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Maastricht Academy of Music

Music Programme, Classical

Music Theory, Analysis

Course Book Unit Ia

First year of study, semester 1

Academic year 2015-2016

Version: Sept. 2015

Overview of themes in the core curriculum

The curriculum is subdivided into units of subject matter that will be discussed
(simultaneously) in Analysis (AN) and Harmony (HRM).

In total, there are 6 units of 17 weeks each, spread over three years of study. Within
this subdivision, the subjects fall into two categories: Category A, subjects concerning
form and structure and category B, subjects addressing the musical material.
Year 1
General; introductory
Important concepts in thematic analysis and sentence structure.
Various forms, such as ornamental variation, harmonic variation, ostinato
variation and others.
Introduction to scales and series: pentatonics, hexatonics, diatonics.
Discusses basic techniques from traditional harmonic theory: connections of
triads in root position and first inversion as well as distinguishing and applying
Ornamentations: suspensions and retardations, passing notes, auxiliary notes
and anticipation.


Sequential forms; diatonics (2)

Forms based on sequential succession (movements are simply placed after one
another, either additional or contrasting, without a development). Important
forms are: rondo, minuet, scherzo, adagio forms, ambiguous forms, suite, song
forms (binary/ternary) and derivations of these.
Basic techniques from traditional harmonic theory are developed further:
contrapuntal chords, modal mixture (e.g. borrowing from the minor), basic
secondary dominants and modulations.

Year 2
Sonata; chromatics (1)
Thematic dialectics in the sonata form; principles locker and fest; Linear
Leading notes; alterations; chromatic and enharmonic modulations; chain

Fugue/ extension of tonality; chromaticism (2)

Fugal forms
Discusses how the techniques above (chromaticism) lead to:
1) Floating tonality (culmination: abundance of leading notes, modulations)
2) Non-functional connections (reaction: Getting rid of the glue, avoiding
leading notes, dealing with sevenths freely, etc.)
3) Erweiterte tonality (alternative: extending, stretching the tonality.)

Year 3
Twentieth century techniques: (divided into 3 lines of development)
The structural role of the four parameters; aleatoric music; determinacy versus
indeterminacy; open forms; variation as a motive, style as a motive etc.
Alternative series, tropes, serial techniques; Messiaen series; system of axes;
bitonality; octatonics; cluster techniques, etc.
Analysis and Research skills in Twentieth Century composition
Individual project. Research into and analysis of a composition of the twentieth
Century, which results in a paper and a presentation containing live played
musical fragments.


1. Study questions and research for Analysis....................................4

2. List of options for presentations:................................................32
3. Practice test.............................................................................33
4. Methodical structure.................................................................35

1. Study questions and research for Analysis.

Please note: The examples mentioned in the questions have only
been added partially. If you cannot find an example, you will have to
look it up in the library.

Lesson 1


Introduction to Unit 1 General

Space for notes:

Lesson 2
Structure: Material - Structure - Form - Motive - Theme
M. Ravel (1875-1935):
(1908) track 1

Ma mere loye La belle au bois dormant

See next page!

1a. Which notes did the composer use in the example? Write them down.
1b. Are there important and less important notes? Think of arguments to
explain why some notes are more or less important than others.
2. Which notes would you choose if you would have this piece played only by a
clarinet and a bassoon? Write them down and explain your choice.
3. How are the notes ordered? Describe per bar how the composer built up the
main melody of bar 1-8.

4. Some bars are derived from other bars. Write down only the source of
these (at least 4) Which of these sources is the most important? The sources
are called motives.
5. Are the various motives used in a contrasting way? Please explain.
Consult literature for questions 6 and 7.
6. What is a theme? Give a description.
7. What is a motif?
8. What is the difference between a theme and a motive?
9. What is the theme in the example of Ravel?


C. Debussy (1862-1918): Prelude no. 2 Voiles first page (track 2)
10. Listen to the example and look at the score. Write down the scale / series
of this piece. Give it a name.
11. How often can you transpose this series without getting the same notes
(=sound)? Write down the transpositions.
12. Which notes and which intervals does the composer make important? How
does he do that?

