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Thesis Synopsis

Rehabilitation Centre for Substance Use Disorder

Raza Rajesh

Substance Use Disorder refers to the overuse of, or dependence on, a drug leading to effects that are detrimental
to the individual's physical and mental health, or the welfare of others.[2]
Mosby's Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary.

An Architectural production to compliment the healing process of Substance Abuse with the quality of outer
space contributing to modify our inner psychological space with the help of nature.
Bernie Warren, accessed in Rehabilitation and education village for young drug addicts, Sarah Ng Ka
Ling, March 2000, pg 16

Substance Use Disorder is best conceptualized as a chronic, non-communicable disease. The disorder
requires a comprehensive treatment, delivered by trained professionals, belonging to various disciplines, in a
variety of settings.
In India, The drug dependence treatment sector is still developing and undergoing refinement. The treatment
services for Substance Use Disorder in India are delivered by three major players. The first major player is the
Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) sector. There are around 430 drug dependence treatment centers
throughout the country, which are being run by NGOs, supported by the Ministry of Social Justice and
Empowerment, Government of India (MSJE, 2008). Another major group is the private sector; many doctors
including a large number of psychiatrists are providing services to people for substance use related problems.
The third major group is the government de-addiction centres (DACs). The Ministry of Health and Family
Welfare (MOH&FW), Government of India, has established about 122 drug dependence treatment centers (or
DACs as they are called) throughout the length and breadth of the country (Panda, 2007). Most of these
government centers are associated with either general hospitals at the district levels or with departments of
Psychiatry at certain medical colleges.

Drug abuse in history

The Hindu mythology says that during Amrith Manthan , one of the 14 Jewels that the ocean delivered was
Varuni- The Goddess of Wine.

5000 BC : The Sumerian people used the Joy plant , which is believed to be Opium.

Smoking of Cannabis is known in India since 2000 BC.


The code of Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC) is the oldest known form of legal code , that had regulatory provisions
and guidelines for preventing Alcohol Abuse.

King Hammurabi

By the middle of Sixteenth Century, drugs like Cocaine, Tobacco and Hallucinogens were introduced from
America to Europe , in exchange of Wine , Cannabis and Narcotics. By the late 19th Century Cocaine kits were
readily available in the western world.

Cocaine Kit
Harrison Act (1914): made the possession of Narcotics without a prescription a criminal offence.


The more felt are buildings, the more connected to rhythms of daythey value
the individuals they will houseenvironment can heal as well as harmplaces of
spiritnourish both individual and society.
Spirit and Place: Christopher Day

Internationally acclaimed British Architect and Sculptor Christopher Day believes that buildings have the life

the architect gives them, a personality that is either positive or negative, and that aura is captured by
those who reside in them.

A Centre for Substance Use Disorder has to be set up in tune with the international standards, with state of the
art facility which provides the outer shell of support to the process of reforming the affected from within.


Rate of Substance abuse is escalating alarmingly in the modern world and India too has a significant share in
it. Rehabilitation Center for Substance Use Disorder has increasing social relevance and is becoming a
fundamental need of Indian society.

for the suffering soul, world is healing

Menander, taken from the 10th European Conference on Rehabilitation and Drug Policy

The ideal location of the proposed site gives us immense scope of utilizing its natural ambience, a hilltop
surrounded by natural thick vegetation encircled with a sparkling river; a perfect setting to practice functional
architecture by using its diverse branches like sustainable architecture, landscape architecture and green
architecture. A serene situation to offer peace of mind, refinement, reformation, reinventing ones own self
through meditation, Yoga, reading, therapeutic process of healing, occupational therapy like gardening,
agriculture, recreational facilities of swimming and other indoor & outdoor games. In total, the very concept of
this sustainable Institution will inspire the lost souls with a new sense of direction and bring them back to
normal life.


India is located close to the major illicit opium growing areas of the world, with- Golden Crescent on the
Northwest and Golden Triangle on the NorthEast. Licit substances (alcohol and tobacco) are the most
commonly used substances. Among the illicit substances , cannabis and opiates are the most frequently used

General research on de-addiction centers


Regional studies

It concerns about the evolution of De Addiction Centers in Kerala in the last century. In the early times, deaddiction centers were basically focused on Alcoholic addiction purpose. But, 21st century proved the
terminology more relevant by the sudden increase of drug addicts.

National studies

About 122 drug dependence treatment centers (or De-Addiction Centers DAC) have been established by
The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOH&FW), Government of India. Most of these government
centers are associated with either general hospitals at the district levels (district hospitals or civil hospitals),
some have also been attached with departments of Psychiatry at certain medical colleges.

Service and facilities


Outpatient Unit
Inpatient Treatment
Dispensing of Medicines
Emergency Services
Laboratory Services
Psychological Interventions
Record Maintenance


Nature and surrounding

A fine observation of the nature and surrounding of the de addiction center is supposed to be done. This
possibly will clarify the context of the site.

Basic standards

National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre (NDDTC), All India Institute of Medical Science, Delhi has
published a document on the basic norms for setting up a De-Addiction Center, Minimum Standards of Care
for Government De-Addiction Centers which is approved by government of India.

