trim Store

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

Fig Process flow of Trim store

CUTTING AND SPREADING DEPARTMENT


Cutting department is important in cost reduction by efficient spreading, cutting and
fusing. Here about 75% of the total cost is influenced and by efficient of cutting
department we can reduce the cost and improve profits. To manufacture a garment
we cut the fabric into the necessary patterns shapes. These are joined together by
seams to create garments. If more than one quantity of style must be cut, a lay is
created which consist of many plies spread one above the other. Then the garment
pieces for all the sizes planned for that lay are cut. The pattern is plotted on a paper
and placed on the top of the lay and then cutting begins.

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V


Spreading and Cutting Department Process Flow

Documents Used

Style file
Cutting register
Fabric Challan file
Fabric Relaxation register
Cutting Inspection file
Lot Information file
Sober register
End Bits register
Part Change register
Cutting Quality Defect Report file
Cutting Issue register
Blade and Scissors Record register

FUSING
Process Flow Chart Fusing

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

Fig Process Flow Chart Fusing

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

SEWING DEPARTMENT
Sewing Department is the backbone of the industry. Here the garment takes its final
shape. Better the sewing process, better the quality and profits. The basic aim is to
produce more and better garments in less time. The garments are made as per the
specifications of the buyer. The application of technology to clothing manufacture is
concerned with the achievement of satisfactorily sewn seams or less defects.
2.8.1 Work Process of Sewing Department

Process flow chart of Sewing Department


With a new style comes the information like operation breakdown, sewing details,
critical operations, etc. on the display board. A garment sample is displayed for any
kind of reference at the end of the line.
Line is set as per line layout plan. Operations are assigned to the operators by
supervisors. Required SPI, thread tension and needle number is set by supervisors
and mechanic. Line Incharge and supervisor give directions to operators for

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performing the operations. In Line checkers and line QC see if the desired quality is
coming out from each operation is as per the quality specifications.

A report is prepared by the In Line checkers and On Line QC for style quality
progress. Industrial Engineer does the operations study again, if any change needs
to be incorporated in the layout and working method for quality and production
purpose, immediate action is taken. When the output is complete, it is checked by
final checkers again to ensure the product quality.

People involved in Batch Setting

Fig 2.8.3 People involved in Batch Setting

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V


On an average each of the seven lines has

45 machines
4 tables
1 line in charge
3 supervisors
10 helpers
2 inline checkers
1 line QC

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FINISHING AND PACKAGING DEPARTMENT


Finishing is the last stage of garment production before shipment where garment
gets its desired look. Each garment undergoes various finishing processes.
Garments undergo quality check for several numbers of times which rid it of defects
if any. Here buyer specifications and instructions are strictly maintained.
Work Process of the Department

Fig Process flow chart of Finishing and Packing Department

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Operations Performed At Finishing Stage
1. Thread cutting
2. Spotting
3. General Checking
This section plays a crucial role in ensuring the end quality of garment. Finishing in
charge or supervisors teach checkers the correct method of garment checking. Each
quality checker has stickers for marking defects and thread clippers. S/he checks the
garments thoroughly and marks the defects with arrow stickers and to uncut threads
if any, then puts the pass piece in the basket below the inspection table. Its their
responsibility to take the defective pieces for correction and after correction put them
in the pass pieces basket.
The defects found at this stage are broadly of the following types

Stitching defects
Stains
Finishing Defect
Holes/ Cut/ Fabric defects

Every checker sticks their allotted number the garment passed by them. Every time a
defective piece is found at a later stage it is traced back to the checker who passed
it. The checker is then shown the mistake so that it is not repeated again. They
checkers are given regular on-the-job training.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Seam Ironing
Alterations
Final Ironing
Final Checking

In this section the overall look of the garment is checked. For stain removal at this
stage, every table is provided with a stain removal gun and a thread clipper to cut the
uncut threads. All the defective pieces are sent for alteration.
8. Tagging and Packing
9. Presentation Checking and Carton Packing

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After tagging garments are packed as per the buyer specification. The packed
garments are checked for presentation. The packed garments are checked for

Polybags are as per specification


Tags and price ticket should be as per specification
Packing is secured or not if specified
Polybags should not be soiled and torn
Hangers are there or not if specified

Garment has been folded as per specification etc.


After checking is done garments are sent for carton packing. The following is kept in
mind during carton packing

Number of garments to be packed in one carton


Ratio asked for example M:L:S=2:1:2
Get the cartons tested for bursting strength
Packing the garments in the cartons as per specified
Closing the cartons with cellophane tape
Sealing the cartons with plastic cord
Writing on carton information like store or buyer name, buyer's address, ratio,
net weight of the carton etc.