Lesson 3
Structure: Finding Sentences
F. Schubert (1797-1828):

Die Krhe from Die Winterreise

A. Dvorak (1841-1904):

Symphony no. 9 Aus der neuen Welt

Largo; bar 7-18

L. van Beethoven (1770-1827): Sonatina Op. 79 Presto alla tedesca;

bar 1-50

1. Listen to the examples. Now sing or play the given examples and indicate
where you would breathe. (Please note with Schubert: the piano part also
2. With each example, indicate why you took a breath at certain points (except
for: I was out of breath).
3. Which motives (sources) can you find in the Dvorak example? Write them
4. Describe how the composer uses the motives.
5. Determine the key: Schubert bar 1-10, bar 12-13, bar 29-30
Beethoven bar 1-8, bar 40-47, bar 52-59, bar 69-79

B. Bartok (1881-1945):

Mikrokosmos part no. 78 (track 6: 0:37-

B. Bartok (1881-1945):

Mikrokosmos part IV no. 105

6. Look at the examples. Write down the scales / series of every part. Give
them a name.
7. Find information on this scale / series.


Lesson 4
Structure: Naming sentences
W. A. Mozart (1756-1791):
333 Allegretto

M. Ravel (1875-1937):
dormant (1908)

Piano Sonata in B flat major KV


Ma mere loye La belle au bois

F. Mendelssohn (1809-1847): Symphony no. 4 in A major

Italienische (1832/1833)
part II Andante con moto


N. Rimsky-Korsakow (1844-1908): Sheherazade Symphonic Suite Opus

35 (1888)
Der junge Prinz und die junge Prinzessin,
quasi allegretto

W. A. Mozart (1756-1791):
Krnungsmesse KV 317 (1779)
Agnus Dei

1. Listen to the first 2 examples and have a look at them. Describe the shape
of the sentences and their characteristics.
These specific sentences occur very often, as do the combinations of
and the variations on these sentences. It is a misunderstanding to
think that every sentence has to have this specific shape. It can also
have a completely different nameless form.
2. What are the differences between the two forms?
3. Listen to the other examples, have a look at them and name them if
possible. Explain your answer!
4. After this lesson, make your own examples of both possible sentence
structures; they have to be 8 bars long. Both sentences have to start as


5. Describe the use of motives in the Rimsky-Korsakow example.

B. Bartok (1881-1945):
from Mikrokosmos part IV (1937?)
no. 109

6. The composer used a scale / series in the example. Write this series down.
Give it a name.
7. How often can you transpose this series without getting the exact same
notes (=sound)? Write down the transpositions.
8. Look for information about this scale / series.


Lesson 5
Structure: Determining the relationships between the sentences

J. Haydn (1732-1809)
Symphony no. 94 in G major Mit dem
Paukenschlag (1791)
part II Andante (CD track 10)

1. Divide bar 1-32 into sentences.

2. Describe the relationship between the sentences found. State similarities
and differences.
3. Listen to bar 33-64 and have a good look. Divide these bars into sentences
and describe their relationship to bar 1-32.
4. Listen to bar 65-98 and have a good look. Divide these bars into sentences
and describe their relationship to bar 1-32.

Material: Symmetric division of the octave

H. Jelinek (1901-1969):

Opus 15 part II no. IV Gesanglich

5. Listen to the example and have a good look at it. Which series is used here?
6. Indicate the sentences of this piece.



Lesson 6
Structure: The methodology of writing down the relationships
between the
sentences (Letter names)
J. S. Bach (1685-1750):
From: Sechs kleine Prludien fr Anfnger
Prelude nr 3 in d minor (track 11)
1. What is the smallest musical unit in this piece?
2. Describe how this motive is constructed.
3. Describe how the composer uses the motive of bar 1 to 24.
4. What are the accompanying motives?
5. Indicate the sentences in bar 1 to 24 and give them names (letters).
(6. Also indicate the sentences in bar 25 to 48 and give them names (letters).)

Material: from Pentatonics to Diatonics

Gregorian Gloria from Missa VIII

7. Compare a pentatonic series with a major or minor scale. Now change a

pentatonic series into a major scale. What do you notice?
8. Look at the melody (= top part) of the example and play / sing it. Which
series or scale does this Gregorian melody use?


Attachment I
Overview of popular techniques applied to a motif

Repetition of a motif a certain interval higher or lower.

