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# Module 5

Property Modeling

Surfaces and
Data edit

Stratigraphic
Modeling

## 3D Grid Construction: Structural Modeling

Interface
Studio

Pillar Gridding

Fault Modeling
3D Grid
Construction
Structural
Framework

3D Grid
Construction
Structural Gridding

Property Modeling

Well Log
Upscale

Facies &
Petrophysical
Modeling

Make Horizons
Zones & Layering
Make contacts &
Volume Calculation
Workflow Editor

Intro to Petrel

Introduction

Objectives

## Gain an understanding of the concept and process

Understand and use discrete logs
Averaging methods
Facies weighting.
Understand and use continuous logs
Averaging methods
Biasing to a discrete log.
Look at different Scale-up settings
Treat log as lines or points
Method of which penetrated cells to use.
QC of upscaled logs: Using well section window.

Overview
The Scale-up well logs process averages the values to the cells in the 3D grid
that are penetrated by the wells. Each cell gets one value per upscaled log.
These cells are later used as a starting point for Property modeling.
Cells exist along the well path.

## Values assigned to cells based on

well log values along the well path.

## Upscaled logs used to fill in the 3D grid.

Note: An upscaled property will have a [U] following its name in the Property folder in the Models pane.

## Scale-Up Well Logs

1. Create a new property.

## 3. Choose a log from the drop-down list (captured

from Input pane > Global well logs folder)
4. Set the best scale-up Settings, depending on
the type of log (continuous or discrete).

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## Note: Upscaled logs will be part of the 3D property at the well

positions. The Property modeling processes will NOT overwrite
upscaled cell values!

## Commonly used Averaging Methods

Averaging
method

Description

Most of

Used together with discrete logs, it selects the discrete value that is most represented in
the log for each particular cell.

Arithmetic mean

Typically used for additive properties, such as porosity, saturation, and net/gross.

Harmonic mean

Gives the effective vertical permeability if the reservoir is layered with constant
permeability in each layer. It works well with lognormal distributions and is sensitive to
lower values.

Geometric mean

Normally a good estimate for permeability if it has no spatial correlation and is lognormally
distributed. It is sensitive to lower values.

## Averaging Discrete Logs

Discrete logs, such as facies, have only
integer values (0,1,2, etc.).
1. Choose an input from a Facies well log to create a
new property.
2. The Average method is normally Most of, which
uses the value most represented in the cell.

## 3. In some situations, it may be necessary

to use the Weighting option. Click Use
weighting and fill in the Weighted tab.

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## Averaging Continuous Logs

Continuous logs, such as porosity, have real
number values (decimals).
1. Choose an input from a continuous Well log to create
a new property (here, porosity).
2. Set the Average method (here Arithmetic for porosity).

## 4. Specify that there should be a Minimum number of

well log samples in a cell for it to be included in the
upscaling.

## Biasing to a Discrete Log

Raw porosity

Raw facies

Sand

Shale

Upscaled facies

Upscaled porosity

## Settings: Treat Log as Lines or Points

Treat log

Description

As points

All sample values within each cell are used for averaging.

As Lines

If the midpoint of a line between two sample points is inside a cell the point outside the cell
will be used in the calculation.

Method

Description

Simple

## All cells penetrated by the well

trajectory are included.

Through cell

## The well trajectory must penetrate two

opposite cell walls.

Neighbor cell

## All penetrated cells are used but cells

in the same cell layer are averaged.

## Quality Checking Upscaled Logs

When upscaling is done, it is a good practice
to QC the upscaled cells with the original log
in a Well section window.
1. Click the Show result in well section button in
the Scale up well logs dialog.

## Alternatively, set up a Well section display on

your own. Choose raw logs (Global well logs
folder > Input pane), right-click, and select Add
to template in a new track.
Right-click on the upscaled log (Models pane>
Properties folder) and click Add to template in
the existing raw log track.

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## Averaged values for

each cell in the model
on top of the original
log

EXERCISE

## Upscaling of Well Logs: QC of Upscaled Logs

Synthetic logs resemble the properties (Upscaled logs) but are stored as physical
logs under Global Well Logs.
1. Click the Make logs tab of settings for Wells.
2. Choose the property from which the log will be made.
3. Click the Make logs button. The log is stored in the Global
Well Logs folder and can be toggled on from there.

## Averaging Methods for Discrete Logs

Averaging method

Description

Most of

Will select the discrete value which is most represented in the log for each particular cell

Median

Will sort the input values and select the center value.

Minimun/Maximum

Samples the min/max value of the well log for the cell.

## Mid Point Pick

Will pick the log value where the well is halfway through the cell.

Random Pick

## Averaging Methods for Continuous Logs

Averaging method

Description

Arithmetic mean

Typically used for additive properties such as porosity, saturation, and net/gross.

Harmonic mean

Gives the effective vertical permeability if the reservoir is layered with constant
permeability in each layer. It works well with log normal distributions. It is sensitive to
lower values.

Geometric mean

Normally a good estimate for permeability if it has no spatial correlation and the is log
normally distributed. It is sensitive to lower values.

Median

Squared)

## Provides a strong bias towards high values.

Minimun/Maximum

Samples the min/max value of the well log for the cell.

## Mid Point Pick

Picks the log value where the well is halfway through the cell.

Random Pick