Again checking is done and if the lot passes, then the consignment is send for
shipment along with a packing list which comprises of

Style no.
P.O. no.
Size ratio and mix
Color
Gross weight
Net weight
Dimensions
Labels
Air or Ship shipment

QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT


Quality is a pre dominant factor when a buyer is buying the garments from the export
house and an important consideration while placing the order. Quality is something
which is right the first time or following the standards being developed by making the

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specifications and documenting them such that they are communicated to all the
employees of the organization.
The quality checkers are trained as soon as the new style arrives in the factory about
how they are to check the garment.

2.10.1 Work Process of the Department

Fig Work process flow chart of Quality Assurance Department

Quality Assurance check points


Fabric store
A small blanket of the fabric is cut and then taken for testing in the testing lab.

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Spreading and Cutting
Here while laying the operator checks the lay and before cutting the marker
developed on the CAD is placed on the lay and checked with production patterns for
accuracy.

Bundling and Ticketing


Here the bigger part of the garments are checked and send for recut in case of any
discrepancy.

Sewing
In sewing, a 100 % inspection is done inline as well as end of line.

Dry Processing
If garment have any dry processing operation on them then garment is taken from
the sewing floor they are checked by the quality checkers.

Washing
Quality check ensures the quality of goods coming to washing. After washing the
shades are matched according to the shade band and if the shade is not matching or
not lying in the range then it is rejected.

Finishing
This section has most number of QC points starting from the middle checking where
the garment is checked from inside and outside, then final check where the quality is
checked by looking at the top side of the garment. Then garment goes to

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measurement checking to ensure the fit of garment. In the end garment is checked
for presentation and packed.

Final Audit
Final Audit is done internally by quality auditor and externally by buyer's QC. They
use SQC as their tool as check few pieces so as to get the idea of the lot.

Fig Cartons for Audit

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Documents Being Maintained
Initial Report
This is also called Pilot run report and usually done for 100 150 pieces. Internal
quality auditors and buyers approved quality auditors do this initial checking. The
construction, measurements, etc are mentioned in the production package are
checked and visual auditing is done. The bulk production begins when the buyers
QC gives an approval to this report.
Component Report
This report is made first day when the first piece is produced and contains
information like construction details, placement of labels, embroidery, printing,
patches, buttons, etc. It helps in checking when the bulk production starts.
In Line Audit
It takes place after 10% of order quantity has been packed. The auditing is done on
AQL 2.5 level. The quality auditors chart take out number of pieces for the style
which have been packed and checked for all the measurements, stitching and
construction discrepancies. They mark the defects and keep them aside. The
numbers of defective pieces are counted and if it doesnt meet the acceptance level
specified in the chart then the whole packed shipment has to be opened and all the
pieces are checked for defects and sent for mending. This audit is done both
internally and externally and requisite reports maintained.
Mid Line Audit
This audit takes place after 45% 50% of order quantity has been packed. The
auditing is done on AQL 2.5 level. The sample size is greater here.
Final Audit
This audit takes place after 80% or more of order quantity has been packed.
Packing Audit

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It is most strict of all audits. A packing list is prepared by the production department
for each style being produced, finished and packed. The packing list states the
quantity packed in each carton, the color, the size ratio, etc. The QA study this and
the packing specifications of the buyers. Discrepancies like wrong size ratio, wrong
color, wrong packing, missing shipping marks, faulty packing material used, defective
poly bag and any other can lead to the rejection of the shipment.

MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT
Maintenance department maintains all the machines in the unit. As the machine
breakdown is quite unpredictable it is very crucial to the industry. They try to amend
the problem as soon as possible. They look after the machinery and the
attachments/work aid requirements in conjunction with the industrial engineering
department. They order jigs and other attachments to the supplier and regularly take
a feedback from the operators so the best option can be ordered for machines that
are not have desired attachments.

Daily check points

Finger guard check


Eye glass check
Thread stand clean and tight
Check on table
Machine stand check and balancing
Knee pad adjust
Stand shoe check and install
Oil level check properly/ needles
Thread tension set according to fabric
Pressure bar rod/ regulator/ spring check
UBT machine proper working and check
Bobbin winder proper check and maintain
Machine and thread stand tight properly
Bobbin case check properly and maintain

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Department of Fashion Technology, Semester - V

Fig Maintenance Department

Preventive Maintenance Service Plan followed


Service A Monthly check

Oil tank proper clean


Gear and bearing proper checking/ replacement
Oil filter
All moving parts checking/replacement
Oil lubrication system checking

Service B Quarterly Check

Oil change
Motor and Control box clean by air pressure
All moving parts checking/replacement
Gear and bearing proper checking/ replacement

WASHING DEPARTMENT
Garment Processing Process Flow Chart

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Fig Garment Processing Process Flow Chart

Dry Process Organizational Structure

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Fig Dry Process Organizational Structure

Process flow chart for Washing Department


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Fig Process flow chart for Washing Department

Process flow chart for Dyeing Department

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Fig Process flow chart for Dyeing Department

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