(Mozart: Krnungsmesse: Agnus Dei)


Repetition of a motif with little changes. (Length and main

usually remain the same.)

(Rimsky-Korsakov: Sheherazade)

A bigger change of a motif; as a result something new
emerges from the
development. (Length and main tones usually change.)

(J.S. Bach prelude in d minor bar 1-9


same, but the

Repetition of a motif, in which every interval remains the

direction changes.

(J.S. Bach: Inventie nr. 1)

Straight movement Inversion


Tones are added to the motif. This can be at the end, middle
beginning of the motif.

(Jelinek: opus 15 deel I nr. 2, maat 2-3 en maat 20-21)

middle and

A part of the motif is left out. This can be at the end,

beginning of the motif.

(Jelinek: opus 15 deel I nr. 2)



Augmentation: Repetition of a motif in two (three or even four) times bigger


(J.S. Bach: Fuga in e flat minor)


Repetition of a motif in two (three or even four) times



(Thema van J.S Bach: Fuga in e flat minor, diminution by I. P.)


Attachment II Excercises of Phrasing Structure

Describe the phrasing structures of the following examples. Explain
your answer.

1. C.M. von Weber: Ouverture Oberon

2. J. Brahms: Haydnvariaties opus 56

3. W.A. Mozart: Pianoconcert KV 491

4. L. van Beethoven: Symfonie nr. 3



Lesson 7
Introduction Variation Techniques
J. Haydn (1732-1809): Piano trio nr. 39 in G Gypsy Hob. XV/25 deel 1
Youtube: Haydn Piano Trio Gipsy, 1 mvt - Pinto-Ribeiro,
Samouil, Grimm - DSCH
1. In which bars can you find the Theme?
2. What is the structure of the Theme?
3. Which tonalities can you find in the Theme?
4. Number the harmonies of the cadences.
5. How many Variations can you find?
6. Is there a Coda?
7. Circle the Theme notes in the Variations.
8. Describe the most important differences between Theme and Variations.



Lesson 8
Ornamental variations and Figuration Variations
W.A. Mozart (1756-1791):
je, Maman

12 Variationen (1778) ber Ah! Vous diraiKV 265 Variation I


L. van Beethoven (1770-1827):

ein alter

13 Variationen (1792) ber Es war einmal

Mann aus der Oper: Das rote


Kppchen von
Variation 1

Dittersdorf WoO 66

(First consider which elements in music can be changed/ varied by a

1. Indicate the notes of the theme in the variation by using a colour.
2. What has changed with regard to the theme?

L. van Beethoven (1770-1827):
Variation I

32 Variationen in c minor WoO 80,

See next page!



3. First describe the form of the theme in 32 Variationen.

4. Which theme notes are recognizable in the variations of both examples?
5. Describe the changes regarding the theme in both examples.

Triads in various inversions
F. Liszt (1811-1886):

Nun danket alle Gott

See next page!



6. In which key is the example written? Indicate the modulations in the whole
7. The real bass melody is called Basse continue by Rameau (1683-1764). He
calls the harmonic bass Basse fondamentale. The Basse fondamentale is the
root note of every degree, regardless of the inversion. Write the Basse
fondamentale below the example, in notes, and investigate the difference
with the Basse continue.
8. Indicate where you can hear / see triads in root position and triads in first
inversion(6) in bars 1-7 and 15-21. Number these degrees.
9. What is the function (Tonic, Dominant, Subdominant) of the second chord in
bar 22 ?

Seventh chords

J.S. Bach (1685-1750):

Chorale: Du Friedefrst Herr Jesu Christ

10. Write down the Basse Fondamentale in notes below the example.
11. Name the degrees and the inversions in the example
12. What kind of chords did you come across? (E.g. Major triad, etc.)
(Which chords are dissonant chords? Why are they dissonant?)



Lesson 9
Harmonic variations

W.A. Mozart (1756-1791):

9 Variationen ber ein Menuett von Duport

(Potsdam 1789) KV 573 Theme and Variation II

1. Describe the form of the Theme.

2. Number the harmonies of the Theme with degrees.
3. What do you recognize of the theme in Variation II?
4. What are the changes regarding the theme? (Also pay attention to

I.J. Pleyel (1757-1831):

Sonatina in D major



5. What is a cadence and what is its function in music? Can seventh chords
also be used in a cadence?
6. How is the ending of a phrase constructed in the example? Write down the
7. What types of cadences do you recognize?