Licensing / Accreditation
Compatibility with existing health services framework
Sensitivity and adaptability to local culture
Promoting service utilization
A patient-friendly atmosphere


Space requirements

Should provide required spaces according to the rules and regulations .Each facility that is to be provided
should be assigned with the respective space required and extra space should be allocated for the future
development plans.

Circulation or movement

Shall understand about the basic circulation inside the building as well as the property outside. Basic freedom
of movement is the core factor which affects the mentality of the inmates. Every inch of the inner and outer
space should be designed to ensure free flow of fresh air and proper lighting

Building techniques and parameters

Conventional and traditional building techniques and parameters are followed. Construction techniques like
RCC Construction, Modular construction, Flat Slabs and insulating the exterior wall with mud cladding to bring
green effect are effectively utilized.
Quantitative and qualitative analysis
Area Statement
Building Materials etc

Site Analysis
Standards and Bylaws
Design Criteria etc

Qualitative information or data may be recorded through interviews, observation, sketching, photography, sound
recording, mental maps and so on. Quantitative data may be gathered by measuring, counting, weighing, documentary
photography, measured drawing etc.

Case studies

1. Bodhi Hospital


Poojappura, Trivandrum, Kerala State


0.5 Acres

Type of Architecture

Traditional Kerala Architecture


Brick & mortar walls with tiled roof



Built On


Run by

Abhaya (NGO)


Bodhi is an initiative of Abhaya, NGO based at Trivandrum with leadership support from a renowned poetess in Kerala,
Smt.Sugatha Kumari.

Bodhi is a relaxing and innovative centre where the mind is without fear, inspired from

Geethangali, the Nobel awarded work of our great poet Rabeendranath Tagore.
Services Offered: Alcoholism Treatment, Drug Addiction Treatment, Family Services, Free Treatment, Out Patient,
Residential Rehabilitation, Substance Abuse Counseling.


Bodhi receives aid from the government which allows it to provide free care. Abhaya started the Bodhi facility in 1988.
It has 15 beds as well as an out-patient program. Recovery treatments include group therapy, individual therapy, family
counseling, and doctors who have the skill to diagnose patients accurately. A team of experts consisting of a psychiatrist,
general physician, counselors and social workers caters to the needs of the patients. Bodhi offers a free, calm place for
recovery from alcohol and drug addiction.

2. Muktangan Rehabilitation Center



Mohanwadi, off Pune-Alandi Road, Pune


0.41 Acres

Built On




Shirish Beri and Associates

Late Dr. Anita Awachat


Services Offered: 12 Step, AA & NA Meetings, Alcoholism Treatment, Corporate Program, Drug Addiction
Treatment, Family Services, Relapse Prevention, Residential Rehabilitation, Substance Abuse Counseling,
Women, Yoga and Meditation
The Mukangan Rehabilitation Centre was established in 1986 by the late Dr. Anita Awachat a woman who
had a passion and dream for an addiction free society. While the reality of this dream is overwhelming, the
Mutkangan Rehabilitation Centre works hard to help individuals change their lives.
Mutkangans program is a five week program consisting of physical fitness, meditation, group therapy,
relaxation therapy, yoga, AA meetings, 12 step, and prayer. After completing the program there is also
extensive follow up to help patients stay sober after the program.
The centre recently opened a ward called Nishigandh. This ward is specifically designed for only women
patients and is also staffed only by women.
Muktangan also has its own magazine and literature available to aid patients while in the program or out. The
Mutkangan Rehabilitation Centre is a loving, passionate place for men and women to receive help with


Site photos

View from Exterior

Entrance Lobby

Cut out from the arrival Lobby

View of amphitheatre from Entrance lobby

View of the lobby from the amphitheatre



Wire frame : 2D presentation


Design concept

An outer space to enrich ones inner space with the help of Mother Nature
The capital city of Kerala will be proud to have such a facility, hardly 8 kilometers away from city center, on an
uninhabited hilltop, surrounded by a river and with a vast skyline view of more than 30 kilometers.
A truly green building in natural surroundings to house the affected persons of substance use disorder with
great emphasize on green design such as orientation, maximize natural lighting and ventilation, creation of
wind corridor, low e-glass, fixed and movable shading panels
and a conscious move from hospital outlook into a more corporate / resort environment; again to expedite the
healing process.
A worshipful ambience is set in structure by a suggestive dome with a view of Arabian Sea from its rear, a
heart-filling sight of green stretch and light thin fresh air to breathe in.


Site information

General information


Judgekunnu , Thiruvallam , Trivandrum , Kerala , India

4.13 Acres
400 feet approximately above sea level

The site is on a hill named Jugdekunnu in Thiruvallam, 8 km from the city center. Its the most suitable location for such a
project with rich scenic beauty, natural wind flow, heavy vegetation and mind pleasing sight of the horizon, Karamana
River, City skyline and the like. Laterate soil and hard terrain assure a stable construction.

Site Photos


Entrance to Judgekunnu from Thiruvallam-Karumam road

Ghat Road

Ghat Road 2

Reaching Hilltop

Village in the valley

Hilltop reached


Entrance to the proposed site

Proposed site I

Proposed site II

Proposed Site III

Zenith of the Site

Panoramic view from the hilltop


Lush Greenery Around

The city skyline and proximity to the city

Karamana River flowing around the hill

Terrain Texture

Terrain - Laterate soil

Proximity to Airport


Arabian Sea: view from hilltop

The Sunset