Lesson 10
Ostinato variations

J. Pachelbel (1653-1706:

Canon in D major
track 3: Academy of St, Martin-in-the-Fields,
Sir Neville Marriner

M. Ravel (1875-1937):

Bolero (ballet 1928)

track 4: Orchestre National de France, Eliahu

G.F. Hndel (1685-1759):
B. Bartok (1881-1945):

Chaconne in G
From Mikrokosmos part 3 Song of the Fox 95B

1. What is an ostinato? What types are there?

2. Write down the ostinato of the example:
Ravel and Pachelbel from
hearing, as a dictation.
Hndel and Bartok from the score.


3. How is each repetition of the ostinato varied? Look at the example of

Hndel, variation I to IV, and Bartok no. 95B.
Passing notes auxiliary notes (neighbour notes)

5. Name the degrees and the inversions in the example.

6. Determine, which notes do not belong to a chord and are thus also
7. Briefly describe the movements of these notes and their positions. (When
doing this, ask yourself where they come from and where they go.)


Suspensions/ retardations - Anticipations

8. Analyse the harmonies of the example and indicate the passing notes and
the auxiliaries.
9. Determine, which other notes do not belong to a chord and are thus also
melodizations. Briefly describe the movements of these notes and their


Lesson 11-12-13-14

Each student will present his or her own piece (Theme and Variations) in
max. 20 minutes.
Choose a piece from the list or make your own suggestion with the
If the chosen piece has more than four variations, you will choose
several variations in concurrence with your teacher.
Make enough copies, so that everyone can follow your presentation.
Think of bar numbers and short notes, perhaps in color.
Analyze the Theme.
o Find the phrases and give them letter names.
o Discuss phrasing structure, possible Periods or Development
structures, and the character.
o Mention and describe the main Motive(s); explain how it is used in
the Theme.
Find the tonality(ies) and number all the harmonies in the Theme.
Play the cadences of the Theme by heart on the piano. It is not allowed
to bring the score or sheet paper to the piano, only the degrees may
serve as memory support.
Always circle in the Variations the recognizable notes of the Theme.
Discuss all the differences in the Variations in comparison to the
Theme. Order them from important to less important! If possible give the
variation technique a name.
Finally try to describe the development of all the variations in the whole
piece. For Example: Does the rhythm seem to go faster?

- To illustrate your analysis, you will play parts of the piece yourself.



Lesson 14
Summary and Repetition: Practice Test

J.S. Bach (1685-1750): Chorale no. 62 Seelenbrutigam Bar 1-5
1. Name the degrees, inversions and ornamental notes (pas, neighb., sus, ant)
in this chorale.


2. List of options for presentations:

Compositions Main Subject
J.S. Bach:

Partita in d minor: Chaconne for violin solo

Goldbergvariations for piano

G.F. Hndel:

Suite no. 5 in E major (piano): Air and Variations

J. Haydn:

Piano trio in c klein Hob: XV: 13 Andante

Piano trio in A groot Hob. XV: 25 Gypsy Andante
Variaties voor piano in f klein

W.A. Mozart:

Sieben Variationen ber Willem van Nassau KV 25

Zwlf Variationen ber La belle Franoise KV 353
Sechs Variationen ber Salve, tu Domine KV 398
Neun Variationen ber ein Menuett von Duport KV 573

L. van Beethoven:

From: Der unbekannte Beethoven: Volkslied-Variationen fr

Book I: no. 3 Air Autrichien A Schsserl und a
Book II: no. 3 Air de la petite Russie
Book III: no. 7 Air Russe
From: Variationen fr Klavier Band II
Sechs leichte Variationen in G major WoO 77
Neun Variationen WoO 63
Sonata nr 1 in D major Op. 12 no. 1 for violin and piano
Part 2: Tema con variazione
6 Variations on Ruinen von Athen op.76
12 Variations for cello & piano on a theme of Hndel
12 Variations for cello & piano on Ein Mdchen oder

7 Variations for cello & piano on Bei Mnnern welche Liebe
F. Schubert:

(Introductie en)Variaties voor fluit en piano: Trockne

Strijkkwartet in d klein D 810 Der Tod und das Mdchen

S. RAchmaninoff:

Variations on a Theme by Corelli op.42 for piano.

F. Zipp:
Score in library!

O du lieber Augustin (Variations in the style of)

D. Kabalewsky:

Sept Variations sur un Theme Populaire Ukrainien Op. 51. no.

Six Variations sur un Chant Populaire Ukrainien Op. 51. no. 5

B. Britten:

Orchestra variations

Very early forms of variation:


- Organ and lute music from Spain, so-called Differencias. Composer: Narvaez
- Virginal music from England, e.g. so-called Grounds. Composers: William Byrd, G.
Farnaby, Thomas Morley, John Bull. The last named wrote Walsingham-variations,
among others.
Particularly search for your own instrument in the literature! There are
many variation forms to be found, especially in the classical period. Copy
proposals and show them to your teacher!

3. Practice test.
Name: ____________________________
Lecturer TA: ________________________
W.A. Mozart . Concerto in c minor for piano and orchestra K.V. 491
1. Find the overall structure in this Allegretto. Indicate the Theme and the
2. Is there a Coda? Explain.
3. Look at bar 1-16:
a) Indicate the tonality (or tonalities) in the score.
b) Indicate the most important motives with a square.
c) Explain how these motives are used and developed in bar 1-16.
d) Describe the phrase structure. Explain.
e) Indicate the cadences in the correct tonality. Give the Roman numbers
and the name of the cadence.
4. Compare bar 1-16 to 17-32. Indicate the most important similarities and
differences. (also by circling notes)
5. Listen and look at bar 33-48.
a) What happens to the form?
b) What happens to the instrumentation?
c) Which variation technique do you recognise in the piano part?
6. Which variation technique do you recognise in bar 65-73? Explain and
demonstrate in the score.
7. Which composition technique do you recognise in bar 129-136?
8. Mention the three most important changes in bar 165-172.


B. Bartok: Mikrokosmos no. 61

9. Indicate the main motive and the accompanying motive.
10. Describe the development of the main motive in bar 1-12 and 18-23.
11. Which note material does the composer use in the right hand of bar 1-16?
13. Which tone material is used in the various phrases in the fragment below?
Motivate your answer. The tonic is (mostly) d.



4. Methodical structure

Unit objectives for Analysis

Concepts such as motive, development of motives, sentence structure,

cadence and polyphony are explained, which gives you insight into musical
processes. You deal with musical structures and forming principles. In
structural analysis, also the different variation techniques will be dealt with,
e.g. ornamental variation, ostinato variation, figuration and harmonic variation.
Apart from this introduction into structural analysis, Analysis also gives an
introduction into material analysis. Concepts such as diatonics, pentatonics
and modality are explained and various scales and series are discussed and
named systematically. This provides you with an insight into the order of the
harmonic and melodic material that forms the foundation for music in all kinds
of styles. Diatonics in material analysis will be followed by the usage of sept
chords, various types of cadences and by ornamentations like passing notes
and neighbour notes.

Evaluations and Tests

Evaluation of this subject contains two elements:

Presentation (week 48 t/m 51 2015)

This is an analysis of a chosen composition, which will be presented for
the class using live played musical fragments. The presentation lasts
max. 20 min. The analysis contains elements that have been discussed
in the lessons and the teacher will grade it with a number between 1 and
10. The weight of this grade is 1.

Written Test (week 3: Tuesday 19 January 2016 from 16.00 till

18.00 h)
At the end of the semester there will be a written test about the topics of
this course unit. The student must show his ability to analyse a given
composition and he needs to use the proper terminology writing his
answers. The teacher will grade the test with a number between 1 and
10. The weight of this grade is 2.


Knowledge and skills we will have mastered after

this unit:

Recognising and describing motives in musical literature.

Studying the structure and relationships of sentences from literature
Being able to name scales and rows from literature
Distinguishing and describing the various variation techniques in several
Further extension of harmonic analysis:
o The use of chords, seventh chords, their inversions
o Passing notes, neighbour notes, suspensions and anticipations
o Several types of cadences